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## Formula Guide by Ryan8bit

Version: 1.0 | Updated: 01/10/2011
Highest Rated Guide

```*******************************************************************************
*                                                                             *
*                    Dragon Warrior (NES) Formulas v1.0                       *
*                               By Ryan8bit                                   *
*                          generalkillt@yahoo.com                             *
*                                01/07/11                                     *
*                                                                             *
*******************************************************************************

-------------------

I. Introduction
II. Simplified Formulas
A. Journeying
B. Combat
C. Chests
D. Name choice and stats
III. Precise Formulas and Code
A. Common algorithms
B. Journeying
C. Combat
D. Chests
E. Name choice and stats

*******************************************************************************
* I. Introduction                                                             *
*******************************************************************************

I had often been curious about the formulas used to calculate damage and all
sorts of other things in Dragon Warrior.  Mostly I wanted to make games based
on it, but I also wanted to use them to build a simulator of the game that
could crank out data that could be analyzed.  I have since learned the assembly
language of the NES in order to learn all I could about the game's mechanics.
With that knowledge, I have programmed my simulator which I will have a FAQ
like this one for at a later date.

So for whatever purpose you may have, I hope you get usage out of these
formulas.

I've broken down the sections into simple and complex, so that if you just want
to get the general idea you want section II.  If you're more into exact
formulas and some actual code, you want section III.

*******************************************************************************
* II. Simplified Formulas                                                     *
*******************************************************************************

These formulas are simplified and as a result may not be exact when it comes to
rounding.  For more advanced assembly code formulas, see section III.

*************************
A. Journeying
*************************

-= Items and Spells =-

Herb:     +23-30  HP
HEAL:     +10-17  HP
HEALMORE: +85-100 HP

Torch:    Unlimited
Radius of 3 squares: 80 steps
Radius of 2 squares: 60 steps
Radius of 1 square : 60 steps

REPEL:    128 total steps
Only works against enemies who have strength that is less than the
hero's defense.
Fairy Water has the exact same effect.

The Silver Harp summons a Slime, Red Slime, Drakee, Ghost, Magician, or
Scorpion, all with roughly equal chance.

-= Encounters =-

The chances for an encounter on the overworld vary by terrain type, and by
location.  For every step you take, you have a random chance to enter combat.

In the zones where you fight only Slimes and Red Slimes around Tantegel (which
I call Zone 0), the encounter rates are significantly lower.

Zone 0
Grasslands: 1/48
Bridge:     1/48
Forest:     1/32
Hills:      1/32
Desert:     1/16 (There is only one square of desert in this region)

Every other zone, including dungeons
Grasslands: 1/24
Swamp:      1/16
Forest:     1/16
Hills:      1/8
Desert:     1/8

Stairs:     1/24
Chest:      1/24
Barrier:    1/16
Brick:      1/16

-= Monster Sets =-

The entire world map is broken down into an 8x8 grid.  Each cell of the grid
has a different zone, or set of enemies.  This is a representation of the grids
corresponding to zone number:

3  3  2  2  3  5  4  5

3  2  1  2  3  3  4  5

4  1  0  0  1  3  4  5

5  1  1 12  9  6  6  6

5  5  4 12 12  7  7  7

10  9  8 12 12 12  8  7

10 10 11 12 13 13  9  8

11 11 12 13 13 12  9  9

So for instance, the top left corner represents the 15x15 tile area surrounding
Garinham.  http://www.gamefaqs.com/console/nes/file/563408/55534 is a good
example of this visually.

Every zone has five possible enemies in them, and some are duplicates.  The
chances of encountering each one is roughly equal.

Zone  0: Slime, Red Slime, Slime, Red Slime, Slime
Zone  1: Red Slime, Slime, Red Slime, Drakee, Red Slime
Zone  2: Slime, Ghost, Drakee, Ghost, Red Slime
Zone  3: Red Slime, Red Slime, Drakee, Ghost, Magician
Zone  4: Ghost, Magician, Magidrakee, Magidrakee, Scorpion
Zone  5: Ghost, Magician, Magidrakee, Scorpion, Skeleton
Zone  6: Magidrakee, Scorpion, Skeleton, Warlock, Wolf
Zone  7: Skeleton, Warlock, Metal Scorpion, Wolf, Wolf
Zone  8: Metal Scorpion, Wraith, Wolflord, Wolflord, Goldman
Zone  9: Wraith, Wyvern, Wolflord, Wyvern, Goldman
Zone 10: Wyvern, Rogue Scorpion, Wraith Knight, Knight, Demon Knight
Zone 11: Wraith Knight, Knight, Magiwyvern, Demon Knight, Metal Slime
Zone 12: Knight, Magiwyvern, Demon Knight, Werewolf, Starwyvern
Zone 13: Werewolf, Green Dragon, Starwyvern, Starwyvern, Wizard
Zone 14: Poltergeist, Droll, Drakeema, Skeleton, Warlock
Zone 15: Specter, Wolflord, Druinlord, Drollmagi, Wraith Knight
Zone 16: Werewolf, Green Dragon, Starwyvern, Wizard, Axe Knight
Zone 17: Wizard, Axe Knight, Blue Dragon, Blue Dragon, Stoneman
Zone 18: Wizard, Stoneman, Armored Knight, Armored Knight, Red Dragon
Zone 19: Ghost, Magician, Scorpion, Druin, Druin

*************************
B. Combat
*************************

-=Enemies=-

These are all the stats of the enemies:

Strength is used in figuring out how much damage will be done to you.

Agility is used in figuring out how much damage will be reduced for the enemy,
and it is used to determine how hard it is for you to run away.

HP is how many hit points the enemy has, and this typically varies.

SLEEP resist, STOPSPELL resist, and HURT resist are the chances that the spell
will have no effect on the enemy.  HURT and HURTMORE have the same chance.

Dodge is the chance that the enemy will dodge any physical attack.

GP is how much gold will be awarded, and this typically varies.

XP is how many experience points will be awarded to you.

Pattern is what the enemy decides to do when attacking.  It starts with the
first line and if it doesn't do that attack, it moves to the next line.

#00 : Slime

Strength: 5
Agility: 3
HP: 3
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 1
GP: 1
Pattern: Attack only

#01 : Red Slime

Strength: 7
Agility: 3
HP: 4
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 1
GP: 2
Pattern: Attack only

#02 : Drakee

Strength: 9
Agility: 6
HP: 5 - 6
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 2
GP: 2
Pattern: Attack only

#03 : Ghost

Strength: 11
Agility: 8
HP: 6 - 7
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 4 / 64
XP: 3
GP: 3 - 4
Pattern: Attack only

#04 : Magician

Strength: 11
Agility: 12
HP: 10 - 13
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 4
GP: 9 - 11
Pattern: 50 % to cast HURT
Otherwise attack

#05 : Magidrakee

Strength: 14
Agility: 14
HP: 12 - 15
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 5
GP: 9 - 11
Pattern: 50 % to cast HURT
Otherwise attack

#06 : Scorpion

Strength: 18
Agility: 16
HP: 16 - 20
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 6
GP: 12 - 15
Pattern: Attack only

#07 : Druin

Strength: 20
Agility: 18
HP: 17 - 22
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 7
GP: 12 - 15
Pattern: Attack only

#08 : Poltergeist

Strength: 18
Agility: 20
HP: 18 - 23
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 6 / 64
XP: 8
GP: 13 - 17
Pattern: 75 % to cast HURT
Otherwise attack

#09 : Droll

Strength: 24
Agility: 24
HP: 19 - 25
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 14 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 10
GP: 18 - 24
Pattern: Attack only

#10 : Drakeema

Strength: 22
Agility: 26
HP: 16 - 20
SLEEP resist: 2 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 6 / 64
XP: 11
GP: 15 - 19
Pattern: 25 % to cast HEAL, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP
Otherwise 50 % to cast HURT
Otherwise attack

#11 : Skeleton

Strength: 28
Agility: 22
HP: 23 - 30
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 4 / 64
XP: 11
GP: 22 - 29
Pattern: Attack only

#12 : Warlock

Strength: 28
Agility: 22
HP: 23 - 30
SLEEP resist: 3 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 1 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 13
GP: 26 - 34
Pattern: 25 % to cast SLEEP, but only if you're not asleep
Otherwise 50 % to cast HURT
Otherwise attack

#13 : Metal Scorpion

Strength: 36
Agility: 42
HP: 17 - 22
SLEEP resist: 0 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 14
GP: 30 - 39
Pattern: Attack only

#14 : Wolf

Strength: 40
Agility: 30
HP: 26 - 34
SLEEP resist: 1 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 16
GP: 37 - 49
Pattern: Attack only

#15 : Wraith

Strength: 44
Agility: 34
HP: 28 - 36
SLEEP resist: 7 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 4 / 64
XP: 17
GP: 45 - 59
Pattern: 25 % to cast HEAL, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP
Otherwise attack

#16 : Metal Slime

Strength: 10
Agility: 255
HP: 4
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 15 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 115
GP: 4 - 5
Pattern: 75 % to cast HURT
Otherwise attack

#17 : Specter

Strength: 40
Agility: 38
HP: 28 - 36
SLEEP resist: 3 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 1 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 4 / 64
XP: 18
GP: 52 - 69
Pattern: 25 % to cast SLEEP, but only if you're not asleep
Otherwise 75 % to cast HURT
Otherwise attack

#18 : Wolflord

Strength: 50
Agility: 36
HP: 29 - 38
SLEEP resist: 4 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 7 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 20
GP: 60 - 79
Pattern: 50 % to cast STOPSPELL, but only if your spell isn't blocked
Otherwise attack

#19 : Druinlord

Strength: 47
Agility: 40
HP: 27 - 35
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 4 / 64
XP: 20
GP: 63 - 84
Pattern: 75 % to cast HEAL, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP
Otherwise 25 % to cast HURT
Otherwise attack

#20 : Drollmagi

Strength: 52
Agility: 50
HP: 29 - 38
SLEEP resist: 2 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 2 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 22
GP: 67 - 89
Pattern: 50 % to cast STOPSPELL, but only if your spell isn't blocked
Otherwise attack

#21 : Wyvern

Strength: 56
Agility: 48
HP: 32 - 42
SLEEP resist: 4 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 24
GP: 75 - 99
Pattern: Attack only

#22 : Rogue Scorpion

Strength: 60
Agility: 90
HP: 27 - 35
SLEEP resist: 7 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 26
GP: 82 - 109
Pattern: Attack only

#23 : Wraith Knight

Strength: 68
Agility: 56
HP: 35 - 46
SLEEP resist: 5 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16
HURT resist: 3 / 16
Dodge: 4 / 64
XP: 28
GP: 90 - 119
Pattern: 75 % to cast HEAL, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP
Otherwise attack

#24 : Golem

Strength: 120
Agility: 60
HP: 53 - 70
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 15 / 16
Dodge: 0 / 64
XP: 5
GP: 7 - 9
Pattern: Attack only

#25 : Goldman

Strength: 48
Agility: 40
HP: 38 - 50
SLEEP resist: 13 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 6
GP: 150 - 199
Pattern: Attack only

#26 : Knight

Strength: 76
Agility: 78
HP: 42 - 55
SLEEP resist: 6 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 7 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 33
GP: 97 - 129
Pattern: 50 % to cast STOPSPELL, but only if your spell isn't blocked
Otherwise attack

#27 : Magiwyvern

Strength: 78
Agility: 68
HP: 44 - 58
SLEEP resist: 2 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 34
GP: 105 - 139
Pattern: 50 % to cast SLEEP, but only if you're not asleep
Otherwise attack

#28 : Demon Knight

Strength: 79
Agility: 64
HP: 38 - 50
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 15 / 16
Dodge: 15 / 64
XP: 37
GP: 112 - 149
Pattern: Attack only

#29 : Werewolf

Strength: 86
Agility: 70
HP: 46 - 60
SLEEP resist: 7 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 0 / 16
Dodge: 7 / 64
XP: 40
GP: 116 - 154
Pattern: Attack only

#30 : Green Dragon

Strength: 88
Agility: 74
HP: 49 - 65
SLEEP resist: 7 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 2 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 45
GP: 120 - 159
Pattern: 25 % to breathe fire
Otherwise attack

#31 : Starwyvern

Strength: 86
Agility: 80
HP: 49 - 65
SLEEP resist: 8 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 0 / 16
HURT resist: 1 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 43
GP: 120 - 159
Pattern: 75 % to cast HEALMORE, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP
Otherwise 25 % to breathe fire
Otherwise attack

#32 : Wizard

Strength: 80
Agility: 70
HP: 49 - 65
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 7 / 16
HURT resist: 15 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 50
GP: 123 - 164
Pattern: 50 % to cast HURTMORE
Otherwise attack

#33 : Axe Knight

Strength: 94
Agility: 82
HP: 53 - 70
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 3 / 16
HURT resist: 1 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 54
GP: 123 - 164
Pattern: 25 % to cast SLEEP, but only if you're not asleep
Otherwise attack

#34 : Blue Dragon

Strength: 98
Agility: 84
HP: 53 - 70
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 7 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 60
GP: 112 - 149
Pattern: 25 % to breathe fire
Otherwise attack

#35 : Stoneman

Strength: 100
Agility: 40
HP: 121 - 160
SLEEP resist: 2 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 7 / 16
Dodge: 1 / 64
XP: 65
GP: 105 - 139
Pattern: Attack only

#36 : Armored Knight

Strength: 105
Agility: 86
HP: 68 - 90
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 7 / 16
HURT resist: 1 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 70
GP: 105 - 139
Pattern: 75 % to cast HEALMORE, but only if its HP < 1/4 of its max HP
Otherwise 25 % to cast HURTMORE
Otherwise attack

#37 : Red Dragon

Strength: 120
Agility: 90
HP: 76 - 100
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 7 / 16
HURT resist: 15 / 16
Dodge: 2 / 64
XP: 100
GP: 105 - 139
Pattern: 25 % to cast SLEEP, but only if you're not asleep
Otherwise 25 % to breathe fire
Otherwise attack

#38 : Dragonlord first form

Strength: 90
Agility: 75
HP: 76 - 100
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 15 / 16
Dodge: 0 / 64
XP: 0
GP: 0
Pattern: 25 % to cast STOPSPELL, but only if your spell isn't blocked
Otherwise 75 % to cast HURTMORE
Otherwise attack

#39 : Dragonlord second form

Strength: 140
Agility: 200
HP: 130
SLEEP resist: 15 / 16
STOPSPELL resist: 15 / 16
HURT resist: 15 / 16
Dodge: 0 / 64
XP: 0
GP: 0
Pattern: 50 % to breathe a very strong fire
Otherwise attack

-=Enemy attack formulas=-

~Attacks~

There are two formulas for attack damage for enemies.  The standard range is
from:

(EnemyStrength - HeroDefense / 2) / 4,

to:

(EnemyStrength - HeroDefense / 2) / 2

The hero's defense is equal to his agility / 2 rounded down, plus the modifiers
for his equipment.

The other type of attack happens if your defense power is greater than or equal
to the enemy's strength.  In that case, the range is from:

0

to:

(enemyStrength + 4) / 6

~Spells~

NOTE: Enemy HURT and HEAL classes of spells have different ranges than the
hero's spells.

HURT does  3 - 10 damage
HURTMORE does 30 - 45 damage

Both Magic Armor and Erdrick's Armor will reduce HURT spells by 1/3.  So:

HURT does  2 -  6 damage vs. Erdrick's and Magic Armor
HURTMORE does 20 - 30 damage vs. Erdrick's and Magic Armor

SLEEP always puts you to sleep, and there is no resisting it.  Waking up from
sleep is a 50/50 chance, but because of the limitations of the game programming
it's not possible for it to last for more than 6 turns.

STOPSPELL has a 50/50 chance of working against you.  If you have Erdrick's
Armor it has no chance of working.

HEAL recovers 20 - 27 HP
HEALMORE recovers 85 - 100 HP

~Fire breath~

There are two types of fire breath.  Only the Dragonlord's second form has the
stronger breath.  The rest of the enemies that have breath attacks only have
the weaker type of breath.

Weak breath does 16 - 23 damage
Strong breath does 65 - 72 damage

The only thing that protects against fire breath is Erdrick's Armor, which
reduces the damage by 1/3.  So:

Weak breath vs. Erdrick's Armor does 10 - 14 damage
Strong breath vs. Erdrick's Armor does 42 - 48 damage

-=Hero attack formulas=-

~Attacks~

All enemies except the Golem and the Dragonlord have the capability of dodging
any attack, including excellent moves, as is listed in the enemy chart above.

Just like the standard enemy attack, the range for the hero's standard attack
damage is from:

(HeroAttack - EnemyAgility / 2) / 4,

to:

(HeroAttack - EnemyAgility / 2) / 2

If the damage done is less than 1, then there is 50/50 chance that you will do
either no damage, or 1 damage.

Excellent moves have a 1/32 chance of happening per attack, and the formulas
completely ignore the defense of the enemy.  They range from:

Hero attack / 2

to:

Hero attack

Unfortunately, excellent moves are not possible against either form of the
Dragonlord.  They can also be dodged.

~Spells~

Hero spells have different ranges than enemy spells.

HURT does  5 - 12 damage
HURTMORE does 58 - 65 damage

SLEEP effectiveness depends on the enemy's SLEEP resist stat.  You're always
guaranteed one turn of attack, and after that turn it is a 1/3 chance that the
enemy will wake up.

STOPSPELL effectiveness depends on the enemy's STOPSPELL resist stat.  It never
loses its effect.

-=Running=-

Enemy: If your strength is two times the enemy's strength or more, there is a
25% chance the enemy will run when it's given a turn.  The enemy also makes
this check right upon encounter, so he may get a chance to run right away
regardless of initiative.

Hero: Certain groups of monsters have higher chances of blocking your running.
The more difficult an enemy is, it may belong to a group that is better at
blocking.

Group 1: #00 (Slime) - #19 (Druinlord)
Group 2: #20 (Drollmagi) - #29 (Werewolf)
Group 3: #30 (Green Dragon) - #34 (Blue Dragon)
Group 4: #35 (Stoneman) - #39 (Dragonlord second form)

So for instance, group 4 will block you much easier than group 1 will.  On top
of that is a test of agility.  The test goes like this:

If HeroAgility * Random # < EnemyAgility * Random # * GroupFactor, then the
enemy will block you.

Random # is a random number between 0 and 255.

GroupFactor depends on the group:

Group 1: 0.25
Group 2: 0.375
Group 3: 0.5
Group 4: 1.0

So you can see that enemies in group 1 are going to have a much lower product
than enemies in group 4, meaning that it will be more likely that your product
will be higher and that you will get away.

And yes, it is possible to run from the Dragonlord, although you will repeat
the same dialog and have to fight the first form again.  You can also run from
the Axe Knight in Hauksness, the Golem outside Cantlin, and the Green Dragon in
the Marsh Cave, but it will put you back a spot so that you can't just skip
them and get their prize.

Also worth noting is that if the monster is asleep, you can run away every
time.

-=Initiative=-

This is the same equation as running from enemies in Group 1, except instead of
being blocked, the enemy will go first.

*************************
C. Chests
*************************

-=Shrine west of Kol=-

Staff of Rain

-=Charlock=-

B2:
Erdrick's Sword

B7:
Two Herbs, 500 - 755 gold, Magic Key, Wings, Cursed Belt

-=Garinham=-

Back room:
10 - 17 gold, Torch, Herb

-=Grave of Garinham=-

B1:
6-13 gold, 5-20 gold, Herb

B3:
Cursed Belt, Silver Harp

-=Erdrick's Cave=-

B2: Erdrick's Tablet

-=Mountain Cave=-

B1:
Herb

B2:
Fighter's Ring, Torch, 10 - 17 gold, 100 - 131 gold (this chest can also be the
Death Necklace, which is a 1/32 chance, and can only be obtained once)

-=Rimuldar=-

Wings

-=Tantegel=-

Throne Room:
120 gold, Torch, Magic Key

Treasury:
All chests are 6 - 13 gold

Basement:
Stones of Sunlight

-=The treasure chest bug=-

The handling of treasure chests in Dragon Warrior was done in a very strange
way.  Whenever you take a chest, it doesn't simply check to see if you are
standing on a chest, but rather it checks what your position is on the map and
it checks if you've already taken a chest at that position.  These positions
are loaded into a collection of numbers.  Whenever you leave a town or cave,
this collection is wiped clean, which in part is why chests reappear when you
re-enter.  The only time this collection is not cleared is when you die because
it was an oversight on the part of the programmers, which was later corrected
in sequels to the game.  Because the data is not cleared, it thinks you still
picked up those specific chests at those specific coordinates.

Another thing is that whenever you enter the throne room in Tantegel, the
original three chests that were in that room are placed into this collection to
make certain you don't get them again.  So if you die in one cave after having
collected two chests, that makes the total chests it thinks you've collected as
five.  Because the maximum number of chest positions the game alotted is eight,
that makes it so that when we pick up the fourth chest in the treasury, that it
would be the ninth chest.  Because the collection is full, it can't store that
ninth chest's position, and therefore that position will never be on that list
when you hit take.  So if the game can't find that position on the list, the
chest never disappears.

The bug allows you to pull as much gold as you want, which effectively gives
you lots of gold really fast, and allows you to buy some of the best equipment
very early in the game.

*************************
D. Name choice and stats
*************************

The name you choose to give your hero will affect your stats and stat growth,
so it becomes very important.  Only the first four letters of the name are used
in this calculation.  Each letter has a corresponding numerical value, and they
are added up to find the result.

This is a simplification of those corresponding numbers:

a  b  c  d  e  f
g  h  i  j  k  l  m  n  o  p  q  r  s  t  u  v
w  x  y  z  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L
M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z
'                    .  ,  -     ?  !     )  (

0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Take the values of the first four letters and add them up.  This is our sum. If
you divide that sum by 4, and take the remainder, that is your growth type.
There are 4 different growth types, with each one focusing on two particular
stats that will be reduced in the long term, but will be higher in the short
term.

Type 0: Long term HP and MP, short term Strength and Agility
Type 1: Long term Strength and HP, short term Agility and MP
Type 2: Long term Agility and MP, short term Strength and HP
Type 3: Long term Strength and Agility, short term HP and MP

So below is a chart with all the stat numbers at each level.  If you have long
term growth in that category, then the number is unchanged.  If you have short
term growth in that category, then there is some math to get the adjusted
number.  Take the sum from above and divide by 4 again, this time rounding
down.  Take that number, divide by 4, and take the remainder.  Take this number
and add it to 9/10 of the number on the chart to get your final value.

Level  Strength   Agility     HP        MP

1         4         4        15         0
2         5         4        22         0
3         7         6        24         5
4         7         8        31        16
5        12        10        35        20
6        16        10        38        24
7        18        17        40        26
8        22        20        46        29
9        30        22        50        36
10        35        31        54        40
11        40        35        62        50
12        48        40        63        58
13        52        48        70        64
14        60        55        78        70
15        68        64        86        72
16        72        70        92        95
17        72        78       100       100
18        85        84       115       108
19        87        86       130       115
20        92        88       138       128
21        95        90       149       135
22        97        90       158       146
23        99        94       165       153
24       103        98       170       161
25       113       100       174       161
26       117       105       180       168
27       125       107       189       175
28       130       115       195       180
29       135       120       200       190
30       140       130       210       200

So as an example, I'll use the name Erdrick at level 20 and do the math.

So I'll look up the values for the first four letters:
E:  8
r: 11
d: 13
r: 11

My sum is then 8 + 11 + 13 + 11 = 43

My growth type is the remainder of 43 / 4, which is 3.  Growth type 3 is long
term Strength and Agility, so I can automatically pick those numbers off of the
chart.  My strength is 92 and my agility is 88.

So now I need to find my short term stats.  Again I take 43 / 4, but I round it
down this time, giving me 10.  I will take that result, divide by 4, and take
the remainder, which is 2.  So I will take that number and add it to 9/10 of
what the base stat is.  For HP it is 138, so 138 * 9/10 + 2 will give me the
result, which is 126.  Doing the same process for MP I will get 117.

So my stats end up as:

Strength:  92
Agility:  88
HP: 126
MP: 117

*******************************************************************************
* III. Precise Formulas and Code                                              *
*******************************************************************************

These are the advanced formulas that will reference assembly language straight
from the game.  Before reading onward, there are several algorithms you must be
aware of.

*************************
A. Common algorithms
*************************

First and foremost is the random generator subroutine, which is located at
\$C55B.  It generates a random number between 0 and 255, which for future
reference I will refer to as RAND.  This number is stored at \$95.  Here's how
it works:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$C55B:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Load up the previous random number.
\$C55D:85 3D     STA \$003D    Put it into \$3D.
\$C55F:A5 94     LDA \$0094    Load up the random number's lower byte.
\$C561:85 3C     STA \$003C    Put it into \$3C.
\$C563:06 94     ASL \$0094
\$C565:26 95     ROL \$0095    Multiply \$9495 by 2.

\$94 is the lower byte and \$95 is the higher byte.  Together they are used as
one larger number.  This is apparent by doing the ASL on \$94, and carrying the
overflow into \$95.  These byte pairs will be referred to as \$9495 and \$3C3D.

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$C567:18        CLC
\$C56A:85 94     STA \$0094
\$C56C:A5 95     LDA \$0095
\$C570:85 95     STA \$0095
\$C572:A5 94     LDA \$0094    Add \$94 to \$95.
\$C574:18        CLC
\$C577:85 95     STA \$0095
\$C579:A5 94     LDA \$0094    Add 0x81 to \$9495.
\$C57B:18        CLC
\$C57E:85 94     STA \$0094
\$C580:A5 95     LDA \$0095
\$C584:85 95     STA \$0095
\$C586:60        RTS

So to simplify a little bit, we have:

\$9495 = \$9495 * 2 + \$9495
\$95 = \$94 + \$95
\$9495 = \$9495 + 0x81

We can simplify this a little bit more.  The first line could be summed up as
\$9495 * 3.  For our purposes, the second line can be expressed as \$9495 * 257
since the overflow is inconsequential.  So then we have:

\$9495 *= 3
\$9495 *= 257
\$9495 += 0x81

This can then be combined into one line as:

\$9495 = \$9495 * 771 + 0x81

Or:

\$9495 = \$9495 * 0x303 + 0x81

This formula presents some limitations.  The modulo of the low byte (\$94) by 4
can only ever equal 0 or 1 (bit 1 can never be 1).  This means that \$94 only
represents 128 values, where \$95 represents 256.  This makes 32,768
possibilities.

The biggest limitation is when it is run consecutively and the consecutive
values are used.  While the distribution is even, running it consecutively will
result in patterns cropping up.  In the case of the hero waking up from SLEEP,
which is a 50/50 chance, after a few turns it is impossible for him to stay
asleep.  A true random generator could go on for a long time, but this one is
fairly limited.  It does work quite well when waiting for input though.  When
the player is idle, the generator runs once a frame, which almost guarantees
that it will be random.

The next algorithm to know is multiplication, which is located at \$C1C9.

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$C1C9:A9 00     LDA #\$00     \$40 and \$41 form a double byte, and they represent
\$C1CB:85 40     STA \$0040    the answer to the multiplication.  Here they are
\$C1CD:85 41     STA \$0041    zeroed.
\$C1CF:A5 3C     LDA \$003C    \$3C and \$3D also form a double byte, and they are
\$C1D1:05 3D     ORA \$003D    one of the factors.  Here it checks if \$3C3D is 0
\$C1D3:F0 1A     BEQ \$C1EF    and it ends the subroutine if so.
\$C1D5:46 3D     LSR \$003D
\$C1D7:66 3C     ROR \$003C    \$3C3D is divided by 2.
\$C1D9:90 0D     BCC \$C1E8    If the remainder is 0, it branches to \$C1E8.
\$C1DB:A5 3E     LDA \$003E
\$C1DD:18        CLC
\$C1E0:85 40     STA \$0040    \$3E and \$3F are the other double byte factor.
\$C1E2:A5 3F     LDA \$003F    Here they are added to \$4041 (the result).
\$C1E6:85 41     STA \$0041
\$C1E8:06 3E     ASL \$003E
\$C1EA:26 3F     ROL \$003F    \$3E3F is multiplied by 2.
\$C1EC:4C CF C1  JMP \$C1CF    The process is repeated until \$3C == \$3D
\$C1EF:60        RTS

There are other FAQs that deal with the particulars of how this works, and it's
rather lengthy.  Suffice it to say that all that you need to know is that
\$3C3D * \$3E3F = \$4041.

The last algorithm to know is division, which is located at \$C1F0.

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$C1F0:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$C1F2:85 3D     STA \$003D    \$3D, part of a double byte \$3C3D, is set to 0.
\$C1F4:A0 10     LDY #\$10     Y = 0x10, which is setting up 16 loops.
\$C1F6:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$C1F8:06 3C     ASL \$003C
\$C1FA:26 3D     ROL \$003D
\$C1FC:85 40     STA \$0040    \$40 is set to \$3C3D * 2.
\$C1FE:65 40     ADC \$0040    The accumulator is set to \$40 (plus 1 if there is
overflow).
\$C200:E6 3C     INC \$003C    \$3C++
\$C202:38        SEC
\$C203:E5 3E     SBC \$003E    \$3E is subtracted from the accumulator.
\$C205:B0 05     BCS \$C20C    If there is no overflow, it branches to \$C20C.
\$C207:18        CLC
\$C20A:C6 3C     DEC \$003C    \$3C--
\$C20C:88        DEY          Y--
\$C20D:D0 E9     BNE \$C1F8    If Y != 0, then repeat.
\$C20F:85 40     STA \$0040    Store the accumulator in \$40.
\$C211:60        RTS

Like multiplication, the explanation for how this works is lengthy, so suffice
it to say that all you need to know is that \$3C3D / \$3E = \$3C remainder \$40.

Now that we know the basics of the algorithms, we can progress to the formulas.

*************************
B. Journeying
*************************

-= Items and Spells =-

For all healing items and spells, the code is basically the same.

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$DBB8:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B    Do the random algorithm.
\$DBBB:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Load our random number and...
\$DBBD:29 07     AND #\$07     ...limit it to a number between 0-7.
\$DBBF:18        CLC
\$DBC2:18        CLC
\$DBC5:B0 04     BCS \$DBCB    If it exceeds 255, branch to \$DBCB.
\$DBC7:C5 CA     CMP \$00CA    Or if it exceeds your max HP, branch to \$DBCB.
\$DBC9:90 02     BCC \$DBCD
\$DBCB:A5 CA     LDA \$00CA
\$DBCD:85 C5     STA \$00C5    Make the HP the max HP.

All the healing works this way.  Here are the values for various spells/items:

Item      HP gained            Code location

Herb:     RAND & 0x0F + 0x17   \$DCFE
HEAL:     RAND & 0x07 + 0x0A   \$DBB8
HEALMORE: RAND & 0x0F + 0x55   \$DBD7

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$DA6A:A9 50     LDA #\$50
\$DA6C:85 DA     STA \$00DA    Puts 0x50 into the radiant counter.

After initial casting, you have the three square radius for 0x50 steps.  Every
step you take does:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CA5A:C6 DA     DEC \$00DA    Decrease the radiant counter by 1.
\$CA5C:D0 0E     BNE \$CA6C    If it's not 0, move on to other things.
\$CA5E:A5 D0     LDA \$00D0    If it is 0, check the radius (\$D0).
\$CA60:C9 01     CMP #\$01     If it's 1...
\$CA62:F0 08     BEQ \$CA6C    ...Move on to other things.
\$CA64:A9 3C     LDA #\$3C     Otherwise put 0x3C into \$DA.
\$CA66:85 DA     STA \$00DA
\$CA68:C6 D0     DEC \$00D0
\$CA6A:C6 D0     DEC \$00D0    \$D0 -= 2

\$D0 is the number that signifies the radius.  It is initially set at seven.
Every time \$DA hits 0, \$D0 is subtracted by 2.  The radius could be expressed
as (\$D0 - 1) / 2.  When it is 1, there is no more extra visible area.  Torches
simply set this value to 0x03 and they last until you leave the cave.

REPEL spell

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$DA98:A9 FF     LDA #\$FF
\$DA9A:85 DB     STA \$00DB    Put 0xFF into the repel counter.

After the initial casting you have the repel counter (\$DB) / 2 number of steps.
The reason it is divided by 2 is because Fairy Water sets \$DB to 0xFE.  They
were separated in this way so that they could run the same formulas, but also
to have different messages when the effect wears off.  So every step subtracts
2 from the counter.

The way encounters work with the effect:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CF20:A5 45     LDA \$0045    Load up the current area
\$CF22:C9 01     CMP #\$01     Check if you're on the overworld
\$CF24:D0 1E     BNE \$CF44
\$CF26:A5 DB     LDA \$00DB    Load the repel counter
\$CF28:F0 1A     BEQ \$CF44    If it's not 0...
\$CF2A:A5 CD     LDA \$00CD    ...load the hero's defense and...
\$CF2C:4A        LSR          ...divide that by 2...
\$CF2D:85 3E     STA \$003E    ...and put it into \$3E.
\$CF2F:A6 3C     LDX \$003C    X = \$3C (at current, \$3C is the enemy ID)
\$CF31:BD FA F4  LDA \$F4FA,X  Load the current enemy's strength and...
\$CF34:38        SEC
\$CF35:E5 3E     SBC \$003E    ...subtract \$3E (HeroDefense / 2) from it.
\$CF37:90 0A     BCC \$CF43    Branch if there is overflow.
\$CF39:85 3E     STA \$003E    Store (EnemyStrength - HeroDefense / 2) at \$3E.
\$CF3B:BD FA F4  LDA \$F4FA,X  Load the current enemy's strength and...
\$CF3E:4A        LSR          ...divide it by 2.
\$CF3F:C5 3E     CMP \$003E    If EnemyStrength / 2 > EnemyStrength -
HeroDefense/2
\$CF41:90 01     BCC \$CF44    Branch
\$CF43:60        RTS

There is some redundancy here.  First it checks if the hero's defense is twice
or more times the enemy's strength.  If it's not, then it checks if the hero's
defense is greater than the enemy's strength.  The first check could
essentially be cut, but probably wasn't for memory or speed reasons.

So the only formula worth concerning yourself with here is:

If (HeroDefense >> 1 > EnemyStrength >> 1) then the enemy is evaded.

The bitwise right shifts make it worth noting that if your defense is say, 51,
and the enemy's strength is say, 50, you won't evade them.  So the formula
can't be simplified to just HeroDefense > EnemyStrength like I do in the
earlier section.

The Silver Harp

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$DE18:A5 45     LDA \$0045
\$DE1A:C9 01     CMP #\$01     Check to make sure you're on the overworld.
\$DE1C:D0 23     BNE \$DE41
\$DE1E:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$DE21:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Load up a random number.
\$DE23:29 07     AND #\$07     Limit that number to 0-7.
\$DE25:C9 05     CMP #\$05     If the number is 5...
\$DE27:F0 F5     BEQ \$DE1E
\$DE29:C9 07     CMP #\$07     ...or 7...
\$DE2B:F0 F1     BEQ \$DE1E    repeat the random process until it isn't.

This random number serves as the monster you will encounter.  5 is the
Magidrakee and 7 is the Druin.  This shows that the summoning of enemies only
works on the overworld.

Because of the limitations of the random generator, and the fact that it is
repeated in succession if the result is 5 or 7, this makes the odds not an even
1/6 split for each remaining enemy.  The actual odds are:

0 -     Slime: 5504/32768  ~16.8%
1 - Red Slime: 5472/32768  ~16.7%
2 -    Drakee: 5504/32768  ~16.8%
3 -     Ghost: 5440/32768  ~16.6%
4 -  Magician: 5472/32768  ~16.7%
6 -  Scorpion: 5376/32768  ~16.4%

So there's not a whole lot of variance there.  There are other areas, such as
the chances of encountering an enemy from each zone set, that are a bit more
varied.

-= Encounters =-

For every step that you take, the random subroutine is called.  First, it
figures out what kind of tile you are on.  Then it proceeds to check types of
terrain.  It starts with the swamp:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CDC6:A5 E0     LDA \$00E0    Load the current tile.
\$CDC8:C9 06     CMP #\$06     Check if it's swamp.
\$CDCA:D0 36     BNE \$CE02    If it's not, move on.
\$CDCC:A5 BE     LDA \$00BE    If it is, load the equipment type.
\$CDCE:29 1C     AND #\$1C
\$CDD0:C9 1C     CMP #\$1C
\$CDD2:F0 27     BEQ \$CDFB    If you're wearing Erdrick's Armor skip the damage.
...
\$CDDF:A5 C5     LDA \$00C5
\$CDE1:38        SEC
\$CDE2:E9 02     SBC #\$02     If not, subtract 2 hit points.
\$CDE4:B0 02     BCS \$CDE8    Check if HP is less than 0.
\$CDE6:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$CDE8:85 C5     STA \$00C5
...
\$CDF0:A5 C5     LDA \$00C5
\$CDF2:D0 07     BNE \$CDFB    If you're still alive, skip ahead.
...
\$CDFB:A9 0F     LDA #\$0F
\$CDFD:25 95     AND \$0095    Limit the last random number to 0-15
\$CDFF:F0 7B     BEQ \$CE7C    If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in.
\$CE01:60        RTS

And then moves on to desert:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CE02:C9 01     CMP #\$01     Check if it's desert.
\$CE04:F0 0D     BEQ \$CE13
\$CE13:A9 07     LDA #\$07
\$CE15:D0 E6     BNE \$CDFD
\$CDFD:25 95     AND \$0095    Limit the random number to 0-7.
\$CDFF:F0 7B     BEQ \$CE7C    If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in.
\$CE01:60        RTS

And then to hills:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CE06:C9 02     CMP #\$02     Check if it's hills.
\$CE08:D0 0D     BNE \$CE17
...
\$CE13:A9 07     LDA #\$07
\$CE15:D0 E6     BNE \$CDFD
\$CDFD:25 95     AND \$0095    Limit the random number to 0-7.
\$CDFF:F0 7B     BEQ \$CE7C    If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in.
\$CE01:60        RTS

And then forest:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CE17:C9 0B     CMP #\$0B     Check if it's forest.
\$CE19:F0 44     BEQ \$CE5F
\$CE5F:A9 0F     LDA #\$0F
\$CE61:D0 9A     BNE \$CDFD
\$CDFD:25 95     AND \$0095    Limit the random number to 0-15.
\$CDFF:F0 7B     BEQ \$CE7C    If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in.
\$CE01:60        RTS

And then brick floor:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CE1B:C9 04     CMP #\$04     Check if it's brick floor.
\$CE1D:F0 40     BEQ \$CE5F
\$CE5F:A9 0F     LDA #\$0F
\$CE61:D0 9A     BNE \$CDFD
\$CDFD:25 95     AND \$0095    Limit the random number to 0-15.
\$CDFF:F0 7B     BEQ \$CE7C    If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in.
\$CE01:60        RTS

And then if it's barrier:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CE1F:C9 0D     CMP #\$0D     Check if it's barrier.
\$CE21:D0 40     BNE \$CE63
\$CE23:A5 BE     LDA \$00BE    If it is, load the equipment type.
\$CE25:29 1C     AND #\$1C
\$CE27:C9 1C     CMP #\$1C
\$CE29:F0 34     BEQ \$CE5F    If you're wearing Erdrick's Armor skip the damage.
\$CE5F:A9 0F     LDA #\$0F
\$CE61:D0 9A     BNE \$CDFD
\$CDFD:25 95     AND \$0095    Limit the random number to 0-15.
\$CDFF:F0 7B     BEQ \$CE7C    If it's 0, move on to check the zone you're in.
\$CE01:60        RTS

And if it's none of the above:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CE63:A5 3A     LDA \$003A    Load the hero's x position.
\$CE65:4A        LSR
\$CE66:B0 07     BCS \$CE6F    If x is odd, proceed to check if y is even.
\$CE68:A5 3B     LDA \$003B    If x is even, load the hero's y position.
\$CE6A:4A        LSR
\$CE6B:90 07     BCC \$CE74    If y is even, the random number will be 0-31.
\$CE6D:B0 09     BCS \$CE78    If y is odd, the random number will be 0-15.
\$CE6F:A5 3B     LDA \$003B    If the x position was odd...
\$CE71:4A        LSR
\$CE72:90 04     BCC \$CE78    ..and if the y position is even, the random number
\$CE74:A9 1F     LDA #\$1F     will be 0-31.  If y is odd, it will be 0-15.
\$CE76:D0 85     BNE \$CDFD
\$CE78:A9 0F     LDA #\$0F
\$CE7A:D0 FA     BNE \$CE76

Basically, what this all does is set up a checker board style of encounters in
places like grasslands.  One type of checker is a 1 in 16 chance of encounter
while the other type is a 1 in 32 chance.  The point is to essentially make the
encounter similar to a 1 in 24 chance.

Then, we start to check what zone we're in:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CE7C:A5 45     LDA \$0045    Check which area you're in.
\$CE7E:C9 01     CMP #\$01     If it's the overworld...
\$CE80:D0 56     BNE \$CED8    ...don't branch.
\$CE82:A5 3B     LDA \$003B    Load the hero's y coordinate...
\$CE84:85 3C     STA \$003C    ...and put it into \$3C.
\$CE86:A9 0F     LDA #\$0F
\$CE88:85 3E     STA \$003E    Set \$3E to 0x0F.
\$CE8A:20 F0 C1  JSR \$C1F0    Run the division subroutine (\$3C / \$3E).
\$CE8D:A5 3C     LDA \$003C    Load the result of the division...
\$CE8F:85 42     STA \$0042    ...and put it into \$42 for later.
\$CE91:A5 3A     LDA \$003A    Load the hero's X coordinate...
\$CE93:85 3C     STA \$003C    ...and put it into \$3C.
\$CE95:A9 0F     LDA #\$0F
\$CE97:85 3E     STA \$003E    Set \$3E to 0x0F.
\$CE99:20 F0 C1  JSR \$C1F0    Runs the division subroutine (\$3C / \$3E).
\$CE9C:A5 42     LDA \$0042    Load the hero's y grid...
\$CE9E:0A        ASL
\$CE9F:0A        ASL          ...and multiply it by 4.
\$CEA0:85 3E     STA \$003E    Put the result in \$3E.
\$CEA2:A5 3C     LDA \$003C    Load the hero's x grid...
\$CEA4:4A        LSR          ...and divide it by 2...
\$CEA5:18        CLC
\$CEA6:65 3E     ADC \$003E    ...and add it to the previous y grid * 4.
\$CEA8:AA        TAX          Transfer the result to X.
\$CEA9:BD 22 F5  LDA \$F522,X  Loads what zone grid you are in...
\$CEAC:85 3E     STA \$003E    ...and stores it in \$3E.
\$CEAE:A5 3C     LDA \$003C    Load the hero's x grid again.
\$CEB0:4A        LSR
\$CEB1:B0 08     BCS \$CEBB    If it's an odd number, get the small nibble of \$3E
\$CEB3:46 3E     LSR \$003E    If it's even, get the large nibble of \$3E.
\$CEB5:46 3E     LSR \$003E
\$CEB7:46 3E     LSR \$003E
\$CEB9:46 3E     LSR \$003E
\$CEBB:A5 3E     LDA \$003E
\$CEBD:29 0F     AND #\$0F
\$CEBF:D0 43     BNE \$CF04    If the zone isn't 0, go on to combat.

So what this does is divides your x and y coordinates by 15 to figure out what
grid you are currently in.  It then takes that grid and converts it into a
sequential number to figure out what enemy zone this grid represents.

So for instance, let's say your coordinates are 0x2B, 0x2C (one square south of
Tantegel).  The x grid is 0x2B / 0x0F, which is 2 (the remainder is
unimportant). The y grid is 0x2C / 0x0F, which is also 2.  So now we follow the
equation:

yGrid * 4 + (xGrid >> 1)
```
```And we would have 2 * 4 + (2 >> 1), which is 9.  This result is used as the
offset from \$F522, which in this case would be \$F52B, which is 0x00.  Normally
we would find out which nibble is our zone (in this case it would be the large
nibble), but it doesn't matter since they are both 0.  Since the zone is 0, we
go on to this next code:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CEC1:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B    If the zone is 0, run the random subroutine.
\$CEC4:A5 E0     LDA \$00E0    Load the current tile.
\$CEC6:C9 02     CMP #\$02     If it's hills...
\$CEC8:D0 07     BNE \$CED1
\$CECA:A5 95     LDA \$0095    ...load the random number and...
\$CECC:29 03     AND #\$03     ...limit it to 0-3
\$CECE:F0 34     BEQ \$CF04    If it's 0, go on to picking the enemy.

Essentially what this does is that while you're in zone 0, hill encounters are
reduced from 1/8 to 1/32.  If it's not hills, the limitation is:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CED1:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Load the random number and...
\$CED3:29 01     AND #\$01     ...limit it to 0 or 1.
\$CED5:F0 2D     BEQ \$CF04    If it's 0, go on to picking the enemy.

So every other type of terrain is limited by a factor of 2.  That means you're
much less likely to have encounters near Tantegel.

Now on to picking the enemy.

-= Monster Sets =-

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$CF04:85 3E     STA \$003E    Store the zone number at \$3E.
\$CF06:0A        ASL
\$CF07:0A        ASL
\$CF08:18        CLC
\$CF09:65 3E     ADC \$003E    Multiply the zone number by 5.
\$CF0B:85 3E     STA \$003E    Put the result in \$3E.
\$CF0D:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B    Run the random subroutine.
\$CF10:A5 95     LDA \$0095
\$CF12:29 07     AND #\$07     Limit the random number to 0-7.
\$CF14:C9 05     CMP #\$05     If it's 5-7...
\$CF16:B0 F5     BCS \$CF0D    ...go back and repeat until it's not.
\$CF1A:AA        TAX
\$CF1B:BD 4F F5  LDA \$F54F,X  Use the result as the offset from \$F54F to get the
enemy ID.
\$CF1E:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store the ID at \$3C.

So since there are five possibilities per zone, this figures out the zone * 5 +
a random number between 0 and 4.  From there, it checks the offset at \$F54F to
see what enemy ID is there.  The chart at \$F54F is as follows:

00 01 00 01 00
01 00 01 02 01
00 03 02 03 01
01 01 02 03 04
03 04 05 05 06
03 04 05 06 0B
05 06 0B 0C 0E
0B 0C 0D 0E 0E
0D 0F 12 12 19
0F 15 12 15 19
15 16 17 1A 1C
17 1A 1B 1C 10
1A 1B 1C 1D 1F
1D 1E 1F 1F 20
08 09 0A 0B 0C
11 12 13 14 17
1D 1E 1F 20 21
20 21 22 22 23
20 23 24 24 25
03 04 06 07 07

Each enemy ID corresponds to this chart:

Zone  0: Slime, Red Slime, Slime, Red Slime, Slime
Zone  1: Red Slime, Slime, Red Slime, Drakee, Red Slime
Zone  2: Slime, Ghost, Drakee, Ghost, Red Slime
Zone  3: Red Slime, Red Slime, Drakee, Ghost, Magician
Zone  4: Ghost, Magician, Magidrakee, Magidrakee, Scorpion
Zone  5: Ghost, Magician, Magidrakee, Scorpion, Skeleton
Zone  6: Magidrakee, Scorpion, Skeleton, Warlock, Wolf
Zone  7: Skeleton, Warlock, Metal Scorpion, Wolf, Wolf
Zone  8: Metal Scorpion, Wraith, Wolflord, Wolflord, Goldman
Zone  9: Wraith, Wyvern, Wolflord, Wyvern, Goldman
Zone 10: Wyvern, Rogue Scorpion, Wraith Knight, Knight, Demon Knight
Zone 11: Wraith Knight, Knight, Magiwyvern, Demon Knight, Metal Slime
Zone 12: Knight, Magiwyvern, Demon Knight, Werewolf, Starwyvern
Zone 13: Werewolf, Green Dragon, Starwyvern, Starwyvern, Wizard
Zone 14: Poltergeist, Droll, Drakeema, Skeleton, Warlock
Zone 15: Specter, Wolflord, Druinlord, Drollmagi, Wraith Knight
Zone 16: Werewolf, Green Dragon, Starwyvern, Wizard, Axe Knight
Zone 17: Wizard, Axe Knight, Blue Dragon, Blue Dragon, Stoneman
Zone 18: Wizard, Stoneman, Armored Knight, Armored Knight, Red Dragon
Zone 19: Ghost, Magician, Scorpion, Druin, Druin

Each enemy has a roughly equal chance to be encountered, although because of
the limitations of the random generator, they are slightly imbalanced.  It's
called once to determine if there is combat, once again if you're in zone 0,
and then however many times it takes to get a number between 0 and 4 instead of
0 and 7 (there is a maximum of 7).  It's mostly because of that last part that
the odds are uneven.

Enemy #     Chance to encounter

0         416/2048   ~20.3%
1         448/2048   ~21.9%
2         448/2048   ~21.9%
3         336/2048   ~16.4%
4         400/2048   ~19.5%

Since there is one extra call in zone 0, the odds there are different:

Enemy #     Chance to encounter

0         368/2048   ~18.0%
1         384/2048   ~18.8%
2         448/2048   ~21.9%
3         416/2048   ~20.3%
4         432/2048   ~21.1%

*************************
C. Combat
*************************

-=Enemies=-

These are all the stats of the enemies.

ID  Enemy Name     Str Agi HP  Pat SR  DR  XP  GP
00  Slime          05  03  03  00  0F  01  01  02
01  Red Slime      07  03  04  00  0F  01  01  03
02  Drakee         09  06  06  00  0F  01  02  03
03  Ghost          0B  08  07  00  0F  04  03  05
04  Magician       0B  0C  0D  02  00  01  04  0C
05  Magidrakee     0E  0E  0F  02  00  01  05  0C
06  Scorpion       12  10  14  00  0F  01  06  10
07  Druin          14  12  16  00  0F  02  07  10

08  Poltergeist    12  14  17  03  00  06  08  12
09  Droll          18  18  19  00  0E  02  0A  19
0A  Drakeema       16  1A  14  92  20  06  0B  14
0B  Skeleton       1C  16  1E  00  0F  04  0B  1E
0C  Warlock        1C  16  1E  12  31  02  0D  23
0D  Metal Scorpion 24  2A  16  00  0F  02  0E  28
0E  Wolf           28  1E  22  00  1F  02  10  32
0F  Wraith         2C  22  24  90  70  04  11  3C

10  Metal Slime    0A  FF  04  03  FF  F1  73  06
11  Specter        28  26  24  13  31  04  12  46
12  Wolflord       32  24  26  60  47  02  14  50
13  Druinlord      2F  28  23  B1  F0  04  14  55
14  Drollmagi      34  32  26  60  22  01  16  5A
15  Wyvern         38  30  2A  00  4F  02  18  64
16  Rogue Scorpion 3C  5A  23  00  7F  02  1A  6E
17  Wraith Knight  44  38  2E  B0  50  34  1C  78

18  Golem          78  3C  46  00  FF  F0  05  0A
19  Goldman        30  28  32  00  DF  01  06  C8
1A  Knight         4C  4E  37  60  67  01  21  82
1B  Magiwyvern     4E  44  3A  20  20  02  22  8C
1C  Demon Knight   4F  40  32  00  FF  FF  25  96
1D  Werewolf       56  46  3C  00  7F  07  28  9B
1E  Green Dragon   58  4A  41  09  7F  22  2D  A0
1F  Starwyvern     56  50  41  F9  80  12  2B  A0

20  Wizard         50  46  41  06  F7  F2  32  A5
21  Axe Knight     5E  52  46  10  F3  11  36  A5
22  Blue Dragon    62  54  46  09  FF  72  3C  96
23  Stoneman       64  28  A0  00  2F  71  41  8C
24  Armored Knight 69  56  5A  F5  F7  12  46  8C
25  Red Dragon     78  5A  64  19  F7  F2  64  8C
26  Dragonlord 1   5A  4B  64  57  FF  F0  00  00
27  Dragonlord 2   8C  C8  82  0E  FF  F0  00  00

"Str" is the enemy's strength or attack power.

"Agi" is the enemy's agility.

"HP" is the enemy's hit points.  This number is just the maximum that their HP
can be, but it is variable.  The code to calculate it is:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E59C:85 3E     STA \$003E    ...and put it in \$3E.
\$E59E:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$E5A1:A5 95     LDA \$0095
\$E5A3:85 3C     STA \$003C    Put the random number into \$3C.
\$E5A5:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$E5A7:85 3D     STA \$003D
\$E5A9:85 3F     STA \$003F
\$E5AB:20 C9 C1  JSR \$C1C9    Multiply the random number by the max HP.
\$E5AE:A5 41     LDA \$0041    Load the result / 256.
\$E5B0:4A        LSR
\$E5B1:4A        LSR          Divide it by 4.
\$E5B2:85 40     STA \$0040    Store the result at \$40.
\$E5B7:38        SEC
\$E5B8:E5 40     SBC \$0040    Subtract \$40 from the max HP.
\$E5BA:85 E2     STA \$00E2    Set the enemy's current HP to that result.

The result is:

MaxHP - ((RAND * MaxHP) >> 10)

So that will be a range from 75.1-100% of the value.  The only exception to
this is the Dragonlord's second form.  He always has the full value for HP.

"Pat" is the enemy's attack pattern.  See below for the more advanced info on
how this number works.

"SR" is status resistance.  The first nibble / 16 is the chance to resist
SLEEP:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E773:4A        LSR
\$E774:4A        LSR
\$E775:4A        LSR
\$E776:4A        LSR          Get the first nibble (SLEEP resistance).
\$E777:20 46 E9  JSR \$E946
\$E946:85 3E     STA \$003E    Store it at \$3E.
\$E948:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$E94B:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Get the random number...
\$E94D:29 0F     AND #\$0F     ...and limit it to 0-15.
\$E94F:C5 3E     CMP \$003E    If that number is greater or equal to the enemy's
\$E951:90 01     BCC \$E954    SLEEP resistance, then it is successful.
\$E953:60        RTS

The second nibble / 16 is the chance to resist STOPSPELL:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E78D:29 0F     AND #\$0F     Get the second nibble (STOPSPELL resistance).
\$E78F:20 46 E9  JSR \$E946
\$E946:85 3E     STA \$003E    Store it at \$3E.
\$E948:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$E94B:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Get the random number...
\$E94D:29 0F     AND #\$0F     ...and limit it to 0-15.
\$E94F:C5 3E     CMP \$003E    If that number is greater or equal to the enemy's
\$E951:90 01     BCC \$E954    STOPSPELL resistance, then it is successful.
\$E953:60        RTS

So for instance, a Slime's SR is 0F.  That means SLEEP will always work and
that STOPSPELL has a 15/16 chance of failing.  Enemies who don't use magic have
F as their STOPSPELL resistance, but this still allows a small chance of it
working even though it will have no real effect.

"DR" is damage resistance.  The first nibble / 16 is the chance that HURT and
HURTMORE will have no effect:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E73D:4A        LSR
\$E73E:4A        LSR
\$E73F:4A        LSR
\$E740:4A        LSR          Get the first nibble (HURT resistance).
\$E741:20 46 E9  JSR \$E946
\$E946:85 3E     STA \$003E    Store it at \$3E.
\$E948:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$E94B:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Get the random number...
\$E94D:29 0F     AND #\$0F     ...and limit it to 0-15.
\$E94F:C5 3E     CMP \$003E    If that number is greater or equal to the enemy's
\$E951:90 01     BCC \$E954    HURT resistance, then it is successful.
\$E953:60        RTS

The second nibble / 64 is the chance of dodging:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E66E:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$E671:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Get a random number and...
\$E673:29 3F     AND #\$3F     ...limit it to 0-63.
\$E675:85 95     STA \$0095    Store the number at \$95.
\$E67A:29 0F     AND #\$0F     Get the second nibble (dodging chance).
\$E67C:F0 1C     BEQ \$E69A    If it is 0, the enemy dodges.
\$E67E:38        SEC
\$E67F:E9 01     SBC #\$01     Subtract 1 from the dodging chance.
\$E681:C5 95     CMP \$0095    If that number is greater or equal to the previous
\$E683:90 15     BCC \$E69A    random number (0-63), the enemy dodges.

So for instance, a Slime's DR is 01.  That means that HURT spells will always
connect and that it has a 1/64 chance to dodge an attack.

"XP" is the experience you will get.

"GP" is the maximum gold you can get plus one.  The code for gold received is:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$EA2D:85 3E     STA \$003E    Store it at \$3E.
\$EA2F:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$EA32:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Get a random number and...
\$EA34:29 3F     AND #\$3F     ...limit it to 0-63.
\$EA36:18        CLC
\$EA39:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store the result at \$3C.
\$EA3B:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$EA3D:85 3D     STA \$003D
\$EA3F:85 3F     STA \$003F
\$EA41:20 C9 C1  JSR \$C1C9    Multiply the enemy's gold value by \$3C.
\$EA44:A5 41     LDA \$0041    Load the result / 256.
\$EA46:85 00     STA \$0000    And store it at \$00

That result is later added to your gold total.  So the formula is:

(GP * ((RAND & 0x3F) + 0xC0)) >> 8

So that will be a range from 75-99.9% of the value.  You will never receive
that full number.

-=Enemy patterns=-

The above mentioned enemy pattern is a little bit more elaborate than the other
stats.  An enemy can have up to two special moves.  One focuses on status
spells and healing, and the other focuses on damage spells and fire breath.
Certain checks are made to see if they use these attacks.  If they don't, they
simply attack.

Special move 1:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$EB4B:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B    Run the random subroutine for later.
\$EB51:29 30     AND #\$30     Get bits 4 and 5, which is the 1/4 chance of
carrying out special move 1.
\$EB53:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store it at \$3C.
\$EB55:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Load the previous random number.
\$EB57:29 30     AND #\$30     Get bits 4 and 5.
\$EB59:C5 3C     CMP \$003C    If the random number is less than the enemy's
\$EB5B:B0 37     BCS \$EB94    pattern, they will carry out special move 1.
Otherwise move on to special move 2.
\$EB60:29 C0     AND #\$C0     Get bits 6 and 7, which is special move 1.
\$EB62:D0 07     BNE \$EB6B
\$EB64:A5 DF     LDA \$00DF    If special move 1 is 0, it is to cast SLEEP.
\$EB66:30 2C     BMI \$EB94    If the hero is already asleep, then move on to
special move 2.  Otherwise cast SLEEP, which is
always successful.
\$EB6B:C9 40     CMP #\$40
\$EB6D:D0 09     BNE \$EB78
\$EB6F:A5 DF     LDA \$00DF    If special move 1 is 1, it is to cast STOPSPELL.
\$EB71:29 10     AND #\$10     If the hero's spell is already stopped, then move
\$EB73:D0 1F     BNE \$EB94    on to special move 2.  Otherwise cast STOPSPELL,
which has a 50/50 chance of success unless
equipped with Erdrick's Armor, in which case there
is no chance.
\$EB78:C9 80     CMP #\$80
\$EB7A:D0 0C     BNE \$EB88    If special move 1 is 2, it is to cast HEAL.
\$EB7F:4A        LSR
\$EB80:4A        LSR          Divide that by 4.
\$EB81:C5 E2     CMP \$00E2    If the enemy's current HP is less than a quarter
\$EB83:90 0F     BCC \$EB94    of its max HP, then it will carry out the HEAL
spell. Otherwise move on to special move 2.
If special move 1 is 3, it is to cast HEALMORE.
\$EB8B:4A        LSR
\$EB8C:4A        LSR          Divide that by 4.
\$EB8D:C5 E2     CMP \$00E2    If the enemy's current HP is less than a quarter
\$EB8F:90 03     BCC \$EB94    of its max HP, then it will carry out the HEALMORE
spell.  Otherwise move on to special move 2.

Special move 2:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$EB94:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B    Run the random subroutine for later.
\$EB9A:29 03     AND #\$03     Get bits 0 and 1, which is the 1/4 chance of
carrying out special move 2.
\$EB9C:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store it at \$3C.
\$EB9E:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Load the previous random number.
\$EBA0:29 03     AND #\$03     Get bits 0 and 1.
\$EBA2:C5 3C     CMP \$003C    If the random number is less than the enemy's
\$EBA4:B0 1B     BCS \$EBC1    pattern, they will carry out special move 2.
Otherwise move on to attack.
\$EBA9:29 0C     AND #\$0C     Get bits 2 and 3, which is special move 2.
\$EBAB:D0 03     BNE \$EBB0    If special move 2 is 0, it is to cast HURT.
\$EBB0:C9 04     CMP #\$04
\$EBB2:D0 03     BNE \$EBB7    If special move 2 is 1, it is to cast HURTMORE.
\$EBB7:C9 08     CMP #\$08
\$EBB9:D0 03     BNE \$EBBE    If special move 2 is 2, it is to breathe fire.
\$EBBE:4C E1 EC  JMP \$ECE1    If special move 2 is 3, it is to breathe strong
fire.

As an example of how it works, we will use a Starwyvern.

The Starwyvern's pattern is F9, which is 11111001 in binary.

The first bytes it checks are 4 & 5:

11111001
^^

This number / 4 is the chance that they will do special move 1.  In this case,
it is a 3 / 4 chance that the Starwyvern will do special move 1.

Bytes 6 & 7 correspond to what special move 1 is.

11111001
^^

00: Cast SLEEP
01: Cast STOPSPELL
10: Cast HEAL
11: Cast HEALMORE

The Starwyvern's ability then is HEALMORE.

There are always exceptions to if these will be performed.  If the hero is
already asleep, the enemy will not cast SLEEP.  If the hero's spell is already
stopped, the enemy will not cast STOPSPELL.  If the enemy's HP >= their max HP
/ 4, then it will not cast healing spells.

So if the enemy doesn't end up doing special move 1, it moves onto special
move 2.

Bytes 0 & 1 are checked:

11111001
^^

Again, just like our first check, this number / 4 is the chance that they will
do special move 2.  In the case of the Starwyvern, it's chance is 1 / 4.

Bytes 2 & 3 correspond to what special move 2 is.

11111001
^^

00: Cast HURT
01: Cast HURTMORE
10: Breath attack 1
11: Breath attack 2

The Starwyvern's ability then is breath attack 1.

If this special attack isn't used, then the enemy will just do a regular
attack.

So the starwyvern's attack chances can be broken down as such:
If starwyvern HP < 16
3/4 chance to HEAL, 1/16 chance to breathe fire, 3/16 chance to attack
If starwyvern HP >= 16
1/4 chance to breathe fire, 3/4 chance to attack

-=Enemy attack formulas=-

~Attacks~

There are two formulas for attack damage for enemies.  This is the starting
code:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$EBD0:85 42     STA \$0042    Store it at \$42.
\$EBD2:A5 CD     LDA \$00CD    Load the hero's defense.
\$EBD4:85 43     STA \$0043    Store it at \$43.
\$EBD6:20 F4 EF  JSR \$EFF4
\$EFF4:46 43     LSR \$0043    Divide the hero's defense by 2.
\$EFF6:A5 42     LDA \$0042
\$EFF8:4A        LSR          Divide the enemy's strength by 2.
\$EFF9:85 3E     STA \$003E    Store the result at \$3E
\$EFFB:E6 3E     INC \$003E    Add 1 to \$3E.
\$EFFD:A5 42     LDA \$0042
\$EFFF:38        SEC
\$F000:E5 43     SBC \$0043    Subtract the halved hero's defense from the
enemy's strength.
\$F002:90 04     BCC \$F008    Branch if it's less than 0.
\$F004:C5 3E     CMP \$003E    Otherwise compare it to \$3E, which is the enemy's
strength / 2 + 1.
\$F006:B0 28     BCS \$F030    If it's greater or equal, branch.  If not, proceed
to do lesser damage.

So \$F008 is where lesser damage is determined.  \$F030 is where regular damage
is determined.  Lesser damage is done if (EnemyStrength >> 2) is less than
(HeroDefense >> 2 + 1).

Lesser damage:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$F008:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$F00B:A5 95     LDA \$0095
\$F00D:85 3C     STA \$003C    Put a random number at \$3C.
\$F00F:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$F011:85 3D     STA \$003D
\$F013:85 3F     STA \$003F
\$F015:20 C9 C1  JSR \$C1C9    Multiply the random number by \$3E.
\$F018:A5 41     LDA \$0041    Load the result / 256.
\$F01A:18        CLC
\$F01D:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store the result in \$3C.
\$F01F:A9 03     LDA #\$03
\$F021:85 3E     STA \$003E
\$F023:4C F0 C1  JMP \$C1F0    Divide \$3C by 3.

So the end result is floor(((((EnemyStrength >> 1 + 1) * RAND) >> 8) + 2) / 3).
That's fairly simplified, although it could also be expressed as:

floor((((EnemyStrength + 2) * RAND + 1024) >> 9) / 3)

Regular damage:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$F030:85 42     STA \$0042    Store the enemy's strength minus the halved hero's
defense at \$42.
\$F032:85 3E     STA \$003E    Also store it at \$3E.
\$F034:E6 3E     INC \$003E    Add 1 to \$3E.
\$F036:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$F039:A5 95     LDA \$0095
\$F03B:85 3C     STA \$003C    Put a random number at \$3C.
\$F03D:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$F03F:85 3D     STA \$003D
\$F041:85 3F     STA \$003F
\$F043:20 C9 C1  JSR \$C1C9    Multiply the random number by \$3E
\$F046:A5 41     LDA \$0041    Load the result / 256 and...
\$F048:18        CLC
\$F04B:6A        ROR
\$F04C:4A        LSR          Divide that result by 4.
\$F04D:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store the result at \$3C.
\$F04F:60        RTS

So the end result is (((EnemyStrength - (HeroDefense >> 1) + 1) * RAND) >> 8 +
EnemyStrength - (HeroDefense >> 1)) >> 2.  This can be simplified as:

((256 + RAND) * (EnemyStrength - (HeroDefense >> 1) + 1) - 256) >> 10

~Spells~

Spell      Damage done          Code location

HURT     : RAND & 0x07 + 0x03   \$EC2A
HURTMORE : RAND & 0x0F + 0x1E   \$EC5C

Both Magic Armor and Erdrick's Armor will reduce HURT spells:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$EC36:A5 BE     LDA \$00BE    Load the hero's equipment byte.
\$EC38:29 1C     AND #\$1C     Get bits 2-4, which is the armor.
\$EC3A:C9 1C     CMP #\$1C     Check if it's Erdrick's Armor.
\$EC3C:F0 04     BEQ \$EC42    If it is, branch.
\$EC3E:C9 18     CMP #\$18     Otherwise, check if it's Magic Armor.
\$EC40:D0 10     BNE \$EC52    If it is, continue.
\$EC42:A5 00     LDA \$0000    Load the HURT damage.
\$EC44:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store it at \$3C.
\$EC46:A9 03     LDA #\$03
\$EC48:85 3E     STA \$003E
\$EC4A:20 F0 C1  JSR \$C1F0    Divide the HURT damage by 3.
\$EC4D:A5 3C     LDA \$003C
\$EC4F:0A        ASL          Multiply the result by 2.
\$EC50:85 00     STA \$0000

It's divided by 3, the remainder is discarded, and that result is multiplied by
2.

SLEEP:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$EC99:A5 DF     LDA \$00DF    Load the byte that has the hero's sleep status.
\$EC9B:09 80     ORA #\$80     Set bit 7 to 1, which puts the hero to sleep.
\$EC9D:85 DF     STA \$00DF

SLEEP always puts you to sleep, and there is no resisting it.  Waking up from
sleep is a 50/50 chance:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E5D6:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$E5D9:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Get a random number.
\$E5DB:4A        LSR
\$E5DC:B0 07     BCS \$E5E5    If it's an odd number, proceed to wake up.
\$E5E5:A5 DF     LDA \$00DF    Load the byte that has the hero's sleep status.
\$E5E7:29 7F     AND #\$7F     Set bit 7 to 0, which wakes the hero up.
\$E5E9:85 DF     STA \$00DF

Because of the limitations of the random generator, it's not possible for sleep
to last on the hero for more than a set number of turns.  Per turn, the random
generator is run 4 times:

1. Check to see if the enemy does special move 1.  Since special move 1 is
SLEEP, it will not do this if you are sleeping.  So it automatically goes to
check 2.
2. Check to see if the enemy does special move 2.
3. If it does or doesn't do that move, it will run the random generator just
once to calculate damage.
4. The check to see if the hero wakes up.

The results of this are:

Turns asleep   Chance of being asleep that long
------------   --------------------------------

1              100.0%
2               50.0%
3               25.0%
4               12.5%
5               ~9.0%
6               ~3.1%
7               ~0.4%
8                0.0%

So the longest you could stay asleep would be 6 turns, although it is highly
unlikely.

There can actually be an extra random check added in there, and that is if the
enemy feels intimidated and wants to run.  This really shouldn't be of concern
since if you're a lot stronger than them, it shouldn't matter if you get
sleeplocked.  Regardless, these are the odds:

Turns asleep   Chance of being asleep that long
------------   --------------------------------

1              100.0%
2               62.5%
3              ~22.9%
4               ~9.0%
5               ~3.3%
6               ~3.1%
7               ~1.0%
8               ~0.6%
9               ~0.4%
10              ~0.2%
11              ~0.2%
12               0.0%

So the odds are much better in the initial rounds, but it has the capacity to
last 4 turns longer.  Again, it probably wouldn't matter much if you are
stronger than the enemy.

STOPSPELL has a 50/50 chance of working against you unless you are equipped
with Erdrick's Armor, in which case it won't work at all:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$EC70:A5 BE     LDA \$00BE    Load the hero's equipment byte.
\$EC72:29 1C     AND #\$1C     Get bits 2-4, which is the armor.
\$EC74:C9 1C     CMP #\$1C     Check if it's Erdrick's Armor.
\$EC76:F0 16     BEQ \$EC8E    If it is, STOPSPELL will not work.
\$EC78:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$EC7B:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Otherwise get a random number.
\$EC7D:4A        LSR
\$EC7E:90 0E     BCC \$EC8E    If it's an odd number, your spell is stopped.
\$EC80:A5 DF     LDA \$00DF    Load the byte with the hero's STOPSPELL status.
\$EC82:09 10     ORA #\$10     Set bit 4 to 1, which stops the hero's spell.
\$EC84:85 DF     STA \$00DF

Spell      HP recovered         Code location

HEAL     : RAND & 0x07 + 0x14   \$ECAD
HEALMORE : RAND & 0x0F + 0x55   \$ECD5

~Fire breath~

There are two types of fire breath.  Only the Dragonlord's second form has the
stronger breath.  The rest of the enemies that have breath attacks only have
the weaker type of breath.

Breath type     Damage done          Code location

Weak breath   : RAND & 0x07 + 0x10   \$ECED
Strong breath : RAND & 0x07 + 0x41   \$ECE1

The only thing that protects against fire breath is Erdrick's Armor, which
reduces the damage:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$ECFC:A5 BE     LDA \$00BE    Load the hero's equipment byte.
\$ECFE:29 1C     AND #\$1C     Get bits 2-4, which is the armor.
\$ED00:C9 1C     CMP #\$1C     Check if it's Erdrick's Armor.
\$ED02:D0 10     BNE \$ED14    If it's not, do regular damage.
\$ED04:A5 00     LDA \$0000
\$ED06:85 3C     STA \$003C
\$ED08:A9 03     LDA #\$03
\$ED0A:85 3E     STA \$003E
\$ED0C:20 F0 C1  JSR \$C1F0    Otherwise divide the fire damage by 3.
\$ED0F:A5 3C     LDA \$003C
\$ED11:0A        ASL          Multiply the result by 2.
\$ED12:85 00     STA \$0000

It's divided by 3, the remainder is discarded, and that result is multiplied by
2.

-=Hero attack formulas=-

~Attacks~

First, the initial values are loaded:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E60C:A5 CC     LDA \$00CC    Get the hero's attack power.
\$E60E:85 42     STA \$0042    Store it at \$42 for later.
\$E610:AD 01 01  LDA \$0101    Get the enemy's agility.
\$E613:85 43     STA \$0043    Store it at \$43 for later.
\$E615:A5 E0     LDA \$00E0    Get the enemy type.
\$E617:C9 26     CMP #\$26     Check if it's the Dragonlord...
\$E619:F0 36     BEQ \$E651
\$E61B:C9 27     CMP #\$27     ...in either form.
\$E61D:F0 32     BEQ \$E651

It branches to \$E651 in either case.  This is where it determines if you can
get an excellent move, and they aren't possible to achieve against the
Dragonlord.  So if the enemy is either form of the Dragonlord, it skips the
check.

Excellent move check:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E61F:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$E622:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Load a random number.
\$E624:29 1F     AND #\$1F     Limit that number to 0-31.
\$E626:D0 29     BNE \$E651

Just like above, it will branch to \$E651 if the random result is not 0.  If it
is, it will calculate the damage for a critical hit.

Excellent move damage:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E634:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$E637:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Load a random number.
\$E639:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store it at \$3C for later.
\$E63B:A5 CC     LDA \$00CC    Load the hero's attack power.
\$E63D:4A        LSR          Divide it by 2.
\$E63E:85 3E     STA \$003E    Put the result into \$3E.
\$E640:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$E642:85 3D     STA \$003D
\$E644:85 3F     STA \$003F
\$E646:20 C9 C1  JSR \$C1C9    Multiply the random number by the hero's attack >>
1.
\$E649:A5 CC     LDA \$00CC    Load the hero's attack power.
\$E64B:38        SEC
\$E64C:E5 41     SBC \$0041    Subtract our previous product / 256 from the
hero's attack power.

So the end result for damage is HeroAttack - ((RAND * (Hero attack >> 1)) >> 8)

Regular damage:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E651:20 E5 EF  JSR \$EFE5
\$EFE5:46 43     LSR \$0043    Divide the enemy agility by 2 for later.
\$EFE7:A5 42     LDA \$0042    Get the hero's attack power.
\$EFE9:38        SEC
\$EFEA:E5 43     SBC \$0043    Subtract the halved enemy agility from it.
\$EFEC:90 38     BCC \$F026    If it's less than 0, branch to calculate minimal
damage.
\$EFEE:C9 02     CMP #\$02     Otherwise check if it's 0 or 1.
\$EFF0:B0 3E     BCS \$F030    If not, it branches to calculate the rest of
regular damage.
\$EFF2:90 32     BCC \$F026    If so, it branches to calculate minimal damage.
\$F030:85 42     STA \$0042    Store HeroAttack - (EnemyAgility >> 1) at \$42.
\$F032:85 3E     STA \$003E    Store the same number at \$3E.
\$F034:E6 3E     INC \$003E    Add 1 to \$3E.
\$F036:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$F039:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Loads a random number.
\$F03B:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store it at \$3C.
\$F03D:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$F03F:85 3D     STA \$003D
\$F041:85 3F     STA \$003F
\$F043:20 C9 C1  JSR \$C1C9    Multiply the random number by \$3E (Heroattack -
(EnemyAgility >> 1)).
\$F046:A5 41     LDA \$0041    Load the result / 256.
\$F048:18        CLC
\$F049:65 42     ADC \$0042    Add that to HeroAttack - (EnemyAgility >> 1).
\$F04B:6A        ROR
\$F04C:4A        LSR          Then divide that result by 4.
\$F04D:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store the result at \$3C.
\$F04F:60        RTS

So the end result for damage is:

(((HeroAttack - (EnemyAgility >> 1)) * RAND) >> 8 + HeroAttack - (EnemyAgility
>> 1)) >> 2

This can be simplified as:

((RAND + 256) * (HeroAttack - (EnemyAgility >> 1))) >> 10

For the minimal damage, it may seem like the checks are redundant, but one is
for numbers less than 0, and the other is for simply 0 and 1.  This is just a
limitation of the programming.  Minimal damage is:

Minimal damage:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$F026:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$F029:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Load a random number.
\$F02B:29 01     AND #\$01     Limits that number to 0 or 1.
\$F02D:85 3C     STA \$003C    Stores the result in \$3C for later.
\$F02F:60        RTS

The result is 0 or 1 damage.

~Spells~

Spell      Damage done          Code location

HURT     : RAND & 0x07 + 0x05   \$E744
HURTMORE : RAND & 0x07 + 0x3A   \$E75F

-=Running=-

Every turn the enemy checks to see if it will run, even before the hero gets
off a turn.  Here's how it decides to run:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$EFB7:A5 C8     LDA \$00C8    Load the hero's strength.
\$EFB9:4A        LSR          Divide it by 2.
\$EFBA:CD 00 01  CMP \$0100    Compare to the enemy's strength.
\$EFBD:90 25     BCC \$EFE4    If it's less, then continue to fight.
\$EFBF:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$EFC2:A5 95     LDA \$0095    Otherwise get a random number.
\$EFC4:29 03     AND #\$03     Limit that number to 0-3.
\$EFC6:D0 1C     BNE \$EFE4    If it's 0, then the enemy will run away.

Chances of the hero running:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$EE91:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$EE94:A5 E0     LDA \$00E0    Load the current enemy.
\$EE96:C9 23     CMP #\$23     Compare its ID to 0x23.
\$EE98:90 05     BCC \$EE9F
\$EE9A:A5 95     LDA \$0095    If it's greater or equal to 0x23, use a plain
\$EE9C:4C C7 EE  JMP \$EEC7    random number 0-255.
\$EE9F:C9 1E     CMP #\$1E     Otherwise if it's greater or equal to 0x1E...
\$EEA1:90 07     BCC \$EEAA
\$EEA3:A5 95     LDA \$0095
\$EEA5:29 7F     AND #\$7F     ...use a random number limited to 0-127.
\$EEA7:4C C7 EE  JMP \$EEC7
\$EEAA:C9 14     CMP #\$14     Otherwise if it's greater or equal to 0x14...
\$EEAC:90 12     BCC \$EEC0
\$EEAE:A5 95     LDA \$0095
\$EEB0:29 3F     AND #\$3F
\$EEB2:85 3E     STA \$003E    ...put a random number limited to 0-63 at \$3E.
\$EEB4:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$EEB7:A5 95     LDA \$0095
\$EEB9:29 1F     AND #\$1F
\$EEBB:65 3E     ADC \$003E    Add another random number limited to 0-31 to \$3E.
\$EEBD:4C C7 EE  JMP \$EEC7    This effectively makes the random number 0-94.
\$EEC0:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$EEC3:A5 95     LDA \$0095    If the enemyID is less than 0x14, load a random
\$EEC5:29 3F     AND #\$3F     number and limit it to 0-63.
\$EEC7:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store whatever the limited random number is at \$3C
\$EECC:85 3E     STA \$003E    Store it at \$3E.
\$EECE:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$EED0:85 3D     STA \$003D
\$EED2:85 3F     STA \$003F
\$EED4:20 C9 C1  JSR \$C1C9    Multiply the random number by the enemy's strength
\$EED7:A5 40     LDA \$0040
\$EED9:85 42     STA \$0042
\$EEDB:A5 41     LDA \$0041
\$EEDD:85 43     STA \$0043    Store the double byte \$4041 at \$4243.
\$EEDF:20 5B C5  JSR \$C55B
\$EEE2:A5 95     LDA \$0095
\$EEE4:85 3C     STA \$003C    Put a random number at \$3C.
\$EEE6:A5 C9     LDA \$00C9    Load the hero's agility.
\$EEE8:85 3E     STA \$003E
\$EEEA:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$EEEC:85 3D     STA \$003D
\$EEEE:85 3F     STA \$003F
\$EEF0:20 C9 C1  JSR \$C1C9    Multiply the random number by the hero's agility.
\$EEF3:A5 40     LDA \$0040
\$EEF5:38        SEC
\$EEF6:E5 42     SBC \$0042
\$EEF8:A5 41     LDA \$0041
\$EEFA:E5 43     SBC \$0043    Subtract the product \$4041 from \$4243.
\$EEFC:60        RTS
\$E89B:B0 07     BCS \$E8A4    If the result is less than 0, the attempt to flee
is successful.

Essentially the harder enemies get, the better the chances that they'll have of
blocking you.

Here are the conditionals for being blocked:

Group 1 (0x00-0x13): (EnemyAgility * (RAND >> 2)) > (HeroAgility * RAND)
Group 2 (0x04-0x1D): (EnemyAgility * ((RAND >> 2) + (RAND >> 3))) >
(HeroAgility * RAND)
Group 3 (0x1E-0x22): (EnemyAgility * RAND) >> 1 > (HeroAgility * RAND)
Group 4 (0x23-0x27): (EnemyAgility * RAND) > (HeroAgility * RAND)

The only condition where running always works is if the enemy is asleep:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E894:24 DF     BIT \$00DF    Get bit 6 of \$DF, which is if the enemy is asleep.
\$E896:70 0C     BVS \$E8A4    If he's asleep, running is successful.

-=Initiative=-

This is the same equation as running from enemies in Group 1 (\$EEC0), except
instead of the hero being blocked, the enemy will go first.

*************************
C. Chests
*************************

Each chest type has an ID that corresponds to what treasure is inside.

Chest ID   Chest location         Contents                    Code location
--------   --------------------   -------------------------   -------------

02   Charlock B7 (x2)       Herb                        \$E248
Garinham back room
Grave of Garinham B1
Mountain Cave B1
03   Charlock B7            Magic Key                   \$E226
Tantegel throne room
04   Garinham back room     Torch                       \$E26C
Mountain cave B2
Tantegel throne room
05
06   Charlock B7            Wings                       \$E242
Rimuldar
09   Mountain Cave B2       Fighter's Ring              \$E26C
0C   Charlock B7            Cursed Belt                 \$E26C
Grave of Garinham B3
0D   Grave of Garinham B3   Silver Harp                 \$E2B9
0E   Mountain Cave B2       0x05 + (RAND & 0x0F) Gold   \$E250
or 1/32 chance for the
Death Necklace (but only
one can be acquired).
0F   Tantegel basement      Stones of Sunlight          \$E2DB
10   Shrine west of Kol     Staff of Rain               \$E26C
11   Charlock B2            Erdrick's Sword             \$E297
12   Garinham B1            0x05 + (RAND & 0x0F) Gold   \$E2F1
13   Garinham B1            0x06 + (RAND & 0x07) Gold   \$E303
Tantegel treasury (x4)
14   Garinham back room     0x0A + (RAND & 0x07) Gold   \$E315
Mountain Cave B2
15   Charlock B7            0x1F4 + RAND Gold           \$E327
16   Tantegel throne room   120 Gold                    \$E339
17   Erdrick's Cave B2      Erdrick's Tablet            \$E3C5

Notice that several of the locations refer to \$E26C.  This code takes the chest
ID and subtracts 3 from it to determine what item you should get.

Also, it would seem that various IDs are missing, but were never intended to be
found in chests.  Some of the same algorithms work with buying and receiving
items.

-=The treasure chest bug=-

The code for opening a treasure chest:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E209:A5 3A     LDA \$003A    Load the hero's x position.
\$E20B:D9 21 03  CMP \$0321,Y  Check if that x position contains treasure.
\$E20E:D0 07     BNE \$E217
\$E210:A5 3B     LDA \$003B    If it does, load the hero's y position.
\$E212:D9 22 03  CMP \$0322,Y  Check if that y position contains treasure.
\$E215:F0 0A     BEQ \$E221
\$E221:B9 23 03  LDA \$0323,Y  If it does, load the treasure ID.
\$E224:85 DE     STA \$00DE    Store it at \$DE.

So instead of checking if the actual sprite behind the hero is a treasure chest
, it looks to see if that is a valid position for treasure.  We will see why
this is prone to be buggy in a bit.  After the above code it starts checking
which treasure to give you, which we'll skip here.  Instead we'll move to right
after that where that position is added to an array of coordinates:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$E39A:A2 00     LDX #\$00     Set the pointer to the start of the array.
\$E39C:BD 1C 60  LDA \$601C,X  Check if the first slot is empty.
\$E39F:1D 1D 60  ORA \$601D,X  Also check if the second slot is empty.
\$E3A2:F0 07     BEQ \$E3AB    If they are full, then branch.
\$E3A4:E8        INX
\$E3A5:E8        INX          Otherwise add 2 to the pointer.
\$E3A6:E0 10     CPX #\$10     If the pointer is greater than or equal to the
\$E3A8:D0 F2     BNE \$E39C    size of the array, then the checking is complete.
\$E3AA:60        RTS          Otherwise repeat the search for an empty slot.
\$E3AB:A5 3A     LDA \$003A    If an empty slot was found, load the x coordinate
\$E3AD:9D 1C 60  STA \$601C,X  into it.
\$E3B0:A5 3B     LDA \$003B    And load the y coordinate into the next slot.
\$E3B2:9D 1D 60  STA \$601D,X

The problem here comes if the array is full.  If the array is full, the
coordinates of the current chest won't be stored there and consequently you'd
be able to keep opening that chest.  The programmers thought they got around
this with various methods.  They made sure that no dungeon would contain more
chests than could fit into the array, which would be 8.  And whenever you
entered or exited a town or dungeon, the array was always wiped.  What they
didn't foresee was to clear the array when you die.  So you could go into a
dungeon, collect treasure chests, die, and wake up in the castle with that
array still full.  On top of that, every time you start off in the throne room
of Tantegel, it automatically fills the last 3 positions of the array so that
you aren't able to pick up the initial 3 treasures anymore.  It doesn't matter
that you can't see the chests because as previously mentioned, seeing them
doesn't matter.  It's the array of coordinates that matter.  So if you get
enough chests in a cave (2 minimum), die, and raid the treasury in Tantegel,
you will come upon a chest that never disappears.  All because that coordinate
can never be stored in that full array.

*************************
D. Name choice and stats
*************************

The algorithm for figuring out stats in relation to your name.  This loads the
base values for the four main stats plus which spells you will have at that
level:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$99C0:A4 3C     LDY \$003C
\$99C2:B1 22     LDA (\$22),Y  Get the strength value.
\$99C4:85 C8     STA \$00C8    Store it.
\$99C6:C8        INY          Increment the pointer.
\$99C7:B1 22     LDA (\$22),Y  Get the agility value.
\$99C9:85 C9     STA \$00C9    Store it.
\$99CB:C8        INY          Increment the pointer.
\$99CC:B1 22     LDA (\$22),Y  Get the max HP value.
\$99CE:85 CA     STA \$00CA    Store it.
\$99D0:C8        INY          Increment the pointer.
\$99D1:B1 22     LDA (\$22),Y  Get the max MP value.
\$99D3:85 CB     STA \$00CB    Store it.
\$99D5:C8        INY          Increment the pointer.
\$99D6:B1 22     LDA (\$22),Y  Get the higher level spells.
\$99D8:05 CF     ORA \$00CF
\$99DA:85 CF     STA \$00CF    Store it in bits 0 and 1 of \$CF.
\$99DC:C8        INY          Increment the pointer.
\$99DD:B1 22     LDA (\$22),Y  Get the lower level spells.
\$99DF:85 CE     STA \$00CE    Store it at \$CE.

Later, the value of each of the first four letters of your name is added up:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$F085:A2 04     LDX #\$04     Set the pointer to 4.
\$F087:A9 00     LDA #\$00     Set the sum to 0.
\$F089:18        CLC
\$F08A:7D B4 00  ADC \$00B4,X  Add the value of \$B4 offset by the pointer to the
sum.
\$F08D:CA        DEX          Subtract 1 from the pointer.
\$F08E:D0 F9     BNE \$F089    If it's 0, continue.

Decide from that sum which attributes will be limited:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$F090:85 42     STA \$0042    Store the sum of the letters at \$42.
\$F092:29 03     AND #\$03     Get bits 0 and 1 of the sum.
\$F094:85 43     STA \$0043    Store that at \$43.
\$F096:A5 42     LDA \$0042    Load the sum.
\$F098:4A        LSR
\$F099:4A        LSR          Divide it by 4.
\$F09A:29 03     AND #\$03     Get bits 0 and 1 of the result.
\$F09C:85 42     STA \$0042    Store that at \$42.
\$F09E:A5 43     LDA \$0043    Load \$43 (bits 0 and 1 of the sum).
\$F0A0:4A        LSR
\$F0A3:A5 C8     LDA \$00C8    If it's an even number, limit the strength.
\$F0A5:20 0C F1  JSR \$F10C
\$F0A8:85 C8     STA \$00C8
\$F0AA:4C B6 F0  JMP \$F0B6
\$F0AD:A5 CB     LDA \$00CB    If it's an odd number, limit the MP.
\$F0AF:F0 05     BEQ \$F0B6
\$F0B1:20 0C F1  JSR \$F10C
\$F0B4:85 CB     STA \$00CB
\$F0B6:A5 43     LDA \$0043    Load \$43 (bits 0 and 1 of the sum).
\$F0B8:29 02     AND #\$02     Get just bit 1.
\$F0BA:D0 0A     BNE \$F0C6    If bit 1 of the sum is 0, limit the agility.
\$F0BC:A5 C9     LDA \$00C9
\$F0BE:20 0C F1  JSR \$F10C
\$F0C1:85 C9     STA \$00C9
\$F0C3:4C CD F0  JMP \$F0CD
\$F0C6:A5 CA     LDA \$00CA    If bit 1 of the sum is 1, limit the HP.
\$F0C8:20 0C F1  JSR \$F10C
\$F0CB:85 CA     STA \$00CA

The limiting of the attributes:

The code                     What it does
-------------------------    --------------------------------------------------

\$F10C:85 3C     STA \$003C    Store the current attribute at \$3C.
\$F10E:A9 09     LDA #\$09
\$F110:85 3E     STA \$003E
\$F112:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$F114:85 3D     STA \$003D
\$F116:85 3F     STA \$003F
\$F118:20 C9 C1  JSR \$C1C9    Multiply the attribute by 9.
\$F11B:A5 40     LDA \$0040
\$F11D:85 3C     STA \$003C
\$F11F:A5 41     LDA \$0041
\$F121:85 3D     STA \$003D    Store the result in the double byte \$3C3D.
\$F123:A9 0A     LDA #\$0A
\$F125:85 3E     STA \$003E
\$F127:A9 00     LDA #\$00
\$F129:85 3F     STA \$003F
\$F12B:20 F4 C1  JSR \$C1F4    Divide the result by 10.
\$F12E:A5 3C     LDA \$003C
\$F130:18        CLC          Take that result and add it to \$42, which is now
\$F131:65 42     ADC \$0042    bits 2 and 3 of the original sum.

So in general, the best sums are those where bits 2 and 3 are both 1.  Bit 0 of
the sum determines if it will be long term strength or long term MP.  Bit 1 of
the sum determines if it will be long term agility or long term HP.

*******************************************************************************
* IV. Frequently Asked Questions                                              *
*******************************************************************************

Q: What is the best way to contact you?
A: I read the gamefaqs.com forum for Dragon Warrior fairly often.  I seldom
check my e-mail.

Q: Will you ever figure out formulas for other games like the rest of the
Dragon Warrior series or other RPGs?
A: I never say never, but I have no plans in the immediate future.

Q: What does the Fighter's Ring do?
A: It has no meaningful purpose.  It only changes what a single townsperson
says.  Don't pay any attention to websites, FAQs, or even original manuals
that say otherwise.  They all just assumed that it had a function and made a
sloppy guess that has carried on for some time.

Q: Does the Silver Harp have any other effects depending on your location?
A: Nope.  It always summons the same lame group of enemies.

Q: Is there a limit to how long enemies can be asleep?
A: No.  The reason the hero's nap time is limited is because the limited random
generator produces distinct patterns when run consecutively.  If you sit by
idly while waiting to make a command, the random generator is run 60 times
per second.  This effectively makes it a time-based random, which can result
in any outcome.  Tool-assisted speedruns have taken advantage of this.

Q: Is it possible to get in an encounter the first step after battle?
A: Yes.  There is no counter, so theoretically you could have infinte
encounters in a row.  This is actually used in various tool-assisted speed
runs to level up quickly.```

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