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Keystone Statistical Analysis by kentp1

Version: 0.75 | Updated: 10/20/2008

Statistical Analysis of Keystone, a component of Fable II Pub Games
Version 0.75
authored by Kent E. Pryor
kentp1@att.net
XBox360 gamertag: ComradeNapoleon

VERSION HISTORY

Version 0.75 - Initial release, no analysis of Bloodstone subtype
(10/20/2008)

COPYRIGHT NOTICE

Copyright 2008 Kent E. Pryor

This may be not be reproduced under any circumstances except for personal, 
private use.  It may not be placed on any web site or otherwise distributed 
publicly without advance written permission.  Use of this guide on any other 
web site or as a part of any public display is strictly prohibited, and a 
violation of copyright.

ABSTRACT

The true statistical odds of all possible bets in the game of Keystone were 
calculated and compared to in-game payouts.  Arch bet odds were determined by a 
Monte Carlo simulation of 200 million games of Keystone, both with and without 
the Jackpot feature.  Inside bet odds were calculated analytically.

There are no inside bets that favor the player over the house.  However, in 
contrast to most casino games, there are several bets that pay out their true 
odds, and do not favor the house--these are bets on 5, 10, 11, 16, Run, and 
Keystone.  For bets with a house advantage, this advantage is minimized at 
higher-limit tables.

In general, the arch bets carry an advantage for the player.  This advantage is 
maximized in Jackpot games relative to Standard games.  Some arch bets are 
better than others, however, and even in the high-limit Jackpot game, arch bets 
on 9 and 12 carry an advantage for the house.


INSIDE BETS

Even at the highest-limit tables, most of the inside bets carry an advantage 
for the house.  However, several of the bets pay true even odds.  At the high-
limit tables, the worst bets, by a substantial margin, are the bets on 
individual triples (i.e., roll 3, triple 2s, triple 3s, triple 4s, triple 5's, 
roll 18).  In order to pay the true odds, these bets would need to pay 4300 : 
20, but they only pay 4000 : 20.  At the low-limit tables, there are some real 
sucker bets, but several bets still carry no house advantage.

The table below shows the house advantage for each bet.  A dash indicates that 
the bet pays true odds, and carries no advantage for the house or the player. 
The highest-limit table is shown next to the lowest-limit table.  Many of the 
odds are the same, but odds that are even worse at the low-limit table are 
marked by an exclamation point.  The 4-9/12-17, red/black, and oval/diamond 
bets are really, really bad for the player on the low-limit table!

                House           House
              Advantage       Advantage
Bet            (50-200)         (5-10)

3              6.944%           6.944%
4              1.389%           1.389%
5               ----             ----
6              2.778%           2.778%
7              2.778%           2.778%
8              2.778%           2.778%
9              0.463%           7.407% !
10              ----             ----
11              ----             ----
12             0.463%           8.000% !
13             2.778%           2.778%
14             2.778%           2.778%
15             2.778%           2.778%
16              ----             ----
17             1.389%           1.389%
18             6.944%           6.944%
Doubles	   2.222%          11.111% !
Trips          2.778%           2.778%
Run             ----             ----
4-9/12-17      1.852%          25.926% !
Keystone        ----             ----
Red/black      1.852%          25.926% !
Oval/diamond   1.852%          25.926% !

ARCH BETS

The house and player advantages for the arch bets on the 50-200 game of 
Standard Keystone are shown below.  As you can see, most of the arch bets carry
an advantage for the player, with the largest player advantage coming from 3
and 18.

*Standard*       House           Player
Archstone      advantage       advantage
3                                2.755%
4                                1.314%
5                                1.327%
6                                1.403%
7                1.117%
8                                0.942%
9                3.071%
10                               1.198%
11                               1.198%
12               3.071%
13                               0.942%
14               1.117%
15                               1.403%
16                               1.327%
17                               1.314%
18                               2.755%

The same chart is given below for the 50-200 game of Jackpot Keystone.  See the 
Discussion and Methods section for a discussion of where the differences come 
from relative to the Standard game.  In every case, the advantage swings in the 
player's favor.

*Jackpot*         House          Player
Archstone       advantage      advantage
3                                4.976%
4                                4.277%
5                                3.521%
6                                3.181%
7                                0.396%
8                                2.388%
9                1.671%
10                               2.460%
11                               2.460%
12               1.671%
13                               2.388%
14                               0.396%
15                               3.181%
16                               3.521%
17                               4.277%
18                               4.976%


DISCUSSION AND METHODS

--Inside Bets--

The inside bets all depend on the chances of rolling particular combinations of
three dice in a single roll.  There are 6 x 6 x 6 = 216 different ways of
rolling 3 dice at a time.  Some inside bets can only be satisfied by a single
combination of dice.  For instance, an inside bet on rolling an 18 can only
win if the first die is a 6, the second die is a 6, and the third die is a 6,
also.  Thus, the chances of rolling an 18 are 1 in 216 (approximately 0.463%), 
corresponding to odds of 215:1.

Other inside bets can be satisfied by multiple different die rolls.  For 
instance, there are 3 different ways to roll a 17: 6-6-5, 6-5-6, and 5-6-6.
This means that the chances of rolling a 17 are 3 in 216 (approximately 
1.389%), corresponding to odds of 213:3.  The number of combinations resulting 
in a win for all other bets were determined similarly, and are presented in the 
table below.  The payout from 216 bets column is calculated based on the number
of times a bet is expected to hit in 216 bets (column 2) times the payout for a 
winning bet given in the payout odds column.  For example, in 216 rolls, a bet 
on "4" is expected to win 3 times, each time paying out 71 gold, for a total of 
213 gold.  Since those 216 bets would have cost a total of 216 gold, the house 
kept 3 gold more than you bet.  3/216 = 1.389%, which is the house advantage, 
reported in the last column.

Bet    True chance   True                            Payout from   House
       (out of 216) chance(%)  True odds  Payout odds  216 bets   Advantage

3              1     0.4630%    215 : 1     200 : 1       201      6.944%
4              3     1.3889%    213 : 3      70 : 1       213      1.389%
5              6     2.7778%    210 : 6      35 : 1       216       ----
6             10     4.6296%    206 : 10     20 : 1       210      2.778%
7             15     6.9444%    201 : 15     13 : 1       210      2.778%
8             21     9.7222%    195 : 21      9 : 1       210      2.778%
9             25    11.5741%    191 : 25      7 : 1       200      7.407%
10            27    12.5000%    189 : 27      7 : 1       216       ----
11            27    12.5000%    189 : 27      7 : 1       216       ----
12            25    11.5741%    191 : 25      7 : 1       200      7.407%
13            21     9.7222%    195 : 21      9 : 1       210      2.778%
14            15     6.9444%    201 : 15     13 : 1       210      2.778%
15            10     4.6296%    206 : 10     20 : 1       210      2.778%
16             6     2.7778%    210 : 6      35 : 1       216       ----
17             3     1.3889%    213 : 3      70 : 1       213      1.389%
18             1     0.4630%    215 : 1     200 : 1       201      6.944%
Doubles       96    44.4444%    120 : 96      1 : 1       192     11.111%
Trips          6     2.7778%    210 : 6      34 : 1       210      2.778%
Run           24    11.1111%    192 : 24      8 : 1       216       ----
4-9/12-17     80    37.0370%    136 : 80      1 : 1       160     25.926%
Keystone      54    25.0000%    162 : 54      3 : 1       216       ----
Red/black     80    37.0370%    136 : 80      1 : 1       160     25.926%
Oval/diamond  80    37.0370%    136 : 80      1 : 1       160     25.926%

--Arch Bets--

Since the likelihood of having a particular keystone disappear changes after
each roll of the dice during any given game, there is no simple analytical 
method to calculate the exact probability of having a keystone disappear like 
the inside bets.  Instead, we must use Monte Carlo simulation methods.  The 
Monte Carlo method simply means that we play the game over and over and observe 
the results.  If we play the game enough times, the results we get can give us
a very good approximation of the real probability of certain outcomes.

A simulation of the Keystone game was constructed and run either with or 
without the Jackpot feature.  I chose to use 200,000,000 simulated games simply 
because much more than that and some of the numbers the program was tracking 
would cause overflow errors.  Two hundred million simulations is considerable 
overkill for this relatively simple simulation exercise, however, and the 
results from 1,000,000 games were essentially identical.

One nice thing about this particular simulation is that there are a number of 
internal checks on the results that we can run.  For instance, we calculated 
the probabilities of individual dice rolls of 3-18 in the section above.  We 
can check to make sure that the simulation returns results consistent with 
those calculated probabilities.  The results of this check are shown below:

Standard: 1,647,989,493 dice rolls in 200,000,000 games
Die Roll    Chance in 216    Expected        Found    %difference
3                1            7629581       7628813     -0.0101%
4                3           22888743      22883113     -0.0246%
5                6           45777486      45769659     -0.0171%
6               10           76295810      76304263      0.0111%
7               15          114443715     114448378      0.0041%
8               21          160221201     160201205     -0.0125%
9               25          190739525     190742323      0.0015%
10              27          205998687     206000926      0.0011%
11              27          205998687     206003975      0.0026%
12              25          190739525     190739326     -0.0001%
13              21          160221201     160209425     -0.0073%
14              15          114443715     114441821     -0.0017%
15              10           76295810      76315107      0.0253%
16               6           45777486      45778751      0.0028%
17               3           22888743      22892350      0.0158%
18               1            7629581       7630058      0.0063%
Total                      1647989496    1647989493      0.0000%

Jackpot: 1,647,971,752 dice rolls in 200,000,000 games
Die Roll   Chance in 216     Expected        Found    %difference
3               1             7629499       7631334      0.0241%
4               3            22888497      22887230     -0.0055%
5               6            45776993      45782514      0.0121%
6              10            76294989      76287246     -0.0101%
7              15           114442483     114435061     -0.0065%
8              21           160219476     160233042      0.0085%
9              25           190737471     190739353      0.0010%
10             27           205996469     206015439      0.0092%
11             27           205996469     206004953      0.0041%
12             25           190737471     190724405     -0.0069%
13             21           160219476     160225523      0.0038%
14             15           114442483     114424071     -0.0161%
15             10            76294989      76285258     -0.0128%
16              6            45776993      45779783      0.0061%
17              3            22888497      22887720     -0.0034%
18              1             7629499       7628820     -0.0089%
Total                      1647971754    1647971752      0.0000%

The simulated results are extremely close to the expected results.  The 
greatest difference between the expected and simulated value is only about 1 
part in 4000.  Note also that the number of die rolls in 200,000,000 games in 
both simulations are very close to the same value, with both averaging 8.2399 
rolls per game after rounding to the nearest ten-thousandth.  This is 
consistent with the in-game hint that the average Keystone game is about 8 
rolls long.

A second check we can run is to compare the results from archstones 3-10 with
the results from archstones 11-18 in each simulation.  Because the game is
symmetrical, the two halves of the game serve as an internal control for each
other.  The results for the Standard game and the Jackpot game are given
below. The first column is the archstone number, the second column is the
number of times that archstone was removed in 200,000,000 games, the third
column is the difference (in absolute count) between the number of times the
archstone was removed and the number of times its mirror image was removed
(e.g., 3 and 18, 4 and 17), the fourth column is that difference expressed as
a percentage, and the last column is the final estimated probability that each
archstone will be removed from the board in any given game of Keystone.  This
estimated probability represents the average of the probabilities calculated
for symmetrical keystones, yielding a perfectly symmetrical probability table.
In both the Standard and Jackpot simulations, the symmetry of the probabilities 
was extremely close before averaging (differences of less than 0.022% in every 
case), suggesting that the simulation is working correctly and has enough 
individual games to adequately sample all possibilities.

*Standard* # of times   difference  difference     estimated
Archstone     removed   (absolute)     (%)        probability
3            42812220     -4525     -0.01057%       21.407%
4            63316308    -10184     -0.01608%       31.661%
5            85869189     -2971     -0.00346%       42.935%
6           105626616     -2607     -0.00247%       52.814%
7           120588391     -2136     -0.00177%       60.295%
8           129412280     -1113     -0.00086%       64.706%
9           127534439     -7017     -0.00550%       63.769%
10          148819237     -1580     -0.00106%       74.410%
11          148820817                               74.410%
12          127541456                               63.769%
13          129413393                               64.706%
14          120590527                               60.295%
15          105629223                               52.814%
16           85872160                               42.935%
17           63326492                               31.661%
18           42816745                               21.407%

*Jackpot*  # of times   difference  difference     estimated
Archstone     removed   (absolute)     (%)        probability
3            43744488      9313      0.02129%       21.870%
4            65173406      1125      0.00173%       32.586%
5            87733493      7473      0.00852%       43.865%
6           107482959      5406      0.00503%       53.740%
7           122436613      4752      0.00388%       61.217%
8           131273102     13395      0.01020%       65.633%
9           129385638     10459      0.00808%       64.690%
10          150676625      -537     -0.00036%       75.338%
11          150677162                               75.338%
12          129375179                               64.690%
13          131259707                               65.633%
14          122431861                               61.217%
15          107477553                               53.740%
16           87726020                               43.865%
17           65172281                               32.586%
18           43735175                               21.870%

While it may be counterintuitive, archstones 9 and 12 are less likely to be 
removed, on average, than archstones 8 and 13, despite having 9 and 12 be 
rolled more often than 8 or 13.  Why might this be?  A difference in the 
"cascade" effect.  It is less likely to have the 9 removed by "cascading" down 
from the 10 than it is to have 8 removed by "cascading" down from the 9 since 
having a "hole" at the 10 keystone makes the game much more likely to end 
sooner.  A "hole" at the 9 archstone (not a keystone!) does not bring the game 
much closer to its end, so there are generally more chances for the "cascade" 
to take out the 8.

The Jackpot feature has no impact on most games.  However, every 1 in 108 games 
a 3 or an 18 will be rolled in the very first roll.  In these cases, all arch 
bets pay out.  This makes arch bets 4-17 1/108, or approximately 0.926% more 
likely to hit in Jackpot games relative to Standard games.  Arch bets of 3 and 
18 are 1/216, or approximately 0.463% more likely to hit in Jackpot games than 
Standard games, half as much as the other arch bets.  This is because one of 
those two keystones would have hit in the Standard game anyway because it was 
rolled naturally, so it doesn't get counted "extra".  The simulated results are 
entirely consistent with this expected advantage for the Jackpot games, further 
suggesting that the simulations are valid:

                Standard         Jackpot         Advantage for
Archstone      Probability     Probability   Jackpot from simulation
3                21.407%         21.870%             0.463%
4                31.661%         32.586%             0.926%
5                42.935%         43.865%             0.930%
6                52.814%         53.740%             0.926%
7                60.295%         61.217%             0.922%
8                64.706%         65.633%             0.927%
9                63.769%         64.690%             0.921%
10               74.410%         75.338%             0.928%
11               74.410%         75.338%             0.928%
12               63.769%         64.690%             0.921%
13               64.706%         65.633%             0.927%
14               60.295%         61.217%             0.922%
15               52.814%         53.740%             0.926%
16               42.935%         43.865%             0.930%
17               31.661%         32.586%             0.926%
18               21.407%         21.870%             0.463%

The house and player advantages were calculated from the expected payout of a 
50 gold bet.  This is found by multiplying the payout for a successful 50 gold 
bet by the estimated probability of having the bet be successful.  For 
instance, for archstone 3, the payout if successful is 190 + 50 = 240.  240 * 
21.407% = 51.377.  The house advantage is 51.377/50 = -2.755%.  Most of the 
house advantages are negative, implying that they are advantages for the 
player.  The table below shows these calculations for the Standard Keystone 
50-200 table.

*Standard*     Estimated      Payout   Payout from   Expected    House
Archstone     probability      odds      fair bet     payout   advantage
3               21.407%      190 : 50       50        51.377    -2.755%
4               31.661%      110 : 50       50        50.657    -1.314%
5               42.935%       68 : 50       50        50.664    -1.327%
6               52.814%       46 : 50       50        50.701    -1.403%
7               60.295%       32 : 50       50        49.442     1.117%
8               64.706%       28 : 50       50        50.471    -0.942%
9               63.769%       26 : 50       50        48.464     3.071%
10              74.410%       18 : 50       50        50.599    -1.198%
11              74.410%       18 : 50       50        50.599    -1.198%
12              63.769%       26 : 50       50        48.464     3.071%
13              64.706%       28 : 50       50        50.471    -0.942%
14              60.295%       32 : 50       50        49.442     1.117%
15              52.814%       46 : 50       50        50.701    -1.403%
16              42.935%       68 : 50       50        50.664    -1.327%
17              31.661%      110 : 50       50        50.657    -1.314%
18              21.407%      190 : 50       50        51.377    -2.755%

--The Simulation--
(a.k.a. the really technical stuff)

The Pascal program used to run these simulations is given below, with sample 
output at the bottom, in order for others to analyze and verify the logic I 
used in the simulation.  The program was run with the constant "jackpot" set to 
both True and False to simulate Jackpot and Standard Keystone, respectively.  
Disclaimer: I make no representation that this program is anywhere close to 
elegant or efficient--this is the first Pascal program I have written in 20 
years!  My apologies to any programmers who are offended by the ugly code.

(* Copyright 2008 Kent E. Pryor *)

program Keystone;

uses sysutils, math;

const
   ngames : longint = 200000000;
   jackpot : boolean = True;

var
   die1, die2, die3, roll, rollcount, minutes, seconds : integer;
   n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8, n9, n10, n11, n12, n13, n14, n15, n16, n17, n18,
   c3, c4, c5, c6, c7, c8, c9, c10, c11, c12, c13, c14, c15, c16, c17, c18,
   g, nrolls : longint;
   gameover,
   arch4, arch5,
   arch6, arch7, arch8,
   arch9, arch10, arch11,
   arch12, arch13, arch14,
   arch15, arch16, arch17 : boolean;
   starttime, endtime : TTimeStamp;
   mselapsed : comp;

procedure Restart;
begin
   gameover := False;
   arch4 := False;
   arch5 := False;
   arch6 := False;
   arch7 := False;
   arch8 := False;
   arch9 := False;
   arch10 := False;
   arch11 := False;
   arch12 := False;
   arch13 := False;
   arch14 := False;
   arch15 := False;
   arch16 := False;
   arch17 := False;
   roll := 0;
   rollcount := 0;
 end;

procedure Roll3;
begin
   n3 := n3+1;
   gameover := True;
   if jackpot then
      if rollcount = 1 then
         begin
              n4 := n4+1;
              n5 := n5+1;
              n6 := n6+1;
              n7 := n7+1;
              n8 := n8+1;
              n9 := n9+1;
              n10 := n10+1;
              n11 := n11+1;
              n12 := n12+1;
              n13 := n13+1;
              n14 := n14+1;
              n15 := n15+1;
              n16 := n16+1;
              n17 := n17+1;
              n18 := n18+1;
         end
end;

procedure Roll4;
begin
   if arch4 then
      Roll3
   else
       begin
            n4 := n4+1;
            arch4 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll5;
begin
   if arch5 then
      Roll4
   else
       begin
            n5 := n5+1;
            arch5 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll6;
begin
   if arch6 then
      Roll5
   else
       begin
            n6 := n6+1;
            arch6 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll7;
begin
   if arch7 then
      Roll6
   else
       begin
            n7 := n7+1;
            arch7 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll8;
begin
   if arch8 then
      Roll7
   else
       begin
            n8 := n8+1;
            arch8 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll9;
begin
   if arch9 then
      Roll8
   else
       begin
            n9 := n9+1;
            arch9 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll10;
begin
   if arch10 then
      Roll9
   else
       begin
            n10 := n10+1;
            arch10 := True;
            if arch11 then
               gameover := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll18;
begin
   n18 := n18+1;
   gameover := True;
   if jackpot then
      if rollcount = 1 then
         begin
              n3 := n3+1;
              n4 := n4+1;
              n5 := n5+1;
              n6 := n6+1;
              n7 := n7+1;
              n8 := n8+1;
              n9 := n9+1;
              n10 := n10+1;
              n11 := n11+1;
              n12 := n12+1;
              n13 := n13+1;
              n14 := n14+1;
              n15 := n15+1;
              n16 := n16+1;
              n17 := n17+1;
         end
end;

procedure Roll17;
begin
   if arch17 then
      Roll18
   else
       begin
            n17 := n17+1;
            arch17 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll16;
begin
   if arch16 then
      Roll17
   else
       begin
            n16 := n16+1;
            arch16 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll15;
begin
   if arch15 then
      Roll16
   else
       begin
            n15 := n15+1;
            arch15 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll14;
begin
   if arch14 then
      Roll15
   else
       begin
            n14 := n14+1;
            arch14 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll13;
begin
   if arch13 then
      Roll14
   else
       begin
            n13 := n13+1;
            arch13 := True;
       end
end;

procedure Roll12;
begin
   if arch12 then
      Roll13
   else
      begin
           n12 := n12+1;
           arch12 := True;
      end
end;

procedure Roll11;
begin
   if arch11 then
      Roll12
   else
      begin
           n11 := n11+1;
           arch11 := True;
           if arch10 then
              gameover := True;
      end
end;

procedure PlayGame;
begin
     Restart;
     Repeat
          die1 := random(6) + 1;
          die2 := random(6) + 1;
          die3 := random(6) + 1;
          roll := die1+die2+die3;
          rollcount := rollcount + 1;
          nrolls := nrolls + 1;
          case roll of
               3 : begin
                        c3 := c3+1;
                        Roll3
                   end;
               4 : begin
                        c4 := c4+1;
                        Roll4
                   end;
               5 : begin
                        c5 := c5+1;
                        Roll5
                   end;
               6 : begin
                        c6 := c6+1;
                        Roll6
                   end;
               7 : begin
                        c7 := c7+1;
                        Roll7
                   end;
               8 : begin
                        c8 := c8+1;
                        Roll8
                   end;
               9 : begin
                        c9 := c9+1;
                        Roll9
                   end;
               10 : begin
                        c10 := c10+1;
                        Roll10
                   end;
               11 : begin
                        c11 := c11+1;
                        Roll11
                   end;
               12 : begin
                        c12 := c12+1;
                        Roll12
                   end;
               13 : begin
                        c13 := c13+1;
                        Roll13
                   end;
               14 : begin
                        c14 := c14+1;
                        Roll14
                   end;
               15 : begin
                        c15 := c15+1;
                        Roll15
                   end;
               16 : begin
                        c16 := c16+1;
                        Roll16
                   end;
               17 : begin
                        c17 := c17+1;
                        Roll17
                   end;
               18 : begin
                        c18 := c18+1;
                        Roll18
                   end;
          end;
     Until gameover;
end;

  (* main program *)

begin
     starttime := DateTimeToTimeStamp(Now);
     randomize;
     n3 := 0;
     n4 := 0;
     n5 := 0;
     n6 := 0;
     n7 := 0;
     n8 := 0;
     n9 := 0;
     n10 := 0;
     n11 := 0;
     n12 := 0;
     n13 := 0;
     n14 := 0;
     n15 := 0;
     n16 := 0;
     n17 := 0;
     n18 := 0;
     c3 := 0;
     c4 := 0;
     c5 := 0;
     c6 := 0;
     c7 := 0;
     c8 := 0;
     c9 := 0;
     c10 := 0;
     c11 := 0;
     c12 := 0;
     c13 := 0;
     c14 := 0;
     c15 := 0;
     c16 := 0;
     c17 := 0;
     c18 := 0;
     nrolls := 0;
     FOR g := 1 to ngames do
         PlayGame;
     endtime := DateTimeToTimeStamp(Now);
     mselapsed := TimeStampToMSecs(endtime) - TimeStampToMSecs(starttime);
     minutes := floor(mselapsed/60000);
     seconds := floor(mselapsed/1000 - 60*minutes);
     writeln('Processor time elapsed: ', minutes, ' minutes, ',
           seconds, ' seconds.');
     if jackpot then
        writeln('Jackpots enabled in simulation.')
     else
        writeln('Jackpots disabled in simulation.');
     writeln('Total number of rolls in ', ngames, ' games = ', nrolls);
     writeln('# of times 3 was rolled = ', c3);
     writeln('# of times 4 was rolled = ', c4);
     writeln('# of times 5 was rolled = ', c5);
     writeln('# of times 6 was rolled = ', c6);
     writeln('# of times 7 was rolled = ', c7);
     writeln('# of times 8 was rolled = ', c8);
     writeln('# of times 9 was rolled = ', c9);
     writeln('# of times 10 was rolled = ', c10);
     writeln('# of times 11 was rolled = ', c11);
     writeln('# of times 12 was rolled = ', c12);
     writeln('# of times 13 was rolled = ', c13);
     writeln('# of times 14 was rolled = ', c14);
     writeln('# of times 15 was rolled = ', c15);
     writeln('# of times 16 was rolled = ', c16);
     writeln('# of times 17 was rolled = ', c17);
     writeln('# of times 18 was rolled = ', c18);
     writeln('# of times 3 Archstone removed  = ', n3);
     writeln('# of times 4 Archstone removed  = ', n4);
     writeln('# of times 5 Archstone removed  = ', n5);
     writeln('# of times 6 Archstone removed  = ', n6);
     writeln('# of times 7 Archstone removed  = ', n7);
     writeln('# of times 8 Archstone removed  = ', n8);
     writeln('# of times 9 Archstone removed  = ', n9);
     writeln('# of times 10 Archstone removed = ', n10);
     writeln('# of times 11 Archstone removed = ', n11);
     writeln('# of times 12 Archstone removed = ', n12);
     writeln('# of times 13 Archstone removed = ', n13);
     writeln('# of times 14 Archstone removed = ', n14);
     writeln('# of times 15 Archstone removed = ', n15);
     writeln('# of times 16 Archstone removed = ', n16);
     writeln('# of times 17 Archstone removed = ', n17);
     writeln('# of times 18 Archstone removed = ', n18);
end.


SAMPLE OUTPUT 1--Jackpots disabled (Standard Keystone):
Processor time elapsed: 5 minutes, 41 seconds.
Jackpots disabled in simulation.
Total number of rolls in 200000000 games = 1647989493
# of times 3 was rolled = 7628813
# of times 4 was rolled = 22883113
# of times 5 was rolled = 45769659
# of times 6 was rolled = 76304263
# of times 7 was rolled = 114448378
# of times 8 was rolled = 160201205
# of times 9 was rolled = 190742323
# of times 10 was rolled = 206000926
# of times 11 was rolled = 206003975
# of times 12 was rolled = 190739326
# of times 13 was rolled = 160209425
# of times 14 was rolled = 114441821
# of times 15 was rolled = 76315107
# of times 16 was rolled = 45778751
# of times 17 was rolled = 22892350
# of times 18 was rolled = 7630058
# of times 3 Archstone removed  = 42812220
# of times 4 Archstone removed  = 63316308
# of times 5 Archstone removed  = 85869189
# of times 6 Archstone removed  = 105626616
# of times 7 Archstone removed  = 120588391
# of times 8 Archstone removed  = 129412280
# of times 9 Archstone removed  = 127534439
# of times 10 Archstone removed = 148819237
# of times 11 Archstone removed = 148820817
# of times 12 Archstone removed = 127541456
# of times 13 Archstone removed = 129413393
# of times 14 Archstone removed = 120590527
# of times 15 Archstone removed = 105629223
# of times 16 Archstone removed = 85872160
# of times 17 Archstone removed = 63326492
# of times 18 Archstone removed = 42816745
logout

[Process completed]

SAMPLE OUTPUT 2--Jackpots enabled (Jackpot Keystone):
Processor time elapsed: 5 minutes, 38 seconds.
Jackpots enabled in simulation.
Total number of rolls in 200000000 games = 1647971752
# of times 3 was rolled = 7631334
# of times 4 was rolled = 22887230
# of times 5 was rolled = 45782514
# of times 6 was rolled = 76287246
# of times 7 was rolled = 114435061
# of times 8 was rolled = 160233042
# of times 9 was rolled = 190739353
# of times 10 was rolled = 206015439
# of times 11 was rolled = 206004953
# of times 12 was rolled = 190724405
# of times 13 was rolled = 160225523
# of times 14 was rolled = 114424071
# of times 15 was rolled = 76285258
# of times 16 was rolled = 45779783
# of times 17 was rolled = 22887720
# of times 18 was rolled = 7628820
# of times 3 Archstone removed  = 43744488
# of times 4 Archstone removed  = 65173406
# of times 5 Archstone removed  = 87733493
# of times 6 Archstone removed  = 107482959
# of times 7 Archstone removed  = 122436613
# of times 8 Archstone removed  = 131273102
# of times 9 Archstone removed  = 129385638
# of times 10 Archstone removed = 150676625
# of times 11 Archstone removed = 150677162
# of times 12 Archstone removed = 129375179
# of times 13 Archstone removed = 131259707
# of times 14 Archstone removed = 122431861
# of times 15 Archstone removed = 107477553
# of times 16 Archstone removed = 87726020
# of times 17 Archstone removed = 65172281
# of times 18 Archstone removed = 43735175
logout

[Process completed]
logout

--end of file--

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