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Mahjong Guide by barticle

Version: 1.00 | Updated: 02/15/15

Kurohyou 2 Mahjong Guide - Ver. 1.00 - 15 Feb 2015 - by Barticle at hotmail.com
   _   __ _    _  _____    ____   _    _ __    __ ____   _    _     _________
  | | / /| |  | ||  __ \  / __ \ | |  | |\ \  / // __ \ | |  | |   |_   _   _|
  | |/ / | |  | || |__) )| |  | || |__| | \ \/ /| |  | || |  | |     | | | |
  |   (  | |  | ||  _  / | |  | ||  __  |  \  / | |  | || |  | |     | | | |
  | |\ \ | |__| || | \ \ | |__| || |  | |  / /  | |__| || |__| |    _| |_| |_
  |_| \_\ \____/ |_|  \_\ \____/ |_|  |_| /_/    \____/  \____/    |_________|

               ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___   ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
              |   |   |   |   |   |   |   | |   |   |   |   |   |
              | M | A | H | J | O | N | G | | G | U | I | D | E |
              |___|___|___|___|___|___|___| |___|___|___|___|___|
 

      01 INTRODUCTION                      09 RULE OPTIONS
      02 WHEN AND WHERE                    10 SCORE CALCULATION
      03 PARLOUR MENUS                        o Points and Minipoints
         o Manager                            o Limits
         o Assistant                          o Exhaustive Draws and Honba
      04 PLAY MODES                           o Abortive Draws
         o Free Play                          o Oka and Jun'i Uma
         o Ranking Battle                  11 CONTROLS
      05 QUICKSTART GUIDE                  12 DISPLAY
      06 MAHJONG TILES                        o Table View
      07 WINDS AND TURN OF PLAY               o Score Screen
      08 MAHJONG RULES                     13 GAMEPLAY STATS
         o The Basics                      14 COMPLETION
         o Calling Pung and Calling Chow   15 WI-FI PLAY
         o Declaring Wins: Tsumo and Ron   16 INFINITE MONEY
         o Declaring Riichi                17 STRATEGY
         o Scoring Elements and Fan        18 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
         o Limit Hands                     19 GLOSSARY
         o Double Limit Hands              20 CONTACT
         o Dora Bonuses                    21 THANKS

.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 01 | INTRODUCTION                                                s01 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

This is a full guide to the traditional tabletop game of mahjong, specifically
the modern Japanese rules and the mahjong minigame in the 2012 Japanese PSP game
'Kurohyou 2: Ryuu ga Gotoku - Ashura Hen'* (hereafter "Kurohyou 2").

There are two Kurohyou games for the PSP, spin-offs from the 'Ryuu ga Gotoku'
series which have (mostly) been released under the 'Yakuza' title in the West.
The games feature different, younger, characters but otherwise offer everything
you'd expect to find in an RGG/Yakuza title. They feature the same city maps
(Kamurochou in both games plus Soutenbori in Kurohyou 2) and loads of content
including numerous story cut-scenes (using a stylish graphic-novel aesthetic),
brawler combat (with revamped combat system), plenty of side-missions, various
restaurants and shops, hostess dating and several playable minigames (although
mahjong is only available in Kurohyou 2). There are also a range of part-time
jobs to try. And yes, of course you can still hit people with bicycles. :)

For a complete guide to the game check out the main Japanese wiki site at the
address below. If you use a browser with a built-in translation function (e.g.
Google Chrome) you should be able to find everything you need to know there.

                  http://kouryakutsushin.com/kurohyo2wiki/

If you want to get into playing mahjong as soon as possible then skip down to
Section 05 for my quickstart beginner's guide. You can also find an illustrated
version of this on the Yakuza wiki site here:

    http://yakuza.wikia.com/wiki/Barticle's_Introduction_to_Japanese_Mahjong

Mahjong has a lot of rules and specialist vocabulary so it can be difficult to
describe one aspect without making reference to others which I haven't yet
explained but I've done my best to make everything clear. Where a new term is
defined it is given in CAPS for easy reference. There is also a basic glossary
near the end of the guide (Section 19).

Primarily I'll be using the translated English terminology that was previously
used in the localized games Yakuza 2, Yakuza 4 and Yakuza: Dead Souls but I will
add some Japanese terms where I think it'll aid further study. If you want to
learn more then check out my complete guide to the terminology and rules of
Japanese mahjong. It's available as a 78-page, illustrated, linked PDF and can
be accessed from the United States Professional Mahjong League website here:

  http://www.uspml.com/site/downloads.htm  (Barticle's Japanese Mahjong Guide)

If you want to discuss Japanese mahjong then join the international community of
enthusiasts on Reach Mahjong's English forums. Hope to see you there. :)

                    http://www.reachmahjong.com/en/forum

Although Kurohyou 2 has superior presentation, options, controls and stats for
its mahjong minigame compared to the titles of the main RGG series you may still
want to think about getting yourself a proper dedicated Japanese mahjong game.
For reference I have full guides for a number of DS, PS3, PS4 and PSP mahjong
titles available on this site.

To jump to any section of this document use your browser's Find function (with
Ctrl+F on a PC or Cmd+F on a Mac probably) and search for the letter S followed
by the two-digit section number, for example s04 to find Section 04.

This guide is designed to be viewed using a monospaced (non-proportional or
fixed-width) font, preferably Courier New. Some sections of the document will
display incorrectly if you are using a proportional font like Times New Roman.

*Kurohyou means literally "black panther", Ryuu ga Gotoku means "like a dragon",
Ashura is the Japanese rendering of the Buddhist term "Asura" which describes a
category of violent demigods and Hen just means "volume" (like a book).


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 02 | WHEN AND WHERE                                              s02 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Kurohyou 2 features two urban maps which will both be instantly familiar to fans
of the RGG/Yakuza franchise.

o Kamurochou is the larger of the two maps. This has been the primary location
  for every game in the RGG/Yakuza series apart from the two historic samurai
  spin-off titles Kenzan (2008) and Ishin (2014).

  Kamurochou is modelled on Kabukichou which is a neighbourhood in the Shinjuku
  area of Tokyo. Kabukichou is known for being a major red-light district with
  many sex shops, hostess clubs, love hotels and massage parlours in addition to
  normal bars, restaurants, pachinko parlours, karaoke clubs and cinemas - plus
  of course our beloved and iconic Don Quijote cornershop.

  You can tour the real streets of Kabukichou on Google Maps here:

                     http://preview.tinyurl.com/explore-yak4

  Tokyo is situated in the Kanto region of Japan.

o Soutenbori is the smaller map with the canal running through it. Soutenbori is
  the second city map in Yakuza 2 and one of five maps in Yakuza 5; it will also
  feature as the second city in the forthcoming prequel Ryuu ga Gotoku Zero.

  Soutenbori is based on the Doutonbori district of Osaka - the area around the
  two bridges that cross over the canal. Like Kabukichou, it's an entertainment
  district which has many eateries, including the Kani Douraku crab restaurant
  with the large animated crab display above the entrance. Osaka is infamous as
  being the major centre of yakuza activity in Japan which made it an obvious
  choice for inclusion in some of the games of the main Yakuza series.

  You can tour the real streets (and canal) of Doutonbori on Google Maps here:
  
                       http://preview.tinyurl.com/doutonbori

  Osaka is situated in the Kansai region of Japan.

Unlike Yakuza 2 and Yakuza 5, mahjong is not playable in Soutenbori in this
game. The mahjong parlour is in its usual location in Kamurochou though - just
east of the Ebisuya pawnshop on the alley behind the Donki and Poppo cornershops
at the bottom of the map. If you have the cool little fold-out map that came
with the game you'll see the parlour marked as location #20. (If not just tap
the Select button during play to open the in-game map and look for the most
southerly green thing!)

In Chapter 1 you begin down in the south-west corner of the Kamurochou map, by
the famous gate at the bottom of Tenkaichi Street. As usual you'll be confined
to a small portion of the map while the game guides you through all the combat
tutorials and the opening phase of the story.

After defeating the first boss, Chapter 2 begins with an intro scene and a quick
fight against a couple of Chinpira (minor gangsters). You now have access to
Tatsuya's safehouse - just up past the M-Store konbini in north-west Kamurochou
- where you can manage inventory, change clothes, check completion stats, etc.

You also now have full access to the map so you can finally go play mahjong - if
you want to keep playing it then take care not to advance the story too far. 

(Chapter 3 commences after beating the second boss in the kickboxing arena. Your
first objective will be to travel to Soutenbori but as long as you don't go near
the taxi by the south-west corner of the map you can stay in Kamurochou for as
long as you want. You'll travel between the two cities several times during the
course of the story but you can only play mahjong in Kamurochou.)


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03 | PARLOUR MENUS                                               s03 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

When you enter the mahjong parlour you'll see a poster for the awesome mahjong
manga Akagi! :D How cool is that? There are also a couple of members of staff.

                                     Manager
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Speak to the guy at the reception desk to buy mahjong points or trade mahjong
credit points for items. When you interact with him you'll get two options:

                               1. Prize exchange
                               2. Cancel

Picking the top option gives a new menu:

                      1. Buy credit points
                      2. Exchange credit points for prizes
                      3. Cancel

The number in white at the top-right of the screen shows how much money you have
and the yellow number at the bottom-left is your mahjong credit points total.

Picking the top option gives you the following menu. You'll notice that mahjong
credit is always bought at the rate of one Yen per point. You'll need to buy
some points before you can participate in either of the mahjong play modes.

                1. Buy 50,000 credit points for 50,000 Yen
                2. Buy 100,000 credit points for 100,000 Yen
                3. Buy 500,000 credit points for 500,000 Yen
                4. Buy 1,000,000 credit points for 1,000,000 Yen

Since mahjong games are played with a conversion RATE in Kurohyou 2 I decided to
refer to the points you buy as "credit points". Usually in Japanese mahjong all
four players buy into a game with 30,000 pts each but then start the match with
a score of 25,000 pts. The remaining points (4 x 5,000 pts = 20,000 pts) form a
bonus called the OKA which is paid to the match winner at the end.

However when a game is played with a rate there will be a conversion factor. For
example say you buy 50,000 credit points and enter a match where a x0.1 rate is
applied. Instead of paying 30,000 credit points to buy into the match you pay
3,000 credit points so now your total is 47,000 pts (it's equivalent to buying
those 30,000 pts for 3,000 Yen instead of 30,000 Yen). As usual your starting
score will be 25,000 pts and the winner will receive the 20,000 pts bonus. Your
game points at the end of the match will be converted back into credit points.

Choosing the option to trade some of your credit points gives a store interface
where the following goodies are available:

                Prize |  Points Cost  | Use
======================+===============+=========================================
       Platinum Plate |   150,000 pts | Sell for 150,000 Yen
----------------------+---------------+-----------------------------------------
           Gold Plate |   100,000 pts | Sell for 100,000 Yen
----------------------+---------------+-----------------------------------------
         Silver Plate |    13,000 pts | Sell for 13,000 Yen
----------------------+---------------+-----------------------------------------
         Copper Plate |     1,000 pts | Sell for 1,000 Yen
----------------------+---------------+-----------------------------------------
           Iron Plate |       100 pts | Sell for 100 Yen
======================+===============+=========================================
         Diamond Ring |   100,000 pts | Punch power +10%
----------------------+---------------+-----------------------------------------
  Turquoise Bracelet* |   100,000 pts | Kick power +10%
----------------------+---------------+-----------------------------------------
    Powerful Bracelet |   100,000 pts | Grapple power +10%
----------------------+---------------+-----------------------------------------
    Runner's Necklace |   100,000 pts | Stamina +10%
======================+===============+=========================================
 Ronin's Study Amulet |   100,000 pts | Abilities -10%, XP and Proficiency +10%
----------------------+---------------+-----------------------------------------
   Solid Gold Demon** | 1,000,000 pts | Abilities -50%, encounter rate inc.

As in other RGG/Yakuza games you cannot "cash out" and convert your points
directly back into money like you would with chips at an American or European
casino; this is a consequence of the (real) gambling laws in Japan. Instead you
trade your credit points for prizes and if you want the money you have to sell
the items at the pawnshop (which is conveniently located just down the road).

Use d-pad up/down to select an item and press Circle to confirm. You can then
specify the quantity you require, press Circle to accept, then pick the left
option (yes) and press Circle again to confirm. If your personal inventory is
full you'll get an additional prompt where you can pick the left option again
and confirm to send the item/s to your item box. Press Cross to exit the "shop"
menu and pick the left option one last time to confirm.

   (see Section 16 for details of a major bug exploit that's possible here!)

In the pawnshop (the brightly lit place with the red banners outside) speak to
the guy at the counter and pick the second option to sell. Press the Square
button to toggle between your inventory and the item box. Select an item with
the Circle button, set the quantity to sell, press Circle to accept then pick
the left option and press Circle again to confirm.

Unlike some of the other games there is no loss in Yen/points/prize conversion
in Kurohyou 2 so for example you could spend 100,000 Yen to buy 100,000 credit
points, buy a Gold Plate for 100,000 pts and then sell it for 100,000 Yen.

*The word used for bracelet here is Misanga which is specifically a good-luck
bracelet. The Japanese language has many loanwords taken from other languages,
often English, but in this case it's based on the Portuguese word Missanga.

**The demon here is specifically a Yakubyougami. Before the advent of modern
medicine any major epidemic would be blamed on a Yakubyougami - a god of plague
and pestilence who took the form of an old man.

                                    Assistant
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Speak to the other guy standing at the front right* and you get two options:

                                   1. Play
                                   2. Cancel

Picking the top option opens the main mahjong menu:

                              1. Free Play
                              2. Ranking Battle
                              3. Stats
                              4. Buy credit points
                              5. Exit

Again your cash total is at the top and your mahjong points total at the bottom.

The Free Play and Ranking Battle play modes are covered in Section 04 and the
gameplay stats are explained in Section 13. Picking the option to buy credit
points gives the same four options as before.

*Sometimes when you speak to the parlour assistant his first box of dialogue
will have three lines of text instead of the usual one. He tells you that one
table is requesting a Daiuchi (substitute player) to take the place of one of
the players. If you accept you'll join a match in the final Hand and in 4th
place (you have 20k points and your opponents have 22k, 28k and 30k pts each).

Your own credit points total will be unaffected by the outcome but if you manage
to achieve a final position better than 4th then you win a prize. For 1st place
you get a Gold Plate and for 3rd place you get a Copper Plate. I'm yet to see it
happen but I'm going to assume you get a Silver Plate for making 2nd place.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 04 | PLAY MODES                                                  s04 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

There are two different modes available for mahjong play in Kurohyou 2.

                                    Free Play
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Free Play is the first option on the main mahjong menu.

Free Play is what I've labelled as the "Gambling Mode" in previous games. It is
not free in the sense of "free to play"! You play one-off matches for points.

The Free Play menu shows your money total at the top and your mahjong credit
points total at the bottom. You can press Select to view eleven pages of basic
info including the minigame controls. 

There are a total of twenty different match types available to play here. Press
L/R to page between the four tabs and use the d-pad or thumbstick to pick one of
the following options:

    Medium Rate    |     High Rate     |    Higher Rate    |    Highest Rate
 ==================+===================+===================+===================
  one-round normal |  one-round normal |  one-round normal |  one-round normal
 ------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------
  two-round normal |  two-round normal |  two-round normal |  two-round normal
 ------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------
  one-round Wareme |  one-round Wareme |  one-round Wareme |  one-round Wareme
 ------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------
  two-round Wareme |  two-round Wareme |  two-round Wareme |  two-round Wareme
 ------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------
                                       | one-round special | one-round special
                                       |-------------------+-------------------
                                       | two-round special | two-round special

Wareme matches are always played with the Wareme doubling rule and "special"
matches are played with the Dai-Wareme rule. (see Section 09 for details)

The rule settings for each match type are shown in the box on the left side:

.-------------------.
|  Starting Score   | - players always start the match with 25,000 pts each
|   25,000 points   |
:-------------------:
|     Red Fives     | - e.g. there is one red five per suit (three total), each
|         1         |   one adds value to your winning hand (see Section 09)
:-------------------:
|     Jun'i Uma     | - the UMA payments are applied at the match end, e.g.
|       10-30       |   1st +30k pts, 2nd +10k pts, 3rd -10k pts, 4th -30k pts
:-------------------:
|   Special Rules   | - this shows if a Wareme rule is applied in the match
|       Normal      |
'-------------------'

Matches played at the bigger rates will have larger Uma. In addition to using
the Dai-Wareme rule the "special" matches also use four red fives per suit (i.e.
all fives are red). These are what you would call INFURE ("inflation") rules -
the rule options give the potential for massive wins... and losses!

The orange and yellow text at the bottom of the screen gives further information
about the selected match type. The first yellow number is the amount of credit
points which you are required to hold before you can join the match, the second
number is the small non-returnable cover charge which you must pay to join and
the third number is the amount of credit points that you pay to buy into the
match (to buy your game points).

Although not explicitly shown here the game is applying a specific rate to each
match type. The standard buy-in for Japanese mahjong is 30,000 pts (players then
start the match with 25,000 pts each and the rest form the Oka winner's bonus of
20,000 pts) but the buy-in cost will be modified by the rate as follows.

o Medium Rate is x0.1

  The required buy-in is 30,000 pts x 0.1 = 3,000 pts (costs 3,000 Yen)

o High Rate is x0.5

  The required buy-in is 30,000 pts x 0.5 = 15,000 pts (costs 15,000 Yen)

o Higher Rate is x2.0

  The required buy-in is 30,000 pts x 2.0 = 60,000 pts (costs 60,000 Yen)

o Highest Rate is x5.0

  The required buy-in is 30,000 pts x 5.0 = 150,000 pts (costs 150,000 Yen)

Clearly if you are still learning to play mahjong you should stick with the
Medium Rate matches where the rate/buy-in and cover charges are much lower!

At the end of each match the final placings are shown. The player in 1st place
receives the 20,000 pts Oka bonus and then the Uma payments are made. This will
never change the placings, it'll only ever affect the profit/loss for each
player. Finally if a player got busted they pay the 10,000 pts Tobi Bonus to
whoever busted them.

The game will then ask if you want to play again (with the same settings). Pick
the left option to accept or the right option to return to the Free Play menu.
                                       __

Here's a worked example of the numbers from a one-round special match played at
the crazy "Highest" rate:

o You spend 1,000,000 Yen to buy your first 1,000,000 credit points

  (you need at least 790,300 credit pts to join the match)

o The cover charge is 300 credit pts

o The buy-in is 30k multiplied by the rate = 30,000 x 5.0 = 150,000 credit pts

o After joining you now have 1,000,000 - 300 - 150,000 = 849,700 credit pts

o You start the match with the standard starting score of 25,000 game pts

o You win the match with a score of 75,000 game pts

o For 1st place you receive 20,000 game pts for Oka and 30,000 game pts for Uma

o In this example you also get the 10,000 pts Tobi Bonus for busting a player

o Your final score is 75,000 + 20,000 + 30,000 + 10,000 = 135,000 game pts

o This is converted back to credit points = 135,000 x 5.0 = 675,000 credit pts

  (your profit is 675,000 - 300 - 150,000 = 524,700 credit pts = 524,700 Yen)

o Your credit points total is now 849,700 + 675,000 = 1,524,700 credit pts

You can see that the inflated gambling modes can give you some very big profits
but it's a risky business and you could easily lose a lot too.

(You might want to disable auto-save and then save/re-load manually so you can
undo any significant losses. The options menu is the sixth choice off the pause
menu and auto-save is the fourth option there. Save is the seventh choice off
the pause menu - pick a slot then select the left option (yes) to confirm. If
you disable auto-save then don't forget to save manually when you need to!)

                                  Ranking Battle
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Ranking Battle is the second option on the main mahjong menu.

This option functions as a league mode. There is a league ladder of one hundred
players (including you) and you must fight your way from the bottom to the top!

The Ranking Battle screen shows the league standings on the left side with your
position marked red. You can scroll up/down this with the d-pad or thumbstick.

 --O |    / _|__      Your position in the league (and at the table during play)
  /  | / /|  | / ---  is always marked with the katakana word "pureiyaa" which
 /   |/   |  |        is the English word "player" rendered in Japanese kana.

The right-hand side of the screen shows the rule options for the next match, for
example in your first few matches it will show the following:

.-------------------.
|  Required Points  | - this is the amount of credit points you're required to 
|   16,000 points   |   hold before playing (to cover any potential losses)
:-------------------:
|       Rate        | - this is the exchange rate between credit points and game
|       x0.1        |   points; with the low rate (x0.1) it will cost you only
:-------------------:   3,000 credit points to pay the basic 30,000 pts buy-in
|       Rules       |
|    Format: Normal | - the Wareme doubling rule is not applied
|    Rounds: 1      | - "east wind" (in kanji) = one-round match
| Red fives: 1      | - e.g. there is one red five per suit (three total)
| Jun'i Uma: 10-30  | - 1st +30k pts, 2nd +10k pts, 3rd -10k pts, 4th -30k pts
'-------------------'

Press Circle to start the next league match. You'll get a pop-up which shows the
cover charge and the buy-in with the current rate applied, for example in your
early matches the cover is 200 credit points and the buy-in is 3,000 credit
points. Pick the left option (yes) to accept both fees and begin the match.

Just like the tournament mode in the recent Yakuza games, you will always play
against the person immediately below you in the ladder and the two people above
you (unless you're currently in 100th, 2nd or 1st place, of course). After the
game, the four of you will occupy the same four positions in the ladder but you
will now be listed in order of your placings in the match.

So, for example, if you are in 16th position in the ladder you would always play
against the people in 17th, 15th and 14th. The player who comes first at the end
of the game will then become 14th, second place will be 15th, third place will
be 16th and fourth place will be 17th. Here's an example demonstrating how your
character will climb two places up the ladder by winning a match:

   Ladder Standings Before       Game Results         Ladder Standings After
   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯       ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯         ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
        14th Player A            1st You        ------->  14th You
        15th Player B            2nd Player B   ------->  15th Player B
        16th You                 3rd Player A   ------->  16th Player A
        17th Player C            4th Player C   ------->  17th Player C

In other words you will only ever lose position if you come 4th in a match. You
will also see that you'll need to play at least fifty matches in order to reach
1st place overall in the league! (probably a lot more than fifty)

At the end of each match the final placings are shown. The player in 1st place
receives the 20,000 pts Oka bonus and then the Jun'i Uma payments are made (e.g.
with the "10-30" Uma 4th pays 30,000 pts to 1st and 3rd pays 10,000 pts to 2nd).
This will never change the placings, it'll only ever affect the profit/loss for
each player. Finally if a player got busted they pay the 10,000 pts Tobi Bonus
to whoever busted them.

Next the game shows your previous credit points total (after paying the cover
charge and buy-in to join the match), your final score after Oka and Uma, the
rate applied and your final score converted back to credit points. The credit
points from the match are then added onto your overall total.
                                       __

As you advance up the league rankings the rule settings will change. As you go
higher up the ladder the stakes also become much higher!

    Ranks | 100 to 76  |  75 to 51  |  50 to 31   |  30 to 11   |    10 to 1
==========+============+============+=============+=============+===============
 Required | 16,000 pts | 79,300 pts | 316,300 pts | 790,300 pts | 1,580,600 pts
----------+------------+------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
     Rate |    x0.1    |    x0.5    |     x2      |     x5      |      x10
----------+------------+------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
   Format |   Normal   |   Normal   |   Wareme    |   Wareme    |  Dai-Wareme
----------+------------+------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
   Rounds |     1      |     1      |      1      |      1      |       2
----------+------------+------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
Red fives |     1      |     2      |      1      |      2      |       4
----------+------------+------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
Jun'i Uma |   10-30    |   10-30    |    10-30    |    20-30    |     20-30
==========+============+============+=============+=============+===============
   Buy-in |  3,000 pts | 15,000 pts |  60,000 pts | 150,000 pts |  300,000 pts
----------+------------+------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
    Cover |    200 pts |    200 pts |     300 pts |     300 pts |      600 pts

You'll need to hold over 1.5 million Yen's worth of credit points to play in the
top ten and you have to pay almost a third of a million each time you play but
you can win back over a million each time.

Your ultimate objective is obviously to reach the top of the league but there is
no reward for achieving or defending that spot. However in order to make that
progress you should find that you earn a substantial amount of points especially
once you start playing with the high rates. You could also see your reward as
unlocking the massive x10 rate which is unavailable in Free Play mode.
                                       __

Here's a worked example of the numbers from an early Ranking Battle match:

o You spend 50,000 Yen to buy your first 50,000 credit points

  (you need at least 16,000 credit pts to join the match)

o The cover charge is 200 credit pts

o The buy-in is 30k multiplied by the rate = 30,000 x 0.1 = 3,000 credit pts

o After joining you now have 50,000 - 200 - 3,000 = 46,800 credit pts

o You start the match with the standard starting score of 25,000 game pts

o You win the match with a score of 46,500 game pts

o For 1st place you receive 20,000 game pts for Oka and 30,000 game pts for Uma

o Your final score is 46,500 + 20,000 + 30,000 = 96,500 game pts

o This is converted back to credit points = 96,500 x 0.1 = 9,650 credit pts

  (your profit is 9,650 - 200 - 3,000 = 6,450 credit pts = 6,450 Yen)

o Your credit points total is now 46,800 + 9,650 = 56,450 credit pts

Finally the game displays your old and new league positions (yellow text). Text
at the top of the screen indicates a gain (red) or drop (blue) in position.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 05 | QUICKSTART GUIDE                                            s05 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Although it's no substitute for reading this entire (loooong!) document, I've
written this section to cover the essentials as concisely as possible. This will
hopefully enable anyone with little or no knowledge of mahjong to achieve a
useful functional level of ability on a short timescale.

For an expanded and illustrated version of my mahjong quickstart guide check out
my article on the English RGG/Yakuza wiki site here:

    http://yakuza.wikia.com/wiki/Barticle's_Introduction_to_Japanese_Mahjong

o You'll need to learn to recognize the Chinese/Japanese numbers 1 to 9 which
  appear on the Craks suit (the tiles with red and black markings).

  You should really learn East, South, West and North for the Wind tiles too.

  You can use/print my image here for reference for all thirteen kanji:

               http://yakuza.wikia.com/wiki/File:Mahjong-tiles.jpg

o You start with 13 tiles and each turn you take one extra and discard one. Your
  aim is to make a complete hand composed of four sets of three and one matching
  pair. The set can be a Chow (three consecutive tiles in the same suit), a Pung
  (a triplet of three identical tiles) or exceptionally a Kong (a quad set).

o When your hand is "ready" (one tile away from being complete) a black bar will
  appear above your hand showing which tile/s would complete it, how many of
  each are available and how many in total are available.

  You may have more than one possible discard that would leave your hand ready.
  Scroll through your tiles to see what your winning tiles would be. Usually it
  is best to pick the option that gives the highest number of winning tiles but
  sometimes another option will give a more valuable hand.

o If an opponent discards a tile which you could use to make a triplet then you
  can call Pon to steal it, but the set and your hand will now be "exposed" and
  no longer "concealed". Similarly you can call Chii off the player to your left
  to make a sequence but again it will be exposed. It is usually best to NOT do
  this because you'll limit your scoring potential. Keep your hand concealed and
  reject any Pon and Chii pop-up options that appear.

o Unless you have a hand which obviously lends itself to triplets or pairs, you
  should usually try to make sequences. Keep the numbered tiles from the three
  suits, favouring ones that can make sets together. For example, 6_8 becomes a
  sequence by adding a 7 or _45_ becomes a sequence if you get a 3 or a 6.
  Groups of four or more adjacent suit tiles can be very versatile.

o In addition to the four sets, your hand will also need a pair of two identical
  tiles so make sure you keep a pair when you have one.

o To declare a win with a hand it *must* also qualify for at least one Scoring
  Element. These are loosely equivalent to the combinations of poker except in
  mahjong you can combine them. Check Section 08 of this guide for descriptions
  or see Wikipedia for an illustrated list.

               https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_Mahjong_yaku

o The two most important Scoring Elements are Riichi and Pinfu. I would suggest
  that most of the time you attempt to use both in combination, hopefully with
  some other stuff too to boost your score.

o If your hand is ready (one tile away from being complete) and concealed you
  can declare Riichi by pressing the Triangle button. Your hand will be locked
  but if you then get a win it will add a double to your score and there are a
  couple of extra possible bonuses too (Underside Dora and Ippatsu).

  Declaring Riichi does cost 1,000 points to use though so it's best to use it
  when you could win with two or more tiles and when there are at least 15 tiles
  remaining to be played (see yellow counter in the centre of the screen).

o Pinfu is the hardest Scoring Element to explain but it's one of the most
  common and useful. For Pinfu you must meet the following requirements:

  - your hand must be concealed (so don't call Chii/Pon when offered)

  - all four sets must be sequences (which is a good thing because that's the
    most efficient structure to use)

  - the hand must be completed on a Two-Sided Wait, for example _56_ (so your
    your hand must consist of three complete sequences, one pair and two more
    tiles with consecutive numbers in the same suit, e.g. 234 789 345 11 _56_)

  - the pair cannot be composed of any of the Dragons (the special white, green
    and red tiles), the current Prevalent Wind (check the kanji symbol on the
    red square tabletop marker) or your current Seat Wind (shown with the kanji
    symbol next to your player name)

  It sounds complicated but this should all flow naturally from sensible play.

o Riichi and Pinfu are often combined with All Simples. This is achieved by
  having a hand with no Dragons, Winds, 1's or 9's, in other words the hand is
  composed entirely of suit tiles with numbers between 2 and 8 inclusive.

o Another handy way to boost your score is the Dora bonus tiles. The tile shown
  in the centre of the screen is the Dora indicator and the next sequential tile
  is the Dora and each is worth one double. For example if the indicator is the
  2-Dots tile and you have a pair of 3-Dots in your hand then you have two Dora.

  (The numbers wrap so a 9 indicator makes the Dora 1 in the same suit and the
  Dragons and Winds follow the sequences Green>Red>White>Green (it happens to be
  in alphabetical order in English) and East>South>West>North>East.)

  With the red fives option applied you'll see special red versions of some of
  the number 5 suit tiles. These are worth one double each too.

  In Kurohyou 2 all Dora (and red fives) are highlighted pale red.

o The player with the current Seat Wind of East receives around 50% extra points
  each time they win; therefore you should try to take advantage of your stints
  as "Dealer". You will "stay on" as East if you win the Hand or if it results
  in a draw where you have a ready hand.

  When you are East your Seat Wind indicator will be red.

o You declare "Tsumo" to register a win with a tile you've drawn yourself or
  "Ron" to win off an opponent's discard.

  If you have a ready hand that could be completed by any of the tiles that you
  have already discarded yourself then you are Furiten and you cannot declare a
  Ron win on any discarded tile; you can still win by Tsumo or you can change
  your hand structure to escape the Furiten.

  (when you are Furiten there will be red text above the winning tiles display)

o The unique button prompts in the right side-bar show available commands:

    Circle - (during your turn) discard selected tile
             (during opponent's turn) call Chii to make a sequence

  Triangle - (during your turn) declare Riichi
             (during opponent's turn) call Pon to make a triplet

    Square - (during your turn) declare Kan to make a quad
             (during opponent's turn) call Kan to make a quad

     Cross - cancel

  R button - (during your turn) declare a Tsumo win
             (during opponent's turn) declare a Ron win

o Although generally you should avoid calling discarded tiles from the other
  players, here are some examples of when it might be a good choice:-

  - If you have a pair of Dragons, Seat Wind or Prevalent Wind (see Pinfu above)
    then you can call Pung on a third matching tile to give the Scoring Element
    required for a win. You might use this to give a quick/cheap win in order to
    stay on as the East in the next Hand.

    (aside from such pairs, you'd usually discard the Winds and Dragons first)

  - If you have several Dora tiles in your hand you might call tiles to complete
    an All Simples hand to secure the win quickly.

  - A Half Flush (one suit plus Winds and Dragons) or Full Flush (one suit only)
    can be completed more easily by calling tiles, although it will devalue the
    hand somewhat.

  - Any player with a ready hand in a draw receives a share of 3,000 points from
    their opponents so even if you are unlikely to win you might call tiles in
    the final few turns to achieve a ready hand.

o Once you've won some points you'll want to keep them! If an opponent declares
  a Ron win off one of your discarded tiles then you pay the full amount for
  their win so sometimes you'll need to play defensively. If another player
  calls Riichi then you know they are only one tile away from winning and the
  safest action is to "fold", i.e. to dismantle your hand so you can discard
  safe tiles. This is a tough lesson to learn but sometimes you need "to lose a
  battle in order to win the war"!

  The best tiles to discard are ones that your opponent has already discarded
  because they will be Furiten on them. It's also good to drop tiles that you or
  the other opponents have discarded since the player declared Riichi.

  (This is another reason not to steal tiles from your opponents. The tiles in
  your exposed set/s are locked so you have less to choose from when folding.)

  Hold the L button and tap left/up/right on the d-pad to activate the safe
  tiles display which will highlight any tiles in your hand that are safe to
  discard against the selected player.

o Be patient, keep practising and enjoy learning the game.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 06 | MAHJONG TILES                                               s06 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Mahjong is a traditional oriental game of skill and luck using a set of tiles
usually made of bone or plastic and played by four players around a square
table. The game's true origins seem to have been lost in the mists (and indeed
myths) of time but it's safe to say that it originated in China and that it 
dates back to the late nineteenth century. There are numerous variants of the
game but I will be focusing on the modern Japanese version (as it appears in
Kurohyou 2) and the associated terminology.

The pieces are likely to make you think of dominoes but the tiles actually have
more in common with a deck of playing cards and the core gameplay is similar to
some card games, most notably Rummy.

A full mahjong set has 144 tiles. In some versions of mahjong the four Seasons
tiles and four Flowers tiles - each associated with one of the four Winds - are
used to give bonuses but in the Japanese version of the game they're removed
from the set so the game is played using the 136 remaining tiles.

Whereas a deck of cards has four suits with thirteen cards in each, a mahjong
set has three suits - Dots, Bamboo (Bams) and Characters (Craks) - with nine
numbered tiles in each and there are also three Dragon tiles and four Wind
tiles. There are four copies of each of these tiles in the full set.

 (3 suits x 9 tiles x 4) + (4 Winds x 4) + (3 Dragons x 4) = 136 tiles in total

If you're new to mahjong you will need to learn to recognize all of the
different tiles so I would suggest that you consult the following webpages:

                      http://mahjong.wikidot.com/equipment

                  http://www.mahjonged.com/mahjong_tiles.html

The tiles numbered 2 to 8 are called SIMPLES, the ones marked 1 and 9 are called
TERMINALS (end of the line) and the seven different Dragon and Wind tiles are
known collectively as HONOURS.

Dots (also known as Circles or PINZU)
¯¯¯¯
The tiles of the DOTS suit are marked simply with blue and red circles denoting
their value, from 1 to 9. The patterns on the first six tiles are similar to the
patterns of dots on dice.

Bamboo (also known as BAMS or SOUZU)
¯¯¯¯¯¯
Similarly the tiles for values of 2 to 9 in the BAMBOO suit are marked with the
appropriate number of (mostly) green symbols, each representing a single piece
of bamboo. The exception is the 1-Bams tile which is traditionally marked with a
bird, in this case a green peacock with a dark grey tail.

Characters (also known as CRAKS or MANZU)
¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The tiles of the CHARACTERS suit are all marked with the same red symbol* plus a
black kanji character above it representing a number 1 to 9. Some real mahjong
tiles made for western markets are marked with "Arabic" (i.e. English) numerals
in the corner but you're out of luck here! To play the game you will need to 
learn which of each of the nine characters represents each of the nine numbers.

Here's a quick attempt to reproduce the nine numbers in ASCII art...
                                        _
                    ___     _____    / _|_       |     _|_             _|_
   _____    ---     ___    | | |_|   |  | |    -----    |       / \     | |
           -----   _____   |/____|   | _|_|_   /   \    '--'   /   \   /  |_

     1       2       3        4         5        6       7       8       9

*The red symbol on each Craks tile represents 10,000. Originally the circles on
the Dots represented individual coins, the Bams were actually strings of one
hundred coins and the Craks were sets of one hundred strings - hence 10,000.

Winds
¯¯¯¯¯
There are four WINDS tiles, each named after one of the cardinal points of the
compass - East, South, West and North. Each is marked with a single black kanji
symbol so again you will have to learn to recognize them.

The four Wind symbols look (a little!) like this. The relative proportions are a
bit off but hopefully you get the idea!

              _+_
     East:   |_|_|     South:   _|_      West:   ____     North:     |
             |_|_|             __|__             _||_              _||/
              /|\             | \ / |           | ||_|              ||
             / | \            |  T  |           |/___|             _||_.

I think the easiest way to tell them apart is to look for the distinguishing 
feature of each symbol. If the kanji looks like it has three legs (tripod) it's
East - this is the most important one to learn because the player sitting at
East is the Dealer. If it looks like a lower-case letter "t" standing next to
its reflection then it's North. The remaining two are similar in appearance but
if it has a flat horizontal bar on top (detonator plunger!) it's West and if the
bar is crossed like a "+" symbol then it's South.

In Japanese mahjong the four Winds are named TON (East), NAN (South), SHAA
(West) and PEI (North), although you don't need to remember that!

Dragons
¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
There are three coloured DRAGONS: red, green and white; the Japanese don't
actually refer to these as Dragons but this is the name by which they are
commonly known internationally and in English texts.

The Red Dragon tile is marked with a simple red kanji character - a box with a
vertical line through it - which means "centre". In Japanese mahjong it is known
as CHUN.

The Green Dragon has a complicated green character which means "departure" and
is read as HATSU.

The White Dragon is a plain white tile and is called HAKU. You might like to
think of it as a white dragon on a white background! :) Outside Japan, the White
Dragon tile is often marked with an empty blue rectangular frame but I prefer
the Japanese version.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 07 | WINDS AND TURN OF PLAY                                      s07 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

You will always play either a Half Game or a Quarter Game (see Section 09).

A HALF GAME is made up of two ROUNDS (or WIND ROUNDS) each of which is comprised
of four HANDS (or KYOKU) and therefore eight Hands* in total, while a QUARTER
GAME, as you might expect, lasts for only one round, or four Hands; although in
both cases extra Hands can be played (see below).

  Seat Winds   At the start of a game the console will select a player to be
  ~~~~~~~~~~   East and therefore the first DEALER (or OYA). The player to the
     West      left of the Dealer is North, opposite is West and to their right
 N .------. S  is South (NB this is the opposite of a western compass layout).
 o |      | o  This is each player's SEAT WIND (or JIKAZE) and these will change
 r |      | u  as the game progresses, moving counter-clockwise around the game
 t |      | t  table at the start of each normal Hand. Each player's Seat Wind
 h '------' h  is shown on screen immediately to the left of their name, using
     East      the same kanji characters as the Wind tiles.

Each time the Seat Winds move, the player at East becomes the new Dealer. It is
important to know which player is the Dealer in each Hand because the current
Dealer pays and receives double points (see Section 10).

In every Hand of the game there is also a PREVALENT WIND (in the sense of a
"prevailing wind") also called the BAKAZE or the ROUND WIND because it changes
at the end of a round. This will always be East in the first round and - in a
two-round match - South in the second round. The Prevalent Wind is shown on the
small square red marker which sits on the table to the front and left of the
first player to be East in the match. It is also the first character in the
purple section in the top-right corner of the screen display.

The following table shows how the Seat Winds rotate during the course of play
for the four players (labelled A-D working counterclockwise around the table).

            |          First Round          |         Second Round          |
            |    (Prevalent Wind = East)    |    (Prevalent Wind = South)   |
  ----------+-------.-------.-------.-------+-------.-------.-------.-------|
       Hand |   1   |   2   |   3   |   4   |   1   |   2   |   3   |   4   |
  ----------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------|
   Player A |  East | North |  West | South |  East | North |  West | South |
   Player B | South |  East | North |  West | South |  East | North |  West |
   Player C |  West | South |  East | North |  West | South |  East | North |
   Player D | North |  West | South |  East | North |  West | South |  East |

            |<-------- Quarter Game ------->|

            |<------------------------- Half Game ------------------------->|

The turn of play is complicated by the fact that it depends on whether a Hand is
won by the Dealer, won by another player or drawn (and how). If a Hand is won by
a non-dealer then the Seat Winds move one place to the right so South becomes
East (and therefore the new Dealer) and the next Hand played is a "normal" one
which is counted as one of the four per round.

However if a Hand is either won by the Dealer or it's a draw and the Dealer is
only one tile away from having a complete hand (their hand is TENPAI or READY)
then an additional extra Hand is played with the same Seat Winds. This is called
a RENCHAN or CONTINUANCE.

If the Hand was a draw but the Dealer was not Tenpai (NO-TEN) then the Seat
Winds move and the next Hand is a normal one, not an extra Hand, although it's
still counted as a draw in terms of points (see Section 10).

If a player is busted (their score drops below zero) then the game applies the
DOBON bankruptcy rule and the match ends instantly. The minigame also uses an
additional optional rule whereby the player that got busted pays a 10,000 pts
penalty (TOBI BONUS) to the player that busted them (this will happen at the
very end of the final score reckoning).

There is one final complication as the game uses an optional rule called AGARI
YAME. If the Dealer (East) in the final Hand of the match wins that Hand and is
leading on points then the match will end instantly. This assures victory for
the player (who can then collect the Oka and Uma bonuses); the alternative would
be to play an extra Hand as normal where they could potentially lose points.

*The term "hand" is used to describe both your allocated tiles, like a hand of
cards, which I will write in lower-case, and the basic unit of gameplay that
makes up a round, which I'll write capitalised as Hand for the sake of clarity.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 08 | MAHJONG RULES                                               s08 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

This section covers the core rules of Japanese mahjong.

                                   The Basics
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
At the start of each Hand of the game, each player draws four tiles, then four
more, then another four and finally one more unless they are the Dealer in which
case they get two (this is how the tiles are issued in the real game*). The
Dealer chooses one tile to discard, then the next player to the right takes a
tile and discards one, then the next player to their right and so on, with play
proceeding in a counterclockwise direction around the table.

The basic aim of the game is to form a complete hand of usually fourteen tiles
which consists of four sets of three tiles each (called Pungs or Chows) and one
matched pair called the ATAMA ("head"), although there are two exceptions to
this pattern which are listed later in this section (Seven Pairs and Thirteen
Orphans) and you can also have a set made of four tiles (a Kong).
    ___ ___ ___     ___ ___ ___     ___ ___ ___     ___ ___ ___     ___ ___
   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
   | 2 | 3 | 4 |   | 6 | 6 | 6 |   | 3 | 4 | 5 |   | 7 | 8 | 9 |   | 1 | 1 |
   |___|___|___|   |___|___|___|   |___|___|___|   |___|___|___|   |___|___|
        set             set             set             set           pair

(A winning hand must also always have at least one Scoring Element - see below.)

A valid set of three tiles can either be a PUNG (also TRIPLET or KOUTSU in
Japanese) which is a triplet of three identical tiles or a CHOW (also SEQUENCE,
RUN or SHUNTSU in Japanese) which is a set of three tiles with consecutive
values from the same suit (I like to think of it as a mini version of a straight
flush in poker) for example 2 Dots, 3 Dots and 4 Dots. Since they lack numerical
values you cannot make a Chow of either Wind or Dragon tiles (they can only form
Pungs, Kongs and pairs).

It is also possible to make a set of four identical tiles called a KONG (also
QUAD or KANTSU in Japanese). This is counted as one of the four sets required to
make a valid hand but it would of course leave you a tile short overall so when
you declare a Kong you take an extra tile, sometimes called a SUPPLEMENT TILE.
(The three different ways to make a Kong are discussed in the next subsection.)

Through the rest of this guide I will use the word SET to refer generally to
Chows, Pungs and Kongs.

You'll notice during play that when a player calls for a discarded tile (see
below) they use special spoken declarations, CHII for a Chow, PON for a Pung or
KAN for a Kong - these are the original Chinese names for the three types of set
transcribed phonetically into Japanese.

*In real life the tiles are taken from the four-sided WALL (or YAMA) but this is
not depicted in this game apart from the part of it known as the DEAD WALL (also
called the WANPAI). The Dead Wall is made up of seven stacks of two tiles each -
the first two stacks are used as supplement tiles after a Kong is declared and
the other five are used as Dora indicators (see Dora Bonuses later in this
section). These five stacks are shown in the centre of the screen.

In Japanese mahjong the Dead Wall is effectively replenished, in other words it
must always have fourteen tiles and therefore for each supplement tile taken
there will be one less tile available from the Wall at the end of the Hand.

                        Calling Pung and Calling Chow
                        ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
If any other player discards a tile which you can use to form a Pung (triplet)
with two tiles you already hold then you can do what is known as CALLING PUNG.
You can take the tile you need but the Pung will then be displayed face up on
the virtual tabletop. Such a Pung is said to be EXPOSED (or OPEN or MELDED) and
your hand is therefore no longer fully CONCEALED (or CLOSED) which restricts
your options and scoring possibilities.

Similarly if the player to your left (and only that player) discards a tile 
which you can use to form a Chow (sequence) with two tiles you're holding then
you can take it; as you might've guessed, this is referred to as CALLING CHOW.
Again the set will be exposed and the hand is no longer concealed. If there is
more than one option then you can choose which two tiles from your hand to use.

Exposed sets are shown to the right of your hand. The captured tile is laid
perpendicularly to the other two and positioned to indicate which player it was
taken from: on the left if taken from the player to your left (1), on the right
if it came from the player to the right (2) and, predictably, in the middle of
the set (3) if it came from the player seated opposite you. (This is necessary
when playing a real game as you need to be able to monitor all your discards to
check if you are Furiten - see next subsection.)
                  ___ ___         ___ ___              ___      ___
         (1) ____|   |   |   (2) |   |   |____    (3) |   |____|   |
            |    |   |   |       |   |   |    |       |   |    |   |
            |____|___|___|       |___|___|____|       |___|____|___|

After calling Pung/Chow the player has fourteen tiles and must make a discard as
if it is their turn and play then continues from the player to their right. So
the turn of play is interrupted - the normal sequence is East, South, West,
North, but if then West calls Pung the next turn will go to North, then East.

Any Pungs and Chows that are exposed (also called MELDS) are locked - the tiles
cannot be discarded and the sets cannot be changed, except to turn an exposed
Pung into an exposed Kong (quad); if you already have an exposed Pung you can
only upgrade it to a Kong with a SELF-DRAWN tile, i.e. one that you were dealt.
This tile is placed above the horizontal tile in the exposed set.
             ____                         ____             ____
            |    |___ ___         ___ ___|    |        ___|    |___
            |____|   |   |       |   |   |____|       |   |____|   |
            |    |   |   |       |   |   |    |       |   |    |   |
            |____|___|___|       |___|___|____|       |___|____|___|

Alternatively if you have a concealed Pung in your hand then you can call Kong
on another player's discard which also makes an exposed Kong. Again one tile is
positioned perpendicular to the others to indicate which player the called tile
was stolen from.
               ___ ___ ___      ___ ___ ___           ___ ___      ___
          ____|   |   |   |    |   |   |   |____     |   |   |____|   |
         |    |   |   |   |    |   |   |   |    |    |   |   |    |   |
         |____|___|___|___|    |___|___|___|____|    |___|___|____|___|

If, on the other hand, you have four of the same tile concealed in your hand you
can choose when to declare it as a Kong. At this point you draw your replacement
tile and the Kong is laid on the table with two tiles facing upwards and two
downwards; such a set is still counted as concealed.

(Since there's no need to draw a replacement tile, it's not necessary to declare
a concealed Chow or Pung in your hand.)

Claims on discards to make a Pung or Kong take precedence over claims to make a
Chow. The game will process this automatically, so occasionally you might be
offered the chance to call Pung, reject this and then see the player to the
discarder's right take the same tile to make an exposed Chow.

            __|__o  \  /          -----                _|___    \  /
              |       /           __|__  ____           |   |     /
            / | \    /              |                   |   |    /
             -'     /              /                   /    |   /

         PON (make a Pung)     CHII (make a Chow)    KAN (make a Kong)
         [Triangle button]      [Circle button]       [Square button]

The option to call Chii, Pon or Kan on a discard appears at the bottom-right
corner of the screen. The option to declare a concealed Kong or to "upgrade" an
exposed Pung into a Kong appears in the same place during your turn.

                        Declaring Wins: Tsumo and Ron
                        ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The are two different ways of declaring a winning hand in Japanese mahjong. If
you complete your hand using a self-drawn tile (one you were "dealt") this is
called TSUMO. If you complete your hand by picking up a discarded tile from
another player this is called RON.

                     .-----.  \  /          \\  /  -------
                     |     |    /              /      |
                     |     |   /              /     --+--
                     |_____|  /              /        |__

                         RON                    TSUMO

Crucially you *must* have at least one of the Scoring Elements or Limit Hands
(see below) to be able to declare a win.

Whereas you can usually call Chow only from the player to your left, you can
call Ron from any player and complete a Chow, Pung or pair to finish your hand;
it doesn't cause the hand to become exposed either.

If you have a ready hand (i.e. one tile away from a complete hand) and *any* of
the tiles among your own discards would complete your hand then you are FURITEN
and cannot claim *any* discard tile to win (Ron). When you are Furiten you can
still win with a self-drawn tile (Tsumo).

There is also a second type of Furiten which is known as TEMPORARY FURITEN. This
occurs if you have a ready hand and (either by choice or accident) don't claim
a Ron win on a discarded tile that would complete it. In this case you only stay
Furiten until your next turn. However if you miss a Ron win after declaring
Riichi (see below) you will be permanently Furiten until the end of that Hand.

The two different ways of winning a Hand, by Tsumo or by Ron, have consequences
on the way points are distributed - with a Tsumo win the three losing players
all pay the winner but with Ron the player who discarded the winning tile has to
pay it all - see SCORE CALCULATION (Section 10) for more information on this.

Previous RGG/Yakuza games have applied a rule called Atama Hane (literally "head
bump") - if two players claim the same discarded tile for a Ron win it is the
person seated closest to the discarder's right that gets the win. However in
Kurohyou 2 the DOUBLE RON rule is allowed instead - both Ron wins are valid and
the discarder must pay both players!

You can declare a win (Ron or Tsumo) by pressing the R button when prompted at
the bottom-right of the screen. The option will be labelled with two kanji.
                                 ___  __   _____
                                  |  |  |      /
                                 -+- |  |     |
                                 /|\ |  |     |
                                  |  |--|    _|

                                   HOURA (win)
                                   [R button]

If you select a tile to discard that would leave you with a ready hand - one
that is one tile away from being complete - the game will display your potential
winning tile/s above the hand. It will show how many of each are still available
and how many in total. Only tiles that give a hand that qualifies for at least
one Scoring Element will be displayed and counted. If you have more than one
possible discard that gives a ready hand then you can switch between them and
see which gives you the best chance of winning.

You should also note the text at the top-right of this display. This indicates
the possible value of your hand in terms of Limits (see Section 10) but if your
hand is Furiten it shows that instead. Helpfully this information is colour-
coded so you don't need to be able to read it.

o white text - less than Mangan
o purple text - potential Mangan (usually 5 Fan)
o cyan text - potential Haneman (6-7 Fan)
o lime green text - potential Baiman (8-10 Fan)
o red text - Furiten
                                Declaring Riichi
                                ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
If you are only one tile away from completing a concealed hand (and there are at
least four tiles still to be drawn in the Hand) you can pay 1,000 points to
declare RIICHI (ready). This is a gamble - essentially you're betting that you
will win the Hand. If you do win, you'll get your 1,000-point stake back, the
Riichi will improve your score and you might get further benefits from Ippatsu
and Underside Dora (these are explained in the "Scoring Elements and Fan" and
"Dora Bonuses" subsections below respectively).

When you (or another player) declare Riichi, a Scoring-Stick (like a casino
chip) is placed above the discard tiles - you are literally putting your 1,000
points on the table - and the first tile to be discarded is placed at right-
angles to the others as a record of when it happened (this is used to check for
Ippatsu (see next subsection) and it also enables other players to see which
tiles you discarded before and at the declaration of Riichi). The 1,000-point
stake/s from any Riichi are claimed by the next player to win a Hand, i.e. if a
Hand results in a draw then any stakes carry over into the next one.

Once you've declared Riichi your hand is frozen and every tile you draw will be
discarded automatically unless it can be used for a Tsumo win (or rarely to
declare a concealed Kong*).

(After you've "reached" you can press L button + Circle to toggle off the auto
discards so you can discard manually if you really want to.)

Riichi is a Scoring Element in its own right so as long as your hand is closed
(with no sets made by stealing an opponent's discard) you can always use Riichi
to give your hand the Scoring Element that's required for a valid win).

                               |  |        -----
                               |  |  ____  __|__
                                 /           |
                                /           /
 
                                    RIICHI
                               [Triangle button]

You declare Riichi by pressing the Triangle button during your turn. When this
is possible a prompt will be shown in the bottom-right side-bar.

If a game ends with Riichi stakes still on the table (i.e. if the final normal
Hand results in a draw where the Dealer is not Tenpai) then the Riichi points
are paid to the player in 1st place at the end of the match.

*If you are given the opportunity to declare a Kong after calling Riichi you
should check first that this won't spoil your hand. On one occasion in Yakuza 2
I'd declared Riichi with a hand including 56777 Craks (which I was counting as a
567 Chow and a 77 pair) and an incomplete Chow of Bams. I was offered a Kong on
the sevens and I accepted without thinking, leaving me with two incomplete sets.
At the end of the Hand I was penalised 8,000 points for "Illegal Riichi". Ouch!

                            Scoring Elements and Fan
                            ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Unlike poker where you can only ever have one type of hand (a full house is not
also one pair and three of a kind), in mahjong you can have a number of patterns
and conditions - referred to as SCORING ELEMENTS or YAKU - in a single hand (I
think the most I've seen is six). Each Scoring Element present in a hand is
awarded a specified number of FAN (also known as HAN) and each Fan will - in
simple terms - *double* your score for the hand (see Section 10).

It's important to note that for a valid win your hand must always qualify for at
least one Scoring Element; you can't just make any random four sets and a pair.

Please note that for any Scoring Elements that require Pungs (triplets) you can
always use one or more Kongs (quads) instead.

Those Scoring Elements marked with an asterisk (*) score one Fan fewer if the
hand is not concealed (i.e. if it has exposed sets completed by calling a tile).
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: PINFU

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: A concealed hand that receives only the basic 20 or 30 minipoints
             (see Section 10) for the declaration of a win. To achieve this all
             four sets must be Chows, the hand must be completed on a TWO-SIDED
             WAIT (e.g. _56_ waiting on a 4 or 7) and the pair cannot be formed
             from Dragon, Seat Wind or Prevalent Wind tiles.

             (Although Pinfu has a low minipoints value it can be combined with
             other Scoring Elements and Dora to boost the score. Since Chows are
             much easier to complete than Pungs it is also an efficient form.)
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: ALL SIMPLES (Tanyao)

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: A hand consisting of only suit tiles with numbers between 2 and 8
             inclusive. The hand must contain no ones, nines, Winds or Dragons.

             All matches in Kurohyou 2 are played with the KUITAN rule which
             allows you to claim All Simples on an open hand, i.e. a hand that
             has one or more sets completed by stealing a tile.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: PURE DOUBLE CHOW (Iipeikou)

             Also known as a DOUBLE RUN.

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: Two identical Chows (same numbers and suit) in a concealed hand.

             (The suit tiles are always displayed in numerical order so this
             will look like three consecutive pairs, 223344, rather than two
             adjacent Chows, 234 234.)
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: FULLY CONCEALED HAND (Menzen Tsumo)

             Also known as CONCEALED SELF-DRAW. Announced simply as "Tsumo".

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: A hand composed entirely of tiles drawn by the player. It cannot
             include any sets completed by calling Chii/Pon/Kan from opponents
             and it cannot be won by Ron off a discard either.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: RIICHI

             Sometimes Anglicized as "REACH" and used as both noun and verb.

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: Awarded if you declared Riichi (see previous description).
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: IPPATSU

             Literally a "ONE-SHOT" win.

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: Awarded if you declare a win within four dealt tiles (one cycle of
             play) after calling Riichi, i.e. on the next discard of any of your
             opponents (Ron) or on your next draw (Tsumo).

             Entitlement to Ippatsu is negated by any player calling Chii/Pon
             or making a Kong.

             Since your hand must be concealed for Riichi, winning on your own
             next turn for Ippatsu will also give Fully Concealed Hand.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: Pung of Seat Wind, Prevalent Wind or Dragon (Yakuhai)

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: A Pung or Kong of either the player's current Seat Wind, the Round
             Wind or any of the three Dragons (red, white or green).

             When your Seat Wind and the Prevalent Wind are the same a Pung or
             Kong of these tiles is worth two Fan instead.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: LAST-TILE TSUMO (Haitei)

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: Declaring a Tsumo win on the last tile to be drawn in the Hand.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: LAST-TILE RON (Houtei)

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: Declaring a Ron win on the last tile to be discarded in the Hand.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: AFTER A KONG (Rinshan Kaihou)

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: Declaring a Tsumo win on the replacement tile picked from the Dead
             Wall after declaring a Kong yourself.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: ROBBING THE KONG (Chankan)

      Value: 1 Fan

Requirement: Declaring a Ron win on a tile that another player had used to
             "upgrade" an exposed Pung into an exposed Kong.

             (There is one exception to this rule which is that you are also
             allowed to "rob" a *concealed* Kong when declared if you are using
             the tile to complete the Limit Hand known as Thirteen Orphans.)

(Those last four Scoring Elements occur far less often than the ones above them,
especially Robbing The Kong! I have got it a couple of times though.)
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: ALL PUNGS (Toi-Toi Hou)

             Also known as NO CHOWS or FOUR TRIPLETS.

      Value: 2 Fan

Requirement: A hand with four Pungs or Kongs (plus a pair of course).
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: MIXED OUTSIDE HAND (Chanta)

      Value: 2 Fan (1 Fan if hand is open)*

Requirement: All sets must include a Terminal or Honour tile and the pair must
             also be composed of Terminals or Honours.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: PURE STRAIGHT (Ikkitsuukan or "Ittsuu" for short)

             Also known as THREE CONSECUTIVE SEQUENCES.

      Value: 2 Fan (1 Fan if hand is open)*

Requirement: 123456789 tiles in the same suit (three Chows: 123, 456 and 789).
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: SEVEN PAIRS (Chii Toitsu)

      Value: 2 Fan

Requirement: This is one of the two exceptions to the usual hand format. As you
             might've guessed from the name, it consists of seven matched pairs.
             All seven pairs must be unique.

             Since there are no Pungs or Chows it will always be concealed.

             Seven Pairs always receives exactly 25 minipoints with no additions
             and no rounding up (see Section 10).
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: MIXED TRIPLE CHOW (San Shoku Doujun or "San Shoku" for short)

      Value: 2 Fan (1 Fan if hand is open)*

Requirement: Three Chows with the same numbers but each in a different suit, for
             example 234 Bams + 234 Craks + 234 Dots.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: THREE CONCEALED PUNGS (San Ankou)

      Value: 2 Fan

Requirement: Three concealed Pungs! Although the hand can also include an open
             set, all the tiles in the three Pungs must be self-drawn, so if you
             complete one by Ron you cannot claim this.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: THREE CONSECUTIVE PUNGS (San Renkou)

      Value: 2 Fan

Requirement: Three Pungs with consecutive numbers in the same suit.

             (This has effectively the same structure as what you might call
             "Pure Triple Chow" because 444 555 666 = 456 456 456.)

             This is a non-standard Scoring Element in Japanese Mahjong, usually
             only included as an optional "local rule".
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: ALL TERMINALS AND HONOURS (Honroutou)

      Value: 2 Fan

Requirement: A hand with no 2-8 numbered tiles. If you claim this you cannot
             also claim Mixed Outside Hand.

             (Obviously this will have no Chows. It will either be made with
             Pungs - in which case you also get two Fan for All Pungs (and one
             each for any Yakuhai sets) - or it might be made with Seven Pairs
             for two Fan again. You might also be able to combine it with Half
             Flush which is listed below.)
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: LITTLE THREE DRAGONS (Shou San Gen)

      Value: 2 Fan

Requirement: Two Pungs or Kongs of Dragons plus a pair of Dragons.

             (You get one additional Fan each for the two Dragon Pungs too.)

             NB There's also a Big Three Dragons - more on that later...
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: TRIPLE PUNG (San Shoku Doukou)

      Value: 2 Fan

Requirement: Three Pungs or Kongs of the same number.

             (This is quite a rare one.)
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: THREE KONGS (San Kantsu)

      Value: 2 Fan

Requirement: Any three Kongs, open or closed.

             (This is a *very* rare one!)
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: DOUBLE RIICHI (Daburu Riichi)

      Value: 2 Fan

Requirement: Riichi is declared on the player's first discard.

             In this instance Double Riichi is claimed instead of Riichi.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: PURE OUTSIDE HAND (Junchan)

      Value: 3 Fan (2 Fan if hand is open)*

Requirement: All sets include a Terminal (1 or 9).

             You have a good chance of getting Mixed Triple Chow with this too.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: HALF FLUSH (Honitsu)

      Value: 3 Fan (2 Fan if hand is open)*

Requirement: A hand containing only one suit and Honours.

             You can (and should) add value by combining this with Yakuhai sets.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: TWICE PURE DOUBLE CHOW (Ryanpeikou)

      Value: 3 Fan

Requirement: A concealed hand with two instances of Pure Double Chow.

             Although this will have a Seven Pairs form, e.g. 22 445566 667788,
             you cannot also claim that Scoring Element.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: TERMINAL AND HONOUR DISCARD (Nagashi Mangan)

      Value: Mangan limit (5 Fan)

Requirement: This is a special Scoring Element claimed when a Hand ends in a
             draw, there are no Simples (2 to 8) in the player's discard pile
             and none of his discards have been claimed by other players.

             (This is a hand which you would attempt only very rarely. It can
             only be claimed by a player when a Hand ends in an exhaustive draw,
             i.e. when the supply of seventy tiles is exhausted, so you would
             usually need to have around 17 or 18 Terminal and Honour tiles to
             be able to do this. If you start a Hand with a lot of these tiles
             then you'd probably go for Thirteen Orphans, All Terminals and
             Honours, or something like that, so the only situation where you'd
             normally go for this hand would be one where you discard all your
             initial T&H tiles to try for a Tanyao hand but find that you keep
             on drawing more T&H from the Wall and keep discarding them.)
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: FULL FLUSH (Chinitsu)

      Value: 6 Fan (5 Fan if hand is open)*

Requirement: All the tiles in the hand are from the same suit.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: HUMAN WIN (Renhou)

      Value: Baiman limit (8-10 Fan)

Requirement: The player's starting hand is ready (Tenpai) and they claim a Ron
             win off an opponent's discard before taking their first turn.

             This is a non-standard Scoring Element in Japanese Mahjong, usually
             only included as an optional "local rule". Sometimes it's scored at
             the Mangan or Yakuman limit instead.
________________________________________________________________________________

(Of the above Scoring Elements, Triple Pung, Three Kongs, Twice Pure Double Chow
and Terminal & Honour Discard are easily the least common.)

It should be noted that the sets in the winning hand can only be counted one way
so if, for example, you're counting all the sets as Pungs (to get All Pungs)
then you can't claim any Scoring Elements involving Chows or if you have a hand
including tiles of 22334455 you can count this as two 234 Chows and pair of 5's
(and get Pure Double Chow if the hand is concealed) but you cannot also claim it
as a pair of 2's and two 345 Chows to get Pure Double Chow again.

*These Scoring Elements are worth one Fan less if the hand contains one or more
sets completed by calling an opponent's discarded tile. This property is known
as KUISAGARI ("eat and decrease").

                                  Limit Hands
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
LIMIT HANDS, also known as YAKUMAN, automatically score the maximum points
regardless of their Scoring Elements. They are scored at the top Limit (see
Section 10) which is conveniently/confusingly also called Yakuman.

You should be aware that Limit Hands are very rare, i.e. you'll probably have to
play mahjong for literally dozens of hours before you see one!
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: FOUR CONCEALED PUNGS (Suu Ankou)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: All four Pungs must be entirely self-drawn (you cannot complete any
             by either calling Pon or declaring Ron).
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: ALL HONOURS (Tsuuiisou)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: Only Dragon and Wind tiles are permitted.

             Much like All Terminals & Honours above, this can be made either
             with four Pungs and a pair or with seven pairs. The latter would be
             much harder but it gives the most beautiful hand in the game, with
             two each of all seven types of Honour tile.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: BIG THREE DRAGONS (Dai San Gen)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: Three Pungs or Kongs of Dragons (plus any other set and pair).
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: ALL GREEN (Ryuuiisou)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: A hand containing only purely green tiles, i.e. only Green Dragons
             and 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 Bams are permitted.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: THIRTEEN ORPHANS (Kokushimusou)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: This is the other exception to the normal hand structure, composed
             of one each of all Terminals (ones and nines) and all Honours
             (Winds and Dragons) plus a duplicate of one of those.

             (Realistically you need a starting hand with at least nine or ten
             different Terminals and Honours to stand a chance of making this.)
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: LITTLE FOUR WINDS (Shou Suu Shii)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: Three Pungs of Winds plus one pair of Winds (and one other set).
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: ALL TERMINALS (Chinroutou)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: Only suit tiles with values 1 and 9 are permitted.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: FOUR KONGS (Suu Kantsu)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: Four Kongs! (and a pair)

             Very simple, but almost impossibly rare.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: NINE GATES (Chuurenpoutou)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: A concealed flush with specifically 1112345678999 in the same suit
             plus one extra tile from the same suit.

             (If you consider the thirteen tiles of the flush you'll see that
             the pattern of numbers is such that when you add one further tile
             from the same suit, regardless of which it is, you will always end
             up with four complete sets and a pair.)
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: HEAVENLY HAND (Tenhou)

             Also known as INSTANT WIN.

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: The Dealer has a complete hand at the very start of the Hand.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: EARTHLY HAND (Chiihou)

             Also a.k.a. Instant Win.

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: As above but for a non-dealer winning on their first drawn tile.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: FOUR CONSECUTIVE PUNGS (Suu Renkou)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: Four Pungs with consecutive numbers in the same suit.

             This is a non-standard Scoring Element in Japanese Mahjong, usually
             only included as an optional "local rule".
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: BIG WHEEL (Dai Sharin)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: Seven Pairs but specifically with 22334455667788 in the Dots suit.

             This is a non-standard Scoring Element in Japanese Mahjong, usually
             only included as an optional "local rule".
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: THIRTEEN UNRELATED TILES (Shii-San Puutaa)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: This can be claimed if, after drawing your first tile to give you a
             hand of fourteen, you have thirteen tiles that are incapable of
             forming sets with each other (e.g. you could not have 3 and 4 or 3
             and 5 in the same suit) plus a fourteenth tile which makes a pair
             with one of the thirteen.

             This is a non-standard Scoring Element in Japanese Mahjong, usually
             only included as an optional "local rule". Sometimes it's scored at
             the Mangan limit instead.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: COUNTED YAKUMAN (Kazoe Yakuman)

      Value: Top Limit (Yakuman)

Requirement: Any complete hand containing various Scoring Elements and Dora
             worth thirteen Fan or more in total.

             This is really just an application of the Limit system.

             (This has always been listed in previous RGG/Yakuza titles but I'm
             not sure if it's recognized in Kurohyou 2.)
________________________________________________________________________________

                               Double Limit Hands
                               ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The DOUBLE LIMIT HANDS or DOUBLE YAKUMAN (in Japanese: DABURU YAKUMAN) are four
specific, even rarer, versions of one the Limit Hands above. They're worth twice
as many points as a Limit Hand, hence the name!

These are tracked separately in the mahjong minigame stats (see Section 13) so
I'm going to assume that the game recognizes these as Double Limit Hands.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: FOUR CONCEALED PUNGS WITH SINGLE WAIT (Suu Ankou Tanki Machi)

      Value: Double Top Limit (Double Yakuman)

Requirement: You must already have the four complete sets and you finish the
             hand by making the pair. As usual you can have any mixture of Pungs
             or Kongs but all four sets must be entirely self-drawn.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: PURE THIRTEEN ORPHANS (Junsei Kokushimusou)

      Value: Double Top Limit (Double Yakuman)

Requirement: As Thirteen Orphans above (one of every Terminal and Honour tile
             plus one dupe) but the pair must be completed last; the hand is won
             on a THIRTEEN-SIDED WAIT, i.e. there are thirteen different tiles
             that could complete it.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: BIG FOUR WINDS (Dai Suu Shii)

      Value: Double Top Limit (Double Yakuman)

Requirement: Four Pungs or Kongs of Winds (obviously one of each) and any pair.
________________________________________________________________________________

       Name: PURE NINE GATES (Junsei Chuurenpoutou)

      Value: Double Top Limit (Double Yakuman)

Requirement: As Nine Gates above but it must be completed with the extra single
             tile to make the pair, i.e. it is won on a NINE-SIDED WAIT.

             This is an incredibly rare hand. There is a superstition attached
             to Pure Nine Gates that says it's a bad omen and that if you make
             this hand you'll die soon after!
________________________________________________________________________________

Some rules allow you to stack Limit Hands so you can claim more than one on the
same hand, for example you might have Big Three Dragons combined with a Wind
Pung and a Wind pair which would give you All Honours too and score as a Double
Limit Hand. It's theoretically possible to make a *Septuple* Limit Hand through
such STACKING but that would be very very very very very very very rare!

Although I'm yet to see it happen in an RGG/Yakuza game, a special rule called
either PAO or SEKININ HARAI (literally "liability payment") applies to certain
Limit Hands, usually Big Three Dragons and Big Four Winds. If a player has two
exposed Pungs of Dragon tiles and another player discards the tile that lets
them make a third for Big Three Dragons, or if a player has three Pungs of Wind
tiles exposed and someone discards the tile that lets them complete the fourth
Pung for Big Four Winds, then the discarding player has to pay. If the hand is
won by Tsumo the discarding player pays the full amount (Yakuman!) or if the
hand is won by Ron from a third player then the discarder has to pay half.

                                  Dora Bonuses
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
During play you should make a mental note of the exposed tile/s on the Dead Wall
of tiles in the middle of the screen. At the start of a Hand only one tile is
exposed - this denotes that the next sequential tile is the DORA bonus tile. 
For example if 3 Bams is showing then the Dora is 4 Bams and you will score an 
additional Fan for every 4 Bams in your hand, i.e. a Pung of 4 Bams would score 
you an extra three Fan!

If a 9 tile is showing then the numbers wrap and the Dora is the 1 tile of the 
same suit. Obviously the Dragons and Winds don't have numbers so instead they
are assigned the sequences Red-White-Green and East-South-West-North (this is
the order of the Seat Winds working counterclockwise around the table) and again
these wrap so a Green Dragon showing would make the Dora tile Red Dragon.

Each time a Kong is formed, a replacement tile is taken from the Dead Wall and
one more tile is flipped to give another Dora (technically a KAN DORA). Also
if the winner of a Hand declared Riichi then there will also be a UNDERSIDE DORA
(or URA DORA) tile revealed at the end of the Hand. There will also be an Under-
side Dora for each of any Kan Dora (these are called KAN URA DORA). So as an
example if a Hand saw one Kong being made and the winner calling Riichi there
will be a total of four bonus tiles (the Dora and a Kan Dora and for both of
these one Underside Dora) and these will all be shown on the scoresheet.

The following diagram illustrates the functions of the fourteen tiles of the
Dead Wall (specifically under the modern Japanese rules). Remember in Kurohyou 2
the first two stacks (tiles 1-4) are not shown on the screen.
            _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______
           |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
           |   1   |   3   |   A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |   E   |
           |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|
           |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
           |   2   |   4   |   F   |   G   |   H   |   I   |   J   |
           |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|

Tile A is the indicator for the standard Dora and is always flipped at the start
of each Hand of play. When a Kong is declared the player takes Tile 1 as their
supplement tile and flips Tile B as a Kan Dora indicator; this process would be
repeated with 2/C, 3/D and 4/E for the second, third and fourth Kong sets. If a
player wins a hand after declaring Riichi they also apply the Ura Dora indicator
(Tile F) and the Kan Ura Dora indicators under any *active* Kan Dora indicators
(potentially Tiles G-J).

Although each Dora tile in a hand is worth one Fan each* you still need to have
at least one Scoring Element in your hand to declare a win.

In Kurohyou 2 all Dora and Kan Dora tiles in your hand will be highlighted red.

*If the same tile appears twice amongst the Dora and Underside Dora then it is
counted twice and each occurrence is worth two Fan.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 09 | RULE OPTIONS                                                s09 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Although there is a core rule-set (including Riichi and Dora) which is common to
all Japanese play, there are literally dozens of optional rules and variations.
The situation is such that mahjong parlours and gaming servers need to publish
a full page of information detailing the "local rules" they use.

Things are a little simpler in Kurohyou 2 though and there are only a few rule
options which you need to check.

The archaic conditional Two-Fan Minimum rule which has been a staple of the main
Yakuza series is not included in this game. The Kuitan rule is always applied so
you can claim All Simples (Tanyao) in an open hand.

(In Japanese mahjong the term ARI (with) is used to denote a rule that is being
used and NASHI (without) denotes one that is not. For example in this case you
would say matches are played "Kuitan Ari" since the Kuitan rule is applied.)

o Match Length

  In classical Chinese Mahjong a match is played over four wind-rounds - one for
  each of the four Prevalent Winds - but in the Japan the standard duration is
  only two. Such a game is called a HANCHAN (literally "Half Game") because it
  has only east and south rounds.

  Alternatively you can play half a "Half Game" which is sometimes referred to
  in English as a Quarter Game (for obvious reasons) or in Japanese as TONPUUSEN
  (which means "east wind match").

  If no extra Hands are played, a Half Game will last for eight Hands while a
  Quarter Game will run for four.

  In Free Play mode you can choose whether to play for one or two rounds. A one-
  round match is the faster way to win points (i.e. money) because the Oka and
  Uma (see Section 10) will be paid after every round. However a one-round game
  also gives you less time to make a comeback if one of your opponents gets a
  decent hand win.

  In Ranking Battle mode all matches last for a single round until you reach the
  top ten when you play full two-round matches - although with the Dai-Wareme
  option in effect (see below) matches will often end early when one of the
  players gets busted!

o Red Fives

  With AKAPAI (literally "red tiles" or usually RED FIVES) some of the number 5
  tiles from the suits will be marked in red ink instead of the usual colours.

  Red fives are treated as additional Dora bonus tiles - each red five tile in
  your winning hand gives you one additional Fan for your score but again cannot
  be used alone to provide the one Fan required to declare a win. Like other
  Dora, any red fives will be highlighted on screen with pale red shading.

  It is possible for a red five to be a normal Dora too, for example if you have
  a red 5 Dots tile and 4 Dots is the Dora indicator. The tile will be worth two
  extra Fan in calculating your score.

  The rule option specifies how many red fives will be used in each of the three
  suits of number tiles, for example with the rule set to "1" there will be one
  red five and three non-red fives in each suit.

  In the high-stakes inflated "Special" matches in Free Play this rule option is
  set to "4" so all number 5 tiles are red (twelve in total).

o Jun'i Uma

  The Jun'i Uma specifies a final exchange of points between all four players at
  the end of a match based on their placings, e.g. with the smallest "5-10" Uma
  option the player in 4th place pays 10,000 pts to 1st and the player in 3rd
  pays 5,000 pts to 2nd.

  Jun'i Uma is covered in (slightly) more detail in Section 10.

o Wareme and Dai-Wareme

  This new addition to the RGG series is popular only with serious gamblers.

  In real-life each Hand begins with the players shuffling the tiles and then
  building a square Wall where each side is seventeen tiles long and two tiles
  high. A pair of dice is thrown to determine which side of the Wall will be
  broken (and how far along the Wall the break will be). The players draw their
  starting hands from the left of the break and the tiles to the right form the
  Dead Wall which is used for Kong supplement tiles and Dora indicators.

  The name WAREME means "split" which refers to the side of the Wall which is
  selected to be broken. The player seated at that side of the table pays and
  receives double points if anyone declares a win in that Hand.

  For a win by Ron (stolen discard) this is quite straightforward. For example
  if Player A (not east) wins a Mangan hand off Player B and either player is
  Wareme then the payment will be 16,000 pts instead of the usual 8,000 pts.

  If the Wareme player wins by Tsumo (self-drawn tile) then all the payments are
  doubled. For example if Player A (not east) wins a Mangan hand by Tsumo the
  payments will be 4,000 pts, 4,000 pts and 8,000 pts (east).

  If a non-Wareme player wins by Tsumo then only the Wareme player's payment is
  doubled. For example if Player A (not east) wins a Mangan hand by Tsumo the
  payments will be 2,000 pts, 4,000 pts (Wareme player) and 4,000 pts (east).

  The DAI-WAREME rule (literally "big Wareme") takes this one step further. If
  the pair of dice both show the same number then the Wareme player will pay or
  receive four times the usual score! Due to the way the dice determine the side
  of the Wall to be broken, the Dai-Wareme effect will only ever be applied to
  North or South, the players sat either side of the Dealer (East).

  The Wareme player is indicated by red text which flashes on the screen at the
  beginning of each Hand. You can also determine the Wareme player by using the
  number on the dice - just count out the number counterclockwise around the
  table starting on East.

  Honba points and the No-ten Bappu points are not doubled.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 10 | SCORE CALCULATION                                           s10 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Luckily the game does all this for you!

                              Points and Minipoints
                              ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The points score for a winning hand is calculated using both the total number of
Fan and the total number of MINIPOINTS (or FU in Japan).

Fan are awarded for the Scoring Elements present in a winning hand (see Section
08) and for any Dora bonus tiles and red fives (see Sections 08 and 09). For a
valid win in modern Japanese mahjong your hand must always have at least one Fan
obtained from a Scoring Element.

(Subject to the limits applied - see below - each additional Fan will double the
score for your winning hand so try to include as many different Scoring Elements
and Dora as possible.)

Minipoints are awarded for declaring a win, the type of win, the type/s of set
present, the composition of the pair and how the hand was completed.

You get 20 minipoints simply for winning the Hand plus a further 10 for a win
with a concealed hand by Ron or 2 for a win by Tsumo. If your hand qualifies for
Pinfu and you win by Tsumo then the 2 minipoints are waived and you take the one
Fan (double) for Pinfu instead. Exceptionally if you win by Ron with an open
hand which otherwise meets the requirements of Pinfu (four Chows, a non-scoring
pair and won on a two-sided wait) then you get 2 minipoints too although, since
the hand is not closed, you cannot actually claim Pinfu on an "open Pinfu" hand!

An exposed Pung of Simples is worth 2 minipoints but with Terminal or Honour
tiles it's worth twice that and if concealed it's worth two times more as well.
A Kong is worth four times as many minipoints as the equivalent Pung, so a con-
cealed Kong of Terminals or Honours will get you 32. Since they are easier to
make, no minipoints are given for a Chow. A pair of Dragons, Prevalent Wind or
your current Seat Wind is worth 2 minipoints, or 4 for a pair in Double Wind
(i.e. when your Seat Wind matches the Prevalent Wind).

(Although Chows yield no minipoints they are much easier to make than Pungs and
Kongs so, since the effect of minipoints is less significant than Fan, it's best
to usually make hands of Chows.)

You also get minipoints for certain types of WAIT - a Wait is an incomplete set
or hand (which is completed when you declare a win). It's easiest to explain the
different types with examples: an EDGE WAIT is a 1 and 2 waiting on a 3 to make
a Chow, a CENTRE WAIT is a 4 and 6 waiting on a 5, a Two-Sided Wait or OPEN-
ENDED WAIT is a 5 and 6 waiting on a 4 or a 7 and a PAIR WAIT or SINGLE WAIT is
one tile waiting to become part of a pair. Only an Edge Wait, Centre Wait or
Pair Wait is awarded 2 minipoints, i.e. when you win with a "one chance" ready
hand - one that was waiting on only one specific tile.

The total of the minipoints is rounded up to the nearest ten and will usually be
shown on the scoresheet. The Seven Pairs hand is a special case and always gets
exactly 25 minipoints with no additions and no rounding up.

The following tables summarise the allocation of minipoints:-

                                   Any win |  20 minipoints
  -----------------------------------------+----------------
                       Bonus for Tsumo win |   2 minipoints
  -----------------------------------------+----------------
   Bonus for Ron win with a concealed hand |  10 minipoints

(In most rule-sets the 2 minipoints for a Tsumo win are waived in the case of a
Pinfu hand in order to meet the "no points" requirement of the Scoring Element.)

                                           |   exposed set  | concealed set
    ---------------------------------------+----------------+---------------
                Pung of Simples (e.g. 444) |  2 minipoints  |  4 minipoints
    ---------------------------------------+----------------+---------------
      Pung of Terminals/Honours (e.g. 999) |  4 minipoints  |  8 minipoints
    ---------------------------------------+----------------+---------------
               Kong of Simples (e.g. 6666) |  8 minipoints  | 16 minipoints
    ---------------------------------------+----------------+---------------
     Kong of Terminals/Honours (e.g. 1111) | 16 minipoints  | 32 minipoints
    ---------------------------------------+----------------+---------------
                       Any Chow (e.g. 567) |  0 minipoints  |  0 minipoints

(NB: If you declare a Ron win to complete the final set in a concealed hand then
the set completed with the discarded tile is considered exposed but your hand
will still be recognized as concealed.)

                           Pair of Dragons |  2 minipoints
      -------------------------------------+---------------
       Pair of Seat Wind or Prevalent Wind |  2 minipoints
      -------------------------------------+---------------
                       Pair of Double Wind |  4 minipoints
      -------------------------------------+---------------
                            Any other pair |  0 minipoints

(These additions are not applied to a Seven Pairs hand; that always gets exactly
25 minipoints with no further points for pairs or the type of win.)

                      Edge Wait (e.g. 12_) |  2 minipoints
                   ------------------------+---------------
                    Centre wait (e.g. 4_6) |  2 minipoints
                   ------------------------+---------------
                       Pair wait (e.g. 8_) |  2 minipoints
                   ------------------------+---------------
                            Any other wait |  0 minipoints

The BASE POINTS for a hand are then calculated from the number of Fan and the
total of the minipoints using the following formula.

             Base Points (BP) = minipoints x ( 2 ^ ( 2 + Fan ) )

This is an exponential function in powers of two - in other words it involves
doubling the minipoints. They always get doubled twice and then they're doubled
a further number of times equal to the number of Fan (this is why Scoring
Elements are sometimes referred to as DOUBLES). The player who won the Hand is
then paid points by the other players as shown in the following table.

                     |    Player wins by Tsumo   |      Player wins by Ron
---------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------
    Dealer wins Hand | All three losing players  | The player who discarded 
                     | pay 2 x BP each*          | the winning tile pays 6 x BP
---------------------+---------------------------+-----------------------------
Non-dealer wins Hand | Dealer pays 2 x BP* and   | The player who discarded 
                     | other two pay 1 x BP each | the winning tile pays 4 x BP

In every case the points paid are always rounded up to the next multiple of 100
and consequently, for any given combination of Fan and minipoints, the sum of
points received for a Tsumo (self-draw) win do not always exactly equal the
points for a Ron (stolen discard) win, but it will be close.

Rather than using the formula to determine the points, mahjong players use pre-
calculated look-up tables. These were included in the help pages in Yakuza 2 and
Kenzan but they've been removed from this game. You don't need them to play but
they might make the scoring a little clearer so take a look at this link:-

           http://www.mahjongtime.com/mahjong-japanese-scoring-4.html

For example, if a non-dealer (i.e. a player with a Seat Wind other than East)
wins with a hand worth 3 Fan and 50 minipoints they would get 6,400 points for a
win by Ron. If it was a win by Tsumo then the Dealer would pay 3,200 points and
the other two players would each pay 1,600.

*The standard payment for each player is 1 x Base Points but "the Dealer always
pays and receives double".
                                     Limits
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯
Japanese mahjong is played with a tiered system of LIMITS which apply to the
points you can win off a hand. The bottom Limit is called Mangan and applies to
any hand where the Base Points exceed 2,000, i.e. one with five Fan, or four Fan
with 40 or more minipoints, or three Fan with 70 or more minipoints.* If you get
six or more Fan then higher Limits apply - see table below.

The table below shows the five different Limits and the Fan (and in some cases
minipoints, Fu) needed to achieve for them. Each Limit is always worth the same
specified number of points, for example a Dealer with Mangan always gets 12,000
points. A Limit Hand always gives you Yakuman which is worth the maximum
possible points: a jaw-dropping 48,000 pts on a Dealer win (and a Double Limit
Hand gets twice that!).

              |                |   Points for   | Points for |   Mangan
              |    Criteria    | non-dealer win | Dealer win | equivalence
   -----------+----------------+----------------+------------+--------------
              | 3 Fan & 70+ Fu |                |            |
       Mangan | 4 Fan & 40+ Fu |      8,000     |   12,000   |   1 x Mangan
              | 5 Fan          |                |            |
   -----------+----------------+----------------+------------+--------------
      Haneman | 6 or 7 Fan     |     12,000     |   18,000   | 1.5 x Mangan
   -----------+----------------+----------------+------------+--------------
       Baiman | 8, 9 or 10 Fan |     16,000     |   24,000   |   2 x Mangan
   -----------+----------------+----------------+------------+--------------
    Sanbaiman | 11 or 12 Fan   |     24,000     |   36,000   |   3 x Mangan
   -----------+----------------+----------------+------------+--------------
      Yakuman | 13 or more Fan |     32,000     |   48,000   |   4 x Mangan

Although Yakuman scores the maximum Limit points, if you're lucky enough to get
this you will receive any Riichi stakes and Honba points (see below) as usual on
top of the Yakuman points.

*Sometimes a rule called MANGAN KIRIAGE, literally "Mangan rounding-up", can be
applied causing a hand with either four Fan and 30 minipoints or three Fan and
60 minipoints to be rounded up to the Mangan level.

                           Exhaustive Draws and Honba
                           ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
If no-one has won after the final tile is drawn (and final discard made) then
the Hand is a draw, specifically an EXHAUSTIVE DRAW (the supply of tiles in the
Wall is depleted/exhausted).

In this event the players declare whether they are Tenpai (one tile away from a
complete hand) or No-ten (not Tenpai). Tenpai players reveal their hand and are
indicated by red text while No-ten players are indicated by cyan text.

Payments called NO-TEN BAPPU totalling 3,000 pts are paid to the Tenpai players
by the No-ten players.

If one player is Tenpai they get 3,000 pts and the other three pay 1,000 pts.

If two players are Tenpai they get 1,500 pts and the other two pay 1,500 pts.

If three players are Tenpai they get 1,000 pts and the other one pays 3,000 pts.

If all or none of the players are Tenpai then no payments are made.

When a Hand ends in either a draw or a Dealer win, the HONBA counter is used
(this is displayed top-right in the centre of the screen). This is normally set
to zero but when a Hand is either a win by the Dealer or a draw (regardless of
whether or not the Dealer is Tenpai) it moves up to one; if it happens again it
moves up to two, etc. It keeps incrementing like that until a non-dealer wins a
Hand and at this point the Honba number is set back to zero again.

This affects the scores because whenever someone wins a Hand they receive an
additional number of points equal to the Honba number multiplied by 300. For a
win by Ron these points are taken from the player who discarded the winning tile
and for Tsumo each of the three losing players pays an equal share. (Unlike the
Riichi stakes, these points are not left "on the table", instead they are just
counted there and then paid when required.) 

So not only does the Dealer get six times the Base Points for a win instead of
the usual four, he can also get these extra points for as long as he "stays on"
as Dealer - 300 points for a win in the first extra Hand, 600 for a win in the
second, 900 in the third, etc.

The following table summarises the consequences of different outcomes in a Hand.
(The "Hand counter" displayed in the top-right corner of the screen counts the
normal Hands played in each wind round, from 1 to 4.) Any increase in the Honba
number takes effect from the next Hand, so for example if the Dealer wins their
first (normal) Hand they don't get any Honba points but the counter goes up to
1 and 300 points are paid for a win in the next (extra) Hand.

                  | Seat Winds |   Hand    |   Honba   |
                  | move round |  counter  |  counter  |
------------------+------------+-----------+-----------+------------------------
   Hand is won by |    yes     |    +1     |  reset to | winner gets Honba pts
     a non-dealer |            |           |    zero   | (if any)
------------------+------------+-----------+-----------+------------------------
   Hand is won by |     no     | no change |     +1    | winner gets Honba pts,
       the Dealer |            |           |           | next Hand is extra Hand
------------------+------------+-----------+-----------+------------------------
   Hand is drawn, |     no     | no change |     +1    | next Hand is extra Hand
 Dealer is Tenpai |            |           |           |
------------------+------------+-----------+-----------+------------------------
   Hand is drawn, |    yes     |    +1     |     +1    |
Dealer not Tenpai |            |           |           |

If the final normal Hand of a game results in a draw where the Dealer is not
Tenpai then the game ends (because otherwise the move of the Seat Winds would
constitute the start of a new round). Any Riichi stakes left go to the winner.

                                 Abortive Draws
                                 ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
There are a total of five situations which optionally can cause an ABORTIVE DRAW
to occur before or during a Hand.

I've only ever seen the first type occur in any of the previous RGG/Yakuza games
so I must assume that the others are not applied. However in Kurohyou 2 (with
far fewer hours of play!) I've already seen the first three so it's likely that
all five rules are used here.

o all four players call Riichi in the same Hand

o all four players discard the same Wind tile on their first turn in a Hand

o a player has nine or more different Terminal and Honour tiles after drawing
  their first tile (and they choose to accept a re-deal)*

o two or more players declare four Kong (quad) sets in total in one Hand

o three players simultaneously declare a Ron win on the same discard tile

*If this happens to you the draw can be claimed by pressing the Cross button.

                                Oka and Jun'i Uma
                                ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Although optionally other values can be used, players usually begin a match with
25,000 pts each in the modern Japanese rules. Sometimes it will be specified
that they must buy into each match with 30,000 pts each. In this case the spare
points (4 x 5,000 pts = 20,000 pts) become a bonus called the Oka which is paid
to the player that wins the match.

(In the game this is labelled as the Top Shou where "TOP" is given in English
and Shou is a kanji word meaning "prize" or "reward".)

Following the Oka, a further exchange of points called the Jun'i Uma (or often
just Uma) is applied. This is an optional rule but it's used in every match in
Kurohyou 2. While previous games of the RGG/Yakuza have used some very unusual
asymmetrical Uma values, the options available in Kurohyou 2 are more normal,
being defined by two numbers (representing thousands of points) - a smaller
amount paid by the player in 3rd place to the player in 2nd and a larger amount
paid by 4th to 1st (who also gets any unclaimed Riichi sticks on the table).

The Uma settings you will encounter are 5-10, 10-20, 10-30 and 20-30. To give an
example, with the 5-10 option the player in 3rd pays 5,000 pts to 2nd and the
player in 4th pays 10,000 pts to 1st.

The Oka and Uma will never change the final positions but they can make a very
big difference if you are playing for money or in a tournament where your scores
are totalled over several matches. The match winner can receive up to 50,000 pts
from Oka and the larger Uma options - so in Kurohyou 2 with the maximum x10 rate
that translates to half a million Yen!

If a player gets busted (their score goes negative) then the match ends and an
additional payment is made after the Oka and Uma. The Tobi Bonus of 10,000 pts
is paid by the player that was busted to the player that busted them.

In the event of two players having the same number of points at the end of the
game the priority goes to the player who started the game as East (i.e. South in
the final Hand), then to the player that was East next, etc. So if for example
the two players seated at South and West in the final Hand were tied for 2nd
place, the priority goes to South (who gets 2nd place) and not West (who ends up
taking 3rd). This then determines how the Uma will be paid.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 11 | CONTROLS                                                    s11 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Like most aspects of the mahjong minigame, the controls are quite different to
those seen in previous Yakuza titles. More functions are assigned to specific
buttons here and the Riichi and Kan options are no longer effectively hidden!

Remember this is a Japanese video-game so throughout the game you'll be pressing
Circle to confirm and Cross to cancel.

 d-pad left/right - select tile from your hand to discard
                  - select tiles from your hand to use when calling a discard

       thumbstick - (ditto)

    Circle button - discard selected tile
                  - call Chii (to make an open Chow set)

  Triangle button - call Pon (to make an open Pung set)
                    declare Riichi (make a ready bet)

    Square button - call or declare Kan (to make a Kong)

                    When a discard tile is available to call by Chii/Pon/Kan you
                    get a chime sound and the available command option/s will
                    appear in red on the menu bar on the right of the screen.

                    The available discard tile will be indicated with a yellow
                    circle and all other tiles will be temporarily shaded grey.

                    If you choose to call by pressing the appropriate button you
                    will then need to choose which tiles from your hand you want
                    to use to complete the open set (d-pad left/right) and then
                    confirm your choice (Circle).

                    (This is only really necessary when calling Chii as there
                    will often be various options, e.g. if you hold 235 you can
                    call a 4 to make either 234 or 345, but you need to do it
                    for Pon and Kan too!)

                    The call commands are shown with these katakana spellings:

                        __|__o  \  /        -----             _|___    \  /
                          |       /         __|__  ____        |   |     /
                        / | \    /            |                |   |    /
                         -'     /            /                /    |   /

                         PON (Pung)         CHII (Chow)        KAN (Kong)

     Cross button - cancel currently available command
                  - declare a 9+ Terminals & Honours abortive draw

                    If your starting hand has nine or more different types of
                    Terminals (ones and nines) and Honours (Winds and Dragons)
                    then you can press Cross to accept a draw.

         R button - declare a win (Ron or Tsumo)

                    When you have the option to declare a Ron win (off another
                    player's discard) it will be indicated with a yellow circle
                    and a chime sound effect, just as with Chii/Pon/Kan calls.

                    When you have the option to declare a Tsumo win (off a tile
                    you drew yourself) there will be a large "sparkle" effect on
                    the potential winning tile when it arrives in your hand.

            Start - show menu

                    It's not much of a menu really. You can pick the top option
                    (then the left option to confirm) to retire from the match
                    (and accept 4th place) or the bottom option to keep playing.

           Select - display controls (1 page) and basic mahjong help (10 pages)

L button + Circle - toggle automatic Tsumogiri

                    Tsumogiri is when you discard your Tsumo - the tile you just
                    drew. By default this function is off except after you have
                    declared Riichi, so you can use this control if you want the
                    satisfaction of discarding every tile manually after Riichi!

                    The menu indicator shows green when active.

 L button + Cross - toggle "no calls" mode

                    This function is also off by default. When activated the
                    game will no longer present you with any opportunities to
                    call tiles by Chii/Pon/Kan. You can use this if you want to
                    keep your hand closed and not have to keep on rejecting the
                    calls that would otherwise be offered to you.

                    The menu indicator shows green when active.

 L button + d-pad - mark/unmark safe tiles

                    This is an unusual but really useful feature to have. When
                    you hold L and press left, up or right the game will then
                    highlight in your hand any tiles that are safe to discard
                    against the player seated in the corresponding position.

                    This is based on the principle of Furiten (see Section 08) -
                    when a player has already discarded one of the tiles that
                    would now complete their hand they are Furiten and cannot
                    win by Ron. It is therefore safe for you to discard any tile
                    that matches one they have already discarded. Any such tiles
                    in your hand will be marked with a blue underline.

                    If your selected player has declared Riichi then they will
                    also be permanently Furiten on any tiles that have been
                    discarded by the other three players since they declared
                    Riichi. These tiles will be highlighted too.

                    It is possible to apply highlighting for two or all three
                    opponents simultaneously but this should only be done with
                    caution. The game will mark all tiles that are safe against
                    each player but not necessarily safe against all of them!

                    If you are defending against two or three players then you
                    should use this function to view safe tiles for each one
                    individually. Press L and d-pad left/up/right again to take
                    off a player or L and d-pad down to remove all players.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 12 | DISPLAY                                                     s12 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

This section describes the layout of the gameplay and scoring screens.

                                   Table View
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Your hand is shown at the bottom of the screen while your three opponents' tiles
are at the right, top and left. Your tiles are shown in this order: Craks, Bams,
Dots, Winds and Dragons, and in sequential order within each of those. When you
draw a new tile it will appear at the right end of your current tiles and any
exposed sets are shown beyond that (e.g. the top player in the diagram below).

The box above each player's hand shows their current Seat Wind (East is coloured
red), their name and their current points total. Positions are not shown so you
will need to compare the scores to determine who is 1st, 2nd, etc.

Tiles discarded by players are shown in front of their hand in two neat rows.
When a discard is claimed by another player it will only be shown in the open
set formed, not with the other discarded tiles.
             ______________________________________________________
            |          _ _ _        _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  |#-$ / 0^#|
 open set ----------> |_|_|_|      |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|
            |   _             _____________________   _            |
            |  |_|  _        |________|__________|_| |#| <------ Prevalent Wind
            |  |_| |_|                       _ _ _    _    |¯|  _  |
            |  |_| | |  _ _    _ _ _ _ _ _ _|_|_|_|  |_|   | | |_| |
            |  |_| | | |_|_|  |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|  |_|   | | |_| |
            |  |_| | | |_|_|  '-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'  |_|   | | |_| |
            |  |_| | | '-|_|   ___________________   |_|   |_| |_| |
            |  |_| | |   |_|  |  _ _ _ _ _   _____|  |_|   | | |_| |
 Dead Wall -------------------> |%|_|_|_|_| |  |__| <-------------- Honba count
            |  |_| | |   |_|  | '-'-'-'-'-' |19|__| <------- Riichi stick count
 dice ----------------------> |[:][o]_____________|  |_|_  | | |_| |
            |  |_| | |   |_|   _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _   |_|_| | | |_| |
 your discards -------------> |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|  |_|_| |_| |_| |
            |  |_| |_|   |_|  |_|_|-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'  '-'-' |_| |_| |
            |            '-'  '-'-'                            |_| |
            |                 _____________________            |_| |
 your Seat Wind -----------> |_|__________|________| <---- your name and points 
            |       __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __   __    |
            |      |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |  |   |
 your hand ------> |__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__| |__|   |
            |______________________________________________________|

The pale purple block in the top-right corner of the screen shows the Hand count
and the Honba count. The Hand count will show the current Prevalent Wind and the
number of the Hand in the round, for example East 1 in the first Hand of a match
or South 4 in the final Hand of a two-round match. Extra Hands are not counted.

The Honba count shows the number of consecutive preceding Hands where either the
Dealer won or it was a draw. If a Hand is won when the Honba counter is in use
then the winner receives extra points equal to 300 multiplied by the number.
When a non-dealer wins a Hand the counter resets to zero.

The square red marker shows the current Prevalent Wind. This stays to the front
and left of the first player to be East in the match.

The dark grey block in the centre of the screen has a row of five tiles which
represent the top tiles of the last five stacks of the Dead Wall. At the start
of each Hand one tile is exposed (face up) here - this is the Dora indicator.
Each time a Kong (quad) is made another bonus indicator tile will be flipped.

The two dice which were thrown to determine where the Wall would be broken are
shown below the Dead Wall tiles. These can be used to determine which player is
affected by the Wareme rule option (see Section 09). Unlike some mahjong games,
the dice are not used to indicate the current Dealer (East).

The yellow counter to the right of the Dead Wall tiles shows the number of tiles
remaining to be drawn in the current Hand. When this counter drops to zero the
Hand ends in an exhaustive draw.

There are two more counters to the right which show the Honba count again (top)
and the number of unclaimed Riichi sticks left on the table from previous Hands
that resulted in draws - the next time a Hand is won an additional 1,000 points
multiplied by this counter are added to the winner's points in addition to any
Riichi stakes from the current Hand.

The grey block also has four grooved slots. When a player declares Riichi their
1,000 pts scoring-stick is placed in the slot nearest that player.

The menu bar in the bottom-right corner of the screen shows button prompts for
any commands that are currently available to you.

                                    Score Screen
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The score screen is shown after a winning hand is declared.

On the top row it shows the Hand count, the name of the player that won the Hand
and any Dora and Underside Dora that were applied. Contrary to the labels shown
in the game, these are the Dora indicators again, not the actual Dora (e.g. you
would see the 4 Bams indicator tile if the Dora is 5 Bams).

Below that the full winning hand is shown. The winning tile is shown to one side
so that the nature of the wait can be determined (see Section 10).

Under the hand is a list of all the Scoring Elements claimed, followed by any
Dora and the Fan values of both. If the name of a scoring element includes two
characters in brackets this indicates that it was worth one Fan less than usual
because the hand is open.
________________________________________________________________________________
                                                _                     _
       East 1 ##      Winning Player      Dora |_|    Underside Dora |_|
                  __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __   __ 
                 |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |  |
 winning hand -> |__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__| |__| <- winning tile

          __Riichi________________________1Fan__
          __Ippatsu_______________________1Fan__
          __Fully_Concealed_Hand_(Tsumo)__1Fan__
          __Seven_Pairs___________________2Fan__
          __Dora__________________________2Fan__


    Honba count x 0
  Riichi sticks x 2        25 Minipoints      7 Fan      Haneman

     20 (O) OK                                          12,000 pts
________________________________________________________________________________

The Honba and Riichi counters from the table view are repeated at the bottom-
left corner, worth multiples of 300 pts and 1,000 pts each respectively.

Next the game totals the Minipoints (Fu) for the hand and the doubles (Fan) from
the Scoring Elements and Dora. The points value of the hand is given in the
bottom-right corner; if one of the Limits is applied then this is shown above.

          (see Section 10 for a full breakdown of the scoring process)

After the score screen another display shows the scores for the four players and
their gains (yellow) or losses (blue) from the Hand.

Since points are always transferred between players, their scores will always
sum to 100,000 pts (i.e. 4 x 25,000 pts) unless there are unclaimed Riichi bets
left on the table following a drawn Hand.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 13 | GAMEPLAY STATS                                              s13 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

The stats pages are the third option on the main mahjong menu.

Your mahjong stats are shown over the following nine pages which you can cycle
through using the L/R buttons.

o Page 1 - Records

  The quadrilateral graph on the left side of the        attack power
  first page plots these four statistics* at the                    /\
  four corners, although the game doesn't show how                 /  \ agility
  these gameplay characteristics are derived.        defence power \  /
                                                                    \/
  The eight stats below are shown on the right side.                 luck

  1. Ranking Battle mode league position

  2. Total number of matches played
  3. Number and percentage of 1st place finishes

  4. Highest hand win points value (includes Wareme multipliers)
  5. Average hand win points value

  6. Number and percentage of Limit Hands (Yakuman) in your hand wins

  *The same four stats are shown for each player in the form of bar graphs at
  the start of each match.

o Page 2 - Details

  These stats are on the left side:

  1. Total number of matches played (again)
  2. Number and percentage of 1st place finishes (again)
  3. Number and percentage of 2nd place finishes
  4. Number and percentage of 3rd place finishes
  5. Number and percentage of 4th place finishes

  (percentages are rounded down so sometimes they won't sum to 100%)

  6. Highest hand win points value (again)
  7. Average hand win points value (again)
  8. Dora bonus tiles usage rate
  9. Longest streak of Dealer's extra hands (Renchan)

  These stats are on the right side:

  1. Number and percentage of winning hands below the Mangan limit
  2. Number and percentage of winning hands at the Mangan limit
  3. Number and percentage of winning hands at the Haneman limit
  4. Number and percentage of winning hands at the Baiman limit
  5. Number and percentage of winning hands at the Sanbaiman limit
  6. Number and percentage of winning hands at the Yakuman limit

The remaining six pages show the number and percentage of times you've made all
the various Scoring Elements (Yaku) and Limit Hands (Yakuman) in winning hands.

o Page 3 - 1-Fan Scoring Elements

  1. Riichi                             10. Last-Tile Tsumo (Haitei)
  2. Ippatsu                            11. Last-Tile Ron (Houtei)
  3. Fully Concealed Hand (Menzen Tsumo)
  4. All Simples (Tanyao)
  5. Pinfu
  6. Pure Double Chow (Iipeikou)
  7. Wind/Dragon Pung (Yakuhai)
  8. After a Kong (Rinshan Kaihou)
  9. Robbing the Kong (Chankan)

o Page 4 - 2-Fan Scoring Elements

  1. Double Riichi                      10. Mixed Triple Chow (San Shoku Doujun)
  2. Pung of Double Wind (Ren Fon Pai)  11. Triple Pung (San Shoku Doukou)
  3. Pure Straight (Ikkitsuukan)        12. Little Three Dragons (Shou San Gen)
  4. Mixed Outside Hand (Chanta)        13. All Terminals & Honours (Honroutou)
  5. All Pungs (Toi-Toi Hou)
  6. Seven Pairs (Chii Toitsu)
  7. Three Concealed Pungs (San Ankou)
  8. Three Consecutive Pungs (San Renkou)
  9. Three Kongs (San Kantsu)

o Page 5 - 3-Fan Scoring Elements

  1. Pure Outside Hand (Junchan)
  2. Half Flush (Honitsu)
  3. Twice Pure Double Chow (Ryanpeikou)

o Page 6 - 6-Fan Scoring Elements

  1. Full Flush (Chinitsu)

o Page 7 - Mangan

  1. Terminal & Honour Discards (Nagashi Mangan)

o Page 8 - Baiman

  1. Human Win (Renhou)

o Page 9 - Limit Hands (Yakuman)

  1. Big Three Dragons (Dai San Gen)    10. Thirteen Orphans (Kokushimusou)
  2. Four Concealed Pungs (Suu Ankou)                          (Shii-San Puutaa)
  3. Four Kongs (Suu Kantsu)            11. Thirteen Unrelated Tiles ^
  4. All Terminals (Chinroutou)         12. Heavenly Win (Tenhou)
  5. Little Four Winds (Shou Suu Shii)  13. Earthly Win (Chiihou)
  6. All Honours (Tsuuiisou)            14. Big Four Winds (Dai Suu Shii)
  7. All Green (Ryuuiisou)              15. Four Concealed Pungs with pair wait
  8. Big Wheel (Dai Sharin)             16. Pure Nine Gates
  9. Nine Gates (Chuurenpoutou)         17. Pure Thirteen Orphans


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 14 | COMPLETION                                                  s14 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

In most previous RGG/Yakuza titles the completion requirement for the mahjong
minigame was that you finish a match with 50,000 points or more (before the Uma
bonus was applied). This was pretty tough - even a skilled player would need a
little luck and probably several attempts to achieve this. In Ishin this was
reduced to 40,000 points which made it easier to achieve.

In Kurohyou 2 however the completion requirement is simply to win ten Hands in
total. You can win by Ron or Tsumo and the ten wins don't need to all be in the
same match. Basically you'll get it without even trying.

You can check your completion progress from the safehouse menu. Pick option 4
for completion, option 6 for minigames then option 15 for mahjong.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 15 | WI-FI PLAY                                                  s15 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

The options for local wi-fi play include mahjong with up to four human players
with their own PSP's but I haven't had the opportunity to test it.

You'll need to ensure that your WLAN switch is set to on and I would assume that
all players need to set their PSP's to the same wi-fi channel which can be done
from the console menu under Settings \ Network Settings \ Ad Hoc Mode.

After loading your save on the game's title screen* you get the game's main menu
which has five options (two big ones and three small ones). Pick the second one
for wi-fi play and then the bottom (sixth) one on the sub-menu for mahjong.

The player that does this becomes the host for the match. The other players then
need to join the match which I assume you can do under Game \ Game Sharing from
the PSP's XMB menu.

  (I'd be happy to receive more info if you have experience of doing all this)

*If you're already playing the game you can exit to the title screen by pressing
Start then picking the sixth choice on the pause menu for Options and the fifth
choice on the sub-menu.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 16 | INFINITE MONEY                                              s16 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

There's a small but serious bug in the game, specifically the mahjong parlour
manager, that makes it possible to generate unlimited funds.

The manager - the guy at the counter near the entrance - can be used to exchange
your mahjong credit points for prizes (see Section 03). When you buy a prize the
cost is deducted from your credit points total which is shown as a yellow number
at the bottom of the screen. However if you quit out of the shop interface, exit
the manager dialogue and then go back in you'll find your points restored!

This gives you unlimited potential to buy as many prizes as you want; these can
then be sold at the pawnshop at the other end of the alley. You can then use the
money to buy more credit points so you can buy more items or higher-value items
each time you speak to the manager, thus accelerating the process.

Of course it's up to you to decide whether you want to play the game properly or
use this bug exploit to get millions of Yen with very little effort. Perhaps you
might just use it to fund a few visits with your favourite hostess. <3


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 17 | STRATEGY                                                    s17 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

(Disclaimer: I wrote this for my previous Yakuza guides when I was still quite
new to mahjong but I think it's still good, if somewhat long and rambling...!)

Mahjong is a complex game so it's obviously advantageous to have a good working
knowledge of all the rules and Scoring Elements and an awareness of the points
system. I hope that the other sections of this guide cover everything you need
to know; even if you already know enough to play the game I think it's worth
reading through the whole thing to pick up on anything you might've missed.

At the start of a Hand I'd survey my tiles quickly to see if they lend them-
selves to any particular Scoring Element/s. If there's a fair chance of obtain-
ing this I'd work towards that goal but you have to be flexible - you might need
to change your plans later in the Hand based on the tiles you draw.

Then I'd look at any Honours (Winds or Dragons) in the hand. If you have a pair
of Dragons, Prevalent Wind or your Seat Wind then it's definitely worth keeping
them; if nothing else you can use them as your pair (that's worth a couple of
minipoints too) but in my experience you are very likely to get the opportunity
to pick up a third by calling Pung (since other players will discard them) which
will score you one Fan and give you the Scoring Element you need to declare a
win (your hand will no longer be concealed though). If you have Double Wind
(i.e. your Seat Wind matches the Prevalent Wind) then the pair or Pung is worth
double; because of the way the Seat Winds move, each player will be in Double
Wind for at least one Hand per round.

If you find yourself with an individual Dragon or Prevalent/Seat Wind tile then
it's tempting to hang onto it - there are only thirty-four different tiles in
the game so there's a chance you'll draw another to make a pair and then you can
steal a discard to make a Pung - but I think it's probably best to ditch them
quite early (so that you don't miss any opportunities to start building set with
the other tiles) and you'll notice that the other players do the same. The only
solo Honour tile you might want to keep temporarily is your Seat Wind especially
when it is a Double Wind, as this is usually of no use to your opponents and
therefore a more likely discard.

(Keep an eye out for hands where the majority of the tiles are Honours (in pairs
or Pungs) and suit tiles from a single suit as this will give you a good chance
of getting a Half Flush hand. In this case any Winds are useful - they don't
have to be the Prevalent Wind or your Seat Wind, although they are better.)

Although Honours can be used to make scoring sets they are not very flexible as
they cannot be used in Chows, only Pungs (or Kongs). Terminals (1's and 9's) are
slightly more useful because they can be used in Pungs or one Chow (e.g. 111 or
123) and tiles marked 2 or 8 are better still because they can make a Pung or
two different Chows (e.g. 222, 123 or 234). The suit tiles marked 3 to 7 are the
most useful as they can make a Pung or three possible Chows. This analysis not
only shows which tiles are generally the most helpful to retain in your hand but
also which are the better Waits to aim for. Given a choice of two options it's
better, for example, to make a ready hand needing a 1 rather than a 4 because a
1 is less useful and is therefore more likely to be discarded by another player.

If you can see two of a given Honour tile on the table there's no chance of
making a Pung from your single or pair of the same and equally you can safely
discard one without someone calling Pung on it (although they could still claim
it by Ron to make a pair and go out). However if it's late in a Hand and you can
only see one (or none) of a certain Honour tile then it's likely that another
player is sitting on a pair and it will be risky to discard one.

Next I'd discard any stray tiles that look less useful. If I only have one Craks
tile for example I'd ditch it. If I have 1, 4, 5, 7 and 9 Bams then the 4 and 5
could form a Chow and so could the 7 and 9 but I'd usually get rid of the 1 that
doesn't have any near neighbours. Any suit tile with a number more than two
away from the others you're holding can't make an easy Chow so is a likely
discard.

You should keep probabilities in your mind when building your hand. From the
earlier example, if I have 7 and 9 then I could make a Chow with an 8 of the
same suit but if I have 4 and 5 then either a 3 or a 6 would do it - so speaking
generally I'm twice as likely to draw a tile I need in the second case. Two con-
secutive suit tiles, like 4 and 5, are called a SERIAL PAIR or RYANMEN Wait, and
such elements are the most effective way to build a hand.

If I have 6, 7 and 9 Dots then I'm waiting on a 5 or 8 Dots to make a Chow with
the 6 and 7 but also waiting on an 8 again to make a Chow with the 7 and 9. In
this case I might discard the 9. You need to govern your hand with a view to
maximising your chances of each drawn tile helping you complete a set.

(You should learn to recognize patterns of tiles that give you multiple winning
options and try to steer your hand towards these. For example if you have 6667
you can take a 5 to make a 567 Chow and a 66 pair, or a 7 to make a 666 Pung and
a 77 pair or an 8 to make a 66 pair and a 678 Chow. If you have 2345 you can
make a Chow and a pair with either a 2 or a 5. You'll also come to instantly
recognize complete sets that overlap, for example 455667 is two Chows - 456 and
567 - and 12223 is a 123 Chow and a pair.)

Of course there are other factors to consider when thinking of probabilities.
You should check the discards, the Dora indicator/s and any exposed sets to see
if the tile/s you need are inaccessible. Also remember that the tiles you want
might be in the concealed section of another player's hand or among the fourteen
tiles in the Dead Wall which will not enter play.

If I've got two 3-Bams in my hand then I can use that as my pair. I might be
able to make a Pung with another 3 Bams but there are only four 3 Bams tiles in
the whole game and I've already got two of them! Even if none have been
discarded, the chances of that aren't so good, although of course you can call
Pon on any player's discard whereas you can only call Chii from the player to
your left. Pungs can give you a better hand too, with better Scoring Elements
and minipoints to be had, but generally it's preferable to go for Chows.

You should also think about all the possible Scoring Elements, especially the
one-Fan patterns which are easiest to achieve. Calling Pon and calling Chii
(picking up discards from other players) makes it a lot easier to complete sets
in your hand but this will make your hand exposed which rules out some elements
like Pinfu, Riichi and obviously Fully Concealed Hand! You might want to con-
sider ditching all the Terminals and Honours from your hand to get All Simples
or conversely you might keep them for All Terminals And Honours or Mixed Outside
Hand. You might keep Terminals as part of a Pure Straight or Honours to help
with a Half Flush.

Don't forget that you need a pair in your hand so if you only have one pair
think twice before you call Pon on it. It can be quite hard to make a new pair.

Speaking of pairs, if you have a hand with several (five maybe?) then you could
try aiming for the Seven Pairs hand but this often doesn't give a great score
and can be hard to complete. A better option is to go for All Pungs which gives
two Fan, good minipoints for Pungs and opportunities to make Kongs. If you can
complete three of the Pungs with self-drawn tiles you can claim a further two
Fan for Three Concealed Pungs and if you make all four by self-draw you've got
yourself a Limit Hand! However usually you will need to call for discards in
order to complete the hand and this will limit your defensive potential.

If you find yourself with four of the same suit tile in your hand it might be
best to wait before declaring a Kong - this gives you the flexibility to use the
tiles as a Pung and part of a Chow. Also if you hold off on declaring the Kong
until you are Tenpai (i.e. one tile short of a complete hand) then there's a
chance that you'll score one extra Fan for "After a Kong" if you complete your
hand. If one or more of your opponents has called Riichi then it's better not to
make a Kong as this will give them potentially two extra Dora if they win.

If you have some exposed Pungs remember which tiles are there. You might be
dealt the fourth you need to make one into a Kong which will boost your score.

Declaring Riichi can be a good way to make points - you can score Fan for Riichi
itself plus Ippatsu and Underside Dora bonuses - but if you call Riichi late in
a Hand you won't have many opportunities to get the tile/s you need. It is also
better to call Riichi when there are several possible tiles that could complete
your hand, for example if you are holding 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Craks you could form
two Chows with either 1-Craks, 4-Craks or 7-Craks. Again you should check the
discard piles to see if some of the tiles you need have gone as this will shift
the odds against you. Don't forget that taking Riichi costs 1,000 pts so if your
chances aren't so good it may be better not to risk it.

If you have a choice of several discards when "reaching" (declaring Riichi) you
should carefully compare the different options. How many of the tile/s you need
are still in play? Will your choice affect your Scoring Elements (for example
All Simples)? Will it make you Furiten? Will it get you more or less Dora tiles?
Would it be better to hold off until you're waiting on more/different tiles? You
should also think about whether your opponents are close to winning because you
won't have any control over your discards and therefore can't play defence.

Keep in mind that you need a hand worth at least one Fan (not counting Dora
bonuses) to be able to declare a win; you can't just have four complete sets and
a pair. This is one reason to avoid calling Pon/Chii at every opportunity - you
can get an ill-formed and worthless (and exposed) hand. Make sure you have a
Scoring Element (it's usually best to combine Pinfu and Riichi).

You should also remember to check the exposed tile on the Dead Wall for the Dora
bonus as this might affect your decisions. A pair or Pung of Dora tiles will
give you two or three extra doubles to your score so you'll want to keep them.
If you only have a single Dora in your hand then it's worth hanging onto for a
while - you might at least be able to make a pair with it - but if you don't get
the tiles you need to make a set with it then you should let it go. The same
goes for the Red Five bonus tiles.

Being the Dealer (i.e. in a Hand where your Seat Wind is East) is a bit of a
double-edged sword. If you're an optimist then you'll relish the opportunity to
score extra points on a win and then "stay on" as Dealer to do it again but if
you're a pessimist you might be worried about facing a bigger loss of points if
you lose. It might be better not to risk going for a higher-scoring hand and
instead to go out on the first available possibility, then repeat this process.

If you are doing well in a Hand then you might want to stop and count how many
Fan your hand is worth. If it's currently worth 4 or 6 Fan then it's not worth
taking a gamble on getting one more Fan since a 6 Fan hand scores the same as a
7 Fan hand and a 4 Fan hand (with 40+ minipoints) scores the same as 5 Fan.

As you get better at mahjong you will start to think more about defensive play.
The essence of defence is to avoid discarding tiles which help your opponents,
especially ones they can claim by Ron to win the hand; they might still win with
a self-drawn tile or with someone else's discard but at least you won't have to
pay all the points. Since the discarder pays all the points for a win by Ron,
feeding a player the tile they need to win could easily cost you as much as
12,000 points if they're the Dealer!

You should be cautious of any player who has called Riichi because they must
have a Tenpai hand and are therefore in a position to claim Ron on a discard.
However you should also keep in mind that a player might be Tenpai but not call
Riichi because either their hand is not concealed or they have a poor Wait (i.e.
their chance of getting the tile/s they need is not high enough to risk the
1,000 points for Riichi). This is called "SILENT TENPAI" or DAMA TEN.

Remember that the other players can also claim discards to make sets which will
put them closer to a winning hand. It's particularly important to watch the
player to your right as they can call Chows from you as well as Pungs.

The key to defence is to read your opponent's discards to try to work out what
tile/s they need. Mahjong experts have written on this topic at length but I'll
just give a few simple points here. At the most basic level, you can sometimes
get an overall impression of their discards/hand, for example if one suit is
missing from their discards then they could be making a Flush or Half Flush hand
and you should avoid discarding tiles of that suit, or if they've discarded a
lot of Honours and Terminals they are probably trying to get All Simples.

In general play it is usually safe to discard a tile that someone has discarded
recently because if someone needed it they'd have taken it! Also when a player
is Tenpai you are safe to discard any tile which they have discarded because of
the Furiten rule - they cannot call Ron on any tile they've discarded. Although
it's less certain, you might also choose to assume that a Tenpai player has made
the most effective sort of Wait, the serial pair, for example a 4 and a 5
waiting on a 3 or 6 to become a Chow, but they are unlikely to have made a Wait
where they are Furiten on one of the two winning tiles, so you can reason that
if they discard a 6 for example then they probably don't have a 3/6 wait and the
3 tile of the same suit could also be safe (you will learn the tiles that go
together, i.e. 1-4-7, 2-5-8 and 3-6-9). This works best with low or high value
discards because, for example, a 1 discard means that 4 could be safe (with a
23 wait) but a 4 discarded might mean that either 1 (with a 23 wait) *or* 7
(with a 56 wait) could be safe.

In an extreme case, if at any stage you think you're unlikely to win (i.e. your
hand is far from complete) then you should start to play defensively. You might
even choose to break up non-exposed sets in your hand in order to be able to
discard tiles that are safer and prevent another player from winning. Breaking
a Pung is especially useful because if no one claims the first discard then you
have two more of the same tile to discard on your next two turns!

When heading for a draw you might also call Pon/Chii on tiles that you wouldn't
normally take in an effort to get your hand into a Tenpai state and therefore
fair better when the points are shared out. A Tenpai hand is any that is only
one tile away from being complete, regardless of it being concealed or exposed.
If you're the only player that's Tenpai in a draw you get a very handy 3,000
points which is more than you get for winning with a low-value hand!

Don't lose heart in a game if you've been stuck in 4th place for ages. One high
scoring hand can win you the game or at least put you in second place where you
will avoid losing points on the Uma.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 18 | FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS                                  s18 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Q. I made four sets and a pair, why couldn't I declare a win?

A. Your complete hand must have at least one Scoring Element or, if you're very
   lucky, a Limit Hand (see Section 08 for lists of both) before you can declare
   a win (Tsumo or Ron) and win the Hand.

Q. I was one tile away from winning and one of the other players discarded a
   tile I needed to win but I couldn't claim it (Ron), why was that?

A. If you had already called Riichi then you were probably Furiten - this is the
   situation when any of the tiles you have discarded could complete your hand.
   When you are Furiten you are not allowed to win by Ron although you can still
   win by Tsumo (i.e. with a self-drawn tile).

   If you hadn't declared Riichi then either you were Furiten or your hand did
   not meet the criteria of any Scoring Elements so you couldn't win with it.

   For example:-

   o If the only potential Scoring Element in your hand was All Simples and you
     had a 2 and a 3 waiting to be a Chow then you could win with a 4 but you
     could not win with a 1 because then the hand wouldn't be "All Simples".

   o If you had no Scoring Elements and, say, a pair of 2-Bams and a pair of
     Red Dragons then you could win with another Red Dragon (giving the Scoring
     Element required: Dragon Pung) but you couldn't win with another 2-Bams.

   o If you were trying to win with only Fully Concealed Hand this Scoring
     Element has a requirement that the winning tile must be self-drawn so you
     can't win with Ron (unless you have other Scoring Elements present).

   If you're unable to "go out" you should either try to change your hand to get
   a viable Scoring Element (perhaps lose the Terminals and Honours to get All
   Simples, or try to get Pinfu) or attempt to hold out, being careful with your
   discards, and maintaining your Tenpai status so you fair better in a draw.

   Remember that Riichi is a Scoring Element itself so it's possible to call
   Riichi on a (closed Tenpai) hand and then go out with a complete but other-
   wise valueless hand using Riichi to give the one Scoring Element required.

Q. I'm one tile away from a complete hand, why can't I do the Riichi thing?

A. You need to fulfil the following criteria to declare Riichi:-

   o you must have a "ready" hand that's one tile away from completion, although
     two or more different tiles could complete it

   o your hand must be concealed (with no exposed sets made with discards)

   o there must be at least four tiles remaining to be drawn (dealt) in the Hand

   o you need the 1,000 points to pay the stake

Q. When should I declare a Kong?

A. The most significant effect of declaring a Kong is that an additional Dora
   indicator is revealed (see Section 08). When a player declares a win they can
   benefit from this, and if they won after declaring Riichi then they will also
   have an additional Underside Dora indicator.

   This makes a generous gift so you should aim to give it only to yourself and
   not to an opponent! It is best to declare a Kong only when you are close to
   declaring a win. If you do it when your hand is Tenpai (ready) then there's a
   chance that you'll complete your hand with the supplement tile you take after
   declaring a Kong in which case you would receive the bonus Scoring Element
   "After a Kong" which is worth one extra Fan (and kinda badass).

   It's usually a bad idea to declare a Kong after an opponent has "reached"
   because they must have a Tenpai hand so they're very close to winning and two
   additional Dora indicators will be applied if they win.

Q. What are all these different tiles?!

A. There are thirty-four different tiles in the game (and four of each in the
   set) and you'll need to be able to tell them apart to play mahjong.

   Rather than describing each individual tile, it's easier to direct the reader
   towards helpful resources - have a look at the following webpages which show
   all the different tiles in the game, but disregard the Seasons and Flowers
   tiles as these are not used in the Japanese version of the game.

                   http://www.mahjonged.com/mahjong_tiles.html

        http://www.mahjong-solitaire-game.com/mahjong-solitaire-tiles.htm

Q. Do I have to learn all these Scoring Element things?!

A. Not really - when you're new to the game it's probably best just to focus on
   the ones which occur most frequently in play. You should keep in mind that
   combining as many Scoring Elements (and Dora) as possible in a hand is the
   key to getting big scores.

   Here's a list of the top ten Scoring Elements you should learn, listed with
   the most common at the top.

   o Riichi
   o Pung of Dragon / Seat Wind / Prevalent Wind
   o All Simples
   o Pinfu
   o Fully Concealed Hand
   o Half Flush
   o Pure Double Chow
   o All Pungs
   o Mixed Triple Chow
   o Seven Pairs

   Ippatsu actually occurs fairly commonly too (above Half Flush in the chart)
   but since it's pretty much a matter of luck I've not listed it here.

   Some of even the low-value Scoring Elements are stupidly rare - a few even
   occur less often than Limit Hands. Don't expect to see Triple Pung, Robbing
   The Kong, Twice Pure Double Chow or (especially) Three Kongs any time soon!

Q. What do the numbers on the screen mean?

   - (top-right corner of screen) Hand count and Honba counter

     The Hand count shows the current Prevalent Wind (East or South) and the
     number of the current Hand, e.g. East 1 or South 4.

     To the right of this is the Honba counter which indicates the number of
     consecutive preceding Hands that ended with either a Dealer win or a draw
     (each worth 300 points for a win).

     The same text (with red and white characters) appears across the middle of
     the screen at the beginning of each new Hand.

   - (yellow number in centre of screen) tile counter

     This is the number of tiles remaining to be drawn in the current Hand.

   - (right of the tile counter) Riichi stick and Honba counters

     The top number is a repeat of the Honba counter above.

     The bottom number shows the number of Riichi bets left unclaimed on the
     table from previous Hand/s (each worth 1,000 points for a win).

Q. How do I know which tiles give the Dora bonus?

A. Any exposed tiles on the Dead Wall (the row of five tiles in the centre of
   the screen) are Dora indicators and the actual Dora is the next sequential
   tile. For example, if you can see a 6-Dots there then the Dora is 7-Dots.

   Each declaration of a Kong set causes another Dora indicator to be exposed
   and if the player wins with Riichi then secret Underside Dora also apply. 

   See Dora Bonuses in Section 08 for further information.

   Also, if you are playing a match with red fives (see Section 09) these will
   give the same bonus.

Q. How do the modern Japanese mahjong rules in the RGG/Yakuza games differ from
   other versions?

A. There are actually quite a lot of differences between the various versions of
   mahjong played in different countries. The key features of "Riichi" mahjong
   that distinguish it from others are as follows:

   o only the winner of a Hand scores points, and for a win with a discard (Ron)
     the points are taken only from the player that discarded the winning tile

   o points are paid on a drawn Hand (if one, two or three players are Tenpai)

   o the list of permitted Scoring Elements includes Pure Straight, All Simples,
     Mixed Outside Hand, Mixed Triple Chow, Triple Pung and Seven Pairs

   o there are no restrictions on the number of suits or Chows in a hand

   o Dora (and sometimes optional red fives) are used

   o the Season and Flower bonus tiles are not used
   
   o Riichi is used (plus the related features of Ippatsu and Underside Dora)

   o the Furiten rule is used (and therefore discards are arranged neatly)

   o the game is usually played over two rounds (East and South) instead of four

   o the game is played with a one-Fan minimum (for declaring a win)

Q. How can I get me one of them fancy Limit Hands?

A. I think the best advice is to forget about it, or at least to put it to the
   back of your mind! Although they make up a big part of the rules and their
   interesting patterns and high scores are quite exciting, realistically you
   could play for a very long time and not see one, despite your best efforts!

   What you can do is to quickly check your tiles at the start of each Hand and
   see if they have the potential to form a Limit Hand. For example at least
   nine or ten different Terminals and Honours (for Thirteen Orphans), several
   Pungs and pairs (for Four Concealed Pungs), lots of Dragons for (Big Three
   Dragons), lots of Winds (for Little/Big Four Winds), etc.

   The game stats on the Tenhou website show that (reasonably skilled!) players
   achieve Yakuman (top Limit) scores in about 0.18% of winning hands which is
   equivalent to about one in 550. The most common are Four Concealed Pungs, Big
   Three Dragons and Thirteen Orphans, each occurring in about 0.04% of wins.

Q. What's the best mahjong hand you've got in an RGG/Yakuza game?

A. I've completed Limit Hands (Yakuman) in several of the previous games.

   My first ever Limit Hand was in Kenzan where I made a rare "Natural Limit"
   (Counted Yakuman - a hand worth 13 or more Fan). I had two Kongs and got
   really lucky with the Dora bonus tiles - I had eleven! I called Riichi and
   got All Simples too, giving a total of 13 Fan.

   I also made Four Concealed Pungs in Yakuza 2 and Thirteen Orphans in RGG3.

   Believe it or not, it's actually harder to make a hand with 11 or 12 Fan (a
   Sanbaiman) than it is to make a Limit Hand (nominally 13 Fan).


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 19 | GLOSSARY                                                    s19 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Since there are so many special terms used in mahjong I thought it would be
helpful to include this section which defines the most important words. I've
tried to keep the definitions very short and simple here; there's a more
comprehensive explanation of each one somewhere in the document above...

Bamboo - one of the three suits, also called Bams

Buy-in - players pay 30,000 pts each (subject to the rate) to join a match

Calling Chii/Pon/Kan - making an exposed set using another player's discard

Characters - one of the three suits, also known as Craks

Chii - declaration made when calling for a discard tile to make a Chow set

Chow - a sequence, a set of three consecutive tiles from the same suit

Closed - descriptive of a concealed set or hand

Concealed - a hand with no exposed tiles

Continuance - an extra Hand played after a Dealer win or Dealer Tenpai draw

Cover charge - a small non-returnable fee paid to the parlour for each match

Dead Wall - a small wall of spare tiles shown in the centre of the screen

Dealer - the player with a Seat Wind (q.v.) of East in any given Hand

Dots - one of the three suits, they're marked with dots!

Dora - one or more tiles that gives a bonus score (cf. Red Five)

Dragons - the three Dragon tiles are red, white and green

Draw - a Hand in which no player declares a win

Exposed - a set that has been placed face-up on the table after calling
        - a hand with one or more exposed sets

Fan - a score doubler awarded for Scoring Elements and Dora in a hand

Flowers - four tiles depicting flowers, not used in Japanese mahjong

Furiten - when one of your discards would complete your hand you cannot call Ron

Half Game / Hanchan - a game lasting two rounds

hand - the thirteen tiles you are holding plus one you are dealt

Hand - each round consists of four normal Hands and sometimes extra Hands too

Honba - a count of consecutive draws and Dealer wins

Honours - collective term for the Dragon and Wind tiles

Jun'i Uma - a final exchange of points between players at the end of a match

Kan - declaration made when calling for a discard tile to make a Kong set

Kong - a quad, a set of four identical tiles

Kuitan - a rule that allows the All Simples (Tanyao) element on an exposed hand

Limit - a cap applied to high-scoring hands

Limit Hand - a very rare hand which is automatically worth maximum points

Meld - (verb) to call Pung/Chow thereby creating an exposed set 
     - (noun) an exposed set

Minipoints - a measure of score awarded for features in a wining hand (also Fu)

Oka - a bonus of usually 20,000 pts paid to the match winner

Open - descriptive of an exposed set or hand

Points - points are awarded in each Hand, based on Fan and minipoints (qq.v.)

Pon - declaration made when calling for a discard tile to make a Pung set

Prevalent Wind - this is East in the first round and South in the second

Pung - a triplet, a set of three identical tiles

Quarter Game - a game lasting one round

Rate - the relative value of credit points when used to buy into a match

Red Five - a special number-five tile marked in red that gives a score bonus

Riichi - to declare that one is "ready", needing one tile to complete the hand

Ron - to declare a win by claiming another player's discard (cf. Tsumo)

Round - four normal Hands (cf. Half Game and Quarter Game)

Round Wind - a more common English name for the Prevalent Wind in each round

Scoring Element - a pattern or condition that is worth one or more Fan

Scoring-Stick - a short white stick used like a casino chip to count points

Seasons - four tiles depicting seasons, not used in Japanese mahjong

Seat Wind - the Wind assigned to a player that changes before each normal Hand

Set - a group of three or four tiles; a Pung, Chow or Kong (qq.v.)

Simples - suit tiles marked with numbers between 2 and 8 inclusive

Suit - a "family" of tiles like the four suits in a deck of playing cards

Tenpai - the state of having a "ready hand", one tile away from being complete

Terminals - suit tiles marked with numbers 1 or 9

Tiles - the pieces used to play the game

Tobi Bonus - a busted player pays 10,000 pts to the player that busted them

Tsumo - to declare a win with a self-drawn tile (cf. Ron)

Underside Dora - a special Dora (q.v.) revealed after a Hand won with Riichi

Wait - the tile or tiles you're waiting for to complete your winning hand

Wareme - an optional rule which doubles the points won/lost by one player

Winds - the four Wind tiles are each marked East, South, West or North

Yakuman - a rare hand which is automatically worth maximum points
        - also the name of the top tier in the Limit system

For a complete guide to the rules and terminology of Japanese mahjong you can
download my PDF guide from the USPML website here:

  http://www.uspml.com/site/downloads.htm  (Barticle's Japanese Mahjong Guide)


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 20 | CONTACT                                                     s20 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

I welcome all feedback on this guide and any contributions you'd like to make.
I'm also happy to receive questions about this or any other mahjong game, or
about the rules and terminology of Japanese mahjong.

You can email me at barticle at hotmail.com - obviously changing the "at" to an
@ and removing the spaces. It would be helpful if you include the word "mahjong"
in the subject line and tell me which game you're playing.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 21 | THANKS                                                      s21 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

I would like to thank the following:-

o jp-gift (eBay ID) for a smooth transaction

o kouryakutsushin.com/kurohyo2wiki/ for general game info

o dswiipspwikips3.jp/kurohyo2/ for some item properties and bug exploit info

o Tangorin.com and Tuttle (as always) for great language resources

o So I'm An Islander, Yellow6, Germind, Alio Die and Tel for super sounds

I will be happy to give credit and thanks to anyone who makes a contribution.
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             /   \___ ________ _________/  \__ ___ ______ /  /  ________
.-------o   /  __   / \___   //  ___/\_   ___//  //  ___//  /  /  __   /
| ANOTHER  /  / /  /_____/  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /   \/  / 
'---------/  /-/  //  __   //  /-----/  /---/  //  /---/  /--/  _____/---------.
         /  / /  //  / /  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /  /         GUIDE |
        /   \/  //   \/  //  /     /   \_ /  //   \_ /   \ /   \________ o-----'
        \______/ \______/ \_/      \____/ \_/ \____/ \___/ \___________/
--
Kurohyou 2 Mahjong Guide
Copyright 2015 James R. Barton
Initial version 1.00 completed 15 February 2015

All trademarks and copyrights contained in this document are owned by their
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use only. This work is subject to copyright. It may not be hosted online or
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If you find this file hosted on any other site I would be grateful if you would
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