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Version: 1.00 | Updated: 10/06/15

Mahjong Taikai (PSP) Guide - Ver. 1.00 - 2 Oct 2015 - by Barticle at hotmail.com
   _________  _________  _________  _________  _________  _________  _________
  /________/|/________/|/________/|/________/|/________/|/________/|/________/|
 |  _   _  ||   ___   ||  _   _  ||  _____  ||   ___   ||  _   _  ||  _____  ||
 | | \ / | ||  / _ \  || | | | | || (_   _) ||  / _ \  || | \ | | || |  ___) ||
 | |  V  | || | |_| | || | |_| | ||   | |   || | | | | || |  \| | || | |     ||
 | |     | || |  _  | || |  _  | ||   | |   || | | | | || |     | || | |  _  ||
 | | |V| | || | | | | || | | | | ||  _| |   || | |_| | || | |\  | || | |_| | ||
 | |_| |_| || |_| |_| || |_| |_| || (___/   ||  \___/  || |_| \_| || |_____| ||
 |_________||_________||_________||_________||_________||_________||_________|/
        _________  _________  _________  _________  _________  _________
       /________/|/________/|/________/|/________/|/________/|/________/|
      | _______ ||   ___   ||  _____  ||  _   _  ||   ___   ||  _____  ||
      |(__   __)||  / _ \  || (_   _) || | | / / ||  / _ \  || (_   _) ||
      |   | |   || | |_| | ||   | |   || | |/ /  || | |_| | ||   | |   ||
      |   | |   || |  _  | ||   | |   || |   (   || |  _  | ||   | |   ||
      |   | |   || | | | | ||  _| |_  || | |\ \  || | | | | ||  _| |_  ||
      |   |_|   || |_| |_| || (_____) || |_| \_\ || |_| |_| || (_____) ||
      |_________||_________||_________||_________||_________||_________|/

 01 INTRODUCTION      05 GAMEPLAY          09 MULTIPLAYER     13 RULE OPTIONS
  02 FEATURE LIST      06 LEAGUE MODE       10 STATS           14 FINAL SCORES
   03 BEGINNING PLAY    07 FREE PLAY MODE    11 TUTORIAL        15 CONTACT
    04 MAIN MENU         08 RULE-SETS         12 GAME OPTIONS    16 THANKS

.------------------------------------------------------------------------------.
| To jump to any section of this document use your web browser's Find function |
| (with Ctrl+F on a PC or Cmd+F on a Mac probably) and search for the letter S |
| followed by the exact section number - for example "s05" to find Section 05. |
'------------------------------------------------------------------------------'

.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 01 | INTRODUCTION                                                s01 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

This is a guide to the 2004 Japanese video-game Mahjong Taikai for the Sony PSP,
part of the Mahjong Taikai* series that dates back to the NES original in 1989.

Elsewhere on GameFAQs you can find my 2009 guide to Mahjong Taikai IV (PS3), my
2011 guide to Mahjong Taikai (DS) and PublicDomain's guide to Mahjong Taikai
(NES) which has several contributions from me, as does Sean's guide to Mahjong
Taikai (Wii) which is available on his site at the following address:

                http://seansworld.scot/mahjong-taikai-wii-guide/

In conjunction with my original Mahjong Taikai IV guide I made a translation
chart (in .gif format) which you can use to translate some of the Japanese text
found in any version of the game. You can find it on GameFAQs here:

           http://www.gamefaqs.com/ps3/930074-mahjong-taikai-iv/faqs

As usual I've used both Japanese and English mahjong terminology throughout this
guide, generally with the Japanese term first and the common English equivalent
afterwards in brackets. Following ninety years of tradition in English-language
mahjong texts I refer to the three types of set as Chow (a run or sequence of
three tiles in the same suit), Pung (a "triplet" of three identical tiles) and
Kong (a "quad" of four identical tiles).

As with any Japanese mahjong game, you'll need to be able to read the Japanese
kanji characters for the numbers 1 to 9 and the four winds (compass directions)
plus the katakana words Chii, Pon, Kan, Riichi, Tsumo and Ron.

To limit the length of this document I've decided to omit full details of the
rules and equipment of mahjong on the assumption that anyone buying this game
will probably already be familiar with them. If you are new to the game, or you
play a version other than the modern Japanese "Riichi" rules that appear in this
game, then you might like to read my complete guide to the terminology and rules
of Japanese mahjong. It's available as a 78-page, illustrated, hyperlinked PDF
and can be accessed from the United States Pro Mahjong League download page.

  http://www.uspml.com/site/downloads.htm  (Barticle's Japanese Mahjong Guide)

If you want to discuss Japanese mahjong then join the international community of
enthusiasts on Reach Mahjong's English forums. Hope to see you there. :)

                    http://www.reachmahjong.com/en/forum

If you found this guide useful you can show your support by using the recommend
function. If you have any feedback (especially suggestions for additions or
improvements) then please feel free to contact me via email or GameFAQs message.

This guide is designed to be viewed using a monospaced (non-proportional or
fixed-width) font, preferably Courier New. Some sections of the document will
display incorrectly if you are using a proportional font like Times New Roman.

*The Japanese word Taikai in the title means "tournament" or "convention".


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 02 | FEATURE LIST                                                s02 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Since it can be difficult to find any detailed information in English about the
content of a foreign game I like to include a quick description of the gameplay
features when I write a guide for a Japanese game - so here it is!

o League mode (see Section 06)

o Free Play mode (see Section 07) with fixed or custom rule-sets

o local multiplayer for 2 to 4 players but no online play

o save slots for two users

o modern Japanese mahjong rules including Riichi, Dora and tiered limits

o staggering range of 41 rule options (see Section 13) but no Red Fives

o complete breakdown of Fu (minipoints) on score screen

o extensive stats log (see Section 10) but no Yaku counts

o tile checker (see Section 12) shows which tiles are potentially safe discards

o no Furiten or Dora alerts and no waits indicator

o comprehensive illustrated tutorial with quizzes and glossary of terminology

o CERO rated "A" (all ages)

o 20-page full colour manual

o Japanese language only

The most interesting feature of the game is easily the massive choice of exotic
rule options available; the different rule-sets add variety to League mode too.

The contents of this game are fairly similar to Mahjong Taikai DS which was
released just three weeks earlier. They both feature League and Free Play modes
and they have the same rule options and rule-sets. The PSP version lacks the
Survival mode but it has an enhanced tutorial with illustrations and tests. It
also has different options, menus, stats layouts and controls.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03 | BEGINNING PLAY                                              s03 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

As a space princess once said, a beginning is a very delicate time. This section
guides you through the crucial process of starting the game for the first time.

The title screen invites you to "Press Start Button" - the rest of the game is
in Japanese so enjoy that little bit of English text while it lasts!

The next screen gives you the following three options:

                           .------------------------.
                           |     Continue Game      |
                           '------------------------'
                           .------------------------.
                           |       Start Game       |
                           '------------------------'
                           .------------------------.
                           |  Controls Explanation  |
                           '------------------------'

As usual in a Japanese Playstation game you will be using the Circle button to
confirm and the Cross button to cancel throughout (except when you press the PS
button to close the game). Pick the middle option here to continue.

Next pick one of the two available save slots - the game supports save profiles
for two separate users. Pick one with d-pad up/down (pale grey is the highlight
colour btw!) and press Circle to proceed.

After an introductory cut-scene you'll need to enter your user-name. This can be
up to eight characters long - unusually generous for a Japanese game! You can
select Hiragana characters (representing Japanese syllables) or English letters
from the on-screen keyboard. 

- When you select a Hiragana you get to pick from a new list at the bottom of
  the screen which shows Hiragana and Katakana variants including ones modified
  by diacritic marks, for example He, Be and Pe. It also gives a long list of
  any Kanji characters that start with those sounds (press down for more).

- When you select an English letter you can choose upper or lower case.

- When you select "?" you can pick from punctuation marks, mathematical symbols,
  numbers, shapes and other characters (press down for more).

Press Circle to pick a character or Cross to delete one. Use the top option to
backspace, the second option to add a space and the third option to confirm. The
game will then prompt you to accept your name - pick the left option (Yes).

After another cut-scene you'll find yourself looking at the main menu.

(The next time you launch the game you can use the Continue Game option to load
your progress. For each active data file the game will display the player name
and League mode information: the number of their current season, the name of the
current stage and the number of matches already completed in that stage.)


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 04 | MAIN MENU                                                   s04 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

The main menu has the following six options:

                  .------------------------.
                  |      League Mode       | - see Section 06
                  '------------------------'
                  .------------------------.
                  |     Free Play Mode     | - see Section 07
                  '------------------------'
                  .------------------------.
                  |       Multiplayer      | - see Section 09
                  '------------------------'
                  .------------------------.
                  |       Statistics       | - see Section 10
                  '------------------------'
                  .------------------------.
                  |        Tutorial        | - see Section 11
                  '------------------------'
                  .------------------------.
                  |      Game Options      | - see Section 12
                  '------------------------'

Pick one with d-pad up/down and press the Circle button to confirm.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 05 | GAMEPLAY                                                    s05 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

This section describes the process of playing mahjong in either game mode.

You're always shown the rule options before a match. In some cases you can make
changes to some or all of these, then pick the bottom-right option to continue.

                                   Game Screen
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
During play the main body of the screen represents the virtual tabletop. Your
opponents' hands and melded sets are shown around the left, top and right sides
of the screen and the dead wall is shown to the right of centre.

The blue rectangle is the round-wind marker, showing east or south. It's placed
in front of the first player to be dealer and stays there. (If you play a match
with the Ton-Ton (east east) rule option the marker will still show south in the
second round as usual.)

The two dice are always positioned to the front and right of the current dealer
so you can use these to determine all four players' seat-winds (E-S-W-N working
counter-clockwise). They also show the dice roll that was used to break the wall
which is significant to the Wareme rule option (see rule 2.14 in Section 13).

Each player's discard tiles are presented in traditional rows of six.

The image on the green tabletop in Free Play mode and in stage 1 of League mode
appears to be Gaudi's Sagrada Familia in Barcelona.

                                    Side-Bar
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The bar down the left side of the screen shows a lot of useful information and
is also used for all calls and declarations during play.

.-----.
| *-# | a. This is the hand counter so it'll show East 1, South 3, etc.
:-----:
| *&  | b. The first of the two characters here is your current seat-wind.
:-----:
| = 8 | c. This is the number of Riichi sticks on the table and the Honba count.
:-----:
| #69 | d. This is the number of tiles remaining to be drawn from the live wall.
'-----'
.-----.
| []/ | 1. Ron/Tsumo - declare a win
:-----:
| +-- | 2. Chii - call a tile to make a Chow set
:-----:
| /\/ | 3. Pon - call a tile to make a Pung set
:-----:
| H-/ | 4. Riichi - declare Riichi with a concealed Tenpai (ready) hand
:-----:
| |7/ | 5. Kan* - call a tile to make a Kong set or declare a Kong set
:-----:
| $%# | 6. Kyanseru - cancel
'-----'

Since each command is always shown on the same row it would actually be possible
to play the game without being able to read the Katakana labels used here.

*If your initial hand has nine or more different terminals (ones and nines) and
honours (winds and dragons) then you can use the "Taosu" command which appears
here temporarily to declare a Kyuu Shu Kyuu Hai abortive draw.

                                    Controls
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Press X to Jason. Sorry, wrong game! :)

Remember to use Circle to confirm and Cross to cancel on all game menus.

Since the PSP lacks a touchscreen most of the other controls are quite different
to the Nintendo DS version of Mahjong Taikai.

 d-pad left/right - move cursor to select tile

       d-pad down - access side-bar when any commands are available

    d-pad up/down - select commands on side-bar (rows 1-6)

                    Available commands are always coloured bronze and the one
                    that's currently selected will be flashing.

       thumbstick - not used

    Circle button - discard tile / confirm side-bar command

                    Tiles are discarded with a single button press so make sure
                    you have the right one highlighted.

                    When you declare Riichi the game will do this immediately
                    after you press the button to confirm. Therefore you must
                    select the tile you want to discard (using d-pad left/right)
                    *before* you press Circle on the Riichi command.

                    The same will also apply sometimes when calling Chii if you
                    have a choice of tiles in your hand to use, for example if
                    you hold 346 and are calling 5 - you should select either 34
                    or 46 before you press Circle.

     Cross button - exit side-bar / cancel pop-up window

                    The default option on the side-bar menu is always "cancel"
                    so you can also exit it by pressing Circle.

  Triangle button - display rule options

                    This displays a pop-up window showing the rule options which
                    are applied in the current rule-set. These are shown in the
                    usual three-page layout (see Section 13).

                    You can highlight a rule option and press Triangle for a
                    short description of it.

    Square button - display dangerous/safe tiles (if this option is enabled)

                    This displays a pop-up window which can be used to check
                    which tiles are potentially safer discards (see Section 12).

    Select button - display controls

                    This displays a pop-up window showing the button functions.

     Start button - display game options

                    This displays a pop-up window with the eight option settings
                    (see Section 12). These can all be changed during play.

                    Highlight the bottom option and press Circle to close.

         R button - display player panels

                    The four panels have the following layout:
                                        _________________
                            side-bet - |___|_____________| - player name
                     Yakitori marker - |____|____________| - current points
                               chips - |____|____________| - gained/lost points
 
                    If you've placed a Sashiuma (side-bet) in League mode the
                    text here indicates which player you're competing against.

                    If you're playing with the Yakitori rule (see Section 13) a
                    brown "roast bird" icon here indicates any player that has
                    not won a hand in the current match.*

                    When playing with any of the five Tip rules (see Section 13)
                    each player's chip count will be shown in the bottom-left.

                    There is no marker for the Wareme rule (see Section 13).

                    During the first five stages of League mode (when all twelve
                    players play simultaneously over three tables) you can press
                    R again to cycle through the other two tables.

                    *If you're playing with the Phoenix variant then all the
                    markers here will be reset if all four players win hands.

         L button - display season/stage positions (League mode only)

                    This displays a pop-up window which shows all twelve players
                    in their current league positions. Use d-pad left/right to
                    toggle between the season (left) and stage (right) rankings.

                                  Score Screen
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
After a win is declared the game shows a breakdown of the score as follows:
                         ___  ___           ___________
 hand/Honba counts -->  |___||___|         |___________|  <-- hand winner's name
                         ________  ________  ________
              Yaku -->  |________||________||________|    <-- Dora
 (with Han values)                                            (with Han values)

                        [][] [][][] [][][] [][][] [][][]  <-- winning hand
  Fu for pair/sets -->   0#    0#     0#     4#     4#    
                         ___  ___                ______
  total Fu and Han -->  |___||___|    (limit)   |______|  <-- 20 Fu for winning
     Riichi sticks -->   __________  ______     |______|  <-- Fu for Ron/Tsumo
payments and value -->  |__________||______|    |______|  <-- Fu for wait type

The top row shows the hand count (e.g. East 1 or South 3), the number of Honba
counters on the table and the name of the player that declared the win.

Directly below that is a list of all the Yaku (scoring elements) for which the
hand qualifies and if the hand contained any Dora bonus tiles these will always
be counted in the final box here. The Han (doubles) values of the Yaku/Dora are
shown in each box.

Next the game shows the winning hand with the winning tile flashing in red. The
numbers below the tiles show the Fu (minipoints) value of each set and the pair.
Any Dora will be indicated with text above the tiles - normal Dora and Kan Dora
in white and Ura Dora and Kan Ura Dora in red.

The two boxes on the left below the tiles give the total Fu (after rounding up)
and the total Han for the hand (summed for all Yaku and Dora). Underneath those
will be the number of Riichi sticks (if any) that the winner collected.

In the bottom-right the game shows the fixed 20 Fu for winning a hand and any
other Fu bonuses, i.e. 2 Fu for winning by Tsumo (with a tile you drew), 10 Fu
for winning on a concealed hand by Ron (with a discard) and 2 Fu for winning on
a Penchan (edge wait), Kanchan (centre wait) or Tanki (pair wait).

If the hand is capped at one of the limits (Mangan, Haneman, etc) this will be
shown with two large Kanji characters in the centre.

Finally at the bottom-left the game shows the value of the hand both as the
individual payments and the total points. These values do not include any points
from Honba or Riichi stakes (or the doubling effect of the Wareme rule).

If necessary you can use my PDF mahjong guide (see Section 01) for reference
when reading the names of the Yaku and limits.

If you're playing with any of the Tips rules (see 2.16 to 3.04 in Section 13)
the game will show pop-up windows to check individually for each that applies
and then show the total number of chips won in tabular form as follows:

                               1. Yakitori chips
                               2. Arisu chips
                               3. Ippatsu chips
                               4. Ura Dora chips


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 06 | LEAGUE MODE                                                 s06 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

The primary campaign mode in the game is League mode, launched from the top
option on the main menu. Here you play in a league against eleven opponents.

You play through a series of seasons, each season consists of five stages and
each stage is composed of five matches. Whenever you play a match the remaining
eight characters also play on the second and third tables in the same round.

Each of the five named stages is played with a different rule-set - these are
five of the eight rule-sets (see Section 08) available in Free Play mode.

        .-----.--------------------.----------------------------------.
        | No. |  Stage             |  Rule-Set                        |
        :=====+====================+==================================:
        |  1  |  Frontier          |  Hyoujin (standard)              |
        :-----+--------------------+----------------------------------:
        |  2  |  Palm              |  Ton-Puu (east wind)             |
        :-----+--------------------+----------------------------------:
        |  3  |  "Ruurii" (?)      |  Hokkaido (north island)         |
        :-----+--------------------+----------------------------------:
        |  4  |  Poseidon          |  Jiyuu Settei (custom settings)  |
        :-----+--------------------+----------------------------------:
        |  5  |  "Purantiiku" (?)  |  Infure (inflation)              |
        '-----'--------------------'----------------------------------'

If you've unlocked at least one of the six extra ones the game will ask you to
select one of seven different coloured tile-sets to use (see Section 10).

At the start of each match you're given the option to make a Sashiuma (side-bet)
with one of your three opponents. When you're shown the four player names pick
the left option (Yes) if you want to make a bet, pick one of the three opponents
and then use the left option again to confirm. The player you selected will be
indicated by the two Kanji characters "Sa" and "Uma" in the top-left corner of
their player panel when you press R. In the final score reckoning (see Section
14) the player with the higher score will receive 10,000 pts from the other.
                                       __

Each player's points total at the end of a match is converted into the final
scores format and added to their cumulative total which will persist across all
the stages of the current season. Since the four final scores from a match will
always sum to zero, the same is also true of the player totals in the league.

After each match you're shown the outcome of that round. Your table is shown at
the top and you can press d-pad up/down to toggle between the second and third
tables in the bottom half of the screen. The green columns show each player's
final score and the blue columns show their current league positions (1-12).

The next screen shows all twelve competitors ranked by their cumulative total
scores. You can press d-pad left/right to switch between overall season rankings
(left button highlighted) or current stage rankings (right button highlighted).

Finally the game will give you the following three options:

                           .------------------------.
                           |          Save          |
                           '------------------------'
                           .------------------------.
                           |     Continue Play      |
                           '------------------------'
                           .------------------------.
                           |        Main Menu       |
                           '------------------------'

If you pick the top option to save you'll need to select the left option (Yes)
twice to confirm and then press Cross after the save is complete.

Pick the middle option to go straight into your next league match.

If you pick the bottom option you'll be prompted to save even if you just saved
using the top one! Pick the right option (No) to continue without saving.
                                       __

After completing a stage (five matches) all twelve players are listed on a grey
league table in their final positions. If you're in 1st place you win two prizes
selected at random from the list of sixteen. Your prize collection can be viewed
in the stats pages (see Section 10). If you have not already unlocked them all,
you also get to choose one of the six bonus tile-sets (see Section 10 again).

You will be prompted to save (use the left options to confirm as usual) and then
you return to the main menu. The next time you play League mode you'll continue
onto the next stage - your cumulative score and overall league position will
always carry over between each stage within a season.
                                       __

After successfully completing the five standard stages of the season you can
progress onto the Saishuu Kessen ("final decisive battle") - it'll actually say
that temporarily on the main menu instead of the usual label for League mode.

The Century stage takes place in the exclusive VIP room. You play a series of
four matches, always against the same three new characters, using the Hyoujin
(standard) rule-set and your choice of tiles (from those you've unlocked).

The option to make a Sashiuma (side-bet) is not available during the finals.

Pressing the L button during play in this stage shows a new ranking table (you
will always be at the top). The first four columns represent the four matches -
the top number for each player is their score from that match and the second is
their current cumulative total after that match. In the final column the two
numbers are the player's current rank (1-4) and their overall cumulative total.

If you win the Century stage you get a congratulatory scene and then the credits
roll - you've beaten the game! No further prizes or tile-sets will be won in
this stage though. The next time you play League mode a new season will begin.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 07 | FREE PLAY MODE                                              s07 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Free Play mode is the second option off the main menu. Here you can play one-off
matches with your own choice of opponents and rules.

You start by picking three opponents from the roster of up to sixteen characters
available. After selecting three people pick the left option (Yes) to confirm.

(Initially the final five characters will be unavailable but you can unlock them
by playing League mode - I'm not sure if there are any unlock criteria but at
some point you get the first two and then you get the remaining three.)

Next you're required to select one of the following eight rule-sets. Several
are composed entirely of pre-defined options, others give you the freedom to set
some of the rules and the eighth one gives you total control over every rule.
  _________________   _________________   _________________   ________________
 |1                | |2                | |3                | |4               |
 |     Hyoujun     | |     Ton-Puu     | |    Hokkaido     | |     Bunya      |
 |   (standard)    | |   (east wind)   | | (north island)  | |   (reporter)   |
 |_________________| |_________________| |_________________| |________________|
  _________________   _________________   _________________   ________________
 |5                | |6                | |7                | |8               |
 |   Ba Shibari    | |     Kyougi      | |     Infure      | |  Jiyuu Settei  |
 |  (restriction)  | |    (contest)    | |   (inflation)   | |    (custom)    |
 |_________________| |_________________| |_________________| |________________|

   (see Section 08 below for descriptions of each of the available rule-sets)

After picking your rule-set the game will display all its rule options - those
coloured dark grey cannot be changed. Use L/R to cycle through the three pages.
Highlight a rule and press Triangle for an explanation of the rule or Circle to
cycle through the available settings if the rule can be amended. Then select the
option at the bottom-right corner of the screen to confirm and continue.

Finally, if you've unlocked at least one of the six extra ones in League mode,
the game will ask you to select which tile-set to use (see Section 10).
                                       __

At the end of each match the following three options will appear:

                           .------------------------.
                           |          Save          |
                           '------------------------'
                           .------------------------.
                           |     Continue Play      |
                           '------------------------'
                           .------------------------.
                           |        Main Menu       |
                           '------------------------'

If you pick the top option to save you'll need to select the left option (Yes)
twice to confirm and then press Cross after the save is complete.

When you pick the middle option you'll enter another match played with the same
rules and against the same three characters.

If you pick the bottom option you'll be prompted to save even if you just saved
using the top one! Pick the right option (No) to continue without saving.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 08 | RULE-SETS                                                   s08 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

There are eight rule-sets which each allow a different degree of customisation.

Five of them are used in League mode and all eight are available in Free Play.

1. Hyoujin  (standard)

   The basic rule-set uses the default setting for each rule (as indicated by
   asterisks in the rule listings in Section 13). No Uma payments are made after
   a match but the winner gets a 20k Oka bonus (30k buy-ins and 25k starts).

   Games are always played over two rounds (east and south).

   All rule settings are fixed.

2. Ton-Puu  (east wind)

   Games under this rule-set are played over a single (east) round, hence the
   name. Renchan (continuances) are only granted on a dealer win, the buy-in is
   30,000 pts and the starting scores are 25,000 pts (so the Oka bonus will be
   20k again) and Shaanyuu (extension to west round) is obviously not applied.

   The Uma payments are set at 10-20, the Yakitori rule is used with a penalty
   of 10, Toriuchi ("bird shooting") is permitted and exceptionally every Honba
   counter is worth 1,500 pts instead of the usual 300 pts.

   All other rules can be adjusted manually.

3. Hokkaido*  (north island)

   Evidently up north they favour Ton-Ton (a game of two east rounds), low 20k
   buy-in and 16k starts (therefore 16k Oka), no Shaanyuu rule and a penalty of
   30k for Dobon (bankruptcy) which is more likely with that low starting score.

   All other rules can be adjusted manually.

   *Hokkaido is the most northerly of the four main islands of Japan.

4. Bunya*  (reporter)

   Most significantly each game is played in an unusual format: the same single
   hand (East 1) is played and replayed until a player declares a winning hand
   at which point the match ends! Dobon (bankruptcy) is not applied.

   The buy-in is 30k and the starting score 24k (so the Oka bonus will be 24k).
   Ryan Han Shibari (Two-Han Minimum), Shaanyuu and Yakitori are not used but a
   10-30 Uma is applied so the match winner will pick up 54,000 pts in bonuses.

   All other rules can be adjusted manually.

   *Bunya is a contraction of the word Shinbunya (newspaper reporter).

5. Ba Shibari  (round restriction)

   The most distinctive feature here is that games are played with an extended
   form of the Ryan Han Shibari (Two-Han Minimum) rule option. With five or more
   counters on the table the usual two-Han minimum is applied, but additionally
   with ten or more counters there's a three-Han minimum and at fifteen or more
   the requirement is increased to four Han. Of course usually it's uncommon to
   see a high Honba count but a further rule modification here means that the
   number of counters is *not* reset to zero after a non-dealer win.

   Games are always played over two rounds (east and south).

   All other rules can be adjusted manually.

6. Kyougi  (contest)

   Ura Dora and Kan Dora bonus tiles, Ippatsu ("one-shot" win after Riichi),
   Dobon (bankruptcy) and Renhou ("human win" Yaku) are all disallowed. The
   starting score is 30,000 points so no Oka bonus is paid. Shiisanpuutaa (junk
   hand) and Daburu Yakuman (stacked limit-hands) are also not applied.

   Games are always played over two rounds (east and south).

   All rule settings are fixed.

7. Infure*  (inflation)

   As the name suggests, there's the potential to win (or lose) big points here.
   The buy-in is 30k and the starting score 24k (so the Oka is 24k), the Dobon 
   penalty is 30, the Uma is 20-30, the Yakitori penalty is 20 (and the Phoenix
   variant is used), Wareme is applied and all five Tips rules are in use.

   Additionally Ippatsu, Ura Dora, Kan Dora and Kan Ura Dora are all fixed Ari.

   All other rules can be adjusted manually.

   *Infure is a contraction of Infureeshon which is the English word "inflation"
   used as a loanword (rendered into Japanese syllables).

8. Jiyuu Settei  (custom settings)

   All rules can be adjusted manually.

Refer to Section 13 for more information on all the individual rule options.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 09 | MULTIPLAYER                                                 s09 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Local multiplayer is the third option off the main menu. As usual I haven't been
able to test this mode but I can give some basic info.

You'll need to ensure that your WLAN switch is set to on and I would assume that
all players need to set their PSP's to the same wi-fi channel which can be done
from the console menu under Settings \ Network Settings \ Ad Hoc Mode.

The game's multiplayer menu has the following three options:

                           .--------------------------.
                           |           Host           |
                           '--------------------------'
                           .--------------------------.
                           |          Client          |
                           '--------------------------'
                           .--------------------------.
                           |    Rules Confirmation    |
                           '--------------------------'

If you choose to be the host then you need to specify how many players will be
playing in total - two, three or four. The game will then wait for the other
player/s to join the session via wi-fi.

The other player/s should pick the Client option to join the match.

The third option lists all the rule settings for multiplayer. These are fixed
but you can scroll around them and press Triangle for more info on each rule.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 10 | STATS                                                       s10 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

The fourth option off the main menu is labelled Jouhou which means "information"
- you use this to access the statistical logs that record your performance.

There's a nested menu structure here so I'll represent it with a tree diagram
and unique numbering for each page.
                                                   .-----------------------.
                                                   | 1.1.1 Hand Win Stats  |
                           .-------------------.   | 1.1.2 Payment Stats   |
                         .-| 1.1 Overall       |---| 1.1.3 Riichi Stats    |
                         | '-------------------'   | 1.1.4 Calling Stats   |
                         |                         | 1.1.5 Draw Stats      |
                         |                         | 1.1.6 Match Stats     |
                         |                         | 1.1.7 Season/Stage    |
    .------------------. | .-------------------.   '-----------------------'
    | 1 League Mode    |-+-| 1.2 Individuals   |
    '------------------' | '-------------------'   .-----------------------.
                         |                       .-| 1.3.1 Five Seasons    |
                         | .-------------------. | '-----------------------'
                         '-| 1.3 Principal     |-|
    .------------------.   '-------------------' | .-----------------------.
    | 2 Free Play Mode |                         '-| 1.3.2 Records         |
    '------------------'   .-------------------.   '-----------------------'
                         .-| 3.1 League Prizes |
                         | '-------------------'
    .------------------. | .-------------------.
    | 3 Extras         |-+-| 3.2 Mahjong Tiles |
    '------------------' | '-------------------' 
                         | .-------------------.
                         '-| 3.3 Game Previews |
                           '-------------------'

The layout of each individual stats screen is described below.

                                  League Mode
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Every part in the Overall section (1.1) ranks all twelve competitors in the
league (you and eleven opponents) according to various stats. Press L/R to page
through the stat rankings (Win Rate, Average Points Won, etc) and press Circle
to cycle through Stage, Season and Career filters (shown on the yellow button).
________________________________________________________________________________

1.1.1 Hand Win Stats

 1/4 - Hand Win Rate

 This is the proportion of hands won, given to three decimal places.

 (for example if a player had won one in five hands it would be shown as 0.200)

 2/4 - Average Points Won

 This is the average value the player's winning hands.

 3/4 - Total Points Won

 This is the total amount of points from winning hands.

 4/4 - Ron Win Rate

 This is the proportion of winning hands that were won by Ron (off a discard).
________________________________________________________________________________

1.1.2 Payment Stats

 1/3 - Payment Rate

 This is the proportion of hands in which an opponent scored a Ron win off one
 of the player's discards (and the player therefore paid the full hand value).

 2/3 - Average Points Paid

 This is the average payment made when the player got "ronned".

 3/3 - Total Points Paid

 This is the total amount paid for other players' hands won by Ron.
________________________________________________________________________________

1.1.3 Riichi Stats

 1/4 - Riichi Rate

 This is the proportion of hands in which the player declared Riichi.

 2/4 - Riichi Win Rate

 This is the proportion of times the player won the hand after "reaching".

 3/4 - Ippatsu Count

 This is the number of times the player won immediately after Riichi.

 4/4 - First Riichi Rate

 I think this is the proportion of hands in which the player was the first one
 to declare Riichi.
________________________________________________________________________________

1.1.4 Calling Stats

 1/4 - Calling Rate

 This is the proportion of hands in which the player called Chii, Pon or Kan to
 steal discarded tile/s from their opponents.

 2/4 - Calling Win Rate

 This is the proportion of times the player won the hand after calling.

 3/4 - Calling Payment Rate

 This is the proportion of times the player got ronned after calling.

 4/4 - First Calling Rate

 I think this is the proportion of times the player was the first to call.
________________________________________________________________________________

1.1.5 Draw Stats

 1/2 - Draw Rate

 This is the proportion of hands that ended in an exhaustive draw.

 2/2 - Draw Tenpai Rate

 This is the proportion of times the player finished Tenpai (ready) in a draw.
________________________________________________________________________________

1.1.6 Match Stats

 1/11 - Average Final Score

 This is the average profit given in the "final score" format (see Section 14).

 (the number shown represents thousands of points, e.g. +42 means 42,000 pts)

 2/11 - Highest Final Score

 This is the biggest final score profit the player has achieved.

 3/11 - Lowest Final Score

 This is the biggest final score loss the player has incurred.

 4/11 - Mangan Count

 This is the number of times the player won with a hand capped at the Mangan
 limit or higher.

 5/11 - Yakuman [Count]

 This is the number of times the player successfully completed and won with
 any hand recognised as a Yakuman (limit-hand).

 6/11 - Average Placing

 This is the player's average position in league matches.

 (for example if a player came 1st, 2nd and 4th their average would be 2.333)

 7/11 - Consecutive Positives Count

 This is the player's longest streak of positive final scores.

 8/11 - Consecutive Negatives Count

 Conversely this is their longest streak of negative final scores.

 9/11 - Consecutive Win Count

 This is the player's longest streak of consecutive hand wins.

 10/11 - Consecutive Non-Payment Count

 This is their longest streak of consecutive hands without getting ronned.

 11/11 - Positive Match Count

 This is the total number of matches where the player finished with a positive
 final score.

1.1.7 Season/Stage Results

 This is the same league table shown after a league match. The players are all
 ranked according to their cumulative score totals but you can toggle between
 the overall season standings (left) or the current stage standings (right).
________________________________________________________________________________

1.2 Individuals

 This section collates most of the stats from the previous section and lets you
 view them separately for each player in the league (including yourself).

 Again you can press L/R to cycle through the pages and select the yellow bar
 and press Circle to cycle through Stage, Season and Career filters.

 The green box at the top-left shows the player's name and the two grey boxes
 below that show the player's victory counts in stages and seasons respectively.

 Page 1/3

 1. Hand Win Rate                     7. Total Points Paid*
 2. Average Points Won                8. Riichi Rate
 3. Total Points Won*                 9. Riichi Win Rate
 4. Ron Win Rate                     10. Ippatsu Count
 5. Payment Rate                     11. First Riichi Rate
 6. Average Points Paid              12. Calling Rate

 Page 2/3

 1. Calling Win Rate                  7. Highest Final Score
 2. Calling Payment Rate              8. Lowest Final Score
 3. First Calling Rate                9. Mangan Count
 4. Draw Rate                        10. Yakuman [Count]
 5. Positive Match Count             11. Average Placing
 6. Average Final Score              12. Consecutive Positives Count

 Page 3/3

 1. Consecutive Negatives Count
 2. Consecutive Win Count
 3. Consecutive Non-Payment Count
 4. Draw Tenpai Rate
 5. Highest Chip Count** (in one match)
 6. Lowest Chip Count** (in one match)

 *Large numbers for totals are shown divided by 100.

 **See custom rules 2.16 to 3.04 in Section 13 for info on the five Tips rules.
________________________________________________________________________________

1.3.1 Five Seasons

 This section lets you compare your stats over five seasons of league play.

 a) Hand Win Rate

 b) Total Points Won*

 c) Payment Rate

 d) Average Points Paid

 e) Riichi Win Rate

 f) Calling Payment Rate

 g) Count of Winning Hands at Mangan Limit or Higher

 h) Positive Match Count

 i) League Position

 *Large numbers for totals are shown divided by 100.
________________________________________________________________________________

1.3.2 Records

 This page shows which players hold the records in various categories.

 a) [Highest] Hand Win Rate

 b) [Highest] Total Points Won*

 c) [Lowest] Payment Rate

 d) [Lowest] Average Points Paid

 e) [Highest] Riichi Win Rate

 f) [Lowest] Calling Payment Rate

 g) [Highest] Count of Winning Hands at Mangan Limit or Higher

 h) [Highest] Positive Match Count

 *Large numbers for totals are shown divided by 100.

 This section doesn't populate until you've completed your first stage (series
 of five matches) in League mode. Until then it will show zero for everything.
________________________________________________________________________________

                                Free Play Mode
                                ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
2 Free Play Mode

 The single screen here lists all the characters you've played against in Free
 Play so far and the number of match wins and defeats for each person.
________________________________________________________________________________

                                    Extras
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯
3.1 League Prizes

 This option displays the prizes (images) you've won/unlocked from League mode.

 They're shown across two pages in the following arrangement:
          ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________
         |              |              |              |              |
         |  Solid Gold  |    Pocket    |   Antique    |  Gramophone  |
         | Eagle Statue |    Watch     |    Camera    |              |
         |______________|______________|______________|______________|
         |              |              |              |              |
         |    Music     |  Champagne   |    Violin    |    Glass     |
         |     Box      |     Set      |              |  Handicraft  |
         |______________|______________|______________|______________|
          ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ 
         |              |              |              |              |
         |  Wristwatch  |   Classic    |   Acoustic   |    Grand     |
         |              |     Car      |    Guitar    |    Piano     |
         |______________|______________|______________|______________|
         |              |              |              |              |
         |    Pearl     |   Mystery    |    Luxury    |   Martian    |
         |   Necklace   |  Nile Tour   | World Cruise |  Expedition  |
         |______________|______________|______________|______________|

 (I haven't won all of these yet but from what I've seen so far it's the same
 fabulous array of prizes available in the DS version of Mahjong Taikai.)
________________________________________________________________________________

3.2 Mahjong Tiles Summary

 This shows the seven tile-sets available in the game - pick a set to view it.

 a) plastic normal tiles
 b) plastic black tiles
 c) plastic red tiles
 d) plastic green tiles
 e) plastic blue tiles
 f) special black tiles
 g) special gold tiles

 White text indicates an unlocked set and black text means it's locked.

 Initially only the first set (with bamboo-coloured backs) is available. You can
 unlock the others in League mode - when you win a stage you get to select one
 new tile-set to unlock. You can then use it in both League and Free Play modes.
________________________________________________________________________________

3.3 Game Previews

 This final option runs several video trailers for other Koei games from 2004/5.

 (these will always play with sound even if you have BGM disabled in options)
________________________________________________________________________________


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 11 | TUTORIAL                                                    s11 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

The fifth option off the main menu is a comprehensive illustrated tutorial with
spoken dialogue, quizzes and a full glossary of terminology (all in Japanese).

The tutorial covers the equipment, rules, Yaku (scoring elements) including all
the rare optional ones (see Section 13), Yakuman (limit hands) and scoring.

Pick option 2, then option 2 for info and questions about Fu (minipoints).

Pick option 2, then option 3 for questions about hand value.

Pick option 3, then option 1 or 2 for questions about winning tiles and scoring.

Pick option 4 for a dictionary of mahjong terminology, then pick the top choice
to browse by spelling or the bottom choice to browse by category.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 12 | GAME OPTIONS                                                s12 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

There are eight gameplay options which can be configured under the bottom choice
off the main menu. You can also view/adjust them during play by pressing Start.

Select an option with d-pad up/down and adjust it with d-pad left/right, then
select the bottom option and press Circle to confirm and exit.

Most of these are easy to follow as the options are On and Off (in English).

1.   Name: In-Game Text

  Options: On* / Off

     Info: This lets you turn off the annoying text-boxes that appear during
           play when your opponents make comments during a match.

           You still get a quick speech bubble however each time they make a
           call (Chii/Pon/Kan) or declaration (Riichi/Ron/Tsumo).

2.   Name: Voices

  Options: On* / Off

     Info: This allows you to disable voices during games and in the tutorial.

           The first time each player speaks in a match the game will take a
           split second to load the audio from the disc so you can disable the
           voices option to avoid that brief delay. Spoken declarations and
           calls will still be shown as text pop-ups.

           (Of course you might enjoy that dramatic pause after your discard
           when you don't know if it's going to be a Pon or a Ron!)

3.   Name: Background Music

  Options: On* / Off

     Info: This allows you to disable all the background music (BGM).

4.   Name: Check for Winning Tiles

  Options: On* / Off

     Info: This option displays a pop-up showing all your winning tiles (waits)
           when any one of them becomes available to declare a win, but it only
           does this if you've already declared Riichi.

           While it's true that holding out for a different winning tile might
           give you a more valuable winning hand, passing any type of win after
           reaching will leave you able to win by Tsumo only.

5.   Name: Check for Dangerous Tiles

  Options: On* / Off

     Info: This function lets you check whether tiles in your hand are Kikenhai
           - "dangerous" tiles which might aid one or any of your opponents.

           To access this sophisticated function simply press Square during play
           and then select one of the following four options:

                    .--------------------------.
                    |          Zenin           | - everyone
                    '--------------------------'
                    .--------------------------.
                    |         Kamicha          | - player to your left
                    '--------------------------'
                    .--------------------------.
                    |          Toimen          | - player opposite you
                    '--------------------------'
                    .--------------------------.
                    |         Shimocha         | - player to your right
                    '--------------------------'

           For each choice the main grid will display the tiles in your hand in
           the following six rows. Each tile will appear once only.

           1. Kikenhai - potentially dangerous discards

              All of your hand tiles are listed here by default if they're not
              shown under any of the other five categories.

           2. Suji - potentially safe discard/s

              The application of Suji is the core of discard-reading theory. It
              assumes that a player has given themselves an efficient two-sided
              Ryanmen wait, i.e. two consecutive suit tiles which could form a
              Chow set with the addition of one of two different Suji tiles, for
              example _45_ waiting on either 3 or 6 in the same suit.

              If a player had a _45_ wait and had already discarded the 6 of the
              same suit then they would be Furiten on the 3 and therefore that
              would be a safe discard against them. (However there are several
              other waits on the 3 that the player could potentially have.)

           3. Wan Chansu - potentially safe discard/s

              The term Wan Chansu (literally "one chance") is used when three
              copies of one specific tile are visible within your hand and/or
              on the table (i.e. as discards, Dora indicators or in open sets).
              This is a slightly less safe version of a Kabe scenario where all
              four copies of one tile can be seen and certain Suji tiles could
              potentially be safer discards (see list below).

              For example if you can see three 2p (in the Pinzu/Dots suit) then
              there is only one other available and there is only "one chance"
              that a player has a _23_ wait and therefore 1s appears safer.

           4. Kabe - potentially safe discard/s

              A Kabe (wall) occurs when all four copies of one specific tile are
              visible within your hand and/or on the table - this situation is
              also known as Noo Chansu (lit. "no chance"). A wall makes specific
              discards safer because certain two-sided waits will be impossible.

              For example if you can see four 3m (in the Manzu/Craks suit) then
              there is "no chance" that anyone has either a _23_ wait or a _34_
              wait and so 1m and 2m might be safer. However someone could still
              have a _56_ wait (waiting on 4m) or a _67_ wait (waiting on 5m).

                 Kabe |   2   |   3   |   4   |   5   |   6   |   7   |   8
               -------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
                Safer |   1   | 1 & 2 | 2 & 3 | 3 & 7 | 7 & 8 | 8 & 9 |   9

           5. Last Honour Tile/s - potentially safe discard/s

              This row shows any honour tile (wind or dragon) in your hand where
              all the other copies of that tile are visible on the table.

              If the other matching tiles are dead then you can safely discard
              the rest without risk of them being taken by Ron to complete a
              Pung or a pair. However there is still a remote chance that one
              could be used to complete a Kokushimusou (Thirteen Orphans) hand!

              If the selected player has already discarded the tile themselves
              it will be shown on row 6 instead because it is a totally safe
              discard against that player (with no risk of Kokushi from them).

           6. Genbutsu - safe discards

              The bottom row shows any tiles that are completely safe to discard
              against the selected player because they have already discarded
              those tiles themselves and therefore they cannot declare a Ron win
              on them because of the Furiten rule.

              For example if you were viewing information for the opponent to
              your left, you were holding a 6s (Souzu/Bams suit) but the player
              had already discarded one of these then the 6s would be shown.

              This row does not show any tiles on which a player is permanently
              Furiten due to the fact that one was discarded by another player
              after the first player declared Riichi.

           Remember that discard-reading usually deals in probabilities and
           speculation rather than absolutes - any tiles displayed on rows 2, 3,
           4 and 5 can only ever be described as *potentially* safe discard/s
           because of other players and/or other waits on those tiles.

           Even if a tile is shown on row 6 for one player it will only ever be
           a 100% safe discard if listed as a Genbutsu in the "everyone" view.

           Since honour tiles (winds and dragons) cannot form Chow sets, only
           numbered suit tiles will ever be shown on rows 2, 3 and 4.

6.   Name: Tenpai Auto

  Options: On / Off*

     Info: When this option is applied the game will automatically discard any
           non-winning tiles drawn after you declare Riichi.

           With this rule disabled you need to continue discarding manually. If
           you press d-pad down the game will display a pop-up window showing
           the tile/s that would complete your hand. The game will not prompt
           you if you draw a winning tile so you need to pay attention!

7.   Name: Thinking Speed

  Options: Ordinary* / High Speed

     Info: This lets you adjust the speed of your CPU opponents' moves.

8.   Name: Midway Saving

  Options: On* / Off

     Info: When this option is enabled the game will prompt you to save after
           every hand. Pick the left option (Yes) to accept then the left option
           (Yes) to confirm and finally press Cross to return to the game.

           You should use this option if you are using your PSP away from home
           since you can turn off the console during a match without losing your
           progress from the previous hands.

           The game will never save automatically without prompting you. Each
           time you load the game you continue from your last manual save. If
           you weren't happy with the outcome of a match just reset and retry!

*This is the default setting for the game option.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 13 | RULE OPTIONS                                                s13 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

There's a remarkable range of 41 rule options in the game and in fact even more
than that if you count each of the exotic Yaku (scoring elements) separately.

The game has eight rule-sets (see Section 08). All eight are available to use in
Free Play mode and five are applied during the five stages of League mode.

You're always shown the current rule options at the start of a game. You might
be able to adjust some or all of them. Regardless of whether you change or just
review the settings, you need to use the bottom-right option to confirm.

The rule options are always listed over three pages in the following pattern:

     Page 1         1.02      Page 2  2.01   2.09      Page 3  3.01   3.09
                    1.03              2.02   2.10              3.02   3.10
                    1.04              2.03   2.11              3.03   3.11
                    1.05              2.04   2.12              3.04   3.12
                    1.06              2.05   2.13              3.05   3.13
                    1.07              2.06   2.14              3.06   3.14
                    1.08              2.07   2.15              3.07   3.15
             1.01   1.09              2.08   2.16              3.08   3.16

You'll notice that several rules have the same two settings available, these are
Ari (with) and Nashi (without). If you play Japanese mahjong then you should
recognise these terms; if not their usage is simple - for example "Nakitan Ari"
means the Nakitan rule is applied and "Nakitan Nashi" means it's disallowed.

         _/___  |                          /_______   | 
         /___   |  \       ARI             _|_|_|_|_  |          NASHI
        /|___|  |/  |  (rule is on)         |_|_|_|   |      (rule is off)
         |   |     /                        / \ \ \   |___/

Okay, here are the rules. Hope you're sitting comfortably 'cos it's a long list!
________________________________________________________________________________

1.01 Name: Nakitan  (open Tanyao)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: When Nakitan is Ari the game allows the scoring element Tanyao (All
           Simples) on an open hand - a hand with one or more exposed sets.

           Although Koei have always favoured the Nakitan name in their Mahjong
           Taikai games, this rule is more commonly known as Kuitan.
________________________________________________________________________________

1.02 Name: Naki Pinfu  (open Pinfu)

  Options: 20 Fu / 30 Fu*

     Info: The scoring element Pinfu is defined as a "no points" hand, with no
           extra Fu (minipoints) other than the basic 20 or 30 Fu for declaring
           the win. You get those extra 10 Fu when you declare a Ron win (with a
           stolen discard) on a closed hand, however exceptionally you also get
           a bonus of 2 Fu when you win by Ron on an open hand which (aside from
           being exposed) has a Pinfu structure and so - since your minipoints
           total is always rounded up to the next 10 - you score 30 Fu again.
           You can disable this quirky rule by choosing the "20 Fu" option.

           Since one of the four requirements of Pinfu is that the hand must be
           closed, you cannot claim Pinfu on a so-called "open Pinfu" hand!

1.03 Name: Tsumo Pinfu  (self-draw Pinfu)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: When Tsumo Pinfu is Ari you can claim the scoring element Pinfu on
           a Tsumo (self-draw) win. A Tsumo win is normally worth an extra 2 Fu
           but with this rule you waive the 2 Fu and take the extra Han (double)
           for meeting the "no points" requirement of Pinfu instead.

           If this rule is applied you'd score 20 Fu and 2 Han (for Menzen Tsumo
           and Pinfu), if not you'd score 30 Fu (that's 22 Fu rounded up again)
           and 1 Han (for Menzen Tsumo only). Any additional scoring elements or
           Dora bonus tiles will add to those Han totals of course.

1.04 Name: No-Ten Bappu  (draw payments)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: The No-Ten Bappu is the payment made in the event of a hand ending in
           an exhaustive draw (when the live wall is depleted). The players that
           are Tenpai (ready) each receive a share of 3,000 points, which are
           paid by the players that are No-Ten (not Tenpai).

           With No-Ten Bappu set to Nashi, no points are exchanged on a draw.

1.05 Name: Renchan  (continuances)

  Options: Tenpai* / Nanba / Houra

     Info: This sets the conditions in which the dealer gets to play a Renchan
           (an extra hand or continuance without the Seat-Winds moving).

           o Tenpai - dealer "stays on" if they win a hand or if a hand ends in
                      a draw where they have a Tenpai (ready) hand

           o Nanba - the Tenpai rule applies in the Tonba (east round) but if a
                     Nanba (south round) is played then the dealer stays on if
                     they win or in any draw, regardless of whether they're
                     Tenpai (ready) or No-Ten (unready)

           o Houra - dealer only stays on when they win a hand

1.06 Name: Ura Dora  (underside bonus tiles)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: The Ura Dora is indicated by the tile under the standard Omote Dora
           indicator and applied when someone wins after declaring Riichi.

1.07 Name: Kan Dora  (Kong bonus tiles)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: A Kan Dora indicator is flipped on the top row of the dead wall each
           time someone declares a Kong (quad) set.

           Specifically the indicator tile for the Kan Dora is not shown until
           the player discards safely after making the Kong.

1.08 Name: Kan Ura Dora  (Kong underside bonus tiles)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: When the two previous rules are both Ari it's also possible to play
           with Kan Ura Dora which are indicated by the tile/s under any active
           Kan Dora indicators when someone wins after reaching.

           (Setting Kan Dora (rule option 1.07) to Nashi will automatically fix
           Kan Ura Dora to Nashi too. However setting Ura Dora (1.06) to Nashi
           doesn't do this, giving the impression that it's possible to have Kan
           Dora and Kan Ura Dora but no standard Ura Dora. This is not the case
           however - Kan Dora and Ura Dora must both be Ari in order for Kan
           Ura Dora to be applied.)

1.09 Name: Ippatsu  ("one-shot" win after Riichi)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: This simply turns on/off the Ippatsu scoring element.
________________________________________________________________________________

2.01 Name: Dobon  (bankruptcy)

  Options: Off [nashi] / 0* / 10 / 20 / 30

     Info: Also known as Buttobi or Tobi, the Dobon rule causes a game to end
           early if the score of one or more players drops below zero.

           Unusually the game gives you a range of options for Dobon. With the 0
           setting the rule is applied as normal but with the other numerical
           options a penalty of 10k, 20k or 30k points is applied, paid by the
           bankrupt player to the opponent that busted them.

2.02 Name: Haikyuugenten  (starting scores)

  Options: 16k / 24k / 25k* / 26k / 27k / 28k / 29k / 30k

     Info: This sets the number of points that each player holds at the start of
           each game. (This affects the Oka bonus - see next rule)

2.03 Name: Kaeshiten  (buy-in)

  Options: 20k / 30k*

     Info: This is the number of points the players effectively pay to buy into
           each match.

           This figure is significant because the excess points - the difference
           between the buy-in and the starting score (see above) - forms the Oka
           jackpot which is paid to the player that wins the match.

           For example with the standard 30,000 points buy-in and 25,000 points
           starting scores each of the four players pays their excess 5,000 pts
           to give an Oka bonus of 20k pts for the winner.

2.04 Name: Bakaze  (round-winds)

  Options: Ton-Nan* (east south) / Ton-Puu (east wind) / Ton-Ton (east east)

     Info: This sets the number (and type) of rounds played in a match.

           o Ton-Nan - this is the standard Japanese Hanchan of two wind-rounds,
                       an east round followed by a south round

           o Ton-Puu - this is a single round or so-called quarter-game, played
                       with an east round only

           o Ton-Ton - this is a more unusual option whereby you play two rounds
                       but the round-wind is east in both

           In the second round of an "east east" game the hand counter in the
           side-bar will show East 5, East 6, East 7 and East 8 but the blue
           round-wind marker on the table will show south as normal.

2.05 Name: Shaanyuu  (west extension)

  Options: Off* [nashi] / 30,000 / 30,100 / 33,100 / 35,100

     Info: Under the Shaanyuu rule a third (west) round will be played if no one
           achieves the target score by the end of a two-round match.

           If the target is still not reached by the end of that round then a
           north round will be played (giving what would be a full game of all
           four round-winds in Chinese classical rules). Potentially the game
           can then extend into a second east round and beyond...

           The target value of 30,000 pts represents a player breaking even from
           their 30k buy-in and 30,100 pts would be the minimum possible profit.

           The Shaanyuu rule is unavailable when a one-round game is selected in
           custom rule 2.04 above.

           I remember experimenting with this rule in Mahjong Taikai IV on the
           PS3 - it's an interesting challenge to try to control a game such
           that neither your opponents nor yourself beat the target score. On my
           first attempt I stretched a game into an epic five rounds duration.

2.06 Name: Uma  (score spread)

  Options: Off* / 0-5 / 0-10 / 0-20 / 0-30 / 5-10 / 10-20 / 10-30 / 20-30

     Info: The Uma is an adjustment to the final scores at the end of the game
           based on the players' placings. The two digits represents thousands
           of points and the player in 3rd pays the smaller amount to 2nd and
           the player in 4th pays the larger amount to the match winner.

           For example with the 10-20 Uma, 3rd pays 10,000 points to 2nd and 4th
           pays 20,000 points to 1st.

           See Section 14 below for some worked examples.

2.07 Name: Agari Yame  (quit while you're ahead!)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: Although the game calls this Houra Shuuryou (literally "winning
           termination") I've used the more common name Agari Yame.

           When this rule is used, if the dealer (east) wins the final hand of a
           match and is leading on points then they are given the option to end
           the game (and collect the Uma and Oka) rather than risk losing in the
           Renchan (extra hand) that would usually be played after a dealer win.

           In this situation a wide grey text-box will appear at the bottom of
           the screen and ask if you want to continue - pick the left option
           (Yes) to keep playing or the right option (No) to end the match.

2.08 Name: Tochuu Ryuukyoku  (abortive draws)

  Options: Renchan* / Off [nashi] / Ronchan

     Info: The rules of Japanese mahjong recognise five different situations
           that can optionally force a hand to end in an abortive draw.

           o Suu Kai Kan (four revealed Kongs)

             A total of four Kongs are declared by two or more players.

           o Kyuu Shu Kyuu Hai (nine varieties, nine tiles)

             A player has nine or more different terminal and honour tiles after
             their first drawn tile (and no player has previously melded a
             discard) and they choose to accept the abortive draw.

           o Suu Fon Rendaa (four winds barrage)

             All four players discard the same wind tile on their first turn
             (and no player has previously called a discard tile).

           o Suu Cha Riichi (four persons Riichi)

             All four players declare Riichi in the same hand.

           o San Cha Hou (three persons win)

             Three players declare a Ron win on the same discard tile.

           This rule gives you three options which are applied to these draws:

           o Renchan - abortive draws are enforced and the next hand is played
                       with the same Seat-Winds

           o Nashi - abortive draws are not recognised

           o Ronchan - abortive draws are enforced and the next hand is played
                       with the Seat-Winds rotated one place
________________________________________________________________________________

2.09 Name: Ryan Han Shibari  (two-Han minimum)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: Usually modern Japanese mahjong is played with an Ii Han Shibari or
           one-Han minimum which means that a hand must be worth at least one
           Han (double) in order to be able to declare a valid win. Furthermore
           any Han from Dora bonus tiles cannot be counted towards this, so it's
           effectively a one-Yaku minimum.

           Each time a hand ends in either a dealer win or a draw a "counter" is
           placed on the table - this is usually one of the dealer's 100-point
           scoring sticks (as shown near the top-left corner of the screen).
           This is called the Honba count and a number of points equal to 300
           multiplied by the current Honba is added to the value of any winning
           hand. When a non-dealer wins a hand, the Honba count is reset to zero
           (except under the Ba Shibari rule-set in Free Play mode).

           Under the Ryan Han Shibari rule, when there are five or more counters
           on the table a hand must have Yaku (scoring elements) worth two or
           more Han in order to win. Again, Dora cannot be counted for this.

           A warning will appear in a grey box at the start of a hand whenever
           the Ryan Han Shibari rule is in force.

2.10 Name: Kokushi Chankan  (Robbing the Kong for Thirteen Orphans)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: Kokushimusou is the Japanese name for the Thirteen Orphans limit-hand
           composed of one each of all six terminal tiles (ones and nines) and
           seven honour tiles (winds and dragons) plus one duplicate.

           Chankan is the "Robbing the Kong" Yaku that allows you to declare a
           Ron win off the tile used to complete an open Kong set.

           Usually you cannot "rob" a concealed Kong, but when this rule is in
           use you can, but only when completing a Kokushi hand.

2.11 Name: Riichi Ankan  (concealed Kong after Riichi)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: When this rule is Ari you are permitted to declare a concealed Kong
           after you have declared Riichi as long as this does not alter the
           structure of your hand or the nature of the wait/s.

           If you are playing with additional Dora (see rule options 1.06, 1.07
           and 1.08) this will add the potential for both Kan Dora and Kan Ura
           Dora if you complete the hand.

2.12 Name: Riichibou Modoshi  (Riichi-stick return)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: Usually if a match ends in a draw with one or Riichi stakes still on
           the table these will be given to the player in 1st place.

           When this rule is applied the 1000-point Riichi sticks will instead
           be returned to the players who declared them.

           This rule would be significant if you were in first place in the
           final hand of a match with a lead of less than 1,000 points. If you
           were to reach at this stage your thousand points would go into the
           Kyoutaku ("reach bank") on the table, your score would drop by 1,000
           points, you'd lose first place and if the hand ended in a draw you
           would have missed the chance to win the game. With this rule you'd
           get your Riichi stick back and your score/position would be restored.

2.13 Name: Yakitori  (penalty for not winning a hand)

  Options: Off* [nashi] / 10 / 15 / 20 / Ura 10 / Ura 15 / Ura 20

     Info: Under this rule each player starts the game with a Yakitori marker
           (grilled bird icon) shown on the player panels when you press R.

           When a player wins a hand their token is removed. At the end of the
           match any player whose Yakitori marker is still present (i.e. those
           players who failed to win at least one hand) must pay the selected
           penalty to each of the players who did win a hand.

           In the final score reckoning (see Section 14) the numbers indicate
           thousands of points, so for example with Yakitori set to 15, if only
           one player failed to win they must pay 15,000 points to each of the
           other three players (for 45k total - ouch).

           When you pick one of the "Ura" options (where each of the numbers is
           preceded by a single Kanji character) the so-called "Phoenix" variant
           of Yakitori is invoked and if all four players each win a hand then
           the Yakitori tokens are restored and the process starts again.

2.14 Name: Wareme  (doubling effect at wall break)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: When this rule is applied the player whose side of the virtual tile
           wall was broken at the start of the hand pays/receives double points.

           Unlike Mahjong Taikai DS, there is no helpful Wareme marker in this
           version of the game - instead you need to use the dice which were
           rolled to determine which section of the wall was broken. The dice
           are always displayed to the right of the current dealer (east) and
           you need to count counter-clockwise around the table starting on them
           to find the Wareme player in each hand. For example if the dice show
           9 then you would count around the table twice and back to the dealer.

           The doubling effect of Wareme is applied after the normal score
           calculation so, for example, if you get ronned on a dealer Mangan
           when either you or the dealer has the Wareme marker then it would
           cost you 24,000 points (ouch!) which could easily bankrupt you.

           Even individual payments on a Tsumo win are affected, for example a
           normal Tsumo win for a non-dealer Mangan would receive 4,000 pts from
           the dealer and 2,000 pts each from the other two players, but if the
           dealer had the Wareme marker their payment would be 8,000 pts.

           Points from Honba, Riichi sticks and No-ten Bappu are not doubled.

2.15 Name: Paa Renchan  (eight continuances)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: Paa Renchan is an optional Yakuman (limit-hand) awarded when the
           dealer wins eight consecutive hands.

2.16 Name: Ippatsu Shou  (Ippatsu award)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: This is the first of five rule options relating to "Tips". Tips are
           awarded for lucky occurrences during play, recorded using yellow
           poker-style chips (shown on the player panels when you press R) and
           these are translated into points (5,000 pts per chip) in the final
           score reckoning at the end of a match (see Section 14).

           When this rule is applied a player declaring an Ippatsu win by Ron
           will receive two chips from the player who discarded the winning tile
           but if they get an extra-lucky Tsumo Ippatsu win then instead they
           get two chips each from the three other players (six total).

           Obviously this rule can only take effect when the Ippatsu rule is in
           use (specified by rule option 1.09 above).
________________________________________________________________________________

3.01 Name: Ura Dora Shou  (underside Dora award)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: With this rule a player earns Tips when they pick up Ura Dora on a
           Riichi win. On a Ron win the discarder pays one chip for each Ura
           Dora in the winning hand but on a Tsumo win all three opponents pay
           one chip per Ura Dora present.

           For example if a player declared Riichi on a hand with a pair of 3m,
           they won the hand by Tsumo and the Ura Dora indicator was revealed to
           be 2m, the winner would collect six chips in total (two per player)
           which would be worth an extra 30,000 pts in the final reckoning.

           The Ura Dora rule 1.06 must be Ari for this option to be applied.

3.02 Name: Yakuman Shou  (limit-hand award)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: With this rule a player that's lucky enough to make a Yakuman (limit-
           hand) gets a large additional bonus of Tips. If they win by Ron they
           take 15 chips from the player that discarded their winning tile or if
           they win by Tsumo they take 5 chips each from all three opponents.

           Those fifteen chips are worth a further 75,000 points!

3.03 Name: Toriuchi  (shooting birds)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: Toriuchi is easily the most quirky of the five Tip rules!

           The "Tori" in the name means "bird" in Japanese and as you might've
           guessed this refers to the 1s tile (Souzu/Bams suit). For every bird
           tile in a hand won by Ron the player receives one Tip chip from the
           player who discarded the winning tile.

           It's not as simple as that though, because the 7p tile (Pinzu/Dots)
           is the "pistol" and if the discarder has at least one 7p tile then
           the gun shoots the bird/s and the payment is not made.

           However there's one more aspect to Toriuchi. The 8s tile (Souzu/Bams)
           is the "birdcage" which protects the bird/s from gunfire! Any 8s cage
           tiles in the winner's hand will nullify the effect of any pistols.

           (The number of pistol or cage tiles is not important - one pistol can
           shoot any number of birds and one cage can block any number of guns.)

           Whenever this rule is applied and a player wins by Ron with at least
           one bird tile the game will display a special pop-up window and check
           for each of the three type of tile in turn - with sound effects!

3.04 Name: Arisu  (wall flips after Riichi win)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: After a player wins with Riichi under the Arisu rule, a tile will be
           flipped on the wall and if the winner has any matching tiles in their
           hand (it must be an exact match, not like the Dora indicators) they
           will gain a Tip chip for each one and another tile will be flipped.

           (The Arisu rule also features in the DS game based on the mahjong
           manga Mukoubuchi but there, instead of awarding Tips, each matching
           tile adds one Han (double) to the value of the winning hand.)

3.05 Name: Kinchiidokuritsu  (pair wait in fully exposed hand)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: Kinchiidokuritsu is an optional Yaku awarded for a hand won on a
           Hadakatanki wait, i.e. a pair wait in a hand where all four sets are
           exposed (completed by stealing discarded tiles by Chii, Pon or Kan).
           Concealed Kongs don't count - every set must be open.

           In some versions of this rule the winning tile in the pair wait must
           be the 1 Souzu/Bams tile (the bird) and the Yaku is paid a Mangan,
           but in Mahjong Taikai it seems you can complete the hand with any
           tile and the Yaku is worth only one Han (double).

3.06 Name: Uupin Kaihou, Iipin Raoyue & Ryansou Chankan  (Chinese Yaku)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

           Although only one is listed in the title, this rule permits three
           scoring elements from the original Chinese classical mahjong rules.
           All three are special cases of normal Japanese scoring elements won
           on a specific tile and worth two Han instead of the usual one.

           o Uupin Kaihou - This is Rinshan Kaihou (drawing your winning tile as
                            the supplement tile taken after declaring a Kong)
                            won on the 5p tile (Pinzu/Dots suit).

                            In the English translation of the Chinese classical
                            rules it's called "Gathering the Plum Blossom from
                            the Roof". The markings on the tile represent the
                            plum blossom and the supplement tiles are placed on
                            the top (roof) of the dead wall in those rules.

           o Iipin Raoyue - This is Haitei Raoyue (winning by Tsumo on the final
                            tile in the live wall) won with 1p (Pinzu/Dots).

                            In English it's "Plucking the Moon from the Bottom
                            of the Sea". The big dot of the 1p tile is the moon
                            and the live wall is the sea.

           o Ryansou Chankan - This is the scoring element Chankan ("robbing"
                               the tile used to promote an open Pung into an
                               open Kong) won on 2s (Souzu/Bams).

                               The tile's markings represent the pole in the
                               English name "Scratching a Carrying Pole".

3.07 Name: San Renkou & Suu Renkou  (Three/Four Consecutive Pungs)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: San Renkou is an optional two-Han scoring element awarded for having
           three Pungs in your hand in the same suit with consecutive numbers,
           for example 555 666 777.

           Suu Renkou is an optional Yakuman (limit-hand) composed of four Pungs
           in the same suit with consecutive numbers, e.g. 555 666 777 888.

3.08 Name: Iisou Sanshun  (Pure Triple Chow)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: Iisou Sanshun (Pure Triple Chow) is an optional Yaku worth two Han. 
           It's like an extended version of Iipeikou (Pure Double Chow) but with
           three identical Chows in the same suit instead of two.

           Unlike Iipeikou it can be claimed on an open hand but in this case
           the property of Kuisagari applies and the value drops to one Han.

           You cannot claim both Iisou Sanshun and San Renkou on the same tiles
           because you cannot interpret them as both Chows and Pungs.
________________________________________________________________________________

3.09 Name: Nagashi Mangan  (All Terminal & Honour Discards)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: You can claim Nagashi Mangan if a hand ends in a normal exhaustive
           draw (not an abortive draw), all your discards were terminals and
           honours, and none were called by your opponents. In such a situation
           you receive a Mangan payment.

           The game uses the less common Yaochuu Furikiri name for this rule.

3.10 Name: Shiisanpuutaa  (junk hand)

  Options: Off [nashi] / Mangan* / Baiman / Yakuman

     Info: I use the term "set element" to describe any two tiles that together
           could form a set with the addition of one more tile, e.g. _67_, 3_5,
           _89 or a pair. You can claim Shiisanpuutaa if, after drawing your
           first tile, you have thirteen tiles completely lacking set elements
           plus a fourteenth tile that's a duplicate of one of the thirteen,
           making one pair - kinda like in Kokushimusou (Thirteen Orphans).

           I got this once in Mahjong Taikai IV with the following starting hand
           which will serve as an example:

               1m 4m 9m 2p 4s 8p 7s east south south west north white green

           Basically all your numbered suit tiles must be two or more away from
           their neighbours and you must have exactly one pair.

           With the three options you can choose whether this is rewarded at the
           Mangan, Baiman or Yakuman limit.

3.11 Name: Renhou  ("Human Win")

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: Related to the Tenhou and Chiihou limit-hands, Renhou is also scored
           as a Yakuman in Mahjong Taikai PSP. It's awarded when a non-dealer
           completes their hand with a Ron win before taking their first draw.

           Additionally no calls must have been made prior to the win.

3.12 Name: Dai Sharin  ("Big Wheels")

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: Dai Sharin is an optional Yakuman for a hand composed specifically of
           22334455667788 in the Pinzu/Dots suit.

3.13 Name: Hyakuman Goku, Beni Kujaku and Ao no Doumon  (obscure Yakuman)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: This rule permits three unusual optional Yakuman (limit-hands).

           o Hyakuman Goku - This is a Manzu/Craks flush in which the numbers on
                             the tiles add to 100 or more, for example a hand of
                             555 678 789 999 88 (total 103).

                             The name means "One Million Stones". The red Kanji
                             on every Manzu tile represents 10,000 so that's
                             where the million comes from: 100 x 10,000.

           o Beni Kujaku - This is the counterpart of Ryuuiisou, the "All Green"
                           Yakuman. Instead of using Hatsu (green dragon) and
                           the pure green Souzu/Bams tiles, it can contain only
                           Chun (red dragon) and the Souzu tiles that have red
                           markings - the 1, 5, 7 and 9.

                           Since this allows even fewer tiles than Ryuuiisou and
                           you can't make Chows this would be very rare.

                           The name means "Crimson Peacock".

           o Ao no Doumon - Vaguely similar, this hand must contain only wind 
                            tiles and 2, 4 and 8 in the Pinzu/Dots suit.

                            Much like Honroutou (All Terminals & Honours), since
                            Chows are not possible this will always have either
                            an "all Pungs" or "all pairs" structure.

                            The name means "Tunnel of Blue".

3.14 Name: Daburu  (double Yakuman)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: This rule permits the combination of two Yakuman (limit-hands), for
           example you might "stack" Tsuuiisou (All Honours) with either Dai San
           Gen (Big Three Dragons) or Shou Suu Shii (Little Four Winds).

3.15 Name: Ryan Cha Hou  (Double Ron)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: Double Ron is when two players both win on the same discard.

           If this option is disallowed then the Atama Hane ("head bump") rule
           applies and only one player wins, specifically the one closest to the
           discarder working counter-clockwise around the table.

           If two players win on the same tile and only one of them called
           Riichi then only the one who "reached" gets the benefit of the Ura
           Dora (and any Kan Ura Dora).

3.16 Name: San Cha Hou  (Triple Ron)

  Options: On [ari] / Off* [nashi]

     Info: Similarly this rule permits three players to declare a Ron win on the
           same discard of the unfortunate fourth.

           If a Triple Ron is not permitted then the situation can be recognised
           as an abortive draw (see rule option 2.08 above).

           If rule 3.15 is Nashi then this option will be locked Nashi too.
________________________________________________________________________________

Before moving on, here are a few quick notes about other rule options...

Despite having an extensive range of often obscure or archaic rule settings, the
game doesn't give you the option of playing with Red Fives (the same is true of
Mahjong Taikai IV on the PS3). This is quite strange since Red Fives are a very
common option in Japanese mahjong and would be easy to implement in the game.
They were finally added in the 2007 Wii version of Mahjong Taikai however.

Kuikae is fixed Ari - if you have a complete Chow or Pung concealed in your hand
you are permitted to call a tile by Chii or Pon using two of those tiles and
then discard immediately the third tile from the original set.

Mangan Kiriage is fixed Nashi - a hand worth either 4 Han and 30 Fu or 3 Han and
60 Fu is not rounded-up to the Mangan limit.

Sashiuma is Ari in League mode. You have the option to place a side-bet against
one of your opponents and whoever has the lower score at the end of the match
must pay 10,000 points to the other. During play the player who you bet against
will be indicated with two Kanji characters in the top-left corner of their
player panel shown when you press the R button.

*This is the default setting for the rule option.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 14 | FINAL SCORES                                                s14 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

The players' scores at the end of a match are calculated and adjusted according
to the following scheme.

(See Section 13 above for more information about all the rule options mentioned
here: buy-in points, starting scores, Uma, Dobon, Yakitori, Tips and Sashiuma.)

1. The Oka bonus is awarded to the player in 1st place.

   Although both values can differ under custom rules, usually each player buys
   into a match with 30,000 pts (Kaeshiten) but starts the game with 25,000 pts
   (Haikyuugenten). The excess points form the Oka bonus for the winner.

   With the standard 30k buy-in and 25k starting scores (and four players) the
   Oka will be 20,000 points (4 x 5,000).

   If however you were playing with 25,000 pts buy-in and 24,000 pts starting
   scores it would be only 4,000 pts (4 x 1,000).

   If the buy-in and starting score are the same then no Oka is paid.

   After applying the Oka bonus, the four players' scores will sum to the total
   of their buy-ins (e.g. 120,000 pts with a 30k buy-in).

2. The scores are adjusted to give a zero sum and abbreviated.

   This is accomplished by subtracting the buy-in from each player's score,
   dividing by 1,000 and then rounding to an integer value. The scores for 2nd,
   3rd and 4th will be processed first as it is sometimes necessary to tweak the
   winner's score to achieve the zero sum after rounding.

   Each player's score now denotes their profit or loss in thousands of points,
   for example +13 means a 13,000 pts profit and -20 is a 20,000 pts loss.

3. The Uma spread is applied (if that optional rule is in use).

   The two numbers for the Uma indicate the adjustments made to the scores in
   this stage, with the player in 3rd paying the smaller amount to 2nd and the
   player in 4th paying the larger amount to 1st.

   For example with a small 5-10 Uma the player in 3rd pays 5 (5,000 pts) to 2nd
   and 4th pays 10 (10,000 pts) to 1st.

   Since points are transferred between players, the zero sum is preserved.

4. Any Dobon penalty is applied (if that optional rule is in use).

   With a Dobon setting of 10, 20 or 30 the busted player must pay that penalty
   to the player that bankrupted them.

   The Dobon penalty can cause the placings to change.

   Since points are transferred between players, the zero sum is preserved.

5. Any Yakitori penalties are applied (if that optional rule is in use).

   Under the optional Yakitori rule any player who failed to win at least one
   hand in the match must pay a penalty to every player that did win a hand.

   Yakitori payments can cause the placings to change.

   Since points are transferred between players, the zero sum is preserved.

6. Any Tip bonuses are applied (if those optional rules are in use).

   There are five separate rule options which cause bonuses to be awarded for
   lucky occurrences in play: winning by Ippatsu ("one-shot" win after Riichi),
   gaining Ura Dora on a Riichi win, completing a Yakuman (limit-hand), having
   bird tiles in your hand for the zany Toriuchi (bird shooting) rule and for
   matching flipped wall tiles for the Arisu rule.

   These are recorded via the transfer of chips during the game and translate
   into 5 per chip in this penultimate stage of score reckoning.

   Tip payments can cause the placings to change.

   Since points are transferred between players, the zero sum is preserved.

7. The Sashiuma side-bet payment is made (if that option is in use).

   After all other payments have been made in this process, the scores of the
   two opponents who placed the bet are compared and the one with the lower
   score pays 10 to the other.

   Sashiuma payments can cause the placings to change.

   Since points are transferred between players, the zero sum is preserved.

Confused? You will be. Here are some worked examples...

                                   Example A
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
o 30k buy-in and 25k starting scores (so 20k Oka is paid in Step 1).

o 5-10 Uma is applied (in Step 3).

o Dobon applied but no players busted/penalized (so no change in Step 4).

o No Yakitori, no Tips and no Sashiuma (so no change in Steps 5, 6 and 7).

          |   End Scores   |  Step 1 | St.2 | St.3 | St.4 | St.5 | St.6 | St.7
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player A | +38,100 points | +58,100 |  +28 |  +38 |  +38 |  +38 |  +38 |  +38
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player B | +26,200 points | +26,200 |   -4 |   +1 |   +1 |   +1 |   +1 |   +1
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player C | +21,600 points | +21,600 |   -8 |  -13 |  -13 |  -13 |  -13 |  -13
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player D | +14,100 points | +14,100 |  -16 |  -26 |  -26 |  -26 |  -26 |  -26
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
  totals: | 100,000 points | 120,000 |    0 |    0 |    0 |    0 |    0 |    0

                                   Example B
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
o 30k buy-in and 27k starting scores (so 12k Oka is paid in Step 1).

o 20-30 Uma is applied (in Step 3).

o Dobon applied but no players busted/penalized (so no change in Step 4).

o Yakitori is used with a penalty of 10. Only Player C failed to win a hand so
  they pay a penalty of 10 each to every other player (in Step 5).

o Ippatsu Tips are used. Player A won two hands by Ippatsu after reaching - one
  by Ron off Player B and another by Ron off Player D. Two Tip chips were paid
  by the discarder on each occasion and these translate into a payment of 10
  each (in Step 6).

o No Sashiuma (so no change in Step 7).

          |   End Scores   |  Step 1 | St.2 | St.3 | St.4 | St.5 | St.6 | St.7
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player A | +45,200 points | +57,200 |  +27 |  +57 |  +57 |  +67 |  +87 |  +87
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player B | +28,800 points | +28,800 |   -1 |  +19 |  +19 |  +29 |  +19 |  +19
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player C | +24,000 points | +24,000 |   -6 |  -26 |  -26 |  -56 |  -56 |  -56
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player D | +10,000 points | +10,000 |  -20 |  -50 |  -50 |  -40 |  -50 |  -50
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
  totals: | 108,000 points | 120,000 |    0 |    0 |    0 |    0 |    0 |    0

In this case Player C drops from 3rd to 4th place due to the Yakitori payments.

                                   Example C
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
o 30k buy-in and low 16k starting scores (so 56k Oka is paid in Step 1).

o 0-30 Uma is applied (in Step 3).

o Dobon is applied with a penalty of 30. The game ended early with Player D 
  busting out by Player B so the 30 penalty is paid by D to B (in Step 4).

o Yakitori is used with a penalty of 20. Only Player D failed to win a hand so
  they pay a penalty of 20 each to every other player (in Step 5).

o No Tips (so no change in Step 6).

o Players A and D were running a Sashiuma side-bet. Player D had the lower score
  in Step 6 and therefore pays 10 to Player A (in Step 7).

          |   End Scores   |  Step 1 | St.2 | St.3 | St.4 | St.5 | St.6 | St.7
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player A | +28,900 points | +84,900 |  +55 |  +85 |  +85 | +105 | +105 | +115
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player B | +19,300 points | +19,300 |  -11 |  -11 |  +19 |  +39 |  +39 |  +39
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player C | +16,900 points | +16,900 |  -13 |  -13 |  -13 |   +7 |   +7 |   +7
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
 Player D |  -1,100 points |  -1,100 |  -31 |  -61 |  -91 | -151 | -151 | -161
 ---------+----------------+---------+------+------+------+------+------+------
  totals: |  64,000 points | 120,000 |    0 |    0 |    0 |    0 |    0 |   0

Of course the game does all this for you but I think it's nice to know where all
those numbers come from. :)

The highlight from my first season of league play was when I scored a Tsumo win
with a Yakuman (limit-hand) in the first hand of a match in stage 5 where the
Infure (inflation) rule-set is used. I was the dealer and I was also the Wareme
player so it took my score to 25,000 pts + 48,000 pts x 2 = 121,000 pts and I
busted all three opponents in the process. After collecting the 24k Oka, 20-30
Uma, three 30k Dobon penalties, three 20k Yakitori penalties, fifteen chips for
the Yakuman (15 x 5k) and 10k for my side-bet I had a final score of +380! :D


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 15 | CONTACT                                                     s15 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

I welcome all feedback on this guide and any contributions you'd like to make.
I'm also happy to receive questions about this or any other mahjong game, or
about the rules and terminology of Japanese mahjong.

You can email me at barticle at hotmail.com - obviously changing the "at" to an
@ and removing the spaces. It would be helpful if you include the word "mahjong"
somewhere in the subject line and tell me which game you're playing.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 16 | THANKS                                                      s16 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

I would like to thank the following:-

o jp-gift (eBay ID) for a smooth transaction

o Tangorin.com and Tuttle (as always) for great language resources

o Slow Meadow, Lunae Lumen, London Docks and musicformessier for super sounds

I will be happy to give credit and thanks to anyone who makes a contribution.
        ___________                                          ___        
        \______   /                              ___        /  /        
              /  /                       __      \_/       /  /         
             /   \___ ________ _________/  \__ ___ ______ /  /  ________
.-------o   /  __   / \___   //  ___/\_   ___//  //  ___//  /  /  __   /
| ANOTHER  /  / /  /_____/  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /   \/  / 
'---------/  /-/  //  __   //  /-----/  /---/  //  /---/  /--/  _____/---------.
         /  / /  //  / /  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /  /         GUIDE |
        /   \/  //   \/  //  /     /   \_ /  //   \_ /   \ /   \________ o-----'
        \______/ \______/ \_/      \____/ \_/ \____/ \___/ \___________/
--
Mahjong Taikai (PSP) Guide
Copyright 2015 James R. Barton
Initial version 1.00 completed 2 Oct 2015

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