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Weapon FAQ by barticle

Version: 1.11 | Updated: 12/16/15

  BF4 Firearms Guide - Version 1.11 - 16 Dec 2015 - by Barticle at hotmail.com
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|____.' |_| |_|  |_|    |_|  |____||____||_|   |_||____||____||____.'      |_|
      __      __    __   __    __          __      ___             __    __
     |__  |  |__)  |__  |__|  |__)  |\/|  (__     /  __  |  |  |  |  \  |__
     |    |  |  \  |__  |  |  |  \  |  |  ___)    \__/|  |__|  |  |__/  |__

  01 INTRODUCTION              03 WEAPONS            04 ATTACHMENTS
  02 STATS & MECHANICS            03a Assault Rifles    04a Optics
     02a Bullet-Drop & Zeroing    03b PDW's             04b Accessories
     02b Speed & Range            03c LMG's             04c Barrel Attachments
     02c Damage                   03d Sniper Rifles     04d Underbarrel
     02d Ammo & Reloading         03e Carbines          04e Auxiliary
     02e Recoil                   03f DMR's             04f Paint
     02f Accuracy                 03g Shotguns       05 CONTACT
     02g Suppression              03h Sidearms       06 THANKS

.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 01 | INTRODUCTION                                                s01 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

This is a guide to the multiplayer* firearms in Battlefield 4 (hereafter "BF4").

Although I've written this document from the perspective of a PS4 player, pretty
much all the info within it should apply equally to the other platforms. However
when I mention controls these will be the default PS4 joypad controls, with the
trigger buttons L2 to ADS (aim down sights) and R2 to fire, etc.**

My aims are to explain the mechanics of weapons fire in the game (and how to
interpret the Symthic weapon charts), to discuss/compare all of the weapons and
attachments and to give a little background on each gun. What I can't do is tell
you which weapons or attachments to use - that will depend on your play-style,
available unlocks, game mode, map, enemy tactics, etc - but hopefully I will
give you the information you need to make informed choices.

I'm a veteran of Battlefield 3 (hereafter "BF3") and Battlefield: Bad Company 2
("BFBC2") and I've written over thirty game-guides for GameFAQs. My BF4 trophies
guide and BF3 firearms and trophies guides are also available on this site.

To jump to any section of this document use your browser's Find function (with
Ctrl+F on a PC or Cmd+F on a Mac probably) and search for the letter S followed
by the two or three-digit section number, for example s04 to find Section 04
(and this paragraph!) or s02d to find the fourth sub-section of Section 2.

This guide is designed to be viewed using a monospaced (non-proportional or
fixed-width) font, preferably Courier New. Some sections of the document will
display incorrectly if you are using a proportional font like Times New Roman.

.------------------------------------------------------------------------------.
| All weapon statistics in this guide are taken from Symthic.com, specifically |
| version 1.34 which includes all the DLC guns and stats updates from patches. |
:------------------------------------------------------------------------------:
| On 30 September 2014 the developers released a massive game update following |
| months of trials in the Community Test Environment (CTE); this included 150+ |
| changes to the game and 600+ tweaks to individual gun/attachment stats. This |
| was called the "Fall Patch" so I've used the same name to refer to it below. |
:------------------------------------------------------------------------------:
| The "Spring Patch" of 26 May 2015 saw an even more comprehensive overhaul of |
| the weapon and attachment stats with over 2,500 individual adjustments made! |
:------------------------------------------------------------------------------:
| Further balances were then applied in the "Summer Patch" on 1 Sept 2015, the |
| "Second Fall Patch" on 27 Oct 2015 and the "Holiday Patch" from 14 Dec 2015. |
'------------------------------------------------------------------------------'

*For details of how to unlock guns for the single-player campaign check out
Sections 03a and 03b of my BF4 Trophies Guide on this site. The four weapons for
multiplayer that can be unlocked in the campaign - the P90 PDW, M249 LMG, MP412
Rex revolver and QBZ95-1 assault rifle - are all detailed below.

**The patch in early June 2014 finally added the option to switch the controls
mapped to L1 with L2 and R1 with R2 to mirror the default set-up from BF3 where
you used L1 to ADS and R1 to shoot.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 02 | STATS & MECHANICS                                           s02 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

This is the first of the three main sections of this guide. It explains all the
various stats and physical rules that govern how firearms work in BF4. The game
mechanics are pretty much identical to those of BF3.

Although developers DICE have now (since BF3) added basic weapon stats within
the game it's no substitute to having a full breakdown of all the statistics for
each gun. Luckily for us there's a fantastic online resource that provides just
that and it's called Symthic.

                          http://symthic.com/bf4-stats

In addition to covering BF4, Symthic also currently carries comprehensive weapon
data for BF3, Titanfall and MOH: Warfighter plus Modern Warfare 3, Blops II and
Ghosts in the COD series.

The most important feature for BF4 is the Weapon Charts. These give a complete
listing of the stats for each category of gun in the game. This section of my
guide explains each of these stats in turn (in the order they're presented on
Symthic) and therefore also covers all the firearm mechanics of the game.

                      http://symthic.com/bf4-weapon-charts

There's also a useful Weapon Comparison page that lets you compare two different
guns with or without any accessory that affects weapon stats. You can even pick
firearms from two different categories so for example you could compare the G36C
carbine with a muzzle brake and ergo grip to the M249 machinegun with a flash
hider and stubby grip if you wanted.

You can also use this page to compare the same gun to itself, with and without
any accessory, for example comparing the M416 with a heavy barrel to the M416
with a muzzle brake.
                         http://symthic.com/bf4-compare

You should also be aware of the other pages available on the site which you can
access from the main BF4 menu. These include accuracy plots (graphic displays of
accuracy and recoil) and attachment info.

I could not have written this guide without the sterling efforts of everyone who
has contributed to the Symthic data. Thanks folks! :)

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 02a | Bullet-Drop & Zeroing                                     s02a |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

Although negligible at short ranges, your bullets are affected by gravity.

                                  Bullet-Drop
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
A new addition to the Symthic stat listings for BF4 is the gravity acceleration
that's applied to each weapon - this is shown top-right above the gun image.

In addition to travelling with finite speeds (see Muzzle Velocity below) every
bullet in the game also acts as a true projectile and, instead of travelling on
a perfectly flat path, will gradually fall to earth under gravity. Although this
applies to all guns, this bullet-drop will be most noticeable when using sniper
rifles at long range - you'll need to aim above your targets to hit them.

In real life projectiles accelerate vertically downwards at a rate of 9.81 m/s^2
(metres per second squared) but for the sake of game balance different gravity
rates are used for different guns. To emphasise the role of the sniper rifles
and designated marksman rifles, all other guns in the game have an artificially
high gravity acceleration of 15.0 m/s^2. Most snipers and DMR's have a realistic
gravity of 9.81 m/s^2 while a couple enjoy a lower gravity of 6.0 m/s^2.

Let's look at a few theoretical examples of bullet-drop.

We only need to use a couple of "VUSAT" equations (the game doesn't apply air
resistance and I'm ignoring the slight curvature of the projectile's path).

       time = distance / speed

              This gives the time taken to travel a given horizontal distance.

   distance = 0.5 x acceleration x time squared  (assumes initial speed is zero)

              This then gives the vertical drop after any given length of time.

o AEK971 (assault rifle) - muzzle velocity 580 m/s - gravity 15.0 m/s^2

  The AEK971 has a standard muzzle velocity of 580 m/s so considering only the
  horizontal motion a bullet will cover 200 metres in 200 / 580 = 0.34 seconds.
  Now considering only the vertical motion (the downwards acceleration caused by
  gravity) over 200 metres it will drop 0.5 x 15.0 x 0.34 x 0.34 = 0.89 metres.

  Over 400 metres a bullet will take 0.69 seconds and drop by 3.6 metres. The
  drop distance increases with the square of the flight time so the effect is
  much more noticeable when engaging targets at longer ranges.

o M40A5 (sniper rifle) - muzzle velocity 520 m/s - gravity 9.81 m/s^2

  To cover 200 metres the bullet will take 200 / 480 = 0.38 seconds and during
  that time it will drop by 0.5 x 9.81 x 0.42 x 0.42 = 0.73 metres.

  The M40 experiences less gravity than the AEK but its bullets travel slightly
  slower and give a similar result. However the sniper rifle has the benefit of
  perfect accuracy in stationary aimed fire (see Section 02f) while the assault
  rifle has an equivalent spread of 0.2 causing significant shot deviation over
  longer ranges. The sniper also has the advantage of zeroing (see below) and
  the potential for a one-shot headshot kill at any range (see Section 02c).

o SRR61 (sniper rifle) - muzzle velocity 620 m/s - gravity 6.0 m/s^2

  Over 200 metres a bullet takes 0.32 seconds and drops only 0.31 metres.

  The combination of higher muzzle velocity and reduced gravity both contribute
  to a greatly reduced bullet-drop for the Intervention.

o suppressed weapon (general e.g.) - muzzle velocity 330 m/s - gravity 15 m/s^2

  When a sound suppressor is fitted to a gun it's used in conjunction with sub-
  sonic ammunition that travels at around 330-340 m/s. On most weapons this will
  cause a considerable increase in bullet travel times with a correspondingly
  large increase in the bullet-drop.

  The bullet will travel 200 metres in 0.61 secs and will drop by 2.75 metres.
  Compare that with the AEK example (200m) where the drop was only 0.89 metres.

o Rorsch Mk 1 (Battle Pickup) - muzzle velocity 3,600 m/s - gravity 0 m/s^2

  In addition to having an insanely high muzzle velocity (over five times faster
  than any other gun in the game), the futuristic railgun from the Final Stand
  DLC is also unaffected by gravity. It will take the "railgun projectile" just
  0.056 seconds to cover 200 metres and it will experience zero drop.

o Scout Elite (sniper rifle) - muzzle velocity 640 m/s - gravity 15 m/s^2

  The Scout has the third highest muzzle velocity in the sniper rifle category
  giving it a theoretical maximum range of 3,200 metres (almost two miles) but
  it also suffers the higher gravity rate. By definition a bullet would take 5
  seconds to reach that max range and the bullet-drop would be over 187 metres!

These examples serve to highlight the effect of bullet-drop in the game but you
don't actually need to use a calculator while playing!

The simplest method when sniping at a specific range is to fire a test shot at
a plain wall or post (at the same distance), stay scoped-in and watch where the
bullet impacts. Say it lands 1.5cm below your crosshairs (measured on your TV
screen) you know that you'll need to aim 1.5cm higher to score a direct hit.

With practice you'll learn to estimate distances based on how large the enemy
appears in your scope image and measured against the scope reticle - this will
be easier if you stick with using the same scope (same magnification).

However new equipment available in BF4 means that you don't even need to do that
- you can use the range finder attachment (see Section 04b) to measure the exact
distance to your target (the bottom red number on the device or the right red
number in your scope view). You can also use the Recon kit's PLD (Portable Laser
Designator) gadget to measure distances.

Knowing the distance to your target lets you use zeroing more effectively.

                                    Zeroing
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Another new feature since BF3 is zeroing. When using a sniper rifle or DMR you
can zero the weapon for different distances - press d-pad down (or V by default
on PC) to cycle through the available settings - 100m, 200m, 300m, 400m, 500m
and 1,000m - shown on the d-pad prompt at the bottom of your screen.

(If you have the range finder fitted on your sniper rifle this will also show
the current zeroing setting - this is the top blue number on the device or the
left blue number within the scope view.)

Zeroing negates the effect of bullet-drop at the specified distance - the point
of bullet impact will coincide with your point of aim. At ranges longer than the
zeroing setting you'll experience drop again and at shorter distances you'll see
your round hitting above your crosshairs. The DMR's lack the perfect stationary
aimed accuracy of the bolt-action sniper rifles so at longer ranges you will
still experience some deviation due to spread.

If your engagement range falls between the available zeroing settings you will
still need to adjust your aim manually. For example if your target is at 250m
you could either zero for 200m and aim high or zero for 300m and aim low.

Patched: Originally the bullets you fire would originate from the centre of your
         point of aim (i.e. your character's eyes). This is very common in FPS
         games but it allowed an exploit called "head-glitching" - a player
         could camp behind cover with only the top half of their head exposed
         and they would be able to fire over the cover while presenting a very
         small target to the enemy.

         This issue was finally addressed in the Spring Patch - the solution
         applied was to make bullets spawn from a lower point, approximately
         equivalent to the height of your gun's barrel during ADS. For shotguns
         the distance is 5cm, for pistols it's 2.5cm and for all other guns it's
         6.3cm (the same distances are used regardless of whether you're using
         ADS or hipfire). Now players must expose more of their character model
         in order to be able to fire over cover. (You can test this for yourself
         with the new crates added to the firing range on the Test Range.)

         This fix made it necessary to apply a further change - all guns now
         have their sights zeroed to a set distance by default. This could be as
         short as 25 metres for a shotgun with buckshot or a suppressed pistol
         or as long as 100 metres for a sniper rifle or DMR. The Recon weapons
         can still use the zeroing function described above but now the lowest
         value available is 100m instead of 0m.

         A similar update was applied to the M26 shotgun in the Summer Patch.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 02b | Speed & Range                                             s02b |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

The next three stats on the Symthic weapon charts are shown immediately under
the image and name of the gun.
                                  Rate of Fire
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The first number is the fire-rate, given in RPM (rounds per minute). This tells
us the speed at which the weapon can fire successive rounds (but of course this
is not the actual number of bullets you can fire in one minute because every gun
(even a belt-fed LMG) has a limited ammunition capacity and you would spend some
of that theoretical minute reloading your weapon).

Each firearm in the game has up to three different fire modes. These will be
indicated on the in-game display by the AUTO, BURST or SINGLE text to the right
of your ammo counter in the bottom-right corner of the screen (and by an icon on
the d-pad prompt in the centre of your screen at the bottom).

o AUTO - fully automatic fire when you hold the trigger

o BURST - two or three rounds* fired when you tap/hold the trigger

o SINGLE - only one round fired when you tap/hold the trigger

Tap d-pad down to switch between the available fire modes on your weapon. (With
the default key bindings on PC the equivalent to d-pad down is the V key.) The
icons on the prompt at the bottom of the screen show one bullet for single-fire,
two bullets for burst fire or five bullets for full auto.

When you respawn after dying your gun will still be set to the same fire-mode.

For an automatic weapon the Symthic charts show the fire-rate on full auto. For
a semi-auto, pump-action or bolt-action weapon they show the effective maximum
rate of fire that can be achieved on successive single shots.

Several guns have a burst option in addition to automatic (and the M16A4 assault
rifle and M4 carbine have a burst option *instead* of full auto). Unlike with
real-life weapons, using a burst fire mode in the game will always give you the
gun's standard burst (either two or three rounds) regardless of whether you tap
or hold the trigger.

In automatic mode you can use "tapfire" (tapping R2) to create a burst effect if
your weapon lacks a burst mode - or you're too lazy to change the fire mode. :)
With practice you should be able to reliably get one, two or three rounds per
tap, depending on how long you hold the trigger. Firing consecutive short bursts
is much more accurate than sustained fire because it allows your accuracy spread
(see Section 02f) and recoil (see Section 02e) to both reset after each burst.

The fire-rate of your weapon is very significant in close-quarters combat. When
you encounter an enemy it will often be the one that can pump the most rounds
into the other that will prevail. However at medium and longer ranges you will
be more likely to prosper with a slower weapon with less recoil.

*As we'll see below, most guns in the assault rifle and carbine categories give
a maximum damage of 24 or 24.5 so - unless your target is already injured - you
will need more than one burst to get the 100 damage required for a kill.

                                Muzzle Velocity
                                ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
This is the speed at which bullets leave the barrel, given in metres per second
(m/s). For example at 600 m/s it takes a quarter of a second for your bullets to
travel 150 metres (164 yards) and in order to hit a moving target you would need
to "lead" them - aiming in front of them so they run into your bullet.

In general the rifles and machineguns in BF4 have muzzle velocities of around
500 to 600 m/s (compared to typical values of 850 to 950 m/s in real life), for
PDW's it's around 400 m/s and for pistols around 300 m/s.

A gun with a lower muzzle velocity will experience more bullet-drop (see Section
02a) since the longer travel time gives the bullet more time to fall.

When you equip a sound suppressor attachment (see Section 04c) you also switch
to subsonic ammunition with reduced muzzle velocity (and more bullet-drop).

Patched: The muzzle velocities of around thirty guns - mostly DMR's, shotguns
         and carbines - were buffed in the Fall Patch.

                                 Maximum Range
                                 ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
For most guns the maximum distance that a bullet can reach is calculated as the
distance it travels in 1.5 secs so this is intimately connected to the previous
stat. For example the M416 assault rifle has a muzzle velocity of 600 m/s so
(speed x time = distance) its max range is 600 x 1.5 = 900 metres (984 yards).

The muzzle velocity trends apply here too so the rifles and machineguns tend to
have longer ranges (around 800-950m) compared to PDW's and handguns.

Sniper rifles and DMR's are the exception - their maximum range is based on a
travel time of 5.0 seconds so for example the CS-LR4 rifle has a muzzle velocity
of 670 m/s and therefore a max range of 670 x 5.0 = 3,350 metres (3,664 yards).

This is only the theoretical maximum range of the weapon and not the effective
range - you'll usually want to be operating at significantly shorter distances.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 02c | Damage                                                    s02c |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

When playing on a Normal or "Core" server every player has 100 health - you can
think of this as 100 hit points or just as 100% of full health. It's easier to
kill (and to be killed!) on a Hardcore server - every weapon does the same
damage as in Normal but now everyone has only 60 health.

The damage done by any bullet that hits an enemy (or a friendly in Hardcore!) is
determined by a few basic numbers as outlined below.

Patched: The Classic option was added in the Fall Patch. Soldiers here have 100
         health as in Normal but friendly fire is on and automatic health regen
         is off, placing more emphasis on the medic role.

                                 Damage Drop-Off
                                 ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
There are four key stats for each weapon which are shown graphically as a plot
of damage (per round) against distance travelled. At short ranges a bullet does
its Maximum Damage, then when it reaches the Drop-Off Start distance the damage
starts to decrease (at a constant linear rate) until it reaches the Drop-Off End
distance after which the Minimum Damage applies. (The round then continues until
it reaches its Maximum Range (see above) where it effectively disappears!)

(In BF3 the heavy barrel and suppressor attachments both had statistical effects
on the damage drop-off distances but this is no longer the case in BF4.)

       D|
       A|                                                  Damage Plot
       M|----------._  <---- Maximum Damage                 (General)
       A|            `-._
       G|                `-._
       E|                    `-._
        |                        `-._
        |                            `-------------  <---- Minimum Damage
        Z
        |_____________________________________________________
                  /\                 /\        D I S T A N C E
            Drop-Off Start      Drop-Off End

The various guns in the game have different damage graphs but they always have
this same basic shape and any two weapons in the same category that use the same
or similar ammunition will usually have identical damage stats.

For example every assault rifle apart from the SCAR-H and the Bulldog fires an
intermediate calibre rifle round - 5.56mm NATO, 5.45mm Warsaw Pact (WP) or 5.8mm
Chinese - and for the sake of balance these are considered to have identical
damage stats. The maximum damage is 24.5, the drop-off start is 12.5 metres, the
drop-off end is 60 metres and the minimum damage is 18.0 (out to maximum range).

            D|
            A|                                              Damage Plot
            M|-----._  <---- 24.5 pts                     (Assault Rifle)
            A|       `-._
            G|           `-._
            E|               `-._
             |                   `-._
             |                       `-------------  <---- 18.0 pts
             Z
             |________________________________________________
                  /\                 /\        D I S T A N C E
              12.5 metres         60 metres

Out to 12.5 metres each bullet does 24.5 damage so on a Normal server it takes
five bullets to kill an enemy (5 x 24.5 > 100). This continues out to 46 metres
where the damage drops below 20 (5 x 19.9 < 100) and you get a six-hit kill.

(The drop-off zone is essentially a triangle, in this case with side lengths 6.5
and 47.5. Damage or distances within this zone can be determined with basic trig
or by equating the aspect ratios of similar triangles, e.g. if we say the damage
drops off to 20 at N metres into the zone then (24.5 - 20) / N = 6.5 / 47.5 and
therefore N = 32.9 metres and the full distance is 12.5 + 32.9 = 45.4 metres.)

Patched: In a (successful!) effort to increase the effective Time To Kill (TTK)
         in close quarters DICE reduced the max damage by 1 for most automatic
         weapons (assault rifles, LMG's, carbines and PDW's) in the Fall Patch.

         This sounds like a minor change but, since the majority of guns had a
         max damage that was exactly enough to give either a four-hit kill (25)
         or a three-hit kill (34) at short ranges, this small tweak had the big
         effect of increasing the Bullets To Kill (BTK) by one for almost all of
         the weapons in these categories.

         (Notable exceptions are the AS Val, SR2 and MPX - these PDW's all had
         max damage stats greater than 25 prior to the patch.)

         Further stat tweaks were applied in the massive Spring Patch and now
         any assault rifles and LMG's that had been reduced to 24 now do 24.5.

You can see the effect of damage drop-off on your Kill Assist bonuses (these are
equal to the number of points of damage done). For example the 7.62mm load of
the SCAR-H does a maximum damage of 33 out to 8 metres. At short ranges (where
the max damage applies) you might get kill assists of 33 or 66 but at slightly
longer ranges (just into the drop-off zone) you might get 30 or 62 for example.

The bullet damage and rate of fire can be multiplied to give a "damage-rate".
This DPS (damage per second) figure serves as a rough indicator of how quickly a
gun can deliver damage (in this case at short range).

  F2000 = 850 RPM x 24.5 damage / 60 seconds per minute = 347 damage per second

  SAR21 = 600 RPM x 24.5 damage / 60 seconds per minute = 245 damage per second

 SCAR-H = 620 RPM x 33 damage / 60 seconds per minute = 341 damage per second

The higher bullet damage of the SCAR gives it a DPS similar to the faster F2000.

                               Damage Multipliers
                               ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The graph shows the base damage per round but multipliers are applied when you
hit certain parts of your target's body.

Weapons do standard damage on shots to the chest (upper torso) and arms. This
is the baseline used when discussing the killing potential of a weapon, so for
example most assault rifles deliver a maximum damage of 24.5 and therefore can
give a five-hit kill (specifically on chest/arm shots).

A headshot does x2.13 damage with most weapons or x2.35 damage with sniper
rifles. In BF3 every (bolt-action) sniper rifle had a minimum damage of at least
50 so every gun gave a guaranteed one-hit headshot kill at any range - this is
still true of most snipers in BF4 except the FY-JS, Scout Elite and SR338 (see
Section 03d). The shotgun buckshot and dart loads have no headshot damage
multiplier (x1) - and the head makes a much smaller target for your pellets or
flechettes anyway - so it is always best to aim for the chest with those.
Shooting your target's abdomen (lower torso) or legs always gives a multiplier
of x0.93 so it actually reduces the damage per bullet by 7 percent.

(BF3's x1.25 multiplier for sniper/revolver/slug shots to the upper torso has
been removed. In BF3 this made one-hit chest kills possible with sniper rifles
in close-quarters but you can still get one-hit chest/arm kills in BF4 because
the max damage for all bolt-action sniper rifles is now 100.)

Patched: As part of the major overhaul of weapons balance in the Spring Patch of
         May 2015 the basic headshot damage multiplier was increased from x2 to
         x2.13 and it is now possible to get a kill with two headshots at short
         range with a weapon that does a max damage of 23.5 or more.

         DICE explained that their overall goal was "[...] to create distinct
         roles for the weapon classes and reward player skill through increased
         recoil and by bringing back the 2-bullet headshot!"

         In the Summer Patch the headshot multiplier for shotgun slugs and heavy
         pistols (revolvers and the Deagle) was reduced from x2.35 to x2.13 -
         previously a pump-action shotgun using slug rounds (45 min damage) was
         capable of a one-hit headshot kill at any range.

The full and extended list of specs (perks) in BF4 was announced by DICE in mid
August 2013 and included the ARMOR spec that reduces damage to the chest. After
numerous questions and complaints from fans they issued clarification just three
days later stating that the effect is relatively minor - as in BF2 and BF2142 -
and the primary effect is to negate the one-hit chest kill ability of snipers.

Patched: In the Fall Patch a visual effect was added to indicate when an enemy
         player is using ARMOR. This takes the form of a shield-shaped outline
         around the orange triangle (Dorito) that appears when they are spotted.

         In the 18 November 2014 patch an option to toggle this effect on/off
         was added (the shield icons are now disabled by default).

The ARMOR spec, available in the Defensive field upgrade set, applies the x0.93
abdomen/legs damage multiplier to chest/arm shots for most categories of firearm
in the game. Shotgun buckshot rounds suffer a heavier x0.85 penalty (because
armour can stop shot more easily) and no multiplier penalty (x1) to shotgun dart
rounds (because they give superior penetration).

Patched: After previously announcing several pistol balances on the official
         Battlefield blog in January 2014, DICE applied the changes in the patch
         on 4 March. This included a small increase to the maximum damage of the
         pistols that use .45 ACP, .40 S&W, 5.8mm and 5.7mm ammunition, enough
         to bypass the effect of ARMOR on Bullets To Kill (BTK) at short ranges.

         The damage multiplier for shotgun buckshot shots to the chest and arms
         protected by the ARMOR spec was increased from x0.67 to x0.85 in the
         25 March 2014 patch, improving the chances of shotgun users.

         Prior to the Fall Patch many automatic weapons did either 25 or 34 max
         damage (exactly enough for a four- or three-hit kill respectively) so
         the ARMOR modifier caused the BTK to increase by one in close quarters.
         Since the damage reduction in the patch caused the BTK to increase for
         these guns the ARMOR spec now rarely has any extra effect on them and
         it mainly only impacts shotguns and snipers (as originally intended).

           (pre-patch, no ARMOR) 4 x 25 = 100        [four-hit kill]

           (pre-patch, vs ARMOR) 4 x 25 x 0.93 < 100 [five-hit kill]

          (post-patch, no ARMOR) 4 x 24 < 100        [already a five-hit kill]

          (post-patch, vs ARMOR) 4 x 24 x 0.93 < 100 [still a five-hit kill]

         (The maximum damage for intermediate-calibre assault rifles and LMG's
         was subsequently raised from 24.0 to 24.5 in the Spring Patch.)

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

The various damage multipliers are summarized in this table:

        Target       | Multiplier | Weapon/Ammo Types
 ====================+============+============================================
                     |    x2.35   | sniper rifles
         head        |    x1.00   | shotgun buckshot/darts
                     |    x2.13   | everything else
 --------------------+------------+--------------------------------------------
  upper torso / arms |    x1.00   | everything
 --------------------+------------+--------------------------------------------
  upper torso / arms |    x0.85   | shotgun buckshot
   (when target is   |    x1.00   | shotgun darts
   using ARMOR spec) |    x0.93   | everything else
 --------------------+------------+--------------------------------------------
  lower torso / legs |    x0.93   | everything

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Patched: Following CTE testing in early 2015 the developers added a feature that
         I'd wanted for ages. The shooting range targets on the Test Range now
         need to take 100 damage before they drop where previously you only had
         to hit them with a single round. The headshot damage multiplier is also
         applied so you can try different weapons and see how many shots to the
         body or head are required to kill at various distances.

         The option to change the colour and size of your hit markers for body,
         head and kill shots was also added to your advanced setting options
         (although the colours for headshots and kill-shots aren't used when
         plinking those Test Range targets).

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 02d | Ammo & Reloading                                          s02d |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

Next to the damage plot on the Symthic weapon charts are the reload times and
details of the weapon's ammunition capacity.

                                 Reload Times
                                 ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Most guns have two reload times: the short (or "tactical") reload and the long
(or "empty") reload. The short reload applies if you reload while you still have
some rounds in the weapon* and the long reload occurs if you reload when it's
completely dry (and you need a little extra time to chamber a round). Taking the
SCAR-H as an example the short reload there is 1.90 seconds (one of the fastest
in the game) and the long reload when the gun is empty is 2.40 seconds.

 1.9s        The two reload times are presented in a diagonal row with a third
    2.4s     figure which is a "threshold" multiplier - once you start reloading
       0.75x you cannot switch to another weapon until this time has elapsed -
     21      and the fourth number is the ammo capacity (see below).

(As you will know from (almost) every game tutorial ever, it's much quicker to
switch to your sidearm than to reload your primary weapon.)

Although they are far less obvious and exotic as the ones in Hardline, some guns
in BF4 have a rare "easter egg" reload animation. There is a small chance (1 in
10,000?) that this will occur when you perform a long reload with certain guns,
for example the Unica 6, SCAR-H and QBU88.

BF4 now has a "tiered" reload system which takes effect when you reload from an
empty magazine but switch to your sidearm or a gadget halfway through the reload
animation - when you switch back to your primary you will only get the second
half instead of the full animation. In other words after firing the last round
in your magazine, you hit the reload button, remove the mag, switch out, switch
back and then load a new magazine. This is more realistic and saves you time.

Patched: Since BF3 several games using the Frostbite engine have exhibited what
         is known as the Fake Reload bug - occasionally when reloading you would
         see the full animation but the reload would not actually happen. A fix
         for this continuing issue was finally applied in the Summer Patch.

The Hawk 12G, Saiga 12k, DBV12, USAS12 and M26 MASS shotguns all use detachable
magazines which means you can do a full reload more quickly but all the other
shotguns have the advantage that, by loading the shells individually, you can
interrupt the reloading process and resume firing at any stage. The same applies
to the lever-action Mare's Leg sidearm but it's not so helpful there as it's not
possible to ADS while reloading.

In BF3 several LMG's, PDW's and shotguns had an unlockable extended mag option
which significantly increased their ammunition capacity. This is not available
in BF4 but generally these weapons now have larger magazines by default instead.

*In Hardcore mode when you reload with a half-empty magazine you will lose the
remaining rounds - so for example if you had a 30-round mag, fired ten shots and
then reloaded you would lose the other twenty.

Patched: The above feature was also seen in the public beta and on Normal mode
         servers in the full game at release. However DICE identified this as an
         error (in the Normal server settings) and fixed it just a couple of
         days later in the fourth server-side patch.

         Classic mode was added in the Fall Patch and also uses this feature.

                                   Ammunition
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The next number shown is the maximum standard ammunition capacity of the weapon.
For the majority of guns this is the magazine capacity plus one round in the
chamber of the weapon. For example the SCAR-H magazine holds 20 rounds so with a
a full magazine and a round chambered the maximum capacity is 21 or "20+1" (and
you'll always spawn with the maximum 21 rounds loaded in the rifle).

When you do a short reload your weapon still has a round in the chamber so after
removing the magazine and replacing it with a full one your gun will have its
maximum load (e.g. 21 rounds) but when the weapon is completely empty and you do
a long reload you will only have the ammo in the new mag available (e.g. 20) so
you would need to reload a second time to receive the maximum capacity.

Ammo type is no longer included in Symthic's main stats charts but it is shown
on the individual weapon pages and on the in-game loadout screen. The calibre
will be given either in millimetres (e.g. 5.56mm or 9mm) or in fractions of an
inch (for example .357 Magnum = 357/1000 inch). A second figure gives the length
of the shell case, for example with 5.56x45mm NATO rounds it's 4.5cm long.

Patched: The tracer effect on every shot was made more prominent in the Spring
         Patch to give a better indication of spread increase (see Section 02f).

         However it was acknowledged that the resulting "laser beams" effect was
         too strong and therefore the "brightness, thickness and length" of the
         tracers were all reduced in the Summer Patch. Additionally the tracer
         effect is now only applied to every third round which further reduces
         their significance and is more authentic to how real tracers are used.

Every shotgun in the game including the new Shorty 12G sidearm and the Assault
kit's M26 MASS fires 12-gauge shells (equivalent to an approximate diameter of
18.5mm). The four types of shotgun ammo - buckshot, flechette, slug and frag -
are discussed in Section 03g below.

Ammo can be resupplied from the Support kit's ammo pack and ammo box by simply
standing next to it. An ammo box remains on the map until it's destroyed or the
owner drops another one elsewhere on the map. The ammo pack however has quite a
limited capacity and only gives you three resupplies - for firearm ammo the
first resupply gives you two magazines and the other two give you one each time;
for grenades, rockets, etc, you get one each time (three total). You can also
resupply (and switch your class) at a supply crate dropped by the commander.

The AMMOBAG UPGRADE spec in the Support kit's Indirect Fire field upgrade path
allows you to have a two ammo packs/boxes deployed at any given time.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 02e | Recoil                                                    s02e |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

Recoil is the tendency of a firearm to "kick" upwards (and sideways) after each
round is fired. This will be especially noticeable when firing a longer burst
from an automatic weapon but, even on full auto, after releasing the trigger the
gun will always return to your original point of aim.

      0.3      The recoil of each weapon is described by five numbers which are
       ^       presented on Symthic like this (using the AK12 as an example).
 0.17<-'->0.12
               The top number is the vertical recoil (muzzle climb) experienced
   18   2.1 x  after each shot, given as an angle measured in degrees.

The next two numbers are the maximum left and right horizontal recoil (muzzle
drift). Sideways recoil is determined at random on each shot so even where the
two stats appear to cancel each other out there will usually be some net effect
although you will only see a distinct "pull" to one side during automatic fire
if the two numbers differ (e.g the AK12 has a small pull to the left).

The figure at the bottom-left is the "recoil recovery" rate. It's a measure of
how quickly the weapon returns to your original aim given in degrees per second
- a bigger number here will make it easier to fire accurate bursts more quickly.
Even in semi-auto (single) fire sometimes it's necessary to delay each shot for
a fraction of a second to allow the weapon sufficient time to recover.

The final number at the bottom-right is the first-shot recoil multiplier applied
to the vertical recoil after the first shot in automatic fire, on every shot in
single fire or after the final shot of a burst (when using burst mode). This
value can be as high as x3.0 (on the 1,000-RPM CZ3A1 PDW) which means that the
weapon will jump vertically three times more than normal after the first shot.
On the M60E4 (the heaviest LMG) this multiplier is only x1.0 - it actually gets
no extra recoil on the first shot.

Sticking with the AK12 as an example, the vertical recoil following the first
shot in automatic fire (or a single shot) will be 0.63 degrees (0.3 x 2.1) then
for every successive shot it will be the standard 0.3 degrees. The recoil will
recover at a rate of 18 degrees per second.
                                       __

Some weapon attachments (see Section 04) affect recoil. The compensator gives
a 25% reduction to horizontal recoil while the heavy barrel (which improves ADS
accuracy) applies a 30% penalty to vertical recoil. When a bipod is equipped
and deployed it greatly decreases all recoil stats for your weapon. Fitting the
angled/folding grip attachment reduces the first-shot recoil multiplier by 20%.

With some practice you can compensate for recoil during a burst by adjusting
your aim in the opposite direction, i.e. you can reduce the effect of vertical
(upwards) recoil by holding down a little on your right stick (or up if you have
vertical look inverted in your controller config). This is easier on PC using a
mouse but it works on a joypad too. Since horizontal recoil is random you can't
counter it fully but you can steer against a prominent sideways pull.

You can use vertical recoil to your advantage by aiming quickly at your target's
torso and letting the recoil guide your aim up their body and hopefully into a
headshot. This technique will be less effective on any weapon that has large or
imbalanced horizontal recoil.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 02f | Accuracy                                                  s02f |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

The accuracy of each weapon is determined as a randomised "spread" (deviation)
on each shot. With the exception of the bolt-action sniper rifles (which all
have 0.0 spread for stationary aimed fire), your bullet will not hit exactly
where you are aiming and will instead land at a random point within a circle
centred on your point of aim and defined by the angular spread value - you can
visualise this as a long cone centred around your line of fire. Since spread is
calculated as an angle, the effect is greater at longer ranges.

The amount of spread that applies in any given situation will be based on three
factors in various combinations shown in a grid (example figures for the AK12).

       ADS  HIP         You'll have much less spread (better accuracy) when you
                        are aiming down sights (ADS) compared to using hipfire.
             3  Stand   
Static 0.2  2.5 Crouch  Your aim will be better when you are stationary. You can
             2  Prone   think of this as an "accuracy bonus" for standing still.

            3.5 Stand   Finally your stance also has an effect on accuracy. You
Moving 1.0   3  Crouch  will have more hipfire spread when you are standing and
            2.5 Prone   less when crouching or laying prone.

It's worth noting that all guns give the same degree of ADS (aimed) accuracy in
all three stances so going prone gives no bonus to ADS spread (it does however
make you a smaller target and allow you to deploy a bipod but it also makes you
pretty vulnerable, especially to headshots).

With most guns the effect of stance and movement on your hipfire accuracy can be
demonstrated simply by observing the variations in size of your crosshairs as
you transition between running/standing and standing/crouching/prone. You can
also observe the effect on hipfire spread of switching on and off a laser sight
attachment (see Section 04b) and of firing a long burst on automatic.

Compared to BF3, weapons in BF4 generally have more spread (less accuracy) in
hipfire, with figures for stationary hipfire typically increasing by about 0.5,
so you'll want to ADS at shorter ranges than you would have previously.

                                       ¯¯
There are two other stats that are applied. The first is the spread increase per
shot (shown in orange on Symthic) which is the amount by which the radius of
spread increases with each successive shot; for example the value is around 0.1
degrees for the assault rifles. This means it's much better to use short bursts,
or even single shots, when shooting at longer ranges. The spread will increase
up to the maximum spread values (not shown on the basic weapon charts).

For example the AEK971 assault rifle has an initial stationary aimed accuracy of
0.2, a spread increase per shot of 0.117 and a maximum aimed spread of 1.5 - so
during a sustained burst the spread will gradually rise up to the 1.5 limit.

The spread increase per shot (SIPS) is proportional to the weapon's fire-rate -
for most automatic guns it's equal to the fire-rate divided by 7,700. (This is
based on 770 which is the fire-rate of the Ace 23 assault rifle - by definition
the Ace 23 has a SIPS of exactly 0.1 and all others are set relative to this.)

Patched: Some SIPS stats were corrected in the Fall Patch. For example with the
         AR160 (700 RPM) it was reduced from 0.12 to 0.091 (700/7700 = 0.091).

The amount of spread increase in automatic fire will be reduced by 20% if you
equip either the potato grip or stubby grip on your weapon. These attachments
also reduce the maximum aimed spread value by 17%.

Patched: At launch the accuracy mechanics were such that if you transitioned
         from hipfire into aimed fire during a long burst you would retain the
         significantly wider spread of hipfire. In the 4 March 2014 patch this
         was changed so the accuracy of your fire will improve when you enter
         ADS during a burst but the game will apply the maximum aimed spread so
         it won't be a massive improvement.

         For example the initial stationary standing hipfire spread of the AEK
         is 3.0 degrees and this increases by 0.117 with each shot. Now when you
         transition into aimed fire you will have the maximum aimed spread which
         is 1.5 (compared to the initial stationary aimed spread of 0.2).

The final accuracy stat is the spread decrease per second (shown in green on
Symthic) which defines how quickly your accuracy (spread) resets to normal after
firing - with a larger value your spread recovers faster. I'll generally use the
term "spread recovery" as a better description of this stat.

Patched: Originally the spread decrease per second was set at 15 for every
         standard firearm in the game. (For the shotguns and pistols the spread
         decrease currently remains unchanged at 15.)

         In the 6 March 2014 patch the spread recovery for bolt-action snipers
         was halved from 15 to 7.5 but the spread increase was set to zero too.

         Then in the Spring Patch a wide range of new values were introduced for
         all assault rifles, PDW's, LMG's, carbines and DMR's. In most cases the
         number was reduced which means that the gun now takes longer to recover
         its accuracy after firing.

         The guns with the highest damage-rates saw the biggest reductions, with
         weapons like the FAMAS and CZ3A1 (both 1,000 RPM) now stuck with low
         values around 6 and 7. Some of the slowest firing guns like the RPK12,
         SAR21 and new AN94 (all 600 RPM) actually saw a small increase.

                                       ¯¯
The combined effects of recoil and spread are displayed vividly in the accuracy
plots on Symthic where the different colours represent successive shots fired in
a five-round burst. With each shot the muzzle rises and the spread increases but
the unique stats for every weapon give each one a characteristic accuracy plot.

                     http://symthic.com/bf4-accuracy-plots

Most weapons with a "bullpup" design (where the magazine and firing mechanism
are situated behind the trigger) get a bonus to their hipfire and moving spread
however they also get a penalty to their stationary aimed accuracy and they have
longer reload times too. Examples of bullpups are the L85A2, RFB and MTAR21.

Several weapon attachments have an effect on the accuracy of the gun. The laser
sights reduce the hipfire spread, the bipod (when deployed) reduces both aimed
and hipfire spread, the heavy barrel improves stationary aimed accuracy, the
ergo/vertical grips reduce your spread when moving and the stubby/potato grips
reduce the spread increase per shot. The muzzle brake and compensator (which
give reductions to vertical and horizontal recoil respectively) give a penalty
to your spread increase per shot while the suppressor applies a penalty to your
stationary hipfire spread.

Patched: Since the Spring Patch the flash hider and all three types of foregrip
         all now apply penalties to spread recovery too.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 02g | Suppression                                               s02g |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

Although it's been changed since BF3 and Symthic doesn't quote weapon stats for
it, the suppression mechanic is still applied in BF4 when you shoot near an
enemy. In BF3 this caused your target to experience a blurring effect and a
temporary penalty to their weapon accuracy but in BF4 it causes sway.

Patched: Following testing in the CTE in early April a totally new model for
         suppression went live in the Spring Patch. The amount of suppression
         caused by firing your weapon now varies with range - a gun will now do
         practically no suppression at short ranges and only suppress to its
         maximum extent at ranges where the weapon is generally ineffective.

         Examples were given in the CTE notes including a numeric scale, with
         each shot causing between 1 (minimum) and 8 (maximum) suppression based
         on the distance with a total of 20 being required to fully suppress the
         target. An LMG for example does only 1 unit of suppression per shot at
         30 metres and doesn't achieve the maximum value of 8 until 80 metres.

         The purpose of this change was to make suppression effective at ranges
         where suppressive fire would really be used and to limit its effect at
         short ranges where player skill should be the dominant factor.

If your suppressed enemy is killed by a team-mate you get a 10 pts Suppression
Assist bonus (or 20 pts for a Squad Suppression Assist). In BF3 you got 50 pts.

As in BF3 the suppression effect is enhanced if the shooter has the benefit of
the SUPPRESSION spec and reduced if the target has the COVER spec active.

(The suppression effect should not be confused with the suppressor attachments
which can be added to a weapon to reduce the firing noise - see Section 04c.)

Patched: Since the Final Stand update a player cannot heal from medic equipment
         (either the "big bag" or the "little bag") when they are suppressed.
         This small change gives a significant increase to the effectiveness of
         suppressive fire - and reduces the points you can farm from healing
         team-mates during fire-fights!


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03 | WEAPONS                                                     s03 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

There are eight categories of guns in Battlefield 4:

o Assault Rifles are available only within the Assault kit

o Personal Defence Weapons (PDW) are available only within the Engineer kit

o Light Machineguns (LMG) are available only within the Support kit

o Sniper Rifles are available only within the Recon kit

o Carbines, Designated Marksman Rifles (DMR) and Shotguns can be used in any kit

o Sidearms (mostly pistols) are equipped into the secondary slot in any kit

At BF4's launch (Oct 2013) you started the game with just five guns available:

- AK12 assault rifle (Assault class)
- Mx4 personal defence weapon (Engineer class)
- U100 Mk 5 light machinegun (Support class)
- CS-LR4 sniper rifle (Recon class)
- P226 sidearm (all classes)

The Spring Patch (May 2015) added the following five free guns for all players:

- AN94 assault rifle (Assault class)
- Groza 4 personal defence weapon (Engineer class)
- L86A2 light machinegun (Support class)
- Groza 1 carbine (all classes)
- Mare's Leg sidearm (all classes)

The rest of the weapons need to be unlocked. The vast majority are unlocked by
earning points using guns of the same category, so for example you use assault
rifles to unlock other assault rifles. XP bonuses can make a big difference here
so look out for Double XP events and remember to use the XP boosts that you'll
usually get from Battlepacks. (for example two kills would normally give you 200
points but with both double XP and even a small 25% boost you'd get 500 instead)

You'll also get a few guns by completing assignments either in multiplayer or in
the single-player campaign. You can unlock the M249 LMG, QBZ95-1 assault rifle,
P90 PDW and MP412 Rex revolver quickly and easily in the single-player game.

Patched: Since the Summer Patch you now have access to all weapons in the game
         when playing on an unranked server.

The following eight sections describe individually every firearm in the game.

Standard ammo capacities for most guns are given in the format N+1 where the
magazine holds N cartridges and you can have one more ready in the chamber.

The reload times are for the short reload (when the gun isn't completely empty).

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03a | Assault Rifles                                            s03a |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

The assault rifles can only be equipped when using the Assault class.

Since the original Sturmgewehr 45 and Kalashnikov AK47 in the 40's, the assault
rifle has become ubiquitous across battlefields worldwide. The combination of
weapons design and intermediate calibre ammo gives weapons that deliver accurate
fire with manageable recoil at typical engagement distances of 200-300 metres
along with high fire-rates that allow effective use in close quarters.

Initially only the AK12 and AN94 are available. The QBZ95-1 can be unlocked in
the single-player campaign and a further five assault rifles can be earned by
completing assignments (one in the base game and four in DLC). The others are
unlocked by earning XP using whichever assault rifles you have available.

As noted above (Section 02c), every assault rifle except for the Bulldog and
SCAR-H uses typical intermediate rounds (i.e. 5.56mm NATO, 5.45mm Warsaw Pact or
5.8mm Chinese) and these all have identical damage profiles in the game. This
makes it much easier to contrast the damage output rates on any assault rifles
other than the SCAR/Bulldog - you can just compare the fire-rates of the guns.

                      |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
           Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
    ==================+========+==============+========+====================
       7.62x51mm NATO |  33.0  |   8m to 60m  |  21.6  | SCAR-H and Bulldog
    ------------------+--------+--------------+--------+--------------------
       5.56x45mm NATO |        |              |        |
         5.45x39mm WP |  24.5  | 12.5m to 60m |  18.0  | everything else
     5.8x42mm Chinese |        |              |        |

Patched: In the Fall Patch the maximum damage for all assault rifles was reduced
         by 1. Additionally the minimum damage stats for the SCAR and Bulldog
         were reduced from 25 to 24, removing their ability to give a four-hit
         kill (body-shots) or two-hit kill (headshots) at long ranges; however
         they did get their damage drop-off end extended by 5 metres.

         In the Spring Patch the minimum damage for the 7.62mm battle rifles was
         further reduced from 24 to 21.6 (still a five-hit kill). For the other
         assault rifles the maximum damage was increased from 24.0 to 24.5 and
         the damage drop-off distances were extended from 8-55 to 12.5-60.

         (In the same update the headshot damage multiplier was increased from
         x2.0 to x2.13 so it's now possible to achieve a kill with two headshots
         from an assault rifle again. This was possible prior to the damage nerf
         in the Fall Patch (2 x 25 x 2.0 = 100), not possible after that update
         (2 x 24 x 2.0 < 100) and now possible again (2 x 24.5 x 2.13 > 100). A
         5.56mm assault rifle can get a two-headshot kill out to 19 metres.)

In BF3 you had to get 50 kills with an assault rifle to unlock a red-dot sight
and until then you were stuck using some combination of iron sights, scope or
hipfire. However DICE are always keen to respond to constructive criticism and
now your first unlock (10 kills) with any assault rifle will be an RDS (and this
is even automatically unlocked by default with your first gun).

Patched: Like the PDW's, LMG's, carbines and DMR's, the assault rifles all
         received changes to their spread decrease per second (accuracy recovery
         after firing) in the Spring Patch of May 2015. Originally this stat was
         set to 15 for all weapons but in the patch new values were assigned
         according to each gun's DPS (damage per second).

         Guns with high rates of fire and/or high bullet damage got significant
         nerfs, for example the FAMAS (6.2), AEK91 (7.7) and Bulldog (7.2) and
         conversely the ones with lowest damage outputs actually saw a small
         buff, for example the SAR21 and the newly added AN94 (both 17.3).

         Also the max spread for all stances was increased slightly from 1.5 to
         1.7 for all assault rifles - during a long burst the accuracy will now
         be capped at a higher value (more spread). (A value of 2.1 was proposed
         back in December 2014 but they must've decided that was too high.)

         Finally all the bullpup AR's - the FAMAS, F2000, L85, Bulldog, AUG A3,
         QBZ95-1 and SAR21 - got a small buff to moving hipfire accuracy.

Every assault rifle apart from the FAMAS, Ace 23, F2000 and Bulldog comes with
an underbarrel rail attachment available - this will either be the UGL rail
(which lets you mount the M320 40mm grenade-launcher onto the rifle) or the
underslung rail (which lets you mount either the M320 or the M26 MASS shotgun).

o AK12

     Ammo: 5.45x39mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs

  Unlocks: available at start

  Summary: Your initial assault rifle has one of the slower fire-rates in this
           category but it also has low horizontal recoil which, combined with
           average muzzle climb and first-shot recoil multiplier stats, gives
           pretty tidy vertical groups when firing a burst at range.

           To give you a helping hand when you're starting out the AK12 comes
           with the first three attachments - the Kobra red-dot sight, ergo grip
           and laser sight - already unlocked and ready to equip.

  Patched: During beta testing the AK12 had an authentic 1,000 RPM rate of fire
           in burst mode so successive bursts gave a high effective fire-rate
           combined with the superior recoil of a "slow" gun. The burst rate was
           nerfed to 750 RPM in October 2013.

           In the Spring Patch the AK12 got small increases to its left and
           right recoil and to its short and long reload times. It also got a
           very small buff to its spread increase. (from 0.085 to 0.084!)

   Trivia: The AK12 is the latest iteration of the legendary Kalashnikov design
           that began with the seminal AK47. The new rifle was created with the
           intention of replacing the AK74M (1991) and it is expected to enter
           military service in 2014.

           An early prototype designated the AK200 was little more than an AK74
           with accessory rails added but the recent AK12 shows a more radical
           departure from the Kalashnikov pattern with a more angular receiver,
           modern telescopic folding stock and remodelled switches in addition
           to the prominent rail system on the dust cover and handguard.

           See the AK12 on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/aAjkxLSkv7Q

           Just as BF3 featured the AKS74u carbine, RPK74M light machinegun and
           Kalashnikov-based SVD marksman rifle in addition to the AK74M assault
           rifle, in BF4 we have a full family of other weapons extrapolated or
           derived from the AK12 design: the AKu12 carbine, the RPK12 LMG, the
           SVD12 marksman rifle and even the DBV12 semi-auto shotgun!

           Previous reports suggested that the real weapon would also have a 9mm
           submachinegun variant designated the PPK12.

           Mikhail Kalashnikov died on 23 December 2013 aged 94.

o AN94

     Ammo: 5.45x39mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 2.40 secs

  Unlocks: available by default (added in Spring Patch on 26 May 2015)

  Summary: The first of five free guns added in the Spring Patch is the "fan
           favourite" from BF3 and BFBC2, the Russian AN94 assault rifle.

           At first glance the AN94 gives similar performance to the AK12 - it
           shoots at the same fire-rate, has slightly more vertical recoil and
           slightly less horizontal recoil (this is very low). However, as any
           Battlefield vet knows, the key strength is its burst fire mode.

           Like the real weapon, the AN94 offers a two-shot burst mode with an
           exceptionally high effective rate of fire - in the game this is 1,200
           RPM. In previous titles it was possible to exploit this by firing
           consecutive bursts very quickly to create an effective fire-rate much
           higher than the standard 600 RPM of automatic fire. This is prevented
           in BF4 by an extra delay which caps the fire rate at around 700 RPM,
           however the burst mode is still great for controlled accurate fire
           especially when combined with the AN94's exceptionally low horizontal
           recoil and spread increase and its high spread recovery.

           It's also worth remembering that the Spring Patch saw a revision to
           the headshot damage multiplier that made it possible again to get a
           kill with two headshots - so the AN94 can achieve a kill out to 19
           metres with a single burst aimed carefully at the head.

           With body-shots you'll need to land three bursts for a kill at any
           range (3 x 18 > 100) so you'll want to get into the habit of triple
           tapping the trigger as you would with a DMR.

           The long reload time is over a second longer than the short reload
           so it's best to reload before the weapon is completely empty. With a
           full mag you'll get fifteen two-round bursts and one round left over.

  Patched: Following testing in mid-April on the CTE prior to release the short
           reload time was increased by 17% and the effective fire-rate for
           burst mode was increased from 600 RPM to around 700 RPM.

           The AN94 was the only assault rifle to lack the bipod option but this
           was added in the Summer Patch and is now unlocked by default.

   Trivia: Like the AEK below, the Russian AN94 was based around the traditional
           Kalashnikov pattern. It was designed by Gennadiy Nikonov and entered
           production in 1994 (hence the name - Avtomat Nikonova 1994).

           It competed alongside the AEK in the early 90's in military trials to
           find a replacement for the AK series in Russian service (this contest
           was named after the city of Abakan which explains the "AN94 Abakan"
           name used in BFBC2). Although the AN94 won this competition - over
           twenty years ago - it is still yet to see widespread adoption and is
           currently issued mainly to special forces and police units.

           In real life the two-round burst fires at a remarkable 1,800 RPM. The
           effect of this is that both rounds leave the barrel before the user
           experiences the recoil thus giving excellent accuracy for burst fire
           and consequently an enhanced ability to defeat body armour.

           See the AN94 on Russian television: http://youtu.be/r4e4QcbEZP8

           The video linked above highlights two quite unusual aspects of the
           AN94 design. Firstly the weapon's magazine sits at a distinct angle
           to the vertical (around 15-20 degrees?) and secondly the barrel is
           connected to the firing mechanism and actually slides backwards and
           forwards during operation.

           See the AN94 (jamming!) on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/ATpeX3XBuuw

o QBZ95-1

     Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.90 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'To Valhalla' assignment (single-player)

           In the final mission (Suez) keep the C4 or don't detonate it.

           (The single-player story has three possible endings and each one will
           unlock a different gun for multiplayer - you can also get the P90 PDW
           and M249 LMG this way. The outcome is determined by the action you
           take when you are hanging off a bridge at the end of the level. You
           can use the mission replay option to get the three endings.)

  Summary: The QBZ95-1 can be unlocked readily in the single-player campaign and
           used to supplement your AK12 early in the game. The two weapons offer
           loosely similar performance but the QBZ has less vertical recoil.

           As a "bullpup" design - the mechanism and magazine are located behind
           the trigger - the QBZ95 has increased accuracy in hipfire and while
           moving but lower than average stationary aimed accuracy. The bullpup
           configuration also gives it a very slow reload.

  Patched: In addition to the maximum damage nerf and suppressor velocity buff
           that most of the assault rifles got in the Fall Patch, the QBZ also
           saw a few other adjustments. The spread increase per shot (SIPS) was
           increased for all stances (but it is still fairly low compared to the
           rest of the guns in this category), the horizontal recoil was reduced
           slightly and the short reload time was reduced to 2.85 seconds (still
           slower than any other assault rifle).

           In the Spring Patch the QBZ95-1 got a small increase to its reload
           times and a minor reduction to its spread increase per shot.

   Trivia: The QBZ95 (also known as the Type 95) is a modern assault rifle used
           by Chinese military and police units. The QBZ95 previously appeared
           in BF2: Modern Combat but only the QBZ95B carbine and QBB95 light
           support weapon (LMG) variants were included in BF3. These all use the
           Chinese 5.8x42mm load which was designed as a modern alternative to
           the Soviet 7.62x39mm cartridge which dates back to the WWII era.

           The QBZ95-1 is an enhanced model which was first issued to frontline
           troops around 2010-11 and addresses numerous issues with the original
           design. It includes a heavier barrel and a new muzzle brake to allow
           it to use the heavy variety of the 5.8mm ammo and a forward ejection
           system that permits use by left-handed shooters.
           
           In addition to the QBZ95-1 assault rifle, the modified QBB95-1 LMG
           and Type 95B-1 carbine (i.e. the QBZ95B-1) are also in BF4.

o SCAR-H

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 620 RPM   Reload: 1.90 secs

  Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with assault rifles

  Summary: Previously available as a carbine for the Engineer class in BF3, the
           standard length SCAR-H now takes the place of the venerable G3 as the
           heavy-hitter of the assault rifle category in BF4. Its 7.62mm load
           gives a maximum damage of 33 for a four-hit kill out to 44 metres.

           The SCAR has a slow rate of fire to balance the higher damage but it
           fires a little faster than it did in BF3 and manages a damage-rate
           equivalent to a 5.56mm assault rifle (F2000) firing at 850 RPM.

           It has a very high vertical recoil (plus slower recoil recovery) but
           even after the Spring Patch the first-shot recoil multiplier and
           horizontal recoil are fairly low and it's very effective at mid range
           when fired in controlled bursts. The muzzle velocity is slower than
           most assault rifles though so it's slightly harder to engage moving
           targets at range.

           It has a smaller magazine size than the 5.56mm assault rifles but the
           reload times are excellent - under two seconds for the short reload.

           If you're a fan of the SCAR you might also want to use the SCAR-H SV
           (Sniper Variant) which is the final unlock in the DMR category. It
           does more damage, has a longer damage drop-off, 75% less ADS spread
           and the same magazine capacity and reload times, although with the
           semi-auto action its rate of fire is less than half the SCAR-H's.

           If you like the 7.62mm damage model of the SCAR-H you should consider
           the Ace 52 CQB carbine which does the same max damage with a higher
           rate of fire (650 RPM), larger magazine (25+1) and better accuracy in
           hipfire and when moving. However the SCAR-H has superior stationary
           aimed accuracy and does more damage at longer ranges.

  Patched: The muzzle velocity with a suppressor attached was increased a little
           in the 4 March 2014 patch.

           In the Fall Patch all assault rifles and carbines had their maximum
           damage reduced by 1. In addition to this the 7.62mm guns - the SCAR,
           Bulldog and Ace 52 - also had their minimum damage reduced by 1 and
           their damage drop-off end distance increased by 5 metres.

           In the Spring Patch the minimum damage for the SCAR-H and Bulldog
           were further reduced from 24 to 21.6 (still a five-hit kill). Also
           the SCAR's muzzle velocity got a good buff and its spread increase
           was also improved, however it also saw increases to its horizontal
           recoil and first-shot recoil multiplier.

           The SCAR received a bigger nerf to its spread recovery compared to
           the other slow-firing assault rifles thanks to its higher damage
           model (but the Bulldog got nerfed harder as it fires faster).

   Trivia: The Special Operations Forces (SOF) Combat Assault Rifle or SCAR for
           short was designed by Belgian firm Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal ("FN"
           for short) to meet the requirements of US special forces. The first
           models entered service around 2005.

           There are two basic versions: the SCAR-L assault rifle which is the
           "Light" 5.56mm model (also known as the Mk 16 Mod 0) and the SCAR-H
           battle rifle which is the "Heavy" 7.62mm version (also known as the
           Mk 17 Mod 0); the SCAR-H can be distinguished by its magazine which
           is wider (for the larger round), shorter and straight. Both weapons
           are available with barrel lengths from 10" to 20".

           See the SCAR-H on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/jOvJUdJlkNk (semi)
                                        http://youtu.be/atntd0XlQxg (auto)
o M416

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 750 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs

  Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with assault rifles

  Summary: Always overshadowed in BF3 by the M16A3, the M416 now has its chance
           to shine in the sequel. It gives you a considerable increase in fire-
           rate compared to the previous three guns although you will unlock
           several much faster weapons further down the line (or through DLC).

           It also has very fast reload times and fairly small horizontal recoil
           (with the M16's usual pull to the right).

           The average fire-rate and vertical recoil figures serve to make the
           M416 a versatile choice that's handy at both short and medium ranges
           although the Ace 23 (see below) is favoured in competitive play.

  Patched: In the Spring Patch the right recoil was reduced by 0.02 and the left
           recoil was increased by 0.02 so the right pull was reduced somewhat.

   Trivia: The M416 is produced by renowned German firearms manufacturer Heckler
           und Koch (hereafter "H&K"). It is correctly known as the HK416.*

           The HK416 was designed as an improved version of the M4 carbine (see
           below) but Colt took issue with the use of their copyrighted name so
           instead it was labelled as HK416 (from the M4 and M16). The major
           design difference compared to the M4 is the incorporation of the gas
           piston system from H&K's G36 assault rifle. It also has a quad set of
           rails and various barrel options (from 10.4" up to 20").

           The HK416 is currently the service rifle of the Norwegian army but is
           probably best known now as the gun that killed Osama bin Laden.

           Its big brother is the HK417, a 7.62mm battle rifle which previously
           appeared as a semi-auto sniper in BF3's Close Quarters expansion.

           An ultra-compact derivative with a 9" barrel and telescopic stock was
           developed for UK special forces. This HK416C version appears in Medal
           of Honor: Warfighter where it's available to the Demolition class.

           *It seems that DICE couldn't get the licence to use the correct names
           for most of the firearms designed by H&K or Magpul/Bushmaster...?

           Presumably Ubisoft had similar issues with this gun since it's called
           the "P416" in Far Cry 3 and 4.

o SAR21

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with assault rifles

  Summary: The SAR has the slowest rate of fire in this category - even slower
           than the SCAR-H - but it makes up for this by having exceptionally
           low recoil. The vertical recoil is less than half that of the FAMAS
           and the horizontal recoil and recoil multiplier are both good too.
           Overall it's very effective when engaging at longer ranges.

  Patched: The standard bullpup modifiers were finally applied to the SAR21 in
           the Fall Patch - the stationary aimed accuracy was reduced and the 
           hipfire/moving accuracy were improved. This doesn't really suit the
           weapon's role but it shouldn't affect it too much.

           To make up for the aimed accuracy nerf the vertical and horizontal
           recoil were reduced in the same patch and are now very low. The gun
           also still has relatively fast reloads for a bullpup design.

           The horizontal recoil was reduced again in the Spring Patch. (The
           AN94 was added in the same patch and has even lower muzzle drift but
           it also has much higher vertical recoil.)

   Trivia: The SAR21 (or "Singapore Assault Rifle - 21st Century") entered
           production in the late 90's and is made by ST Kinetics of Singapore
           where it is the current service rifle of the armed forces.

           Like so many bullpup weapons, the design bears some resemblance to
           the original AUG, in this case even including the narrow 1.5x scope
           built into the sloping carrying handle, but with a full handguard at
           the front instead of a foregrip. It also includes an integral laser
           sight with a thumb-switch on the handguard although I'm afraid you'll
           still need to unlock this attachment before you can use it in BF4!

           The current model, as featured in the game, has a scope rail and full
           set of attachment rails on the handguard.

o AEK971

     Ammo: 5.45x39mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with assault rifles

  Summary: The Russian AEK retains its high rate of fire from BF3 and now has a
           faster short reload too making it very capable in close-quarters
           combat, although the FAMAS beats it on both fire-rate and hipfire
           accuracy and (for a non-bullpup design) the AEK has a very slow
           reload when the gun is empty.

           In BF3 the assault rifles with higher rates of fire (i.e. the F2000,
           AEK971 and FAMAS) had inferior aimed accuracy but currently in BF4
           all assault rifles have the same accuracy with the exception of the
           bullpups (e.g. FAMAS, AUG, L85, etc) which have a slight penalty.

           As you'd expect for a weapon firing at 900 RPM the AEK experiences a
           lot of recoil; this is especially true after the Spring Patch which
           strived to limit weapons to their primary roles. Previously the AEK
           was a very popular choice as it excelled in close quarters yet was
           still viable when bursting at longer ranges. With the recoil nerfs
           and reduction to spread recovery in the patch it will now be less
           effective at medium range.

  Patched: The left, right and up recoil were all increased substantially in the
           Spring Patch and the vertical is now the worst in the category.

           In the same update, following CTE testing in January 2015, the first-
           shot recoil multiplier was decreased from x3.0 to x2.55, however it's
           still the highest of all the assault rifles (just above the FAMAS).

   Trivia: The AEK is based on the classic Kalashnikov pattern (but with a novel
           counterweight to reduce recoil) and was designed during the 1980's as
           a potential AK replacement. However - despite being lighter, cheaper,
           less complicated and more accurate in sustained fire - it lost out to
           the AN94 (see above) in the military trials.

           There are also AEK972 and AEK973 variants which are chambered for the
           NATO 5.56mm and Soviet 7.62mm calibres respectively. The AEK919K is a
           compact 9x18mm submachinegun and the AEK999 is a 7.62mm machinegun.

           An updated version of the 5.45mm AEK971 designated the A545 passed
           more recent Russian trials in late 2014. It has superior iron sights
           and standard western Picatinny rails for accessories. There is also a
           7.62mm Soviet version known as the A762.

o FAMAS

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 25+1   Fire-rate: 1,000 RPM   Reload: 2.80 secs

  Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with assault rifles

  Summary: At 1,000 RPM the FAMAS ties with the CZ3A1 in the Engineer kit's PDW
           category for having the highest rate of fire in the game. Naturally
           this comes at a price and the weapon has high vertical recoil and
           first-shot recoil multiplier plus some very wide horizontal recoil
           which can cause significant muzzle drift when firing a longer burst.

           Compared to the other 5.56mm assault rifles it also has a smaller
           magazine capacity (modelled on the original FAMAS F1 design) and some
           very slow reload times (a whole second longer than the M16) so you
           might prefer an assault rifle that fires slightly slower but has more
           balanced stats like the Ace/M416.

           Like the QBZ (see above) it has reduced spread (improved accuracy)
           when moving or in hipfire but slightly less accuracy in aimed fire.

           If you embrace the FAMAS as a strictly close-quarters weapon you can
           equip either the muzzle brake (to reduce the vertical recoil) or the
           compensator (to reduce the horizontal recoil) because the accuracy
           penalty won't be an issue at short ranges. It would also make sense
           to use a foregrip, a red-dot sight and a laser attachment if you're
           shooting from the hip.

           The iron sights on several firearms in the game use an aperture rear
           sight where the user looks through a small hole. On the FAMAS this is
           particularly effective at obscuring your view around your point of
           aim so you'll want to slap some optics on it asap.

  Patched: The developers have experimented with reducing the rates of fire on
           any guns firing at over 900 RPM (i.e. the FAMAS, MP7 and CZ3A1). This
           included remodelling the FAMAS with a 900 RPM fire-rate, 30+1 ammo
           capacity and reduced recoil, however this change was not adopted and
           currently the FAMAS retains its 1,000 RPM rate, smaller mags, etc.

           The long reload time was increased from 3.55 to 3.70 seconds in the
           Spring Patch of May 2015. That's pretty slow but the L85A2 and F2000
           are still worse.

   Trivia: The FAMAS was designed by MAS (Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Étienne)
           in France - the literal meaning of its name is "MAS assault rifle".
           Designed during the late 60's and early 70's, the gun finally entered
           service with the French armed forces in 1979.

           The version that appears in BF3 and BF4 has the large carrying handle
           replaced by a raised scope rail (like that on the G36C) and therefore
           resembles the model intended for the French military's 21st-century
           FELIN project where the FAMAS is fitted with a large infra-red scope
           topped with an EOTech holo sight and a foregrip with control buttons.
           The system can route the scope image to a helmet-mounted display (so
           the user can fire from behind cover) or broadcast a live video feed.

o AUG A3

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs

  Unlocks: score 48,000 pts with assault rifles

  Summary: The AUG is quite similar in appearance to the SAR and they have some
           similar stats too, especially since the bullpup modifiers were added
           to the SAR. The key differences are that the AUG has a higher rate of
           fire and more recoil. It still has greater stability than most of the
           other assault rifles, but the DLC-only AR160 is a better choice.

           The AUG had the highest muzzle velocity in BF3 and it held the same
           title in BF4 until it was deposed by the U100 LMG in the Spring Patch
           changes however it still has a very high velocity so you'll need to
           lead less on moving targets.

  Patched: The AUG A3 got a buff in the Fall Patch, with reductions to the gun's
           vertical recoil, horizontal recoil and first-shot recoil multiplier.

           Further reductions to the horizontal recoil and recoil multiplier 
           were applied in the Spring Patch, although the AR160 (which has the
           same 700 RPM fire-rate) has lower recoil overall.

   Trivia: Despite its futuristic appearance, the AUG was designed (by Steyr of
           Austria) back in the 70's. It has a modular design allowing the user
           to switch quickly between different configurations, hence the German
           name which translates as "army universal rifle".*

           See the AUG on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/y2Vv9b359Vk

           The original version had a narrow 1.5x scope built into the carrying
           handle but the A3 variant has a Picatinny rail instead, allowing it
           to take various sight/scope attachments as necessary.

           The AUG was adopted by the Austrian army in 1977; the StG77 name used
           in BFBC2 is their designation for the weapon (Sturmgewehr 77).

           The Australian military uses the F88 which is a copy of the AUG made
           under licence. An updated version known as the EF88 (enhanced F88)
           has now been redesignated as the F90 and is currently (summer 2015)
           undergoing field-testing ahead of production.

           *The AUG appears in Payday 2 as the "UAR" (Universal Army Rifle).

o M16A4

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 800 RPM   Reload: 1.80 secs

  Unlocks: score 59,000 pts with assault rifles

  Summary: The M16A4 is unique among the assault rifles in having a burst fire
           mode instead of a full auto option. It doesn't have the higher aimed
           accuracy it enjoyed in BF3 but it does boast the fastest reload of
           any primary weapon in the whole game and fairly average horizontal
           recoil (with the M16's usual pull to the right).

           You can achieve that relatively high fire-rate on successive bursts
           but in practice at anything beyond very short ranges you'll probably
           want to tap slightly slower to allow time for your aim to recover
           from the recoil of each burst. At least in burst fire mode the first-
           shot recoil multiplier is applied to the final shot of each burst so
           you stand a better chance of landing your second and third shots.

  Patched: The vertical recoil stats of the M16A4 assault rifle and M4 carbine
           were reduced by 17.5% in the 25 March 2014 update to make them more
           effective in the mid/long-range role.

           The M16 also got an overall reduction to recoil in the Fall Patch.

           As with the M416, the right pull was reduced in the Spring Patch.

   Trivia: The M16 assault rifle is the military version of the semi-automatic
           ArmaLite AR15, designed by the fantastically named Eugene Stoner. It
           was adopted as the service rifle of US forces in the 60's, replacing
           the M14 during the Vietnam War.

           The M16A1 was designed to address numerous issues experienced in the
           field, this model and the original M16 both having semi-auto and full
           auto fire modes. The M16A2 model, now with semi-auto and burst modes,
           was introduced to the US services during the 80's. The M16A3 was a
           variant of the 80's era A2 with the full auto option of the 60's A1,
           but (in contrast to its prominence in BF3!) it is not widely used.

           The A4 variant retains the burst fire mode of the M16A2. The standard
           Picatinny rail on top means that the carrying handle can be removed
           easily and replaced by a scope. The version in the game has the full
           Rail Interface System in place of the standard handguard giving the
           potential to easily fit various other attachments around the barrel.

           The M16A4 is the standard rifle of the United States Marine Corps so
           it's a more authentic choice for inclusion in BF4, although the USMC
           appears to be planning a transition to the M4 in the near future.

o CZ805

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.65 secs

  Unlocks: score 71,000 pts with assault rifles

  Summary: This weapon is fairly unremarkable, except for its low horizontal
           recoil. Otherwise the AUG and Naval Strike's AR160 offer better
           reload times and vertical recoil with the same rate of fire.

           The CZ805 has always had imbalanced horizontal recoil with a distinct
           muzzle drift to the right in sustained automatic fire. Even after two
           patches reduced it the rifle still has a pull to the right.

           Like the real-life gun it has a burst fire mode in addition to the
           semi-auto and full auto options although in the game this is a three-
           round burst rather than an authentic two-round burst.

  Patched: In the Fall Patch the CZ805 got a reduction in right recoil and an
           increase to its muzzle velocity.

           In the Spring Patch a decrease in right recoil and increase in left
           recoil served to further reduce the right pull. There was also quite
           a large increase to the reload times which are now worse than even
           some of the bullpup assault rifles.

   Trivia: The CZ805 Bren is made by Ceska Zbrojovka a.s. of the Czech Republic
           and entered use as the service rifle of the Czech military in 2011.

           Like many modern assault rifles, the CZ805 is designed to be modular
           so it can be adapted to use different calibres and barrel lengths for
           other roles such as marksman rifle and squad automatic weapon.

           The design also includes a folding stock, translucent magazines,
           ambidextrous controls and a full set of scope/accessory rails. The
           accessory range includes an interchangeable housing to allow the use
           of standard M16/M4 mags, a combined foregrip/bipod and the CZ805 G1
           40mm grenade-launcher which resembles the old American M203 launcher.

           The barrel length suggests that the version in the game is based on
           the full-sized A1 model rather than the shorter A2 carbine.

           A "pistol" model called the CZ805 PS1 became available to American
           civilian markets in summer 2015. This is a semi-auto variant with an
           11" barrel and no buttstock, although there are plans to release an
           SBR (short-barreled rifle) conversion kit in the future.

           See the PS1 on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/iASk_D0aTlA

o Ace 23

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 35+1   Fire-rate: 770 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Assault Expert' assignment (multiplayer)

           First complete 'Assault Basic' to unlock 'Assault Veteran'.

           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 7 kills with assault rifles
           o Get 11 heals with first aid pack / medic bag

           Next complete 'Assault Veteran' to unlock 'Assault Expert'.

           o Assault Basic required
           o Get 8 kills with assault rifles
           o Get 12 heals

           Finally complete 'Assault Expert'.

           o Assault Veteran required
           o Get 50 Medkit Ribbons (get 8 heals in a match for each ribbon)
           o Get 200 kills with assault rifles
           o Get 10 Assault Rifle Ribbons (get 6 assault rifle kills for each)

           So just keep using assault rifles and medic gear until you unlock it;
           naturally this will be easier on smaller infantry-focused maps/modes.

           You can hold R2 to charge your defibs to give a full revive (with 100
           health) but if you do a quick revive without charging your revived
           team-mate will only have 20 health so this is a great opportunity to
           drop a medic bag and farm a few heals off him!*

           The MEDKIT UPGRADE spec in the Combat Medic field upgrade path allows
           you to have two first aid packs or medic bags deployed at once.

           *Once you've unlocked the Ace be a bro - always give the hundred!

  Summary: Just a few weeks after launch the Ace 23 had already emerged as a
           clear favourite in competitive infantry matches (with the AEK coming
           second for its superior close-quarters potential).

           The strength of the Ace has been its versatility - with stats that
           make it effective at a range of distances. It still delivers this
           performance and since the Spring Patch it has larger magazines too!
           However it also got more recoil and slightly longer reloads that
           impair its performance somewhat.

           You might also want to consider the M416. If you can accept a 20 RPM
           drop in the rate of fire (and the standard 30-round magazines) you'll
           benefit from very fast reload times and much reduced recoil.

  Patched: Previously the Ace 23 had the same 30-round magazine capacity as most
           of the other 5.56mm assault rifles but in the Spring Patch it was
           expanded to 35. This now matches its little brother (the Ace 21 CQB
           in the carbine category) and is authentic to the real-life weapons.

           In return for the mag size buff its reload times, horizontal recoil
           and first-shot recoil multiplier were all nerfed in the same patch.

   Trivia: The Ace series of rifles is a product of the collaboration between
           Indumil of Columbia and Israel Weapon Industries (formerly Israel
           Military Industries or IMI). It takes the IMI Galil assault rifle
           design from the 70's and updates it with modern composite materials,
           accessory rails, collapsible stock, ergonomic pistol-grip, etc.

           See the Ace on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/xjaCI3eoVxI

           There are eight basic versions in different calibres and with various
           barrel lengths (indicated by the model number) and a grand total of
           four of these appear in BF4. ("Four Aces" - heh!)

           o (5.56mm NATO) 8.5" Ace 21 / 13" Ace 22 / 16" Ace 23
 
           o (7.62mm WP) 8.5" Ace 31 / 16" Ace 32

           o (7.62mm NATO) 16" Ace 52 / 18" Ace 52 L / 20" Ace 53

           The Ace 23 in the game is the full-length 5.56mm assault rifle.

o L85A2

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 750 RPM   Reload: 2.55 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Open Fire' assignment (multiplayer)

           o China Rising DLC required*
           o Get 3 Assault Rifle Ribbons (get 6 assault rifle kills for each)
           o Achieve the following in the same match:
             - Get 1 kill with a pistol
             - Get 1 kill with a 40mm grenade launcher (Assault gadget)
             - Get 1 kill with the defibrillator (Assault gadget)

           I think you need to get the three ribbons before you try to get the
           three specified kills in a single match, but you're free to win the
           ribbons in previous rounds.

           The M320 (HE) grenade-launcher is unlocked by default but you'll need
           to earn 8,000 pts with the Assault kit in order to unlock the defibs.
           You will need to hold the button in order to charge the defibrillator
           before using it on an enemy. It's also worth noting that the defibs
           now have an "ammo count" - you can only use them three times in quick
           succession (but they only take a couple of seconds to "resupply").

           Overall this is an easier journey than the 'Professional Russian'
           assignment that unlocked the L85A2 in BF3 where infamously one of the
           three requirements was to win five rounds of Squad Deathmatch. :6

           *The five new guns from the China Rising expansion were accidentally
           added on the PC platform about three weeks early as part of a patch
           but formally they come as part of the DLC.

  Summary: I was pleased to see the British L85 return in BF4 and it's had a
           boost to its close-quarters potential with the rate of fire increased
           from 650 RPM in BF3 to 750 RPM in BF4 putting it on a par with the
           M416 and Ace 23.

           Naturally this new L85 was unable to retain its previously minimal
           recoil so this is now higher in BF4 although it has a very small
           first-shot recoil multiplier which makes it more manageable in short
           bursts (and you can use attachments to further tame that recoil).

           The usual bullpup modifiers are applied so the L85 has reduced spread
           in hipfire and while moving but less accuracy in stationary ADS fire
           and slow reloads. The long reload is a particularly painful 3.75 secs
           so try to avoid dumping the whole mag before you reload.

  Patched: Although it wasn't mentioned in the official patch notes, the rate of
           fire was cut from 800 RPM to 750 RPM on 4 March 2014. This limits its
           capability in close quarters but does at least make it a little more
           controllable on mid-range bursts.

           Since its introduction to the game the L85 had an unusually slow
           recoil recovery rate. In the Fall Patch this was finally increased
           from 4 to 18 degrees per second in order to bring it in line with the
           other intermediate-calibre assault rifles.

           Also the spread increase per shot (SIPS) was reduced from 0.104 to
           0.098 - this is a change that should've been applied in conjunction
           with the previous fire-rate nerf. (750/7700 = 0.098)

           In addition to those fixes it also got a further buff in the Fall
           Patch - the vertical and horizontal recoil were both reduced.

           The vertical recoil was reduced again in the Spring Patch and the
           short reload time was reduced but there was also an increase to the
           first-shot recoil multiplier.

   Trivia: The L85, commonly known as the SA80 in the UK, is the service rifle
           of the British armed forces. Its development can be traced back to
           the late 40's and the experimental EM2 bullpup design chambered for a
           novel .280 round. This was followed in the 70's by a prototype* using
           the new 4.85mm ammo and it's this design that ultimately evolved into
           the SA80 (forced into adopting the new NATO standard of 5.56mm) which
           entered British service in the mid 80's.

           Following the Gulf War both the L85 and L86 Light Support Weapon were
           reported to suffer from poor performance in a desert environment plus
           various mechanical flaws. H&K were contracted to redesign and upgrade
           them in 2000 resulting in the vastly superior L85A2 (and L86A2). Many
           L85's have been retrofitted with a Daniel Defense quad rail system
           replacing the nylon handguard and in BF4 the gun is now modelled with
           this feature (and a Magpul loop fitted to the end of the magazine).

           See the L85A2 on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/6dxm_W3uNYw

           H&K reported that the experience they gained during the "mid-life
           improvement programme" of the SA80 later proved very useful in their
           design of the HK416 (see above).

           The L85A2 appears in Payday 2's Clover pack as the Queen's Wrath! :)
           Its foregrip attachment resembles the Grip Pod (with integral bipod)
           which is often seen on modern SA80's in British service.

           *This L64 rifle appears in Call of Duty: Black Ops as the "Enfield".

o F2000

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 850 RPM   Reload: 2.70 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Express Train' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Second Assault DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 1 Assault Rifle Ribbon (get 6 assault rifle kills in a match)
           o Achieve the following in the same match:
             - Get 2 Kill Assist Ribbons (get 5 assists in a match for each)
             - Get 10 kills inside the Metro station on the Operation Metro map

           I completed this in my second match of Conquest Large on Operation
           Metro - with a 64-player server there are plenty of targets available
           and normally the game will be one long static firefight.

           When you wound an enemy and a team-mate then kills them you receive a
           Kill Assist bonus equal to the amount of damage you caused. If BF4
           works like BF3 then you need to do at least 10 points of damage so,
           since every primary gun does at least 12.5 minimum damage, you should
           in theory be able to get assists from single shots with any gun even
           if you hit your target's leg (12.5 x 0.93 > 10). However in practice
           I think it's best to use single shots only with DMR's and to go for
           two/three-round bursts when using automatic weapons.

           You could experiment with weak loadouts to make assists more likely,
           for example using a shotgun with frag rounds or with the duckbill
           attachment fitted, the CBJ-MS PDW (low damage-rate) or maybe the XM25
           Airburst launcher. However I found a normal assault rifle worked well
           - try to position yourself in cover just behind some team-mates and
           use short accurate bursts at medium range to wound enemy soldiers,
           then leave them for team-mates to finish off.

           It will help if you join in with the 'nade spam too - the V40 Mini
           grenades will give a great combination of range, ammo capacity and
           reduced damage. You'll probably still get several (double/triple!)
           grenade kills while you're trying for your assists though!

           I think you just need to be anywhere indoors within the Metro station
           complex to get the ten required kills. Certainly you don't need to be
           on the platforms or in the tunnels because the match where I unlocked
           the F2000 was just one long fight over "B" flag (as per usual).

  Summary: The Belgian F2000 still has its high fire-rate from BF3 now placing
           it above the M416/Ace/L85 and just below the AEK/FAMAS.

           Its vertical recoil is surprisingly low given its rate of fire but it
           does have a high first-shot recoil multiplier and a fair amount of
           horizontal recoil even after the patch - using the angled or folding
           foregrip and the compensator (respectively) would reduce these.

           The F2000 has a bullpup design so its hipfire and moving accuracy are
           better than the non-bullpup assault rifles - including its rival, the
           AEK971 - but it also gets a small penalty to stationary aimed spread
           and has very slow reload times.

           As in BF2 the F2000 comes with its original 1.6x sight unit although
           this can be substituted with all the usual close/medium-range sights
           once you've unlocked them.

  Patched: In the Fall Patch the F2k received a significant reduction to its
           horizontal recoil in exchange for an increase in the vertical recoil.

           The muzzle rise was increased again in the Spring Patch but this was
           in conjunction with a reduction to the first-shot recoil multiplier
           so firing in bursts will be more effective.

           Also the muzzle velocity when suppressed was increased slightly.

   Trivia: The F2000 was designed by FN of Belgium and entered production in
           2001. The design is fully ambidextrous and ejects empty cases via a
           tube above the barrel so it can be operated by right or left-handed
           shooters without any modification.

           In BF3 the F2000 was modelled in its "Tactical" configuration with a
           long Picatinny rail on the top but in BF4 we have the standard model
           with its large sight unit fitted under the prominent plastic shroud.

           A revision of the Tactical model designated the F2000-S has a raised
           scope rail (similar to that of the G36C carbine) and was adopted as
           the new service rifle of the Slovenian Army in 2006.

o AR160

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.00 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Spare-time Sniper' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Naval Strike DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 3 Assault Rifle Ribbons (get 6 AR kills in a match for each)
           o Get 20 headshots with assault rifles

           The assault rifles are effective and versatile weapons so you should
           complete those requirements pretty quickly, especially if you play on
           smaller game modes like Domination where you'll see more action.

           Despite the assignment's name, you don't need to run your assault
           rifle of choice as a DMR to get those headshots. Just aim for the
           centre of your target's torso and fire a sustained burst, allowing
           the weapon's vertical recoil to guide your aim up into a headshot.

  Summary: The AR160 is towards the average/low end of the fire-rate spectrum
           which puts it up against the CZ805 and AUG A3. In its favour it has
           a very low first-shot recoil multiplier, low vertical recoil, a very
           quick short reload and excellent muzzle velocity. Its one weakness is
           the horizontal recoil which is relatively high for a slowish gun.

           The iron sights aren't so great either - the aperture rear sight will
           block your view around the point of aim and the small front sight can
           be hard to see against a dark background.

  Patched: Previously the AR160 had very high recoil which seemed to have been
           copy-and-pasted rather unfairly from the 7.62mm SCAR-H battle rifle.
           This was rectified in the Fall Patch with a massive 54% reduction to
           its vertical recoil! The recoil recovery rate and spread increase per
           shot were also corrected in the same patch.

           The long reload time was reduced in the Spring Patch but it's still a
           whole second longer than the short "tactical" reload.

   Trivia: BF4's AR160 is modelled on the Beretta ARX160. Designed to supersede
           their own AR70/90 platform as the service rifle of the Italian armed
           forces, Beretta launched the ARX160 in 2008 (alongside their GLX160
           40mm grenade-launcher which can be used underslung or independently).
           The ARX100 is a semi-automatic version for civilian markets.

           See the ARX100 on Miculek.com: https://youtu.be/1bLWo9Q3JqM

           The design includes several features typical of a modern assault
           rifle such as a polymer frame, fully ambidextrous options (including
           ejection), accessory rails and an adjustable folding shoulder-stock.

           The ARX160 has also appeared in CoD: Ghosts, CoD: Advanced Warfare,
           Hitman: Absolution and Splinter Cell: Blacklist.

           In March 2015 Beretta announced the 7.62x51mm ARX200 intended for use
           by the Italian military and then in mid-September two models were
           displayed at DSEI 2015 in London - a battle rifle with an extendable
           folding stock and a DMR with a fixed stock. While not based directly
           on the ARX160 platform, the two designs do share some components.

o Bulldog

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Lions and Tigers and Bears' assignment* (multiplayer)

           o Dragon's Teeth DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Play on any Dragon's Teeth map to activate assignment**
           o Kill 10 Support players while using the Assault kit
           o Kill 10 Engineer players while using the Assault kit
           o Kill 10 Recon players while using the Assault kit

           The requirements here are pretty straightforward but the Battlelog
           text does specify that both you and your targets must be on foot so
           vehicle kills won't count.

           You might find a few Engineers in infantry modes - using the PDW's in
           close quarters and probably sniping infantry with their SMAW's - but
           otherwise you stand a better chance of finding them on Conquest maps.

           *"Lions and tigers and bears - oh my!" is a repeated line in the 1939
           movie The Wizard of Oz (shortly before meeting the Cowardly Lion).

           **This new requirement was obviously added just to prevent players
           from unlocking the new guns before they have access to the new maps.

  Summary: The Dragon's Teeth DLC added a second battle rifle to the assault
           rifle category with the Bulldog firing the same 7.62mm calibre as the
           SCAR-H and delivering the same heavier damage profile. However the
           Bulldog's 700 RPM rate of fire is substantially higher and roughly
           equivalent to a 5.56mm assault rifle firing at 950 RPM.

           The Bulldog has the same 20-round magazine capacity as the SCAR-H but
           thanks to the bullpup modifiers it has slower reloads in addition to
           its tighter moving/hipfire spread and reduced aimed accuracy. That
           higher rate of fire also comes with over 60% more horizontal recoil
           than the SCAR.

           Overall the Bulldog is a very effective weapon but the SCAR-H remains
           a good choice for longer ranges thanks to its lower sideways recoil,
           superior stationary aimed accuracy, faster muzzle velocity and more
           controllable fire-rate.

  Patched: In the Fall Patch all assault rifles and carbines had their maximum
           damage reduced by 1. In addition to this the 7.62mm guns - the SCAR,
           Bulldog and Ace 52 - also had their minimum damage reduced by 1 and
           their damage drop-off end distance increased by 5 metres.

           Additionally the Bulldog's vertical recoil was reduced to 0.5 (in
           line with the SCAR-H) but its horizontal recoil and first-shot recoil
           multiplier were increased. There was also a small reduction to its
           spread increase per shot (SIPS).

           The min damage was nerfed again in the Spring Patch of May 2015, this
           time dropping to 21.6 (but still giving a five-hit kill). Also the
           horizontal recoil was reduced slightly, the recoil recovery was
           brought in line with the SCAR's and the SIPS was buffed (and is now
           better than it was before the Fall Patch nerf).

   Trivia: The SRSS (Short Rifles Stock System) Bulldog 762 is essentially the
           action from an M14 (US service rifle 1959-1970) retrofitted into an
           anodized bullpup chassis with accessory rails and an M16 pistol-grip.

           Designed by former US Marine and later US Army armourer and marksman
           instructor, Rich Cabral, the Bulldog 762 was conceived to combine the
           accuracy and power of the M14's longer barrel and 7.62mm load with
           the convenience of reduced overall length. It's over a foot shorter
           than the M14 and comparable to the modern M4 carbine in length.

           The models listed on the official website are built around semi-auto
           variants of the M14 (the civilian M1A and the M21 sniper rifle) but a
           Bulldog version with the military M14's fully automatic fire-mode is
           also possible.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03b | Personal Defence Weapons                                  s03b |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

The PDW's can only be equipped when using the Engineer class.

(This is a major change for BF4. In BF3 it was the carbines that were locked to
the Engineer class and the PDW's were all-kit weapons, now in the sequel it's
the PDW's that can only be used as Engineer and the carbines go with any class.
I guess the rationale is that PDW's are designed for use by vehicle crews and
are suited to short-range defence when operating around vehicles. This follows
the example of BF2 where the Anti-Tank kit had submachineguns.)

The personal defence weapon (PDW) is a relatively modern concept, originating in
the late 80's. They were designed to provide a compact automatic weapon that
could defeat modern body armour. Most PDW's achieve this aim by combining a high
rate of fire with new custom-designed cartridges which are effectively miniature
rifle rounds that give superior ballistic performance to conventional SMG ammo. 

Although originally intended to give defensive capability to vehicle crews, etc,
PDW's are more commonly used as modern substitutes in offensive roles previously
fulfilled by submachineguns. The distinction between the two categories can be
hazy but larger weapons firing pistol calibres such as the UMP45, UMP9, CZ3A1
and MPX are arguably SMG's, however for simplicity they are included in the PDW
category in BF4.

Initially only the Mx4 and Groza 4 are available. The P90 can be unlocked in the
single-player campaign and a further five PDW's can be earned by completing
assignments (one in the base game and four in DLC). The others are unlocked by
earning XP using whichever PDW's you have available.

The PDW's use a wide range of different ammunition types:

                 |  Max.  |      Damage      |  Min.  |
      Ammunition | Damage |     Drop-Off     | Damage | Weapons
     ============+========+==================+========+====================
         .45 ACP |  30.0  |                  |        | UMP45 only
     ------------+--------|     8m to 50m    |        |--------------------
       5.56x45mm |  24.0  |                  |  15.4  | PDW-R only
     ------------+--------+------------------|        |--------------------
          9x39mm |  27.0  |     5m to 43.67m |        | AS Val and Groza 4
     ------------+--------+------------------+--------+--------------------
         .40 S&W |  24.5  | 13.34m to 50m    |        | MPX only
     ------------+--------+------------------|        |--------------------
          9x21mm |  23.5  | 16.67m to 50m    |  13.5  | SR2 only
     ------------|--------|------------------|        |--------------------
          9x19mm |        |    20m to 50m    |        | everything else
     ------------|  22.5  |------------------|--------|--------------------
        6.5x25mm |        |    20m to 47.34m |  14.3  | CBJ-MS only
     ------------+--------+------------------+--------+--------------------
        5.7x28mm |  21.0  | 10.67m to 47.5m  |        | P90 only
     ------------+--------|------------------|  12.5  |--------------------
        4.6x30mm |  20.0  |    15m to 47.5m  |        | MP7 only

Patched: In the Fall Patch the maximum damage for all PDW's with a pre-patch max
         damage of 25 or higher was reduced by 1 (the P90, JS2 and MP7 escaped
         the nerf by virtue of their low damage stats). The six PDW's that did
         25 max damage pre-patch lost their short-range four-hit kill ability.

         In the Spring Patch PDW's saw further changes to their damage profiles.
         Most weapons got their drop-off start distances and minimum damage
         increased and their drop-off end distances and max damage decreased.
         This time it was the MPX and SR2 that lost their potential for a four-
         hit kill with body-shots but overall this rebalancing was a buff, with
         most PDW's now doing slightly more damage than before at most ranges.

         Additionally the ammo type for the JS2 was changed from 5.8x21mm to the
         more common 9mm pistol load.

Since it's crucial to consider both the rate of fire and bullet damage of a gun
I've calculated the theoretical maximum damage-rate (damage per second) for each
of the PDW's to give a crude indication of their damaging potential.

                        Weapon | Fire-Rate | Max. Damage | DPS
                ===============+===========+=============+=====
                        AS Val |   900 RPM |     27.0    | 405
                         CZ3A1 | 1,000 RPM |     22.5    | 375
                ---------------+-----------+-------------+-----
                           SR2 |   900 RPM |     23.5    | 352
                           MPX |   850 RPM |     24.5    | 347
                           JS2 |   900 RPM |     22.5    | 337
                ---------------+-----------+-------------+-----
                           MP7 |   950 RPM |     20.0    | 317
                           P90 |   900 RPM |     21.0    | 315
                       Groza 4 |   700 RPM |     27.0    | 315
                           Mx4 |   830 RPM |     22.5    | 311
                ---------------+-----------+-------------+-----
                         UMP45 |   600 RPM |     30.0    | 300
                         PDW-R |   750 RPM |     24.0    | 300
                ---------------+-----------+-------------+-----
                 UMP9 / CBJ-MS |   700 RPM |     22.5    | 262
                        PP2000 |   650 RPM |     22.5    | 243

With some of the faster firing guns sitting in the lower tiers, this highlights
the importance of considering the bullet damage as well as the fire-rate. For a
more detailed analysis check out the individual weapon stat pages on Symthic
which show the BTK (bullets to kill) and TTK (time to kill) at all distances.
                                        __

Their high fire-rates and good hipfire accuracy make these guns very capable in
close-quarters combat, however you can also empty your magazine/s very quickly.
The low minimum damage combined with the inferior aimed spread and low muzzle
velocity make them ineffective at medium and long ranges.

Patched: The ADS moving accuracy stats for all PDW's were improved in the Fall
         Patch. This further enhances the close-quarters capability of these
         guns by allowing more accurate fire while strafing.

         In the Spring Patch the maximum spread with aimed fire in all stances
         was buffed for all PDW's (decreased from 1.5 to 1.3). Most PDW's got a
         reduction to spread increase per shot (SIPS) making successive shots in
         a burst more accurate than before.

         The PDW's also had their spread decrease per second rebalanced from the
         previously common value of 15. The new values were assigned according
         to the DPS of the guns - the CZ3A1 and AS Val have the highest damage
         rate and got the biggest nerf (7.7) while the guns with the lowest DPS
         actually received a minor buff, i.e. the UMP9 and CBJ-MS (15.7) and of
         course the PP2000 (18.2).

The Mx4, UMP9, UMP45, CZ3A1, AS Val, MPX and Groza 4 have a full range of six
unlockable foregrips that can be equipped (see Section 04d). The other PDW's are
either too short or already have a foregrip integrated into their design (and
therefore they have only three attachment slots instead of four).

o Mx4

     Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 830 RPM   Reload: 2.60 secs

  Unlocks: available at start

  Summary: The first of several guns in this category firing 9mm rounds, the Mx4
           gives 22.5 maximum damage for a five-hit kill out to 28 metres (but
           the damage drops to only 13.5 for an eight-hit kill at long range).
           At launch it gave the second best damage-rate of the nine PDW's in
           the base game (without DLC) but following the Spring Patch it's now
           about average and equivalent to a 750 RPM assault rifle.

           For a gun that reloads like a pistol, the Mx4 has a surprisingly slow
           reload time and it's actually one of the slowest in the PDW category.
           Several of its rivals here have larger magazines too.

           Its recoil is fairly high - with a distinct pull to the left - and
           the accuracy figures are standard for a non-bullpup PDW.

           To give you a helping hand when you're starting out the Mx4 comes
           with the first two attachments - the US red-dot sight and laser sight
           (plus the default ergo grip) - already unlocked and ready to equip.

  Patched: Most PDW's saw changes to their damage profiles in the Spring Patch
           of May 2015. For 9mm weapons the max damage was reduced to 22.5, the
           damage drop-off start extended from 8 to 20 metres, the drop-off end
           shortened from 55 to 50 metres and the min damage increased to 13.5.
           This was typical of the PDW rebalances - the starting damage is a
           little lower but it's maintained for longer and the final damage is
           higher (now giving an eight-hit kill) but applied sooner.

           Additionally the Mx4's reload times were made slightly longer but the
           horizontal recoil and first-shot recoil multiplier were reduced.

           Previously equipping the heavy barrel on the Mx4, P90, UMP45 and UMP9
           would add a longer barrel to the weapon models but this was removed
           in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: The Beretta Mx4 Storm is a full-auto military version of their Cx4
           Storm carbine which launched in 2003. Both weapons are designed to
           use pistol calibres - most commonly 9x19mm but also 9x21mm IMI, .40
           S&W and .45 ACP - and can use magazines from various Beretta pistol
           models in addition to the Mx4's longer 30-round magazine.

           The Cx4 has a short Picatinny rail stowed under the barrel which can
           be fitted on the side under the front sight. A long scope rail and
           set of three front accessory rails can also be added as required and
           these are permanently fitted to the Mx4 in BF4.

           The full Storm "family" includes the original semi-auto civilian Cx4
           Storm carbine, the .223 Rx4 Storm rifle, the Px4 Storm pistols (in
           various sizes and calibres) and the Tx4 tactical semi-auto shotgun.

           The Mx4 has the honour of appearing on the badges for the PDW Basic
           and PDW Veteran assignments in BF4.

o Groza 4

     Ammo: 9x39mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.90 secs

  Unlocks: available by default (added in Spring Patch on 26 May 2015)

  Summary: As part of the programme to extend the life-cycle of BF4 (after the
           community reaction to Hardline) five new guns were added for free.
           New players now have an alternative to the Mx4 for the Engineer class
           - they can use the Groza 4 PDW (or the Groza 1 carbine of course).

           In order to add more variety to the selection of weapons in the game
           three of those new five guns were bullpup designs and this is one of
           them. Consequently it has the usual bullpup modifiers which give it
           better hipfire/moving accuracy but slightly reduced aimed accuracy
           and slower reload times compared to the other PDW's.

           The obvious comparison for the Groza 4 is the AS Val (see below) -
           both fire the same ammo type which gives a max damage of 27 for a
           rare four-hit kill in close-quarters (albeit only out to 11 metres
           since the Spring Patch). They also both have 20-round magazines and
           are fitted with permanent suppressors.

           The performance of the two guns is quite different though. The Groza
           has one of the slowest fire-rates in this category while the AS Val
           delivers one of the highest. The Groza also has much slower reload
           times, both around a second longer than the Val's. The main strength
           of the Groza is that it has lower recoil, with the first-shot recoil
           multiplier being especially low (x1.25).

           Overall the Groza 4 is a mixed bag - its superior moving and hipfire
           spread and permanent suppressor (with reduced muzzle velocity) lean
           towards close-quarters use but the slow fire-rate and combination of
           small mag size and slow reloads are big disadvantages in that role.

  Patched: Following testing on the Community Test Environment (CTE) the maximum
           damage was increased from 26 to 27 and the reload times were made
           longer prior to the addition of the gun in the Spring Patch update.

           In the Summer Patch the initial vertical velocity was adjusted to
           increase the zero distance from 30 to 35 metres which is consistent
           with other suppressed PDW's.

   Trivia: The OTs14 Groza was developed in the early 90's, co-designed by
           Valery Telesh who previously created the GP30 grenade-launcher which
           features in BF4 (specifically when you equip the M320 with a Russian
           or Chinese assault rifle with an underbarrel rail). It then entered
           service with Spetsnaz special forces and airborne troops in 1994.

           It is essentially a bullpup variant of the AKS74u - the shortened
           model of the AK74 that was in BF3 and was the precursor of the AKu12
           carbine in BF4. Optimized for close-quarters suppressed use, the
           original OTs14-4 version (the "Groza 4") is chambered for the same
           9x39mm subsonic load as the AS Val, in fact it even uses the same
           magazines as the AS Val and the VSS Vintorez sniper rifle.

           The other main variant is the OTs14-1 (the "Groza 1") which uses the
           same 7.62x39mm ammo (and magazines) as the original AK47. The Groza 1
           was also added in the Spring Patch and is available as a carbine.

o P90

     Ammo: 5.7x28mm   Capacity: 50+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 2.90 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Peace Maker' assignment (single-player)

           In the final mission (Suez) give the C4 to Hannah and detonate it.

  Summary: The P90's 900 RPM rate of fire is impressive but combined with the
           21 max damage it places only halfway up the damage-rate chart.

           The 50-round magazine is very handy although the reloads (with the
           bullpup layout and novel top-loading magazine) are very slow.

           The recoil was previously quite high - with the worst muzzle drift in
           the PDW category - but this was tamed in the Fall and Spring Patches.

           Thanks to its bullpup format the P90 has slightly worse accuracy on
           aimed fire but better spread in hipfire and when moving.

  Patched: In addition to the ADS moving accuracy buff, in the Fall Patch the
           P90 also received reduced horizontal recoil, reduced spread increase
           per shot and a reduction to the bullpup penalty to its ADS stationary
           accuracy (from 0.5 to 0.45).

           The three PDW's with the lowest bullet damage did not have their max
           damage reduced by 1 in the Fall Patch (like all the other automatic
           weapons in the game). As a result the P90, MP7 and JS2 retained their
           previous rate of damage output and this effectively gave them a buff
           relative to all the other automatic weapons.

           Again in the Spring Patch the max damage for the P90 and MP7 was
           untouched (and their DPS was improved relative to their peers). The
           minimum damage for both guns was increased and the damage drop-off
           end distance shortened significantly from 60 to 47.5 metres. Their
           drop-off starts were both extended but the MP7 saw a bigger buff.

           (Following the Spring Patch the P90's 10.67-47.5 metres drop-off is
           actually quite similar to the P90 in BF3 where it was 12-46 metres.)

           For the P90 both reload times were made longer, with the short reload
           time increased by almost half a second! The vertical and horizontal
           recoil and the first-shot recoil multiplier were all reduced though.
           There were also improvements to hipfire accuracy while moving in all
           stances with the largest buff in the standing stance.

           Previously equipping the heavy barrel on the Mx4, P90, UMP45 and UMP9
           would add a longer barrel to the weapon models but this was removed
           in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: The P90 is made by Fabrique Nationale of Belgium and was launched in
           1990, making it an early example of a true PDW with a compact design,
           high rate of fire and custom ammunition. The 5.7x28mm cartridge was
           designed by FN in conjunction with the P90 (and FN Five-seveN pistol)
           to give superior range, accuracy, damage and armour penetration than
           the traditional 9mm pistol round. The 5.7mm round is also lighter and
           narrower which, combined with the novel top-mounted horizontal mag
           design, made it possible to have such a large ammo capacity.

           See the P90 on Ultimate Weapons: http://youtu.be/ohGsu4bhb04

o PP2000

     Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 44+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.45 secs

  Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with PDW's

  Summary: The PP2000 fires the same ammo as the Mx4 but it does so much slower
           and it therefore delivers far less damage per second - it has the
           lowest DPS in the PDW category.

           At least it's now modelled with the 44-round magazine option (the
           ammo capacity was only 20+1 in BF3) although the reloads are slow.

           To balance the poor damage output compared to other PDW's it has the
           lowest vertical recoil, second best first-shot recoil multiplier and
           second fastest muzzle velocity so it'll be more useful for accurate
           aimed bursts at slightly longer ranges.

  Patched: In addition to the general changes to maximum damage, aimed moving
           accuracy and suppressed muzzle velocity, the PP2000 also received a
           slight reduction in left and right recoil and an increase to its
           unsuppressed velocity in the Fall Patch.

           The new damage model for 9mm personal defence weapons in the Spring
           Patch was even applied to the humble PP which continues to dwell at
           the bottom of the DPS league. However it got some buffs too with good
           improvements to muzzle velocity and horizontal recoil plus a small
           reduction to its reload times.

   Trivia: Once dubbed the "angry triangle" by one of my friends in BFBC2 thanks
           to its distinctive angular trigger-guard / foregrip, the PP2000 is a
           Russian weapon that was launched in 2004.

           It's designed to use the conventional 9mm Parabellum pistol round but
           also takes the Russian armour-piercing overpressure variants devised
           in the 1980's that are intended to give comparable performance to the
           PDW ammunition used in weapons like the P90 and MP7.

           The gun has the option of this larger 44-round magazine. A spare one
           can be attached to the rear of the weapon and used as a stock!

o UMP45

     Ammo: .45 ACP   Capacity: 25+1   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs

  Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with PDW's

  Summary: Using the same .45" ACP load as the M1911 and Compact 45 pistols, the
           UMP45 delivers a max damage of 30 for a potential four-hit kill out
           to a range of 22 metres.

           It also delivers a high minimum damage of 15.4 (shared with the AS
           Val, PDW-R and Groza 4) which gives a seven-hit kill at long ranges.

           The distinctive long straight magazine* only holds 25 of the fatter
           .45" rounds but you can perform a short reload in only 1.85 seconds
           (that's one of the fastest reloads in the whole game).

           The vertical recoil is obviously large but the sideways recoil is
           minimal and balanced giving only minor muzzle drift.

           *The UMP45 appears in Army of Two: The Devil's Cartel (as the MP-U45)
           where one of the available upgrades is an extended magazine - which
           looks as ridiculous as it sounds. :)

  Patched: The UMP45 had its horizontal recoil reduced by 10% in the Fall Patch.

           In the Spring Patch the damage drop-off end distance was extended to
           50 metres (now very typical for PDW's) and the maximum damage was
           cut from 33 to 30. The weapon now has the same drop-off distances and
           minimum damage as the post-patch PDW-R but the guns differentiate
           themselves with other stats - the UMP45 gives a four-hit kill but
           only has a 25-round magazine and 600 RPM fire-rate while the PDW-R
           gives a five-hit kill but with a bigger mag and higher rate of fire.

           The UMP also got small improvements to vertical recoil, first-shot
           recoil multiplier and muzzle velocity. Like most PDW's there was also
           a buff to the spread increase per shot but the UMP got one of the
           largest reductions among this category in the Spring Patch.

           Previously equipping the heavy barrel on the Mx4, P90, UMP45 and UMP9
           would add a longer barrel to the weapon models but this was removed
           in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: The UMP (Universal Machinepistol in either German or English) is the
           successor to H&K's renowned MP5 submachinegun. First manufactured in
           1999, it's also available in 9mm (UMP9) and .40 S&W (UMP40) versions
           with the .40 model sharing the distinctive long straight magazine of
           the UMP45 and the 9mm variant having a curved mag like the MP5. To
           make it easier to handle in automatic fire with the heavy .45 load it
           was necessary to reduce the rate of fire on the UMP45 to 600 RPM.

           The high-resolution model in the loadout screen shows the gun with a
           "Navy" trigger group (safe/single/auto) but you also have access to a
           three-round burst mode (even though two-round burst is more usual).

           There is a civilian version called the USC (Universal Self-loading
           Carbine) which has a significantly longer barrel, smaller magazine,
           remodelled shoulder-stock and no automatic fire mode.

           See the UMP45 on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/3hSimmdwED4

o CBJ-MS

     Ammo: 6.5x25mm   Capacity: 50+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.40 secs

  Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with PDW's

  Summary: That slow rate of fire gives the exotic CBJ-MS a low damage-rate.

           It has the second best minimum damage in the PDW category and can
           achieve a seven-hit kill at range - just! (7 x 14.3 = 100.1)

           Its main redeeming feature is that it has the same 50+1 ammunition
           capacity as the P90 but the short reload is half a second faster. It
           also has a slight edge there on muzzle velocity and ADS accuracy.

           The UMP9 fires at the same rate and has better recoil overall. It has
           twenty fewer rounds in the mag but much faster reloads.

  Patched: At launch the CBJ did 22 max damage so, combined with the low rate of
           fire, it had a terrible damage-rate of 257 (the AS Val did almost
           twice that). In the server-side update on 18 March 2014 the gun got a
           buff to its max/min damage "to better balance its low rate of fire".
           The maximum damage was increased to 25 giving it a damage-rate that
           matches the UMP9 and beats the PP2000.

           With its higher damage the CBJ was unable to escape the max damage
           rebalance in the Fall Patch so it was reduced to 24 although it still
           held its position on the DPS chart.

           The horizontal recoil was reduced by 40% in the Fall Patch but it was
           still much higher than the UMP9 which has the same rate of fire.

           In the Spring Patch the damage profile changes included a reduction
           of the max damage from 24 to 22.5 but since most PDW's got a similar
           change it still compares similarly relative to them. The horizontal
           recoil and first-shot recoil multiplier were both reduced too.

           Additionally the game display was fixed so that it no longer shows
           the burst-fire option for the CBJ-MS - the gun lacks this mode.

   Trivia: The CBJ-MS (Modular System) was developed by a Swedish company called
           CBJ Tech AB in the early 21st century. Saab Bofors had links to the
           project briefly (when the British armed forces were seeking a PDW)
           but they withdrew leaving the smaller company (and its founder Carl
           Bertil Johansson) to continue alone.

           To say that the CBJ-MS is a novel weapon system is a bit of an under-
           statement! The basic form is similar to the Micro Uzi with an overall
           length of around 14" and, although you have plenty of camo options in
           the game, it's usually seen with a basic matt green finish. Typically
           it's pictured with a retractable metal stock and foregrip - as you
           might expect - but also a crude bipod, drum magazine and ACOG scope!

           This compact firearm was designed with the intention of competing not
           only against modern PDW's but also assault rifles and LMG's! The key
           to this is the revolutionary new 6.5x25mm CBJ ammunition which has a
           4mm tungsten projectile packed in a plastic sabot. Despite having the
           outer dimensions of a normal 9mm pistol/SMG round, it's claimed that
           this new round achieves muzzle velocities of over 800 m/s, with an
           effective range of 400 metres and the ability to defeat body armour
           and the skins of light armoured vehicles!

           The magazine well is located inside the pistol-grip (as on the Uzi)
           and takes 20 and 30-round magazines (with the option of stashing a
           spare inside the hollow foregrip) but there's also a drum mag option
           that holds 100. The CBJ MS can be converted to use 9mm ammo by simply
           swapping the barrel; similarly most pistols, PDW's and carbines in
           9mm can be modified easily to use the innovative 6.5mm CBJ load.

o PDW-R

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 750 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs

  Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with PDW's

  Summary: The PDW-R is unusual in that it fires a conventional rifle calibre -
           the same 5.56mm NATO round used by many of the assault rifles; it
           didn't receive the same increase in the Spring Patch though so its
           max damage remains 24 (rather than 24.5). It also ties with several
           PDW's for having the highest minimum damage.

           It now has a 30-round magazine (previously 20 in BF3) but the reload
           time is unremarkable, similar to several other guns in this category.

           The recoil is quite good but with a pull to the right. It's slightly
           less accurate in ADS fire than most of the PDW's but it makes up for
           this with better hipfire and moving accuracy.

           Compared to the P90 it has a smaller magazine and similar damage-rate
           but superior recoil.

  Patched: As part of the rebalance for PDW bullpup modifiers the PDW-R and P90
           had their aimed stationary accuracy increased in the Fall Patch (the
           bullpup penalty was effectively halved).

           With its rifle calibre load the PDW-R was the only PDW to not get any
           changes to its damage profile in the Spring Patch, however it still
           got over thirty tweaks to various stats.

           Aside from fairly generic rebalances to its maximum aimed spread,
           spread increase per shot and spread recovery, the PDW-R also got a
           reduction to moving hipfire spread and the pull to the right was
           reduced somewhat.

   Trivia: The Personal Defense Rifle (PDR) was a prototype designed by Magpul
           in the US. It was showcased in 2008 but never entered production.

           The core concept was to create a compact firearm with an effective
           range greater than that of a pistol. The design had the advantages of
           being able to use standard NATO ammunition/magazines and having an
           ambidextrous mag release and charging handle.

o CZ3A1

     Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 1,000 RPM   Reload: 1.90 secs

  Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with PDW's

  Summary: That rapid rate of fire serves to give the CZ3A1 the highest damage
           output of all the PDW's in the base game but it also has the biggest
           vertical recoil, heavy horizontal recoil (with a strong pull to the
           right) and the highest first-shot recoil multiplier (x3.0). The DLC-
           only AS Val beats it on damage-rate but comes with smaller mags.

           Most of the PDW's have a short reload time of around 2.5 seconds so
           the CZ3A1 has an advantage there with one of the quickest reloads in
           the whole game.

           In early builds of BF4 it had 20-round mags (a non-standard option
           from the manufacturer) but now it has the standard 30-round mags.

  Patched: New stats were tested in the CTE giving the CZ3A1 a reduced fire-rate
           and less recoil but these changes were not implemented.

           However some specific changes were made to the CZ3A1 in the Spring
           Patch: the right-hand horizontal recoil was increased, the first-shot
           recoil multiplier was reduced and the long reload time (when the gun
           is empty) got a major nerf from 2.4 to 3.0 seconds so try to keep at
           least one round in the weapon and take advantage of the short reload.

   Trivia: The CZ Scorpion Evo 3 A1 is a modern SMG made by Ceska Zbrojovka of
           the Czech Republic, the same firm that makes the CZ805 assault rifle
           (see above) and CZ75 pistol (see below). It launched around 2009,
           followed in 2011 by the CZ3S1 semi-auto civilian "pistol" model.

           I think it looks like a baby G36C which is kinda cute! :) It also has
           a slimline modern shoulder-stock and a full set of accessory rails so
           you can easily fit optics, foregrip, taclight, etc. Like the CZ805
           assault rifle it uses transparent mags to allow a rapid ammo check.

           The Scorpion Evo is intended as a successor to compact Skorpion vz 61
           SMG released by the same company in the 60's. The original Skorpion
           has appeared in several video-games, with a recent example being the
           delightfully retro and ultraviolent download title Hotline Miami.

o JS2

     Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 2.45 secs

  Unlocks: score 48,000 pts with PDW's

  Summary: Reborn after the Spring Patch, the final standard PDW unlock now has
           a respectable DPS and can definitely hold its own against the better
           PDW's in close quarters.

           This is balanced by the high recoil and new smaller magazine size.

  Patched: The three PDW's with the lowest bullet damage did not have their max
           damage reduced by 1 in the Fall Patch (like all the other automatic
           weapons in the game). As a result the P90, MP7 and JS2 retained their
           previous rate of damage output and this effectively gave them a buff
           relative to all the other automatic weapons.

           The spread increase per shot (SIPS) was reduced in the Fall Patch.

           The JS2 received a complete overhaul in the Spring Patch of May 2015.
           Previously it used the Chinese 5.8mm ammunition and had 50-round mags
           but now it fires 9mm rounds and the magazine size is 30. Combining
           its rapid fire-rate and the higher damage of the 9mm load, it's now
           in the same league as the SR2 and MPX for damage output.

           The horizontal recoil, recoil multiplier and short reload time were
           all increased but the muzzle velocity was also increased. The spread
           increase per second was increased too (unlike the majority of the
           other PDW's which got a reduction in the Spring Patch).

           Additionally, just nineteen months after the game's launch, the JS2
           finally had the bullpup modifiers applied. It now has reduced aimed
           accuracy and enhanced hipfire/moving accuracy like the P90 and PDW-R.

   Trivia: The QCW-05 PDW manufactured by Jian She Industries was adopted by the
           Chinese in 2001 for use by vehicle crews. It's intended primarily to
           be used with a sound suppressor and the subsonic variant of the 5.8mm
           cartridge (which gives the weapon a muzzle velocity of 150 m/s and an
           effective range of only 50 metres) although it is possible to remove
           the suppressor and use full-power 5.8mm rounds.

           Internally the magazine holds two double stacks of cartridges which,
           combined with the smaller calibre, gives the large ammo capacity.

           The "JS 9mm" is an export version that fires 9x19mm rounds and takes
           magazines from the H&K MP5 submachinegun.

o UMP9

     Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 30   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Engineer Expert' assignment (multiplayer)

           First complete 'Engineer Basic' to unlock 'Engineer Veteran'.

           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 7 kills with carbines
           o Get 16 repairs on friendly vehicles

           Next complete 'Engineer Veteran' to unlock 'Engineer Expert'.

           o Engineer Basic required
           o Get 8 kills with carbines
           o Get 17 repairs

           Finally complete 'Engineer Expert'.

           o Engineer Veteran required
           o Get 50 Repair Tool Ribbons (get 8 repairs in a match for each)
           o Get 200 kills with carbines
           o Get 10 Carbine Ribbons (get 6 carbine kills in a match for each)

           Since the carbines are now all-kit weapons you can get the kills with
           any class but you'll need to play as Engineer to get those repairs.

           The fifty ribbons will be quite a grind. A good way to get repairs is
           in one of the passenger positions of the scout or transport choppers
           - you can repair the aircraft while flying by using the tool on any
           nearby part of the fuselage. If the pilot is in your squad this will
           be a great way to fill your "bro bar" to activate field upgrades and
           in scout helicopters you'll earn points towards vehicle unlocks too.

           (Previously you could also make yourself useful with a Stinger/Igla
           when not repairing but the Second Fall Patch removed the ability to
           use any lock-on weapons from inside a helicopter.)

           You could also try riding as the gunner of a main battle tank or IFV
           and hopping out to repair as necessary. Try to keep the body of the
           vehicle between you and the enemy and keep strafing left/right while
           you repair to present a harder target for snipers.

  Summary: The H&K UMP9 is very similar to its big brother the UMP45 (see above)
           but it fires the smaller 9mm load like its predecessor the MP5. This
           does less damage - and a lower damage-rate - but at least the smaller
           cartridge means you can squeeze an extra five rounds into a magazine;
           also the gun has the same excellent reload times as the .45" model.

           It has very low and balanced horizontal recoil and good vertical
           recoil and recoil multiplier so overall it's very manageable.

  Patched: Like its .45" sibling, the UMP9 had its horizontal recoil reduced by
           10% in the Fall Patch. The muzzle velocity was also buffed by 13%.

           Beyond the generic PDW rebalances in the Spring Patch the UMP9 got
           only one specific tweak which was a 20% increase to its first-shot
           recoil multiplier (although it's still pretty good).

           Previously equipping the heavy barrel on the Mx4, P90, UMP45 and UMP9
           would add a longer barrel to the weapon models but this was removed
           in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: It's easy to distinguish the UMP9 as it has a curved magazine - like
           the MP5 - while the UMP45 (like the UMP40) has a straight one.

           See the UMP40 in IV8888: https://youtu.be/Va9Jioond4c

           Picatinny rails can be fitted to the top and bottom to take a sight
           and foregrip. The UMP also has a special muzzle for easy attachment
           of a sound suppressor.

o MP7

     Ammo: 4.6x30mm   Capacity: 40+1   Fire-rate: 950 RPM   Reload: 2.40 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Make a Dent' assignment (multiplayer)

           o China Rising DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Destroy an air vehicle with a portable anti-air launcher
           o Get 3 Anti-Vehicle Ribbons (destroy 2 vehicles in a match for each)

           You'll need to earn 24,000 points with the Engineer kit in order to
           unlock the Stinger launcher but you could also try using the HVM II
           launcher which is available as an in-game "Battle Pickup".

           You can destroy enemy vehicles using rockets, missiles, anti-tank
           mines, C4 explosives or other vehicles. Deployed enemy equipment such
           as mortars and spawn beacons are counted as vehicles too.

           Matimi0 posted a Youtube tips video highlighting the handy features
           of the Engineer kit's M2 SLAM mines. These can be deployed as normal
           anti-tank mines but they can also be thrown onto vertical surfaces
           adjacent to narrow vehicle routes where they will be a lot harder for
           enemy drivers to see them. You can also plant them in shallow narrow
           waterways - like the channels between islands on Paracel Storm - to
           hit boats and you can attach them directly to enemy vehicles as you
           would C4 (they will detonate when the vehicle starts moving). :)

           Some people have suggested that you need to get the ribbons before
           destroying the aircraft and that you must kill the pilot too.

  Summary: The MP7 delivers a high rate of fire, just short of the CZ3A1's 1,000
           RPM, but it also has a much lower bullet damage (following the damage
           buff for the G18/93R in the Spring Patch it now has the lowest max
           damage in the whole game) so overall its rate of damage is merely
           good rather than great and you might find you need to use slightly
           longer bursts than expected to get kills.

           The 20-round magazine from BF3 is upgraded to a respectable 40 rounds
           now although - like the Mx4 above - it has a surprisingly slow short
           reload so try to avoid any unnecessary reloads.

           The MP7's recoil is comparable to other high fire-rate PDW's and was
           almost identical to the pre-patch JS2 with high vertical recoil,
           average first-shot recoil multiplier and a pull to the right.

           It's modelled with the permanent (folding) foregrip of the real gun
           so it has no underbarrel attachment slot.

           The stats for the MP7 and P90 are fairly similar but the MP7 has the
           higher fire-rate, longer damage drop-off and faster reloads while the
           P90 has slightly higher max damage, a bigger mag size and a little
           less recoil (in addition to the usual bullpup bonuses and penalties).

  Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch the muzzle velocity was reduced and the
           reload times were shortened slightly.

           The three PDW's with the lowest bullet damage did not have their max
           damage reduced by 1 in the Fall Patch (like all the other automatic
           weapons in the game). As a result the P90, MP7 and JS2 retained their
           previous rate of damage output and this effectively gave them a buff
           relative to all the other automatic weapons.

           New stats were tested in the CTE giving the MP7 a reduced fire-rate
           and less recoil but these changes were not implemented.

           The MP7 got a couple of buffs in the Spring Patch: the reload times
           were shortened and the first-shot recoil multiplier was reduced by
           14%, decreasing the effect of recoil at the start of a burst.

           Again it escaped a nerf to its maximum damage and it got a bigger
           buff to its damage drop-off start distance than the P90 did.

   Trivia: The MP7 was developed by H&K of Germany to meet the requirements of
           NATO's demands for a PDW and it entered production in 2001.

           See the MP7 on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/h3jek2PML1g

           Just as with the P90 (which was also developed to meet NATO's brief)
           a new type of high-velocity armour-piercing ammunition was designed
           especially for the MP7. It takes a 20, 30 or 40-round magazine which
           is loaded into the grip, like a pistol. The compact design gives an
           overall length of just 41cm with the stock retracted.

           See the MP7 on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/rMj73QKr7oI

           The MP7 appears in Payday 2 as the "SpecOps" although unusually it's
           fitted with a foregrip attachment instead of using the integral one.

o AS Val

     Ammo: 9x39mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 1.95 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Co-Pilot' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Second Assault DLC required*
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Spend 10 minutes (600 seconds on Battlelog) in helicopters
           o Get 10 Squad Repairs (repair a squad-mate's vehicle with the tool)

           In a Youtube video LevelCap said that transport helis don't count
           towards your air time so stick with the attack choppers (the Z10,
           Viper and Havoc) and the scout choppers (the Z11 and Little Bird).

           To get squad reps you'll need to repair a vehicle where the driver -
           or pilot - is in your squad (green). Each 15 pts bonus counts as one
           Squad Repair towards your required total of ten.

           You could work on both requirements at the same time by riding in a
           scout chopper and repairing from one of the passenger positions -
           remember to equip the repair tool before you spawn in! 

           If no-one in your squad is using helis then switch to another one. On
           the respawn screen you can press Triangle to view the squad list and
           hop between squads until you see a green chopper on the map.

           Alternatively you can select the helicopter icon on the respawn
           screen (select your team's deployment base with the left stick then
           pick the vehicle with the right stick), wait for the heli to respawn
           and for a pilot to enter it, press X to join him, check his name, go
           to Team Setup (press Options for in-game menu) and transfer into his
           squad - if there's a vacant slot. This squad spawn gets you into a
           helicopter more quickly and if it's a scout or transport chopper you
           can farm some Squad Repairs while you're up there.

           Equipping the Mechanic field upgrade path with the FAST REPAIRS spec
           will increase your repair speed by 35%. All those Squad Repairs will
           fill your field upgrades "bro bar" quickly too, activating the perks.

           *PC players got early access to the AS Val. The assignments to unlock
           the five new guns were added ahead of the Second Assault DLC but this
           was the only one that could be completed without the DLC maps.

  Summary: The AS Val returned in the Second Assault DLC. As in BF3 it sits in
           the PDW category but of course this now means that it can only be
           used in the Engineer class (where previously it was an all-kit gun).

           The specialist 9x39mm round now does a massive 27 max damage which is
           not enough for a three-hit kill but it does have the potential for a
           four-hit kill out to 11 metres. The 15.4 minimum damage is excellent
           too although you will need to use controlled bursts on longer shots
           to achieve that seven-hit kill.

           It also has a high rate of fire and, while it fires a little slower
           than the 1,000 RPM of the FAMAS assault rifle and CZ3A1 PDW, when you
           combine its 900 RPM fire-rate with the 27 damage you get an insanely
           high damage-rate of 405 per second which outstrips even those guns.

           With the option of extended mags absent in BF4 you'll be stuck with
           the small 20-round magazine but that didn't stop me getting over a
           thousand kills with the AS Val in BF3 before the extended mags option
           was added in a patch and it does at least have a very quick short
           reload animation - your character uses the new magazine to operate
           the mag release lever - which takes less than two seconds.

           In BF3 the AS Val had perfect stationary aimed accuracy (0.0 spread)
           and a tiny 0.5 first-shot recoil multiplier paired with poor hipfire
           and moving accuracy. Now in BF4 all its accuracy figures match those
           of the other PDW's and it's gone from having the smallest first-shot
           recoil multiplier in the whole game to having one of the biggest!
           (even after the Spring Patch when it was reduced from x3.5 to x2.55)

           The weapon is permanently fitted with a suppressor so there is no
           option to change the barrel attachment (and features like the muzzle
           brake and heavy barrel are unavailable). You can still fit various
           attachments in the underbarrel and accessory slots though and as soon
           as you add one the gun will be modelled with rails on the suppressor.
           The angled grip is an obvious choice to cut that first-shot recoil.

           Despite being Russian the first optics you unlock for the AS Val will
           be the US/NATO ones - the Reflex RDS, ACOG 4x scope, etc - and you'll
           need to rely on the AS Val Battlepacks to unlock the iconic Kobra
           sight which best fits the origin and revised role of this weapon.

  Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch the minimum damage was reduced from 17 to
           16 (so it now takes one extra bullet to get a kill at long range) and
           the muzzle velocity was reduced slightly.

           Roughly half of the PDW's did 25 max damage originally so they gave a
           four-hit kill in close quarters which jumped to five hits after the
           max damage was reduced by 1 in the Fall Patch. After the nerf the AS
           Val, SR2 and MPX all still did at least 25 max damage and therefore
           they retained the four-hit kill ability (at that stage).

           However with its maximum damage reduced from 30 to 29 the AS Val did
           at least lose its two-hit kill potential in Hardcore mode.

           The mighty Val also got hit in the Spring Patch. Whereas most PDW's
           got increases to minimum damage and the drop-off start distance, for
           the AS Val these were both reduced. The maximum damage was reduced to
           27 and the damage begins to drop off after only 5 metres now! The
           four-hit kill is still possible but only out to 11 metres (was 20).

           To make up for this the vertical recoil and recoil multiplier both
           saw major buffs, although the left horizontal recoil was increased
           considerably too. Also the long reload time was shortened slightly.

           In the Summer Patch the initial vertical velocity was adjusted to
           reduce the zero distance from 50 to 35 metres which is consistent
           with other suppressed PDW's.

   Trivia: The AS Val was designed in the 80's for use by the Russian Spetsnaz
           (special forces). Previously they had used conventional Kalashnikov
           assault rifles fitted with suppressor attachments and subsonic ammo
           but this was deemed inadequate. The new 9x39mm cartridge was designed
           to give a large and heavy bullet that could penetrate armour but with
           the subsonic velocity necessary for "silenced" operation.

           A new family of weapons were designed to utilise this new ammo load -
           the AS Val assault rifle and VSS "Vintorez" sniper rifle* (both with
           a fixed suppressor) plus the SR3 Vikhr compact assault rifle (with
           detachable suppressor). The SR3 has a similar mechanism to the SR2
           Veresk PDW (see below).

           The AS Val appears in the S.T.A.L.K.E.R. game as the VLA Special
           Assault Rifle (and in the prequel/sequel games as the SA Avalanche).

           *The automatic fire and integral suppressor made the VSS a personal
           favourite as the "Recon's assault rifle" in BFBC2.

o SR2

     Ammo: 9x21mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 2.60 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Packing a Punch' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Naval Strike DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Destroy 20 boats

           Naturally there are plenty of boats available for you to destroy in
           vehicular modes on the Naval Strike maps. The Engineer class gets a
           range of missile-launchers plus the M2 SLAM mines which can hit boats
           if planted in shallow water. You can also use weapons mounted on air
           and land vehicles and - of course - other boats.

           If you're feeling pretty badass you can take advantage of the ability
           to deploy and detonate C4 while swimming. :) (If you take out three
           boats with C4 while playing as Support those will also count towards
           the assignment to unlock the AWS light machinegun in the same DLC.)
           You can also attach SLAM's to enemy boats - they detonate when the
           vehicle starts to move (or when shot with a heavy pistol).

           The Javelin missile-launcher is a great tool to use against boats
           where you will often have a clear line of sight across open waters
           and your target will be bobbing on the waves - it can lock onto an
           enemy vehicle at ranges of up to 350 metres. It becomes even more
           potent if you work in unison with a Recon player using the SOFLAM or
           PLD (laser designators) - you get a quicker lock and I think it also
           improves the range and damage (plus you can target aircraft too).

           The Second Fall Patch applied the angle damage modifier from tanks to
           the attack boats too. If your missile hits a boat perpendicularly you
           get a x1.45 modifier but a glancing blow gets a x0.9 modifier.

  Summary: The SR2 has a high fire-rate like the MP7, P90 and JS2 but it also
           has a higher maximum damage giving it a superior damage per second
           although it's beaten by the AS Val and CZ3A1 in this category and it
           can no longer match the four-hit kill of the Val.

           The SR2 has less vertical recoil than some of the slower PDW's like
           the MPX and Mx4 but it also has large horizontal recoil so you may
           struggle at longer ranges. The compensator attachment would help with
           that but you may prefer to use the suppressor for short-range stealth
           (although that will further reduce the SR2's muzzle velocity which is
           already quite slow).

           The CZ3A1 has the same 30+1 ammo capacity - useful but smaller than
           the MP7 and P90 - but much faster reloads than the SR2.

  Patched: The max damage was reduced from 26 to 25 in the Fall Patch. While the
           SR2 retained the potential for a four-hit kill in close quarters,
           this applied only to the first 10 metres and the damage multiplier
           for shots against the ARMOR spec or to the lower torso and legs cut
           it to a five-hit kill.

           While the P90 and JS2 PDW's both saw a buff to their spread increase
           per shot (SIPS) stat in the Fall Patch, for the SR2 this value was
           increased, giving less accuracy in automatic fire.

           In the Spring Patch the typical changes to damage and drop-offs were
           applied; this included a reduction to the max damage (to 23.5) so the
           SR2 lost its four-hit kill, also it now gives the same minimum damage
           as the MPX and all the 9mm PDW's. Small increases were applied to the
           up, left and right recoil but the muzzle velocity was increased too.

   Trivia: The SR2 "Veresk" (Russian for "heather") is a compact Russian SMG
           that entered production in 1999. Like the SR1 pistol, it fires the
           armour-piercing 9x21mm ammunition. Unusually for a submachinegun it
           uses a gas-operated mechanism like an assault rifle.

           The version in the game appears to be the SR2M model which has a
           folding foregrip with a front lip that protects the shooter's hand
           from muzzle flash. It also has a remodelled folding shoulder-stock
           which can be folded onto the top even when a red-dot sight is fitted.

o MPX

     Ammo: .40 S&W   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 850 RPM   Reload: 2.10 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Not the Weakest Link' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Dragon's Teeth DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Play on any Dragon's Teeth map to activate assignment
           o Get two PDW Ribbons (get six kills with PDW's in a match for each)
           o Link ten points in Chainlink mode
           o Receive ten Squad Order Followed bonuses

           Links are formed in Chainlink mode by capturing a flag when your team
           already holds one or both adjacent flags.

           The squad leader - the player marked with a star on the squad list -
           can mark an objective (e.g. a flag or M-Com) for their squad. This is
           done simply by aiming at the objective marker and pressing the spot
           button (with the default L2 ADS and R2 fire this will be R1). When an
           objective has been successfully tagged it will have green markers on
           it. Now when another member of the squad completes the order, for
           example capturing a Conquest flag, both the squad leader and the
           squad member will receive one Squad Order Followed bonus.

  Summary: The MPX fires the same .40" S&W round as the CZ75 pistol (see below)
           which here does a maximum damage of 24.5 - better than most PDW's but
           not quite sufficient for a four-hit kill. Instead it gives a five-hit
           kill all the way out to 28 metres. The higher damage values make it
           slightly more viable at longer ranges than some of the PDW's.

           It also gives an 850 RPM fire-rate so it has a nice damage per second
           although not as high as the CZ3A1, SR2 or the mighty AS Val elsewhere
           in the PDW category. The size of its magazines was increased to 30
           (matching the CZ3A1, SR2 and post-patch JS2) and you can swap these
           very quickly thanks to the short reload times.

           Recoil values are fairly typical for a high fire-rate PDW.

  Patched: The max damage was reduced from 27 to 26 in the Fall Patch. While the
           MPX retained the potential for a four-hit kill in close quarters,
           this now applied only to the first 15 metres.

           In addition to generic rebalances to the suppressed muzzle velocity
           and aimed moving accuracy, the horizontal recoil was increased in the
           Fall Patch so a compensator attachment could be beneficial.

           In the Spring Patch eight months later the maximum damage for the MPX
           was reduced to 24.5 so it lost its four-hit kill. Its damage drop-off
           end distance was not reduced since it was already 50 metres which is
           the standard value applied to most PDW's now.

           By way of compensation the magazine size was increased from 25 to 30
           (which is authentic to the real weapon), the horizontal recoil was
           reduced and the long reload shortened, but there was also an increase
           to the first-shot recoil multiplier.

   Trivia: First announced in 2013, the SIG MPX submachinegun was designed as a
           modern alternative to the classic H&K MP5. The overall configuration
           is quite similar to the MP5 but the MPX also copies elements from the
           AR15 platform (controls, rear charging handle and an unnecessarily
           large magazine well) so it will be familiar to M16/M4 users.

           SIG themselves describe it as "the next generation of submachinegun".
           The modular design allows the user to switch the barrel, calibre and
           shoulder-stock configuration in the field. The weapon can be easily
           converted between 9mm, .357 SIG or .40 S&W and it can be equipped
           with telescopic or folding stocks or used without a stock. It can
           even be fitted with SIG's SB15 stabilizing brace which allows the MPX
           to be used one-handed.

           See the MPX on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/yeOBTCC9kl8

           The current variants are the standard MPX with an 8" barrel, the
           compact MPX-K with a 4.5" barrel, the MPX-P pistol with a 6.5" barrel
           and no stock, the suppressed MPX-SD and the MPX-C carbine which is
           semi-auto and has a permanent 9.5" muzzle brake (baffle stack) added
           to give an overall 16" barrel length to comply with US gun laws.

           In 2015 SIG launched the modular MCX carbine. It's similar in looks
           to the MPX but it fires 5.56mm by default and can be converted to use
           .300 Blackout or Soviet 7.62x39mm. It has a long Picatinny scope rail
           and a choice of 9" or 16" barrels and various buttstocks. It can be
           fitted with either a long or short handguard with KeyMod attachment
           slots or an enlarged version to fit an integral suppressor.

           See the MCX on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/zmyluo3aT0Y

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03c | Light Machineguns                                         s03c |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

The LMG's can only be equipped when using the Support class (although the mighty
M60-ULT "Battle Pickup" can be used by any class).

The portable machineguns are designed to provide supportive and suppressive fire
within an infantry unit. In general terms there are three types in the game:

- heavy versions of assault rifles usually with larger mags
- belt-fed Squad Automatic Weapons firing an intermediate load (e.g. 5.56mm)
- belt-fed Medium Machineguns firing a 7.62mm rifle load

Initially only the U100 and L86A2 are available. The M249 can be unlocked in the
single-player campaign and a further four LMG's can be earned by completing
assignments (one in the base game and three in DLC). The others are unlocked by
earning XP using whichever LMG's you have available.

The damage profiles in this category have the same max/min damage as the assault
rifles using the same intermediate and heavy loads but the damage drop-off end
distance is a little longer here.

                      |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
           Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
    ==================+========+==============+========+===================
                      |  41.0  |              |  23.6  | M60-ULT
       7.62x51mm NATO |--------|              |--------|-------------------
                      |        |              |        | M240B and M60E4
    ------------------|  33.0  |              |  21.6  |-------------------
          7.62x54mm R |        |              |        | PKP Pecheneg only
    ------------------+--------|   8m to 65m  |--------+-------------------
         7.62x39mm WP |  30.0  |              |  20.0  | RPK only
    ------------------+--------|              |--------+-------------------
       5.56x45mm NATO |        |              |        |
         5.45x39mm WP |  24.5  |              |  18.0  | everything else
     5.8x42mm Chinese |        |              |        |

Patched: In the Fall Patch the maximum damage for all LMG's was reduced by 1.
         The heavy 7.62mm models did not receive the same nerf to their minimum
         damage as the assault rifles and carbines so they remained capable of
         giving a four-hit kill at all ranges.

         In the Spring Patch the max damage for the intermediate calibres was
         increased from 24.0 to 24.5 (as with the assault rifles). For the
         existing 7.62mm LMG's the min damage was nerfed from 25.0 to 21.6 (now
         a five-hit kill) and the damage drop-off end distance was reduced from
         75 metres down to 65 metres.

         Additionally the drop-off end distance for the AWS was extended from
         55 metres to 65 metres so all LMG's now have the same drop-off range.

         The RPK was changed to 7.62x39mm calibre and a new damage model was
         introduced for it with damage figures mid-way between the other two.

In BF3 the light machineguns had inferior aimed accuracy in standing or crouched
stances, encouraging you to go prone for greater precision, but now in BF4 all
guns have the same ADS accuracy in all stances and generally for LMG's this is
pretty decent now, with the lighter guns even matching a typical assault rifle.
The hipfire and moving accuracy are quite poor however so wherever possible you
will want to stop and aim before firing.

Patched: In the Fall Patch the aimed moving accuracy stats for all magazine-fed
         LMG's (the AWS, QBB95-1, both RPK's and U100 Mk 5) and the belt-fed
         LSAT were buffed. This allows more accurate fire while strafing.

         The LMG's previously had low values for first-shot recoil multipliers,
         much lower than in BF4. Some of the heaviest actually had values less
         than x1.0 so they experienced less recoil after the first shot. In the
         Spring Patch significant increases were applied to the multipliers for
         all LMG's apart from the U100 and RPK12 and these are detailed below.
         (however the values are still lower now than those from BF3)

         Big changes were also made to the maximum aimed spread. Previously this
         was set to 1.5 for all LMG's but in the Spring Patch new values were
         assigned according to the weapon type. Your spread with the machineguns
         will now be capped at these higher values during sustained fire.

         o 1.8 for light LMG's with <100 rounds (RPK12, RPK, QBB95-1 and U100)
         o 2.0 for light LMG's with 100 rounds (AWS and LSAT)
         o 2.2 for light LMG's with 200 rounds (Type 88, MG4 and M249)
         o 2.4 for heavy LMG's with 100 rounds (M240B, PKP and M60E4)

         Before the Spring Patch every LMG had a spread recovery of 15 but new
         values were specified in the patch, with the guns that shoot faster or
         do more damage getting the worst values. The M240B is the fastest of
         the 7.62mm LMG's and got the biggest nerf (8.3) while the U100 is the
         slowest of the 5.56mm LMG's and got a bit of a buff (17.9).

The recoil and accuracy of the LMG's can be massively improved by using a bipod
attachment (see Section 04d). Every LMG has the bipod unlocked by default.

o U100 Mk 5

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 590 RPM   Reload: 2.75 secs

  Unlocks: available at start

  Summary: The U100 always performed like a heavy assault rifle with a larger
           magazine but since the Spring Patch it's now virtually identical to a
           low fire-rate assault rifle like the AK12.

           It has the same max/min damage (but a slightly longer drop-off end),
           similar accuracy stats and now the same magazine size too! It's got
           very low vertical recoil and recoil multiplier, virtually no sideways
           recoil post-patch and high muzzle velocity which all make it very
           capable at longer ranges.

           However that slow rate of fire (the slowest of any automatic weapon
           in the base game) and smaller magazine make it much less effective in
           close quarters. Also its reload times are good for an LMG but slow
           when compared to the assault rifles.

           To give you a helping hand when you're starting out the U100 comes
           with the first three attachments - the Chinese holo sight, magnifier
           and muzzle brake (plus the default bipod) - already unlocked.

  Patched: The U100 got a few changes in the Spring Patch. Its magazine size was
           cut (from 45 to 30), its horizontal recoil was halved, its vertical
           recoil was reduced by a fifth, its hipfire accuracy was buffed in all
           stances and its muzzle velocity was increased.

           It now has the highest muzzle velocity in the whole game (aside from
           the railgun pickup) with a - theoretical - maximum range of just over
           a kilometre! In practice you might struggle at that range though. :)

   Trivia: The Ultimax 100 is manufactured by ST Kinetics of Singapore who also
           make a range of military vehicles, artillery pieces and other guns
           including the SAR21 assault rifle (see above). The design team was
           guided by Jim Sullivan who previously worked on the AR18 and M16. It
           was adopted as a squad support weapon for Singaporean forces in 1982.

           The Mark 4 design was created for entry into the United States Marine
           Corps competition to find a new Infantry Automatic Rifle in 2007. It
           featured standard Picatinny accessory rails and could accept standard
           NATO (STANAG) mags. (The competition was won by the heavy version
           of the HK416 which was adopted as the M27 IAR as featured in BF3.)

           The latest model featured here is the Mark 5 which retains the rails
           and mag well of the Mark 4 and also has a slimline folding stock.

           The weapon is also playable in Far Cry 3 and 4.

o L86A2

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 2.60 secs

  Unlocks: available by default (added in Spring Patch on 26 May 2015)

  Summary: Better late than never, the L86 returned from BF3 a year and a half
           after BF4's launch. Following the example of the patched U100 it now
           has a magazine size of 30 too where previously it had 45. It's also
           seen its fire-rate drop from 750 RPM in BF3 to 700 RPM.

           Performance is similar to the U100 but it fires faster and has more
           recoil. It has a bullpup configuration so it gets a small penalty to
           stationary aimed accuracy and bonuses to moving/hipfire spread.

  Patched: The horizontal recoil was reduced by 14% in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: The L86 is the Light Support Weapon (LSW) member of the SA80 family,
           used alongside the L85 (see above) in the British Army. The longer
           barrel gives a greater effective range and in fact the weapon is so
           accurate that it was more commonly used in a marksman role (prior to
           the adoption of the 7.62mm L129A1 semi-auto sniper in 2010).

           Squad support and suppressive fire will usually be provided now by
           the belt-fed L110 which is the British designation for the FN Minimi,
           also used in the US forces as the M249 (see below).

           Like the L85 assault rifle, the L86 underwent an upgrade process at
           H&K and the result is the A2 version that appears in the game.

o M249

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 200   Fire-rate: 800 RPM   Reload: 6.20 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Final Duty' assignment (single-player)

           In the final mission (Suez) give the C4 to Irish and detonate it.

  Summary: If you work through the multiplayer gun unlocks in the single-player
           campaign this will be your first belt-fed machinegun* and that belt
           now holds a very handy 200 rounds by default (compared to the default
           100 in BF3 where you had to take the extended mags option if you
           wanted more). You can hold down the trigger and fire continuously on
           automatic for a whole fifteen seconds if you really want to!

           The M249 can be compared to the other three machineguns that use an
           intermediate calibre fed from a belt, i.e. the LSAT, Type 88 and the
           MG4. The M249 ties with the MG4 for the highest rate of fire (at 800
           RPM) and the largest belt size but those same two guns also have the
           higher recoil.

           The M249 has an average reload time** and accuracy figures.

           *With this or any other belt-fed LMG you'll have a visual indication
           when you're down to the last few rounds - you'll see the end of the
           ammo belt disappearing into the weapon.

           **If necessary you can cancel the long reload sequence on a belt-fed
           LMG by simply switching to a pistol/gadget and then switching back to
           your primary. If you still had some rounds left before you started
           the reload these will be available to use.

  Patched: The left recoil was reduced and the first-shot recoil multiplier was
           nerfed from x1.0 to x1.5 in the Spring Patch.

   Trivia: The M249, previously known as the M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon),
           is the US version of the Minimi designed by FN of Belgium and first
           manufactured in the early 80's.

           It finally gave an alternative to the iconic M60 (see below) which
           had been in US service since the late 50's. It's lighter and more
           portable plus you have the convenience of it using the 5.56mm round
           so you can carry more ammo and share supplies with M16/M4 users.

           See the M249 on Triggers: http://youtu.be/KuZnUqgwISY

           BF4's M249 is now modelled on the shortened lightweight Paratrooper
           variant with the Product Improvement Package including a telescoping
           buttstock and multiple accessory rails. Other lighterweight models
           include the US special forces Mk 46 (5.56mm) and Mk 48 (7.62mm).

           See the Mk 46 Mod 1 on IV8888: https://youtu.be/wWo-1-SBIM0

           The Minimi appears in Payday 2 as the "KSP" (the Swedish military
           designation for the weapon is Ksp 90).

o Type 88 LMG

     Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 200   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 7.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with LMG's

  Summary: The Type 88 now has the same 200-round belt size as the M249 but its
           reload is almost a second slower. It's also had a slight buff to its
           fire-rate since BF3 (from 650 to 700 RPM) - that still puts it slower
           than the M249 but it gets less overall recoil in return.

  Patched: The horizontal recoil was reduced by around 15% in the Fall Patch.

           The muzzle drift was reduced further in the Spring Patch. Also the
           first-shot recoil multiplier was nerfed from x1.0 to x1.35, the
           muzzle velocity was increased and the reload time extended slightly.

   Trivia: Formally designated the QJY88 in China where it originates, the Type
           88 is believed to have entered service about ten years ago. It uses a
           heavier version of the new Chinese 5.8mm cartridge that was specially
           developed for use in squad automatic weapons and sniper rifles.

o LSAT

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 100   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 5.90 secs

  Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with LMG's

  Summary: The LSAT is still rockin' the 650 RPM fire-rate and 100-round belt of
           BF3 which makes it distinctly outgunned by its peers but it has a
           good reload time and the most manageable recoil of the group with
           very low horizontal recoil since the Spring Patch.

           It also has slightly less spread in hipfire which is consistent with
           the BF3 buff to "highlight the weapon's role as a highly mobile LMG".

  Patched: In the Fall Patch the LSAT received the same buff to aimed moving
           accuracy as the magazine-fed LMG's. The aimed stationary accuracy was
           also standardized across all stances.

           The horizontal recoil was halved in the Spring Patch but at the same
           time the first-shot recoil multiplier was nerfed from x1.0 to x1.25
           and the vertical recoil was increased. Additionally a small tweak was
           applied to the spread increase per shot.

   Trivia: This design is a prototype for the US Army's Lightweight Small Arms
           Technologies programme which aims to find a lighter alternative to
           current ammunition used in light machinegun systems.

           The project is considering both Case Telescoped (CT) rounds where the
           case is made of plastic and Caseless (CL) rounds where each bullet is
           embedded within a block of solid propellant. However in BF4 it has
           the same damage profile as conventional intermediate-calibre LMG's.

o PKP Pecheneg

     Ammo: 7.62x54mm R   Capacity: 100   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 5.50 secs

  Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with LMG's

  Summary: The PKP is the first of three heavy-hitter LMG's firing the larger
           7.62mm rounds that give a potential four-hit kill all the way out to
           48 metres (and a five-hit kill beyond that since the Spring Patch).

           It occupies the middle ground between the M240B and the M60E4 (from
           the Second Assault DLC) with average rate of fire and recoil, however
           its reload time is substantially quicker than either of those.

           For effective mobile use in close-quarters you'll want to reduce the
           recoil as much as possible with the muzzle brake or compensator and
           probably the ergo or vertical grip to improve the accuracy while
           moving. You can also add a laser sight for the hipfire buff and a
           suitable short-range sight like the Kobra.

  Patched: The vertical and horizontal recoil were reduced in the Spring Patch
           but the recoil multiplier was also nerfed from x0.65 to x1.25. Also
           the hipfire accuracy was reduced but only in the crouch and prone
           stances (other LMG hipfire changes affected all three stances) and
           the spread increase per shot was reduced.

   Trivia: The PKP is a Russian machinegun derived from the 1969 PKM design; it
           entered service in 1999. The PKP was designed to provide sustained
           suppressive fire to give support at a squad level - the air cooling
           eliminates the need for a quick-change barrel and it also comes with
           a fixed bipod as standard.

           It shares its "Pecheneg" name with a nomadic tribe of Central Asia.

o QBB95-1

     Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 75+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 4.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with LMG's

  Summary: The QBB95 has a distinctive bullpup design so it has better accuracy
           in hipfire and while moving but slightly more spread in aimed fire
           and a slower reload on its large drum magazine which now holds 75
           rounds putting it mid-way between the RPK12 and AWS/LSAT.

           Compared to those other LMG's it has an average rate of fire and good
           recoil although the recoil multiplier is quite large now.

  Patched: The QBB got a reduction to its magazine size in the Spring Patch but
           it only lost five rounds and it now has the same 75-round magazines
           that it had back in BF3.

           The recoil multiplier was also nerfed from x1.6 to x1.85, the muzzle
           velocity was increased slightly and the hipfire accuracy was greatly
           improved. Additionally tiny reductions were applied to the horizontal
           recoil and the spread increase per shot (SIPS).

   Trivia: The Chinese QBB95 is the Light Support Weapon variant of the QBZ95
           assault rifle. Both versions in BF4 have the -1 suffix indicating the
           improved models that entered service around 2010-11.

o M240B

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 100   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 6.20 secs

  Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with LMG's

  Summary: The M240 fires faster than the PKP and M60 so of course it also has
           more recoil - it has a larger first-shot recoil multiplier than those
           two and more vertical and horizontal recoil than any other LMG.

           It's easier to counteract the effect of vertical recoil so - unless
           you're only using the gun with the bipod deployed - you should think
           about using the compensator to reduce the horizontal recoil.

           The reload time is over 1.5 seconds faster than the M60's but it's
           still not as quick as the PKP.

  Patched: In the Spring Patch the M240 got a big nerf to its first-shot recoil
           multiplier (from x0.5 to x1.4) but it also saw good improvements to
           its vertical and horizontal recoil, although they're still very high.

           There was also a reduction to the spread increase per shot.

           Previously the M240 had been incorrectly given the ability to equip
           the 2x magnifier together with either a medium-range or infra-red
           scope. This error was rectified in the Second Fall Patch.

   Trivia: The M240B (or "M2-40 Bravo") is the US designation for the MAG which
           was developed - like the M249 - by FN of Belgium. The FN MAG entered
           production in 1958 but wasn't adopted by the US until the late 70's.
           FN report that the MAG is used in over ninety countries and that over
           200,000 units have been made.

           In US service the M240 was originally mounted to vehicles. The M240B
           version was subsequently developed for infantry use.

           The FN MAG is also used by the British Army as the L7 GPMG (General
           Purpose Machine Gun), nicknamed the "Gimpy".

           See the M240B on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/UcN7w_gh7uY

o MG4

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 200   Fire-rate: 800 RPM   Reload: 6.20 secs

  Unlocks: score 48,000 pts with LMG's

  Summary: The MG4 matches the high fire-rate of the M249.* Overall the MG4's
           performance is very similar to the M249's, even down to the muzzle
           velocity and reload times. However the MG4 has more vertical recoil
           and pulls to the right while the M249 has slightly more horizontal
           recoil and pulls to the left!

           As is common with LMG's the body of the weapon occupies a lot of the
           screen when you ADS but at least with iron sights it has a notably
           larger rear aperture giving better visibility around your target.

           *Sadly it cannot compete with the ferocious 1,000 RPM fire-rate of
           its predecessor the MG3 "buzz-saw" in BFBC2!

  Patched: Aside from the generic LMG rebalances in the Spring Patch (listed in
           the LMG intro above) the MG4 only got a couple of adjustments to its
           recoil - the first-shot recoil multiplier was nerfed from x1.0 to
           x1.85 and the vertical recoil got a small reduction.

   Trivia: The MG4 was designed by H&K of Germany to create a lightweight and
           compact machinegun with a high fire-rate and manageable recoil which
           would give an alternative to the Belgian FN Minimi (M249 SAW). It
           entered production in 2001 and is replacing the 7.62mm MG3 in a squad
           support role in the German army.

           The H&K website also lists the MG5 which is similar to the MG4 but
           with a longer barrel and a few other design tweaks; most importantly
           it's chambered for 7.62mm making it a true successor to the MG3.

o RPK12

     Ammo: 5.45x39mm   Capacity: 60+1   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 2.40 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Support Expert' assignment (multiplayer)

           First complete 'Support Basic' to unlock 'Support Veteran'.

           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 7 kills with light machineguns
           o Get 16 ammo resupplies with ammo pack / ammo box

           Next complete 'Support Veteran' to unlock 'Support Expert'.

           o Support Basic required
           o Get 8 kills with light machineguns
           o Get 17 ammo resupplies

           Finally complete 'Support Expert'.

           o Support Veteran required
           o Get 50 Ammo Ribbons (get 8 ammo resupplies for each)
           o Get 200 kills with light machineguns
           o Get 10 Light Machinegun Ribbons (get 6 LMG kills for each)

           Just keep using the Support kit's LMG's and drop ammo for your team.

  Summary: With their current stats the RPK12 now compares quite favourably to
           its little brother the AK12 assault rifle. The LMG variant has less
           recoil, the same stationary aimed accuracy, similar reload times and
           twice the magazine capacity! It's just a little slower and has more
           hipfire/moving spread.

           Compared to the post-patch U100 which fires around the same speed,
           the RPK12 reloads quicker and has slightly more recoil, but again it
           has twice as many rounds in the mag.

  Patched: In addition to some of the general balances in the Fall Patch, the
           RPK12 also got a small increase to its muzzle velocity.

           In the Spring Patch the RPK12 actually got a small buff to its recoil
           multiplier (from x1.6 to x1.35). Additionally the recoil was reduced
           slightly, the long reload time was shortened and the hipfire spread
           was significantly improved.

           Having the low damage model and slow rate of fire, the change made to
           its spread recovery was a buff too (increased from 15 to 17.3).

   Trivia: The RPK12 light machinegun is a planned heavy version of the AK12
           assault rifle (see above).

           It follows the long tradition of the RPK, RPK74 and RPK74M light
           machineguns (all playable in previous Battlefield games) which were
           based on the AKM, AK74 and AK74M assault rifles respectively.

           You would expect this new model to have similar modifications for the
           LMG role including a heavier longer barrel, extended magazines and a
           permanent bipod.

o RPK

     Ammo: 7.62x39mm   Capacity: 40+1   Fire-rate: 600 RPM   Reload: 3.15 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Powder Keg' assignment (multiplayer)

           o China Rising DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 1 kill with the M224 mortar
           o Get 3 Light Machinegun Ribbons (get 6 LMG kills for each)

           You'll need to earn 76,000 points with the Support kit in order to
           unlock the M224 mortar (or pick up a kit that has it equipped). The
           mortar is now remote-controlled so you can set it up somewhere and
           use it from another location.

           You'll only be able to see enemies on the mortar map if they've been
           spotted by team-mates so this will be easier when your team has a
           commander using Scan UAV or a Recon operating a MAV. You should aim
           to get a direct hit on a stationary enemy.

           Rush mode would be good for this as you'll have enemies camping on
           both sides. The dunes of the first Rush base on the Silk Road map (in
           the China Rising DLC) are always handy for this sort of thing.

           After several rebalances to prevent abuse, the mortar now becomes
           available 15 secs after spawning and replenishes after 60 secs.

  Summary: The RPK is another slow mag-fed LMG but it's rendered unique by the
           new damage model it received in the Spring Patch. It now does 30 max
           damage which gives a four-hit kill out to 36 metres and 20 min damage
           for a five-hit kill at range (other magazine LMG's require one extra
           bullet to kill at both short and long ranges). In Hardcore mode where
           players have 60 health it's even capable of a two-hit kill at very
           short ranges! (less than 9 metres)

           Thanks to its heavy wooden frame it has a low first-shot recoil
           multiplier but otherwise it understandably has higher recoil than the
           U100, L86, RPK12 and QBB (it's closer to that of the 100-round AWS).
           It also has slower reload times.

           Pre-patch it was only worth using if you wanted to go "old skool" and
           rock that classic Kalashnikov pattern but now it's a more interesting
           proposition with a shorter time-to-kill in theory than the Ace 23.

  Patched: The most significant change in the Fall Patch was the reduction of
           the vertical recoil by around 22% (giving it the lowest muzzle
           rise of all the LMG's until the Spring Patch hit).

           Additionally the short and long reloads were reduced by 0.3 seconds
           (but both are still slow) and the spread increase per shot (SIPS) was
           corrected to match the fire-rate. (600/7700 = 0.078)

           The RPK was completely overhauled in the Spring Patch. It even had
           its ammunition type changed from 5.45x39mm to 7.62x39mm and a whole
           new damage model was introduced. Also the magazine size was cut from
           45 to 40 rounds which is authentic to one of the real magazine sizes.

           It got a good buff to hipfire accuracy and the short reload time was
           reduced. However it also received increases to its vertical and left
           recoil and to its spread increase per shot.

           Additionally the first-shot recoil multiplier was nerfed from x0.75
           to x1.25 (previously the RPK was the only one of the lighter LMG's
           with a recoil multiplier of less than 1.0).

           The weapon was added to the game in December 2013 as the "RPK74M" but
           following the change of ammo type this name was no longer authentic
           and the gun was renamed the "RPK" in the Summer Patch (the RPK74M
           doesn't use the 7.62mm Soviet load but the original 1961 RPK did). A
           similar name change was applied to the L115 (L96A1) sniper rifle.

   Trivia: The original RPK was developed in the 60's from the AK47 design and
           fired the Soviet 7.62x39mm round.

           The RPK74 followed in 1974 at the same time as the AK74 assault rifle
           and using the same intermediate 5.45mm ammunition.

           The current model is the RPK74M which has a folding polymer stock and
           a side-rail for fitting a scope. This will probably be superseded by
           a derivative of the AK12, possibly designated the RPK12 (see above).

o M60E4

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 100   Fire-rate: 570 RPM   Reload: 7.80 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Dust Devil' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Second Assault DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 1 Anti-Vehicle Ribbon (destroy 2 vehicles in a match)
           o Destroy five vehicles on the Gulf of Oman map

           Gulf of Oman is one of the four "classic" maps featured in the Second
           Assault expansion (in fact it's the most classic because it first
           appeared in BF2 while the other three were new for BF3). You should
           find plenty of vehicles in the larger game modes like Conquest.

  Summary: The M60 fires the heavier 7.62mm load so it delivers the same high
           damage output as the PKP Pecheneg and M240B; it also has the same
           accuracy figures and 100-round belt as those two guns.

           It has a very slow reload time - even by belt-fed LMG standards - and
           its rate of fire is a little slower than the PKP and M240 (it's now
           the slowest automatic weapon in the whole game). However it does
           experience slightly less recoil overall than those two guns (but
           still with more horizontal recoil than it had in BF3 previously).

  Patched: The muzzle velocity was cut from 610 m/s to 560 m/s in the 6 March
           2014 patch and then buffed back up to 600 m/s in the Fall Patch.

           Most notably in the Spring Patch the hipfire accuracy was reduced -
           this is bad news for all you Rambo fans! Also the spread increase per
           shot was decreased.

           The "Pig" also got good buffs to its vertical and horizontal recoil
           but the recoil recovery rate was reduced slightly and the first-shot
           recoil multiplier was nerfed from x0.5 to x1.0. The M60 now has the
           lowest recoil multiplier in the LMG category.

   Trivia: The M60 was designed for US service and was adopted in 1957. It was
           used extensively during the Vietnam War, both by infantry and mounted
           to a wide range of vehicles. Since the 1980's it has gradually been
           superseded by the M249 and M240 (see above) in various units/roles.

           See the M60 on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/X517Utblb00

           The E4 variant has an improved feed system for greater reliability
           and multiple accessory rails allowing scopes, foregrips, etc, to be
           added. This version dates back to the 90's when it was submitted to
           US Army trials to find a replacement for the previous variants. The
           M60E4 was beaten by the M240E4 (which became designated the M240B),
           however it was adopted by the US Navy - as the Mk 43 Mod 0 - for use
           by Navy SEAL teams.

           The latest model manufactured by US Ordnance is the M60E6 which has
           been entered into Danish military trials to find a new LMG.

           See the M60E6 Rambo-style on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/PjWm6V99Hi4

o AWS

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 100+1   Fire-rate: 780 RPM   Reload: 3.35 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Swiss Cheese' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Naval Strike DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 3 Light Machinegun Ribbons (get 6 LMG kills for each)
           o Destroy 3 vehicles playing as the Support class

           The Support class has access to a few explosive gadgets with the XM25
           Airburst launcher, remote-controlled mortar and - if you managed to
           unlock it - the UCAV; you could also use the M82 or AMR2 (the anti-
           materiel rifle Battle Pickups) against light vehicles and aircraft.

           However C4 is a clear winner. What could be more convenient and manly
           than planting explosives directly onto an enemy vehicle? You might
           find it easier to do this against enemy tanks in Hardcore mode where
           there's no minimap, no spotting and no external view in vehicles. If
           you have the patience you can also plant C4 traps for enemy vehicles.

  Summary: The AWS uses a large double-drum magazine like the MG36 in BFBC2, BF3
           and Hardline. This grants it a 100-round ammo capacity (matching the
           belt-fed LSAT) combined with faster reload times (quicker than the
           QBB with its bullpup format and smaller mags).

           Compared to the popular M249/MG4 it has almost the same rate of fire,
           slightly better recoil and hipfire, half the ammo count but a much
           faster reload.

           Given the design's origins (see below) it's perhaps no surprise that
           the iron sights resemble those of the M16A4 - except they're massive
           and seem to fill half your screen. You'll breathe a sigh of relief
           after you get your tenth kill and unlock the Holo sight for it!

           Most of the weapon stays black when you change the paint. Only the
           shoulder stock and pistol grip take the new paint colour.

  Patched: The AWS's horizontal recoil was increased in a server-side patch on
           18 March 2014 (the week before the Naval Strike DLC was released) to
           bring it in line with the other high fire-rate LMG's.

           In the Fall Patch the spread increase per shot (SIPS) was corrected
           (nerfed) to match the fire-rate. (780/7700 = 0.101) 

           The damage drop-off end distance was extended to 65 metres in the
           Spring Patch so it now matches the other LMG's (where previously it
           had the 5.56mm assault rifle's damage model with shorter drop-off).

           The drum magazine capacity was adjusted from 99 to an authentic 100
           and the reload times were shortened. The recoil multiplier was nerfed
           from x1.0 to x1.4, the right recoil increased slightly, the recoil
           recovery buffed and the stationary aimed accuracy improved.

   Trivia: The AWS is the Shrike 5.56 "Advanced Weapon System" made by ARES
           Defense Systems of Melbourne, Florida. Designed with the objective of
           combining the firepower of a machinegun with the lighter weight of an
           assault rifle, it entered production in 2002.

           The weapon is based heavily on the M16/M4 pattern but with an upper
           receiver capable of taking a belt feed. It can be used with an ammo
           belt in a pouch or box but it can also accept standard 30-round M16
           mags or the Beta C-Mag 100-round drums (as modelled in the game).

           The ARES Shrike previously appeared in GRAW2 as the "AS56 SAW".

o M60-ULT

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 150   Fire-rate: 570 RPM   Reload: 7.80 secs

  Unlocks: N/A (Battle Pickup only)

           Like the M82A3, AMR2 and Rorsch Mk 1 sniper rifles (see Section 03d)
           the M60-ULT variant is only available as a Battle Pickup. Also it can
           only be found on the Operation Outbreak jungle map which was added to
           the game in the free Community Operations DLC in October 2015.

           Specifically it spawns at the Huey helicopter crash site on a small
           hill 115 metres due south of the temple ("B" flag in Conquest Large,
           "A" flag in Conquest Small or the north "C" point in Obliteration),
           marked with the usual "star suitcase" minimap icon if it's available.
           Instead of appearing on a weapon case like the other Battle Pickups
           it actually spawns contextually as one of the door-mounted gunner
           weapons on the chopper itself.

  Summary: The M60-ULT has several stats in common with the M60E4 (see above) -
           it has the same fire-rate, muzzle velocity and recoil stats (plus the
           same nominal ADS spread and reload times).

           However it uses special incendiary ammo which gives it a high maximum
           damage of 41 (enough for a three-hit kill out to 33 metres) and also
           slightly higher minimum damage. Additionally each shot does splash
           damage like the shotgun frag rounds (see Section 03g). It's fed from
           a longer 150-round belt but it comes with no reserve ammo and cannot
           be resupplied from an ammo crate (so it cannot be reloaded).

           Due to the weapon's weight it cannot be used in ADS - you're forced
           to go "full Rambo" and always use it in hipfire! Fortunately DICE
           gave the ULT exceptional hipfire stats, similar to the PDW's except
           the spread increase per shot is 90% less than normal. They also gave
           it exceptional muzzle flash which you can admire fully in hipfire!

   Trivia: The M60-ULT uses the same basic weapon model as the M60E4 above but
           with two small folding shields at the front and no rear sight; also
           it has the Bad Company grenade logo on the shields and ammo box. :)

           The UH1 Huey helicopter was the workhorse of the US Army in Vietnam,
           being used for troop and cargo transportation, medical evacuation,
           search & rescue, armed escorts and as a gunship for ground assault.
           The earliest armed models had the .30-calibre M1919A4 machinegun but
           this was soon superseded by the M60 which became the standard weapon
           for Huey door-gunners. Heavy gunship versions would also commonly
           have side-mounted weapon racks with rocket-launchers and paired M60C
           machineguns or a nose turret with a 40mm grenade-launcher.

           The Marine Corps' modern upgraded UH1Y "Venom" variant that features
           in BF4 would usually be armed with either 7.62mm M240D machineguns,
           .50 BMG machineguns or 7.62mm Gatling guns.

           The M60-ULT is required to trigger a movie-based easter egg on the
           Outbreak map. In Francis Ford Coppola's classic 1979 Vietnam film
           Apocalypse Now we see the American 1st Air Cavalry Division carrying
           surfboards on their Hueys and playing Wagner's Ride of the Valkyries
           from their choppers during an assault. On Operation Outbreak the US
           Huey Venom helicopter has authentic surfboards slung under the cabin
           and if you fly high over the back of the US deployment while carrying
           the M60 pickup weapon then the same music plays!

           I noticed that if the helicopter has a gunner then you'll also hear
           the Noob saying "[I'm] raining down the fiiiiire!" from one of my
           favourite episodes of Battlefield Friends. :)

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03d | Sniper Rifles                                             s03d |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

The sniper rifles can only be equipped when using the Recon class (although the
powerful M82A3, AMR2 and Rorsch Mk 1 "Battle Pickups" can be used by any class).

(The second major change to class weapons since BF3 (after the PDW/carbine swap)
is the revision to the Recon class. In BF3 the Recon kit had access to a range
of both bolt-action and semi-automatic sniper rifles but now in BF4 all "sniper
rifles" (in this section) - with the exception of the SR338 added by the Naval
Strike expansion - are bolt-action models and the semi-autos are moved to the
new designated marksman rifle (DMR) category which can be used by all kits.)

A bolt-action sniper rifle gives slow but very accurate fire over long ranges
and usually uses large-calibre rounds that deliver high damage.

Initially only the CS-LR4 is available. A further five sniper rifles can be
earned by completing assignments (one in the base game and four in DLC). The
others are unlocked by earning XP using whichever snipers you have available
(including the M82A3, AMR2 and Rorsch pickups).

If you want to work through the gun and attachment unlocks a little quicker you
might like to try playing modes like TDM on the Hardcore setting where you'll be
able to get one-hit kills on body-shots with pretty much any sniper rifle at
pretty much any range; for a more level playing-field use the Server Browser to
search for custom servers running sniper-only rules. You should also make good
use of XP boosts and double XP events (or preferably both in combination).

Patched: In order to compensate snipers for the lack of XP-scoring opportunities
         when sat on top of a distant mountain the game previously applied a
         marksman bonus equal to the distance in metres on any headshot kill at
         a range of 50 metres or more. This made it possible to score several
         hundred XP (or even a couple of thousand) from a single kill.

         However in the Second Fall Patch, as part of the "Teamplay Initiative",
         this bonus was reduced to a fixed 25 pts (although the distance to the
         target will still be shown in brackets on the player's score feed).

The good news if you don't like using bolt-action rifles is that you can get all
the Recon equipment without them - you can get kills using the all-kit weapons
(shotguns, DMR's and carbines) and get further points from objective play (i.e.
capturing flags in Conquest mode or arming/disarming M-Coms in Rush mode) while
playing as Recon. (You can now play the Recon class in BF4 like the Spec Ops
class from BF2 with carbines and C4.)

                                       ¯¯
All the bolt-action snipers give zero spread for stationary aimed fire giving
them perfect accuracy although bullet-drop will still affect long-range shots as
normal (see Section 02a). They also all have the same vertical recoil (1.0) and
no horizontal recoil (to a greater extent the recoil is irrelevant because the
weapon will reset by the time you're ready to take your second shot).

Patched: A change was made to sniper rifles in the 4 March 2014 patch so that
         the aimed accuracy value is applied sooner after aiming down sights,
         however there's still a brief delay so it's not possible to use quick-
         scoping techniques effectively in BF4.

         Additionally the spread increase per shot was reduced from 1.2 to zero
         for all unlockable bolt-action snipers. This means that they now retain
         their perfect aimed accuracy on follow-up shots.

         Generic changes were made to the recoil stats for all bolt-actions in
         the Spring Patch. The vertical recoil was increased from 0.25 to 1.0,
         the first-shot recoil multiplier reduced from 2 to 1 and the rate of
         recoil recovery was increased (from 6 to 12 for aimed fire) so they now
         experience twice the previous recoil but recover just as quickly.

When you're using a bolt-action rifle you'll need to chamber your next round
after each shot - either tap R2 (fire) again or temporarily release L2 (ADS). In
either case you will briefly come out of your aimed scope view. (This can be
avoided by equipping the straight-pull bolt attachment.)

Bullets fired from sniper rifles now leave a prominent "vapour trail" in the air
tracing their flight. This makes it easier for the shooter to trace the point
of impact but it also allows the enemy to locate the sniper.

                                       ¯¯
Here's a summary of the damage profiles of the sniper rifles:

                |  Max.  |     Damage     |  Min.  |
     Ammunition | Damage |    Drop-Off    | Damage | Weapons
================+========+================+========+============================
   (projectile) |        |                |        | Rorsch Mk 1 (Battle Pickup)
----------------|        |       no       |        |----------------------------
        .50 BMG |  110.0 |     damage     |  110.0 | M82A3 (Battle Pickup)
----------------|        |    drop-off    |        |----------------------------
     12.7x108mm |        |                |        | AMR2 (Battle Pickup)
----------------+--------+----------------+--------+----------------------------
        .408 CT |        |                |        | SRR61 only
----------------|  100.0 |  12.5 to 150m  |   59.0 |----------------------------
                |        |                |        | 338-Recon, M98B, GOL, L115
    .338 Magnum |--------+----------------+--------+----------------------------
                |   50.0 |  15.0 to 150m  |   38.0 | SR338 only (semi-auto)
----------------+--------+----------------+--------+----------------------------
 7.62x51mm NATO |        |                |        | M40A5, CS-LR4, JNG90, CS5
----------------+  100.0 |  12.5 to 100m  |   59.0 |----------------------------
    7.62x54mm R |        |                |        | SV98 only
----------------+--------+----------------+--------+----------------------------
       5.8x42mm |        | 12.5 to 147.8m |        | FY-JS only
----------------|  100.0 |----------------|   36.6 |----------------------------
 5.56x45mm NATO |        |  12.5 to 110m  |        | Scout Elite only

Here are a few notes about the sniper damage stats:

o The Battle Pickups all give a one-hit kill - on any body part - at any range.
  Even with the x0.93 multiplier for shots to the lower torso and legs, the M82,
  AMR2 and railgun still get the one-hit kill (110 x 0.93 > 100).

o With the max damage of 100 any bolt-action rifle will give a one-hit kill on
  the upper torso or arms at a range of less than 12.5 metres (unless the target
  is using the ARMOR spec which applies the x0.93 multiplier to those zones).

o All of the snipers can get a headshot kill at any range (59 x 2.35 > 100)
  except for the Scout Elite, FY-JS and SR338 where the min damage is too low.

o With the multiplier of x2.35 a sniper rifle needs to do 42.6 damage to get a
  headshot kill. The post-patch FY-JS can achieve this out to 135 metres.

      ((100 - 42.6) x (147.8 - 12.5) / (100 - 36.6)) + 12.5 = 135.0 metres

o The Scout Elite can give a one-hit headshot kill out to 100 metres.

       ((100 - 42.6) x (110 - 12.5) / (100 - 36.6)) + 12.5 = 100.8 metres

o Assuming it has the same x2.35 headshot multiplier as the other sniper rifles
  the semi-automatic SR338 can give a headshot kill at 98 metres.

        ((50 - 42.6) x (150 - 15.0) / (50 - 38.0)) + 15.0 = 98.3 metres

o In Hardcore mode every sniper gives a one-hit kill headshot at any range and
  even the Scout Elite can achieve a one-hit body-shot kill out to 74 metres.

                                       ¯¯
Naturally the sniper rifles are designed for use in long-range engagements with
high-magnification scopes (see Section 04a). They are the only category of guns
in the game that has access to the long-range scopes (6x, 7x, 8x, 20x and 40x).

Any scope with 6x magnification or higher will suffer from "sway" and "glint"
when you ADS - the weapon will wobble somewhat and the glint of sunlight on the
lens will be visible to any enemies in front of you. Consequently you may prefer
to use the 4x and 3.4x scopes on sniper rifles or even the holographics, red-dot
sights or irons when you operate at shorter ranges. With your motion sensors and
spawn beacon you can make yourself very useful staying close to the action.

You can negate sway by equipping and deploying the bipod attachment. Otherwise
you can tap or hold L3 ("steady scope" setting in options) to hold your breath
for 3-4 seconds. You can do this for twice as long with the HOLD BREATH spec
contained in the unlockable Sniper field upgrade path.

You might think that a suppressor would be a useful attachment for a stealthy
long-range sniping role but it will actually be a major hindrance. The subsonic
ammo will have a significantly slower muzzle velocity which will increase the
travel time for your shots making it harder to hit moving targets and increasing
the effect of bullet-drop under gravity. The reduction in sound will stop you
automatically appearing on enemy minimaps but at long ranges you would probably
be outside their map anyway. The only real benefit would be concealing your
muzzle flash but you can use the flash hider attachment for that instead.

o CS-LR4

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 40 RPM*   Reload: 2.60 secs

  Unlocks: available at start

  Summary: The various bolt-action sniper rifles have many stats in common. They
           all have the same ADS spread (zero), the same spread increase per
           shot (zero), the same recoil stats and the same maximum damage (100).
           The key differences lie in their damage models, muzzle velocities,
           rates of fire and magazine capacities.

           The CS-LR4 has the same shorter damage profile as the M40A5, JNG90,
           SV98 and CS5 with the damage dropping off to 59 at 100 metres. Within
           this group the CS-LR4 ties with the JNG for the highest bullet speed
           but it also has one of the smallest magazines and a slow fire-rate.

           To give you a helping hand when you're starting out the CS-LR4 comes
           with the first two attachments - the variable zoom (14x) and bipod 
           (plus the default 6x scope) - already unlocked and ready to equip.

           *If you take 60 (number of seconds in a minute) and divide it by the
           rate of fire (in rounds per minute) you get the time it will take you
           to chamber the next cartridge between each shot. For example with the
           CS-LR4 it's 60 / 40 = 1.5 seconds.

  Patched: The velocity was buffed from 500 to 630 m/s in the Fall Patch.

           In addition to the recoil changes, several sniper rifles saw further
           rebalances in the Spring Patch. The magazine size for the CS-LR4 was
           halved (and is now authentic to the real weapon) and the velocity was
           increased again from 630 to 670 m/s.

           In the Summer Patch the initial vertical velocity was adjusted to
           reduce the zero distance from 100 to 75 metres.

   Trivia: The CS/LR4 is a modern Chinese sniper rifle manufactured by Norinco
           for military and police use. Development began in 2008 and various
           versions were displayed at shows between 2010 and 2012.

           The rifle has two scope rails - the rear one is obviously used to
           mount an optical scope while the front one can be used to attach an
           image intensifier which lets you quickly convert the weapon for night
           ops without having to correct the zeroing. In BF4 the two rails are
           used to mount the front/rear iron sights if you remove your scope.

           Unusually for a Chinese weapon the CS/LR4 uses 7.62mm NATO rounds.
           The CS/LR3 fires 5.8mm (and appears in BF4 as the FY-JS) while the
           CS/LR5 uses 12.7mm (.50" equivalent).

o M40A5

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 51 RPM   Reload: 2.70 secs

  Unlocks: score 3,000 pts with sniper rifles

  Summary: The M40A5 has the second highest fire-rate of all the bolt-action
           snipers. However its muzzle velocity is very slow so bullet travel
           times will be a little longer and it will experience more drop. Also
           it holds only five rounds per magazine (but at least the reload times
           are pretty good).

  Patched: In the Spring Patch the M40 received the same changes as the CS-LR4 -
           the magazine capacity was reduced to five and the muzzle velocity was
           increased by 40 m/s.

   Trivia: Like the US Army's M24, the United States Marine Corps' M40 is based
           on the Remington 700 rifle. The M40 entered service with the Corps in
           1966, with the latest A5 variant being adopted in 2009.

           The M40A6 model will have a folding buttstock and considerably more
           rail space for attachments. It's expected to enter service in 2015.

o Scout Elite

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 42 RPM   Reload: 2.85 secs

  Unlocks: score 8,000 pts with sniper rifles

  Summary: The Scout Elite and the FY-JS both fire smaller calibres which give a
           damage profile that drops to only 36.6 - the Scout can't give a one-
           shot headshot kill past 101 metres. Additionally, although it has a
           high muzzle velocity, it's the only sniper rifle where the higher
           gravity value is applied (15 m/s^2) - this will increase bullet-drop
           and further limit the gun's usefulness when sniping at longer ranges.

           Its tight hipfire made it quite capable in a short-range "aggressive
           recon" role but its fire-rate has been reduced significantly since
           launch. The CS5 offers the same hipfire stats and magazine capacity
           but fires much faster and is probably the better choice now for close
           quarters (plus it has the potential for long-range headshot kills).

  Patched: The rate of fire was reduced to 42 RPM in the Spring Patch but the
           magazine capacity was increased to ten rounds.

   Trivia: The Scout rifle is manufactured by Steyr of Austria who are probably
           best known for the AUG bullpup assault rifle (see above). It has a
           lightweight polymer/aluminium construction with a bipod integrated
           neatly into the forestock.

           The Elite variant has a heavier longer barrel, extended scope rail,
           larger bolt handle and adjustable cheek piece on the butt stock.

           Although it is commonly seen in 7.62mm, the version in BF4 uses the
           same intermediate 5.56mm load as many of the assault rifles. 

           Steyr also have an Elite 08 model with a more radical contemporary
           design compared to the classical rifle layout of the original. It has
           a pistol-grip, lightweight folding stock, multiple Picatinny rails
           and an external detachable bipod.

           The Scout Tactical model previously appeared in Spec Ops: The Line.

o SV98

     Ammo: 7.62x54mm R  Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 43 RPM   Reload: 2.90 secs

  Unlocks: score 13,000 pts with sniper rifles

  Summary: The SV98 give better hipfire accuracy than the JNG90, M40 and CS-LR4.
           Otherwise it has an average rate of fire, it shares the larger mag
           size of the CS5 and JNG and the slow muzzle velocity of the M40.

  Patched: The SV98 saw small reductions to its fire-rate in the 4 March 2014
           patch and again in the Spring Patch.

           A more significant change was applied in the Fall Patch with the
           gravity stat reduced from 15 m/s^2 to a realistic 9.81 m/s^2. The
           Scout Elite is now the only sniper rifle that experiences the high
           bullet-drop of the 15 gravity value.

   Trivia: The SV98 is a Russian sniper rifle in service since 1998, used in
           military, police and counter-terrorism units. It was based on an
           existing sporting rifle design and normally uses the 7x PKS07 scope
           (which is available in BF4 if you want an authentic loadout).

o JNG90

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 37 RPM   Reload: 2.70 secs

  Unlocks: score 20,000 pts with sniper rifles

  Summary: The JNG and CS-LR4 have the highest muzzle velocity in this category.
           Firing at 670 m/s they have the longest theoretical maximum range of
           any conventional firearms in the game: 3,350 metres or 2.1 miles!

           However the JNG has a very slow rate of fire, taking 1.6 seconds
           between each shot. It has the larger 10+1 ammo capacity and enjoys
           relatively quick reloads for its group.

  Patched: The velocity was buffed from 560 m/s to 670 m/s in the Fall Patch.
           Also the reload threshold was increased slightly.

   Trivia: The MKEK JNG90 is a modern sniper rifle manufactured in Turkey and
           used by the Turkish army. MKEK's other sniper rifles are the 7.62mm
           BORA12 and the 5.56mm T12.

           They also manufacture firearms under licence including several H&K
           weapons (HK33, G3 and a range of MP5 variants) and the MG3 plus some
           heavy ordnance such as various 40mm grenade-launchers, anti-aircraft
           guns and 155mm howitzers. Their new MPT76 7.62mm battle rifle is now
           (2015/6) being introduced as the new Turkish service rifle, replacing
           the G3 after four decades of service.

           The JNG90 previously featured in BF3 and in the free-to-play PC games
           Battlefield Play4Free and Combat Arms.

o 338-Recon

     Ammo: .338 Magnum   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 42 RPM   Reload: 3.00 secs

  Unlocks: score 27,000 pts with sniper rifles

  Summary: The 338-Recon and the next two sniper unlocks (the M98B and SRR61)
           use larger calibre rounds with a damage drop-off end at 150 metres.

           The 338 has a bullpup layout which gives it better hipfire/moving
           accuracy but remember in close quarters you need to hit the upper
           torso or arms (or head of course) if you want to get a one-hit kill
           and this won't work if the target has the ARMOR spec. The Scout Elite
           actually has slightly better hipfire but a very short damage drop-off
           so I guess you might pick the 338-Recon if you want a gun that you
           can use for both long-range headshot kills and short-range hipfire,
           although its other stats make it less suited to close-quarters use.

           In comparison to the other heavy snipers, the 338-Recon has a decent
           rate of fire but a small magazine and the slowest muzzle velocity.

  Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch the rate of fire was increased slightly and
           in the Spring Patch it was increased to the current value of 42 RPM.

           The hipfire accuracy (which was already good for this category) was
           also improved in the Spring Patch.

   Trivia: The 338-Recon is in reality the Stealth Recon Scout (SRS) made by the
           US firm Desert Tactical Arms and in production there since 2008.

           The novel bullpup design makes it much shorter than conventional
           weapons. It has a barrel length of 26" and yet even the longer .338
           Lapua Magnum model has an overall length of only 38" which is shorter
           than an M16 assault rifle (with its 20" barrel). The compact Covert
           model has an overall length of 26" which is similar to an SMG - an
           image on the company's website illustrates that the SRS Covert is the
           same length as a H&K MP5 with the sliding stock extended.

           The modular design of the SRS allows you to switch between calibres
           easily, e.g. it could be converted to .308 which would be cheaper for
           training and give less overpenetration in an anti-personnel role. The
           full-size .338 load can be used where longer range is required or for
           an anti-materiel (anti-vehicle/equipment) role.

           It can also be converted to .260 Remington, .300 Winchester Magnum,
           7mm WSM, 6.5mm Creedmoor and 6.5x47mm Lapua. The manufacturer claims
           that it is the most versatile sniper system in the world.

           See the SRS on Ultimate Weapons: http://youtu.be/7xY7nH5hWrI

           Desert Tactical Arms have recently rebranded as Desert Tech and are
           currently working on the MDR carbine (another bullpup) which was
           added to Battlefield Hardline (as the "MDC") in the Robbery DLC.

o M98B

     Ammo: .338 Magnum   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 36 RPM   Reload: 3.00 secs

  Unlocks: score 34,000 pts with sniper rifles

  Summary: The rate of fire has been reduced since BF3 (the M98 and SRR61 have
           the slowest fire-rates in the whole game) but in return the M98B had
           its magazine capacity doubled to ten.

           In comparison to the other snipers with the long-range damage model
           it has the largest magazine size and the fastest muzzle velocity,
           however it's limited by that slow rate of fire and it lacks the low
           gravity of the SRR61 so you'll need to compensate more for drop.

   Trivia: The Barrett M98 was an entirely new design for a precision rifle in
           the .338 calibre. The original model never entered production but
           this bolt-action M98B version was subsequently launched in 2009.

           A modified version of the M98B called the Barrett MRAD (Multi-Role
           Adaptive Design) was produced to meet the requirements of the USSOCOM
           (US Special Operations Command) Precision Sniper Rifle programme.

o SRR61

     Ammo: .408 CT   Capacity:  7+1  Fire-rate: 36 RPM   Reload: 3.00 secs

  Unlocks: score 42,000 pts with sniper rifles

  Summary: The SRR61 has the same longer damage drop-off, fire-rate and reload
           times as the M98B and only slightly less muzzle velocity and three
           fewer rounds in a magazine.

           Like the FY-JS and CS5, the SRR61 experiences less gravity (reduced
           bullet-drop) and what's more it looks pretty badass. :) Overall it's
           an excellent choice for long-range sniping.

   Trivia: The SRR61 is the CheyTac M200 Intervention but it seems to be named
           here after the 61st Special Reconnaissance Regiment of the Jordanian
           Royal Guard who use it.

           The M200 is made by CheyTac (Cheyenne Tactical) of America and has
           been in production since 2001. It uses their own .408 CheyTac calibre
           ammunition which is midway between .50 BMG and .338 Lapua in size and
           was designed specifically for military sniper applications. The .408
           bullet retains more kinetic energy past 700 metres than a .50 round.

           The full package is the Long-Range Rifle System (LRRS) which consists
           of the rifle with a 5.5-20x scope and a PDA with a package of wind,
           temperature and pressure sensors and CheyTec's ballistic software.
           The manufacturers boast that the complete LRRS can achieve groups of
           7–9" at 1,000 yards, 10" at 1,500 yards and 15" at 2,000 yards.

           See the Intervention on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/_MdnAi9fSjs
                                                   http://youtu.be/bti1jfo03X4

           The latest version of the Intervention is the M300 which is mounted
           in a black Cadex chassis with a full set of Picatinny rails and a
           fully adjustable folding butt-stock. It also loses the distinctive
           carry handle and is ten pounds lighter overall than the M200 model.

           Set a couple of decades in the future, the mil-sim ArmA III features
           a fictional update of this design called the "M320 LRR" (although it
           lacks the chassis and therefore resembles the original M200 model).

o FY-JS

     Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 42 RPM   Reload: 2.60 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Recon Expert' assignment (multiplayer)

           First complete 'Recon Basic' to unlock 'Recon Veteran'.

           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 7 kills with sniper rifles
           o Have 4 squad-mates spawn on you

           Next complete 'Recon Veteran' to unlock 'Recon Expert'.

           o Recon Basic required
           o Get 8 kills with sniper rifles
           o Have 5 squad-mates spawn on you

           Finally complete 'Recon Expert'.

           o Recon Veteran required
           o Get 50 Marksman Ribbons (get 250+ metre headshot/s for each)
           o Get 200 kills with sniper rifles
           o Get 10 Sniper Rifle Ribbons (get 6 sniper rifle kills for each)

           While the first two assignments are trivial you'll need to be quite a
           dedicated sniper to complete the third one. The good news at least is
           that you can earn those Marksman Ribbons by getting several headshot
           kills each over 50 metres (in one match) that sum to 250+ metres in
           total, for example you could get headshots at 80, 75 and 95 metres.

           Where you're required to get certain amounts of sniper rifle kills
           remember to use the Recon-exclusive sniper rifles, not the DMR's.

  Summary: Like the Scout Elite, the FY-JS fires a smaller calibre round which
           gives a low minimum damage (only 36.6).

           While several stats are similar for these two guns the FY-JS is the
           better choice for mid-range sniping due to the significantly longer
           damage drop-off and low gravity value (6 m/s^2) however you must
           remember that it can't give a one-shot headshot kill past 135 metres.
           The main benefit of the Scout Elite is the tighter hipfire spread.

  Patched: The drop-off end distance was increased from 110 to 147.8 metres in
           the Spring Patch however the fire-rate was also nerfed to 42 RPM.

   Trivia: The FY-JS is also known as the CS/LR3 and, as you can see from the
           Battlelog images, it's cosmetically identical to the 7.62mm CS/LR4.

o L115

     Ammo: .338 Magnum   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 43 RPM   Reload: 3.30 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Need Only One' assignment (multiplayer)

           o China Rising DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 3 Sniper Rifle Ribbons (get 6 sniper kills in a match for each)
           o Achieve the following in the same match:
             - Get 1 kill with a designated marksman rifle (DMR)
             - Get 1 kill with a shotgun
             - Get 1 kill with C4 explosives

           I think you need to earn the ribbons before getting the three kills.
           Even if you have no other unlocks available you will have access to
           the Recon kit's default CS-LR4 sniper rifle and you could also try
           using the M82A3 or AMR2 pickup weapons (see below).

           Your first DMR will be the RFB (see Section 03f) which is unlocked by
           scoring 13,000 pts with the Recon class. You will unlock the QBS09
           shotgun (see Section 03g) by scoring 16,000 pts with the Support kit
           but you could also probably use the Shorty 12G (sidearm) or the
           USAS12 (Battle Pickup).

           C4 is available by default for the Recon class which is easier than
           having to earn 134,000 XP to unlock it with the Support kit and I
           think it might be mandatory to play as Recon for this assignment.

           If you have the Shorty 12G shotgun sidearm unlocked (see Section 03h)
           you can equip that with a DMR and the C4 which will leave you free to
           get all the required kills without having to keep switching loadout.

  Summary: The post-patch L115 (.338 Magnum) now has the same long-range damage
           profile as the GOL Magnum, SRR61, M98B and 338-Recon. Compared to the
           rest of that group it has a good rate of fire and muzzle velocity but
           the same smaller mag size as the GOL and 338-Recon.

           The SRR has less bullet-drop and a couple of extra rounds in the mag
           but it does fire at a slower rate.*

           *In BF3 it had the slowest rate of fire in the entire game.

  Patched: The L115 saw several changes in the Spring Patch and even had its
           ammo type changed from 7.62mm NATO to .338 Magnum.

           In addition to the longer damage drop-off of the new ammo the L115
           also got faster reload times and increased muzzle velocity, however
           these buffs were balanced by the new mag size (ten reduced to five).

           The weapon was added to the game in December 2013 as the "L96A1" but
           following the change of ammo type this name was no longer authentic
           and the gun was renamed the "L115" in the Summer Patch (the L96A1
           doesn't use the .338 Magnum load but the L115 does). A similar name
           change was applied to the RPK (RPK74M) LMG.

   Trivia: The L115 is one of a range of sniper rifles designed and manufactured
           by the British company Accuracy International. The original model was
           the PM (Precision Marksman) rifle in 7.62mm NATO. This was adopted by
           the British army in the mid 80's (to replace the Lee-Enfield L42A1)
           and designated the L96A1 but nicknamed the "Green Meanie"!

           An updated version called the AW (Arctic Warfare) was designed for
           the Swedish military - incorporating features to improve performance
           in cold climates (hence the name!) - and this model was also adopted
           by the British Army as the L118A1.

           The AWM (Arctic Warfare Magnum) uses either .338 Lapua Magnum (like
           the M98B, GOL Magnum and 338-Recon in BF4) or .300 Winchester Magnum.
           British forces use two versions of the so-called "Super Magnum" in
           .338 Lapua - the L115A1 and the enhanced L115A3. The latter model was
           used by British sniper Craig Harrison to achieve the longest recorded
           sniper kill of 2,707 yards (~1.5 miles) in Helmand Province in 2009.

           See the AWM on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/glCddKt8sX0

           These variants are all similar in appearance as they are mounted in
           the same body, the manufacturer's own AICS (Accuracy International
           Chassis System) which consists of an aluminium frame with external
           polymer panels. The 1.0 version is the original, the 1.5 added an
           adjustable cheek rest and the 2.0 also has a folding shoulder stock
           which reduces the overall length by eight inches.

           The AWM has now been superseded by the AX308 in .308 Winchester and
           the AXMC which fires .338 Lapua Magnum but can be readily converted
           to use either .300 Win Mag or .308 Win. Accuracy International also
           currently market the AT308 (in .308 Win), the AX50 (in .50 BMG) and
           the new AXAICS and ATAICS chassis (both made to take R700 actions).

           See the AT308 and AX50 on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/zDzM-kWdPVw

o GOL Magnum

     Ammo: .338 Magnum   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 44 RPM   Reload: 3.30 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Eagle's Nest' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Second Assault DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Achieve the following in the same match:
             - Get 1 Sniper Rifle Ribbon (get 6 sniper rifle kills in a match)
             - Get 5 kills from the Caspian Border or Operation Firestorm tower

           The requirement for the tower kills is simply that you get kills
           whilst standing on the tower platforms - you don't need to snipe and
           in fact you might find it easier just to use close-quarters weapons
           to clear some of the many snipers camping on the towers; you could
           also try using lock-on missiles on ground and air targets. However
           you will need to get those six sniper rifle kills for the ribbon too
           so it would be more efficient to work on both at the same time.

           On both maps it's only the one biggest tower that counts. On Caspian
           Border it's the massive antenna at the "D" Hilltop flag in Conquest
           Large - this has the convenience of being able to ride the elevator
           up to the first level of platforms (85 metres) but the disadvantage
           that your tower can be destroyed with the "Levolution" event before
           you can get the five required kills (players can start or stop the
           demolition timer in the basement complex).

           On Operation Firestorm it's the tall chimney immediately south-west
           of the "C" Filling Station flag in Conquest Large. It's best to avoid
           using the top platform (100 metres) because players at the base of
           the chimney can roast you by activating the gas burn-off. Any kills
           you get from using the burn-off will not count towards this unlock
           and kills on the ground right next to the tower don't count either.

           The quickest way to get up a tower is to spawn on a squad-mate who's
           already there. If there are no tower campers in your squad then try
           switching squads (or to the other team). Keep moving once you're up
           there because every other sniper/tank/jet/etc on the map will have
           their sights set on easy kills off players seeking that elusive GOL.

  Summary: Previously playable in Battlefield: Play4Free and both Bad Company
           games, the GOL returned to the series in the Second Assault DLC.

           The GOL Magnum shares the longer damage drop-off and high min damage
           of the M98B, 338-Recon, SRR61 and post-patch L115. Among those guns
           it has the best fire-rate, but it's only slightly faster than the
           L115 and 338-Recon. It has the slowest muzzle velocity and the
           smaller magazine size but it's got a decent long reload time.

  Patched: At release (initially the Second Assault DLC was a timed exclusive on
           the Xbone) the GOL Magnum would unlock without optics and with only a
           limited range of scopes and sights available to unlock but this was
           subsequently fixed.

           The GOL has seen successive reductions to its rate of fire in several
           patches but it still combines the long-range power of its .338" load
           with one of the higher fire-rates in the sniper category.

   Trivia: The GOL Sniper range was previously marketed by the Gol-Matic company
           of Germany but their old web address now redirects to the affiliated
           site of gunsmith Gottfried Prechtl. The design is derived ultimately
           from the M98 (unrelated to the Barrett M98B) which was adopted as the
           German service rifle way back in 1898.

           The standard GOL Sniper fired 7.62mm NATO, the GOL Sniper S fired
           .300 Winchester Magnum and the GOL Sniper Magnum - as featured in the
           game - fired the .338 Lapua Magnum round. Marketing for the weapon
           focused on the power and accuracy of this Magnum load, boasting an
           operational range of 1,000 metres.

           The latest model promoted by Gottfried Prechtl is the GS 04 ML which
           comes in the same range of calibres.

o SR338

     Ammo: .338 Magnum   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 200 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Always Deadly' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Naval Strike DLC required*
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 3 Sniper Rifle Ribbons (get 6 sniper kills in a match for each)
           o Get 5 kills with C4 on Naval Strike maps

           You're free to get creative but my preferred option for C4 kills in
           Naval Strike is swimming up to attack boats like a commando and then
           planting the C4 while still in the water. C4 also makes a refreshing
           alternative to knife kills on the plentiful camping snipers.

           *As with the Second Assault DLC, the Naval Strike assignments were
           added to the PC platform before the DLC was released. PC gamers were
           able to unlock four of the five new weapons at that stage with the
           SR338 being the only exception as it requires DLC map access.

  Summary: The SR338 is a wildcard addition to the sniper rifle category as it's
           a semi-automatic weapon that fires around four or five times faster
           than the other unlockable snipers which all use bolt actions.

           On its first shot it has the same perfect stationary aimed accuracy
           as the other sniper rifles but its maximum damage is 50 so it's not
           capable of the usual one-shot CQB kills on the chest/arms and at most
           ranges it'll give the same three-hit kill as a DMR.

           In comparison to the DMR's, the SR338 has a slower fire-rate, half
           the typical magazine capacity, no foregrips and similar recoil. The
           main advantages of the post-patch SR338 vs DMR's are better accuracy
           (on first and follow-up shots) and the ability to use the long-range
           scopes and the range finder attachment.

  Patched: Seemingly in an effort to ensure that this semi-auto sniper was not
           overpowered, the original iteration of the SR338 had an insanely high
           spread increase per shot of 0.6 (for most automatic weapons this stat
           is around 0.1, for DMR's it's between 0.15 to 0.3 and for the other
           sniper rifles it's zero). This seriously impaired the accuracy of
           follow-up shots forcing you to pause between each round to allow time
           for the spread to recover - and this defeated the whole point of
           having a theoretically faster semi-auto sniper!

           In order to make the SR338 usable the SIPS was reduced from 0.6 to
           0.1 in the Fall Patch. Additionally the muzzle velocity was increased
           from 500 m/s to 600 m/s to bring it in line with other rifles in this
           category and the damage drop-off start distance was increased from
           12.5 metres (the same as the other .338" snipers) to 15 metres, this
           extending the range of the two-hit kill potential.

           A whole raft of changes were later deployed in the Spring Patch, the
           most prominent being a fire-rate buff from 150 to 200 RPM.

           The horizontal recoil was reduced and the pull to the right almost
           eliminated. Previously there was a significant pull and it couldn't
           be corrected by attaching a compensator since that attachment is not
           available to sniper rifles (since most have zero muzzle drift).

           The hipfire accuracy was tightened, the SIPS for hipfire was changed
           from 0.0 to 0.1 and the spread recovery was buffed from 7.5 (the same
           as the bolt-action snipers) to 10.

           (Additionally the vertical recoil was approximately doubled and the
           first-shot recoil multiplier was halved, so these changes effectively
           cancelled each other out. The stats for spread recovery and recoil
           are now in line with those of the DMR's.)

   Trivia: The SR338 (presumably "Sniper Rifle" .338 calibre) is in fact the
           FD338 manufactured by F&D Defense based in New Braunfels, Texas. In
           real life it takes either 10 or 15-round magazines and costs $5,450.

           F&D offer their own subsonic .458" FnD ammunition where the cartridge
           size is equivalent to the .338" Lapua Magnum. This can be used in the
           FD458 rifle which is essentially a modified FD338 with an integral
           suppressor and an upper receiver that takes their .458" ammo.

           They also manufacture the FD308 chambered for the .308" Winchester
           load and boast that this rifle is "*Still* the highest quality *most*
           accurate production 308 autoloader on the market!" [their emphasis]
           offering potential spread of less than 3/8ths MOA (minutes of angle).

o CS5

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 53 RPM   Reload: 2.70 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'The "I" in Team' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Dragon's Teeth DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Play on any Dragon's Teeth map to activate assignment
           o Get 2 Sniper Rifle Ribbons (get 6 sniper kills in a match for each)
           o Receive ten Spawn Beacon Bonuses
           o Receive twenty Spot Bonuses

           The radio beacon (spawn beacon) unlocks after earning 32,000 pts with
           the Recon class. It can be equipped as a gadget and deployed in the
           field - any player in your squad can then select it on the respawn
           screen and spawn at its location (giving you one Spawn Beacon Bonus).

           The radio beacon can be a very useful tool and if you plant yours in
           a handy spot you should get plenty of squad spawns off it. Try to get
           it in the enemy base in Rush mode or near a popular flag in Conquest
           mode but remember that nearby enemy players will hear it beeping so
           place it some distance away from the objective and busy routes.

           You can use the spot button (by default on PS4 this is R1) to mark
           enemy troops and vehicles for your team. If a team-mate kills an
           enemy that you spotted then you get one Spot Bonus. Yay!

  Summary: The CS5 has the highest fire-rate among the bolt-actions plus the
           larger ten-round magazine, decent reload times and superior hipfire
           accuracy thanks to its shorter length. These stats make the weapon a
           better choice for close-quarter roles however it also experiences
           lower gravity and gives the 56 minimum damage that permits a one-hit
           headshot kill at any range when sniping.

           Of course there must be at least one negative in the CS5's stats to
           provide some balance and it's the muzzle velocity. The gun fires at a
           very sluggish 400 metres per second which will greatly increase the
           travel times and bullet-drop.

           The CS5 comes equipped with a unique and authentic suppressor by
           default but remember this will make that muzzle velocity even slower.

  Patched: The gravity value for the CS5 was changed from 9.81 to 6 m/s^2 in the
           Spring Patch - only the FY-JS and SRR61 share this ability. There was
           also a small increase in the rate of fire to 53 RPM.

           An error in the CS5's zeroing was fixed in the Second Fall Patch.

   Trivia: The McMillan CS5 (that's literally one C and five S's - "Concealable
           Subsonic/Supersonic Suppressed Sniper System"!) is part of McMillan's
           ALIAS system of configurable bolt-action rifles which allows you to
           "build your own" weapon by taking the ALIAS action and adding your
           choice of calibre (.308" Winchester, 6mm XC, 6.5mm Lapua or 6.5mm
           Creedmoor), barrel length, buttstock, fore-end, pistol grip and the
           optional suppressor.

           The CS5 configuration was "designed for stealth and concealment in
           urban settings". It's fitted with a suppressor and the "Stubby" model
           is only 23.5" long with the fully-adjustable stock and suppressor
           removed so it can be deployed discretely in police operations. Since
           the 12.5" barrel and suppressor would both be subject to US gun laws
           there is also a "Standard" unsuppressed model with an 18.5" barrel.

           The CS5 previously featured in Medal of Honor: Warfighter.

o M82A3

     Ammo: .50 BMG   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 125 RPM   Reload: 4.20 secs

  Unlocks: N/A (Battle Pickup only)

           For BF4 the developers decided to include some very powerful weapons
           into the multiplayer game.* These were too strong to be available as
           standard unlockable weapons so instead they settled on a compromise
           and added them as "Battle Pickups". They can be found on the maps in
           weapon cases marked with a "briefcase star" map icon** (with the same
           weapon always spawning at the same map location in any given mode).

           Each pickup weapon comes with a limited amount of ammo and cannot be
           resupplied. If you switch to another gun or a gadget then the pickup
           will be dropped but you can pick up the pickup again!

           Ironically players frequently reported difficulties in successfully
           picking up the Battle Pickup weapons from their crates. This issue
           was addressed in the server-side update on 5 August 2014 - and again
           in the Fall Patch (30 September 2014).

           *In addition to the M82A3 the other Battle Pickups are the AMR2 rifle
           (see below), the USAS12 shotgun, the South African M32 MGL (Multiple
           Grenade Launcher), the British HVM II Starstreak anti-air launcher
           and the Swedish AT4 CS missile launcher (designated the M136 in US
           use). They can be used to temporarily add a long-range, close-quarter
           or anti-vehicle capability to your current weapon loadout; in video-
           game terms you can think of them as temporary power-ups.

           **Previously the Battle Pickup icon was a pistol symbol but with the
           introduction of the RAWR in the Dragon's Teeth DLC it was necessary
           to change it to a more general symbol (patched on 8 July 2014).

  Summary: Both Battle Pickup sniper rifles fire very large calibre rounds (.50"
           or 12.7mm) which give a one-hit kill on *any* body part at any range.
           They can also be used as true anti-materiel rifles to damage vehicles
           although heavy armour like tanks and IFV's are off the menu.*

           The M82A3 is a semi-automatic weapon - its fire-rate is almost double
           that of the fastest bolt-action sniper rifle in BF4.

           Depending on the map and game mode one of three different versions
           could be available to pick up. The standard "M82A3" is equipped for
           long-range use, the "M82A3 Mid" is designed for medium ranges while
           the "M82A3 CQB" is meant for short range, e.g. on Domination maps.
           Each version has a different scope but all three come with a bipod
           and range finder; the long-range model also has a variable zoom.

           Your stats for the three models are tracked separately on Battlelog.

           *When targeting a helicopter aim for the windscreen - you'll do more
           damage to the vehicle and you might be able to hit the pilot.

   Trivia: Barrett Firearms Manufacturing was established specifically to design
           and manufacture semi-automatic rifles in the mighty .50" BMG calibre.
           The Barrett M82 was their first design, entering production in 1982
           (hence the name), followed by the bolt-action M90 and M95 models, the
           single-shot M99 and the .338 calibre M98 (semi-auto) and M98B (bolt-
           action). They also manufacture their own variants of the M240 light
           machinegun and M4 carbine.

           Successive improvements to the design gave rise to the M82A1, M82A1M
           and the M82A3 that appears in the game. The M82A2 was a bullpup model
           with the mechanism and chunky .50-cal magazine located at the rear.
           The latest derivative is the prototypical XM500 bullpup rifle.

           After several modifcations the M82 was adopted by the US Army in 2002
           and designated the M107; in addition to the anti-materiel role it can
           also be used for remote bomb disposal. In early 2011 Barrett launched
           the revised M107A1 as a new model available to the public.

           See the M107 on Ultimate Weapons: http://youtu.be/7uNKflwUTH0

           See the M107 on Miculek.com: https://youtu.be/5J9hCDr21mo

           (That second video illustrates the effect of a .50 BMG round against
           ballistics gelatin which is designed to replicate human tissue.)

           The M82 is now also available in Barrett's own .416 calibre. This
           model was added to Battlefield Hardline in the Robbery update.

           The M82A3 was previously featured in Battlefield Play4Free and in the
           penultimate mission of the BF3 single-player campaign.

o AMR2

     Ammo: 12.7x108mm   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 37 RPM   Reload: 3.50 secs

  Unlocks: N/A (Battle Pickup only)

  Summary: Like the M82A3 above, the AMR2 is an anti-materiel rifle (hence the
           name!) and it shares the same unlimited one-hit kill potential. It
           also comes in three versions to suit large, medium and small maps.

           However the AMR is a bolt-action weapon so its rate of fire is a lot
           slower (about one third that of the M82A3) and it also has half the
           magazine capacity so it's not quite so beastly.

           The AMR has a bipod and range finder but no straight-pull bolt so you
           have to exit the scoped view each time you chamber a new round.

   Trivia: The Chinese AMR2 is quite similar in concept (and design) to the M82
           but it has a bolt-action mechanism and a folding shoulder stock.

           It uses the Russian 12.7mm round which is close (but not identical)
           in size to the .50" BMG ammo used by the M82. Like that .50" calibre
           NATO load the 12.7mm is a heavy machinegun round* that is now also
           utilised in a number of anti-materiel rifles.

           *The 12.7mm cartridge is also used by the Russian KORD which features
           in most recent Battlefield games as the standard heavy machinegun on
           various Russian vehicles and sometimes in fixed machinegun turrets.

o Rorsch Mk 1

     Ammo: (projectile)   Capacity: 1   Fire-rate: 37 RPM   Reload: 5.80 secs

  Unlocks: N/A (Battle Pickup only)

  Summary: Available in the Final Stand expansion, the Rorsch Mk 1 is a portable
           railgun which functions as a powerful but limited sniper rifle.

           It does 110 damage at all ranges (no drop-off) so it gives a one-hit
           kill on any body part. It has a very high muzzle velocity which is
           more than five times faster than any conventional firearm in the game
           so its projectiles have a short travel time (e.g. 500 metres in 0.14
           seconds). It also has a gravity stat of 0 m/s^2 so its projectiles
           do not drop during flight.

           The power of the railgun is balanced by its effective fire-rate, ammo
           supply and charge time. The weapon holds only one round at a time and
           it takes around six seconds to go through the reload animation, it
           comes with only eight rounds available and there is a delay of about
           two seconds between pulling the trigger and the projectile firing so
           you need to maintain your aim and track your target until it fires.

           The railgun copies the recoil and spread stats from the M82 and AMR2
           so it has a pull to the right and a stationary aimed accuracy of 0.1
           instead of the perfect aimed accuracy of the loadout sniper rifles.

           The Mk 1 comes equipped with a special 20x scope which has a HUD
           showing the bearing, inclination, range and your local clock time.
           It also has a blue laser sight which is visible when you ADS.

           Check my BF4 Trophies Guide (trophy #67) for a full list of railgun
           pickup locations in Conquest Large, Conquest and Obliteration modes.

  Patched: Like the other sniper pickups, the railgun can be used to damage
           vehicles but it has been nerfed since the initial public testing on
           the CTE. Previously it gave a one-hit kill on helicopters and now it
           doesn't, although it will still give a mobility hit.

           In the Spring Patch the max/min damage was reduced from 150 to 110
           bringing the railgun in line with the M82/AMR2 pickups, however its
           aimed spread was also reduced to zero while the other pickups still
           have values of 0.1 for ADS accuracy.

           Additionally its splash damage and radius were reduced and the bipod
           and muzzle brake benefits were removed.

   Trivia: Like all the prototypical weapons, equipment and vehicles in the
           Final Stand expansion, the railgun is a precursor of technology seen
           in Battlefield 2142, in this case the Rorsch Mk S8 railgun turret.

           A railgun operates by creating an electrical circuit through two
           parallel metal rails and the projectile which is either a metal dart
           or a non-metallic dart encased in a conductive sabot. This generates
           a vertical net magnetic field so the projectile - where the current
           flows between the rails - experiences a Lorentz force along the axis
           of the rails, accelerating it to a very high speed in a short time.
           A railgun will typically use currents of several million amps which
           give the projectile a muzzle velocity of around 3,000 m/s and high
           kinetic energy that would be measured in megajoules.

           You need to kill 25 enemies and destroy 10 vehicles with the Mk 1 to
           complete the 'Railgun Rampage' assignment.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03e | Carbines                                                  s03e |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

The carbines can be equipped into the primary slot in any of the four kits,
replacing your assault rifle, PDW, LMG or sniper rifle.

A carbine has a shorter barrel and overall length than a standard rifle and is
often a modified version of a full-size weapon. The reduced size and weight of
the firearm makes it more convenient in certain environments and when operating
in vehicles but the shorter barrel results in reduced power and range. Carbines
are useful in modern urban battlefields where the shorter length makes them
easier to use indoors and the reduced range isn't an issue.

Initially only the Groza 1 is available. The Ak5C is unlocked from progression
of the Engineer class and the MTAR21 can be earned by completing an assignment
(in the China Rising DLC). The others are unlocked by earning XP using whichever
carbines you have available.

(Alongside the launch of the Naval Strike DLC in March 2014, DICE also released
a wide range of unlock shortcuts on the PSN store including separate packs for
all of the unlockable classless weapons in the base game. The Carbine Shortcut
Kit is available for US$4.99, UKP3.99, 500 Yen or HK$38.)

The carbines use the same ammunition types as the assault rifles - they get
about the same maximum damage but the minimum damage is less and their damage
drop-off end distances are shorter too.

                       |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
            Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
     ==================+========+==============+========+=================
        7.62x51mm NATO |  33.0  |   8m to 50m  |  18.0  | Ace 52 CQB only
     ------------------+--------+--------------+--------+-----------------
          7.62x39mm WP |  30.0  |  8m to 52.5m |  16.7  | Groza 1 only
     ------------------+--------+--------------+--------+-----------------
        5.56x45mm NATO |        |              |        |
          5.45x39mm WP |  24.0  |   8m to 50m  |  15.4  | everything else
      5.8x42mm Chinese |        |              |        |

Patched: In the Fall Patch the maximum damage for all carbines was reduced by 1.
         Additionally the Ace 52 CQB received a similar rebalance to the 7.62mm
         SCAR-H and Bulldoge in the assault rifle category - the minimum damage
         was reduced by 1 and the damage drop-off extended by 5 metres.

         The Ace 52 got a couple of further changes in the Spring Patch - its
         minimum damage was reduced by 1 (again) and the damage drop-off end
         distance was reverted back to 50 metres. (The maximum damage for 5.56mm
         carbines was not raised in line with the assault rifles and LMG's.)

Compared to the assault rifles the carbines also tend to have a wider spread on
static aimed use (shorter barrel is less accurate) but tighter spread for aiming
in hipfire and while moving (shorter weapon is easier to handle). Recoil stats
are similar and average fire-rates and reload times are comparable or better.

Patched: The spread recovery stats were rebalanced in the Spring Patch. The
         carbines with high rates of fire or heavier damage models received the
         biggest decreases, for example the MTAR21 (7.7), ACW-R (8.0), Ace 53
         (8.3) and the newly-added Groza 1 (8.2). The slowest firing carbines -
         the G36C and Type 95 - saw barely any change (both 14.7).

         Every bullpup carbine got a small increase to its hipfire moving spread
         and most carbines got some changes to recoil as detailed below.

Overall the carbines are less effective at long ranges due to the reduced ADS
accuracy and the minimum damage but otherwise they're pretty good and you can
consider using them with the Recon and Support kits if you want a versatile
alternative to their default bolt-action sniper rifles and light machineguns.

o Groza 1

     Ammo: 7.62x39mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 725 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs

  Unlocks: available by default (added in Spring Patch on 26 May 2015)

           New players now have the benefit of a carbine being available (to all
           classes) from the very start of their BF4 career.

  Summary: The Groza carbine uses the same 7.62x39mm cartridge as the SKS and
           the RPK. As in the LMG category, this gives a unique damage pattern
           with values halfway between the heavy and light weapons (and a short-
           range two-hit kill in Hardcore mode). The Groza also has a quite
           respectable fire-rate of 725 RPM and it is the combination of these
           two factors that give it the highest DPS in this category, beating
           even the Ace 52 and MTAR21.

           It will function best in a close-quarters role as its bullpup format
           gives it bonuses to hipfire and firing while moving and it has very
           high vertical and horizontal recoil, a very slow muzzle velocity and
           slightly less stationary aimed spread than the non-bullpup carbines
           so it will be much less effective at range.

           The Groza 1 comes permanently fitted with the vertical grip and the
           compensator so you have very limited potential for customization -
           you won't be able to run it with a suppressor for example.

           The first attachment unlock is the Kobra sight which suits the gun's
           role and is appropriate to its Russian origins. Optics mount on top
           of the carry handle so the weapon fills a big chunk of your screen.

  Patched: Following playtests on the CTE but prior to release the Groza's rate
           of fire was reduced from 800 to 725 RPM but it also got improvements
           to its spread recovery and reload times.

   Trivia: Imagine if you took a traditional Kalashnikov assault rifle, removed
           the buttstock, moved the pistol grip and trigger group forward of the
           magazine well and added an MP5K foregrip and an AR15 carrying handle.
           That's pretty much what the Groza 1 looks like!

           The Groza 1's magazine is more distinctly curved compared to the
           Groza 4 in the PDW category. This is because the Soviet 7.62x39mm
           load has a tapered cartridge case.

           There is also a grenadier variant of the Groza with a longer barrel
           and an underbarrel GP30 launcher. This featured previously in the
           S.T.A.L.K.E.R. games as the "Tunder S14" (loosely based on the real
           OTs14 designation and the fact that groza means "thunderstorm").

o Ak5C

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 700 RPM   Reload: 1.95 secs

  Unlocks: score 15,000 pts with Engineer class

  Summary: Although several carbines have slower rates of fire, the Ak5C has a
           fairly slow fire-rate which makes it less effective in close quarters
           however - combined with the reasonable vertical recoil, the quite
           small/balanced horizontal recoil and the very high muzzle velocity -
           it's nicely controllable and very useful at longer ranges. This makes
           it a good choice to use with the Engineer class when playing on those
           big vehicle-based Conquest maps with longer engagement distances.

  Patched: The reload times were increased slightly in the Spring Patch but are
           still excellent, beaten only by the ACW-R and M4 in this category.

           The muzzle velocity was reduced by 10 m/s in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: The Ak5 - unrelated to the AK47, AK12, etc - is the Swedish* version
           of the FN FNC rifle that dates back to the late 70's. Adapted for use
           in the climates of Sweden and manufactured locally by FFV Ordnance
           under licence from FN, the Ak5 entered service with the Swedish armed
           forces in 1986, replacing the previous Ak4 (the 7.62mm H&K G3).

           The Ak5C is a newer model made by Bofors and adopted by the Swedish
           military in 2006. The new features include Picatinny accessory rails,
           reduced length and weight, adjustable stock and improved reliability.

           *DICE celebrate their local firearms manufacturers with the 'Swedish
           Steel' gold assignment featuring the Ak5C (carbine) and CBJ-MS (PDW).

           Youtube producer WhiteMoose reports that he used the Ak5C in the
           Swedish army, presumably during mandatory national service.

o ACW-R

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 880 RPM   Reload: 1.83 secs

  Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with carbines

  Summary: In BF3 the ACW-R was a very distinctive weapon - DICE modelled it on
           the 6.5x39mm Grendel version which gave low maximum damage but high
           minimum damage making it great at long range; it had a high (850 RPM)
           rate of fire and was balanced by a 26-round magazine. Now I'm sad to
           say it's been homogenized and the version in BF4 fires 5.56mm NATO
           with the usual carbine damage pattern and a standard 30-round mag,
           removing some much-needed diversity from the carbine category.

           It still has a good rate of fire though and in fact it's been raised
           to 880 RPM which makes it the fastest carbine in the base game (the
           MTAR21 from the China Rising DLC fires at 900 RPM). However it also
           has very high vertical recoil and relatively poor horizontal recoil.

           It has the quickest short reload of all the carbines (and the second
           fastest reload for a primary in the whole game after the M16A4).

  Patched: The reload threshold was reduced in the Fall Patch.

           In the Spring Patch its long reload was reduced to only 2.15 seconds
           which is quicker than the short reload for most weapons! However its
           vertical and left recoil and first-shot recoil multiplier all got
           small increases too.

   Trivia: In real life it's the ACR (Adaptive Combat Rifle) which is an updated
           version of Magpul's Masada, manufactured under licence by Bushmaster.
           It entered production in 2010 and was submitted - along with the SCAR
           and HK416 - to the trials to find a replacement for the M4 in US Army
           service. The model in BF4 has the fixed hollow triangular stock but a
           version with an adjustable folding stock is also available.

           See the Masada on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/ZJhPMIVgF6c

           The ACR can be adapted easily to shoot either 5.56mm or 6.8mm ammo
           but in BF3 it took the revolutionary 6.5mm Grendel round. This was
           designed to give low recoil and high accuracy in a cartridge that is
           small enough to fit into a modified 5.56mm weapon. Compared to the
           5.56mm NATO round the 6.5mm bullet (the actual projectile) is longer
           and heavier and the case is shorter but fatter to hold more powder.

           See the 6.5mm Grendel on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/ydP3DUIT_EU

o SG553

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 830 RPM   Reload: 2.15 secs

  Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with carbines

  Summary: The SG553 has received an even bigger buff to its rate of fire since
           BF3, increasing from 700 to 830 RPM and making it the second fastest
           carbine in the base game after the ACW-R.

           The reload times are fairly average for this category though and,
           since the Spring Patch, the recoil is now quite typical for a carbine
           with this fire-rate.

  Patched: The SG553 got a bit of a buff in the Fall Patch - the muzzle velocity
           was increased and the horizontal recoil was reduced.

           In the Spring Patch that horizontal recoil was shifted to reduce the
           right pull. Also the vertical recoil and recoil multiplier were both
           increased slightly.

   Trivia: The Swiss SIG SG553 was derived ultimately from the full-sized SG550
           assault rifle of the mid 80's. The SG551 was a carbine version with a
           14" barrel instead of the standard 21" one and the SG552 was an even
           shorter "commando" version with a 9" barrel. The SG553 - as featured
           in both BF3 and BF4 - is an upgrade of the SG552 design with the same
           dimensions but improved reliability.

           The carbine comes with either a conventional polymeric handguard or
           an aluminium one with quad rails, a receiver made of either billet
           aluminium or forged steel and either a folding or folding/telescopic
           stock. There is also a "Pistol" variant without a shoulder-stock.

           The SG553 also appears in Far Cry 3 and 4 where it's labelled as the
           STG90, a variation of the Stgw90 designation (Sturmgewehr 90) used by
           the German military.

o AKu12

     Ammo: 5.45x39mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 680 RPM   Reload: 2.40 secs

  Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with carbines

  Summary: Like the AKS74u in BF3, the new Kalashnikov has one of the slowest
           rates of fire but it has low recoil making it useful at range.

           I wouldn't normally use the burst fire mode on a weapon - as you can
           just tapfire on auto mode and control your burst size - but here the
           weapon has a superior fire-rate (750 RPM) for bursts so it's worth
           taking advantage of that.

  Patched: In the Fall Patch the AKu12 got increases to both its muzzle velocity
           (buff) and vertical recoil (nerf). Overall the recoil was still good.

           The reload times were made longer in the Spring Patch. The horizontal
           recoil was shifted from a right pull to a left pull but is still
           quite low. Also the first-shot recoil multiplier was increased.

   Trivia: The AKu12 (or AK12u?) carbine is a planned shortened version of the
           AK12 assault rifle (see above) intended for use by paratroopers,
           special forces and vehicle crews. The U in the designation stands
           for ukorochenniy which means "shortened" in Russian.

           It follows the tradition of the AKS74u carbine which was featured in
           six previous Battlefield games/expansions, most recently in BFBC2,
           BF Play4Free and BF3. That model dates back to the late 70's and has
           an overall length (with the stock folded) of just 19".

           See the AKS74u on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/EJxXul6Sdr0

           Traditionally a Kalashnikov variant with a lightweight folding stock
           would have an S in its name (e.g. AKS74 and AKS74u) but in BF4 even
           the standard AK12 assault rifle is modelled with a folding stock so
           I guess DICE are assuming that this convention would be abandoned.

o A91

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 800 RPM   Reload: 2.70 secs

  Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with carbines

  Summary: You'll probably have noticed by now that there's not much variety in
           the carbine category. Most of them hold 30 rounds of 5.56mm ammo (or
           equivalent) and have similar reload times and accuracy stats. Some
           have slightly higher fire-rates and correspondingly higher recoil and
           others have slower rates of fire and not so much recoil.

           The A91 has a bullpup design so it at least shakes things up a little
           by having superior accuracy in hipfire and/or while moving but worse
           accuracy in stationary aimed fire and a significantly slower reload.

  Patched: The A91 saw several rebalances in the Fall Patch. In addition to the
           general changes to maximum damage and suppressed muzzle velocity, the
           vertical and horizontal recoil were reduced and the (unsuppressed)
           muzzle velocity was increased. In this patch DICE also adjusted the
           bullpup modifiers for PDW's and carbines resulting in improved moving
           and stationary aimed accuracy for the A91 (and no change to hipfire).

           Overall the Fall Patch gave the A91 a substantial buff.

           In addition to the generic changes in the Spring Patch to recoil
           recovery for all carbines and to moving hipfire accuracy for the
           bullpups the A91 also got a small increase to its long reload time
           and a small buff to its vertical recoil.

   Trivia: The Russian A91 is derived from the 9A91 (which was available to the
           Engineer class in BFBC2) and dates back to 1991.

           The original prototype fired 7.62mm rounds and had an unusual over-
           barrel grenade-launcher but the production version uses the 5.56mm
           NATO calibre and has the integral grenade-launcher in a more usual
           position under the barrel - although DICE sadly chose not to include
           this feature in the game!

           The bullpup format and integral underbarrel launcher give the A91 a
           similar configuration to the grenadier variant of the Russian OTs14
           Groza (see above).

o Ace 52 CQB

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 25+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with carbines

  Summary: Taking the place of the SCAR-H in BF3, the new 7.62mm carbine is the
           Ace 52, the first of two Ace models in this category. It does 33 max
           damage for a potential four-hit kill out to 30 metres plus it has a
           decent 25-round magazine capacity modelled on the real-life Ace 52
           and Ace 53 rifles (much better than the 20-round mags of the 7.62mm
           SCAR-H assault rifle).

           As you might expect it fires slowly but with the higher bullet damage
           it gives a damage-rate of 358 per second which is on a par with the
           5.56mm ACW-R firing at its rapid 880 RPM.

           The Ace 52 has very high vertical recoil so you might want to use the
           muzzle brake to tame that. The short reload time is fairly average
           but the long reload is over a second longer.

  Patched: In the Fall Patch all assault rifles and carbines had their maximum
           damage reduced by 1. In addition to this the 7.62mm guns - the SCAR,
           Bulldog and Ace 52 - also had their minimum damage reduced by 1 and
           their damage drop-off end distance increased by 5 metres.

           The horizontal recoil (left/right) was also increased by 20% which
           made the Ace 52 a little less effective at range.

           The drop-off end was wound back to 50 metres in the Spring Patch and
           the minimum damage was reduced to 18. Its reload times were made a
           little longer but it got a good reduction to spread increase. The
           vertical recoil was increased substantially but the first-shot recoil
           multiplier was also reduced to make tapfiring more viable.

   Trivia: The "5" in the model number denotes the 7.62mm calibre and the "2"
           indicates the shorter 16" barrel while the CQB suffix suggests that
           it's been adapted/shortened further for a close-quarters battle role.

           The Ace appears in Far Cry 3 as the ACE and in Far Cry 4 as the A52.

o G36C

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 48,000 pts with carbines

  Summary: In contrast to the ACW-R and SG553 changes above, the G36C's rate of
           fire has been reduced since BF3 - from 750 RPM down to 650 RPM.* In
           the carbine category it ties with the Type 95 for lowest damage-rate.

           I enjoyed using the G36C in BF3 but - pre-patch - it was lacking any
           redeeming features in BF4. The AKu12 offered similar vertical recoil,
           horizontal recoil and reload times and a slightly higher fire-rate.

           *DICE gave the following feedback on the subject: "Some players have
           been disappointed in the rate of fire of the G36C carbine, [...] We
           understand the feelings of fans when their favorite gun doesn't work
           in the same way it was before however BF4 is its own game, with its
           own balance, and all weapons received various changes and balance
           factors. We do not intend to change the rate of fire of the G36C."

  Patched: While disinclined to adjust its fire-rate, DICE did eventually apply
           a significant buff to the G36C's horizontal recoil and first-shot
           recoil multiplier in the 25 March 2014 update.* However in the Fall
           Patch the recoil multiplier and vertical recoil were both increased.

           The Spring Patch brought increased muzzle velocity, a longer short
           reload time and decreased vertical recoil. There were also minor
           changes to spread increase and horizontal recoil.

           Previously its horizontal recoil was pretty average for a carbine but
           now it's very low, beaten only by the post-patch U100 LMG. It also
           has the second best first-shot recoil in the carbine category and
           overall it offers very good stability.

           *However - contrary to videos released by several popular BF4 Youtube
           producers for April Fools - it did not gain the BF3 M16A3 stats! :)

   Trivia: The G36C is a shortened version of the German G36 assault rifle. The
           G36 was created by H&K, entered production in 1996 and is the service
           rifle of the German, Spanish and Portuguese armed forces.

           See the G36C on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/y2Vv9b359Vk?t=1m55s

           The G36C variant ("C" = compact) was actually derived from an earlier
           carbine model called the G36K ("K" = kurz meaning "short"), reducing
           the length even further. The G36C design lacks the big ugly carrying
           handle with integrated optical scope* of the original G36 and instead
           has a long elevated Picatinny scope rail along the top.**

           See the G36C on Ultimate Weapons: http://youtu.be/uIgdN6xL_c4

           Although police officers don't routinely carry guns here in the UK we
           do have specialist firearms units. Various weapons are deployed by
           each county but for several years the G36 carbines have been common,
           supplementing the older and less powerful 9mm MP5 submachineguns.

           Following claims in recent years of the G36 becoming inaccurate at
           high temperatures, it was reported in August 2015 that the German
           Defence Ministry had ordered six hundred HK417 battle rifles as a
           temporary replacement for some units and early the following month
           the Defence Minister announced that the G36 model would be replaced
           with new units entering service from 2019 onwards.

           Heckler & Koch also manufacture a semi-automatic sporting rifle based
           on the G36 called the SL8 which replaces the pistol-grip and folding
           skeletonised stock with a thumbhole stock with adjustable cheek-rest.

           *You might remember this distinctive feature from the MG36 in BFBC2.

           **The G36 range can be modernized by the addition of various official
           accessories. The carrying handle of the G36 and G36K can be replaced
           by a low sight rail like the G36C and all three models can be fitted
           with additional rail space at the front and two new buttstock designs
           with cheek-rests. Fully upgraded models are currently illustrated in
           the military/police section of the main international H&K website.

o M4

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 800 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs

  Unlocks: score 59,000 pts with carbines

  Summary: Like its cousin, the M16A4 assault rifle, the M4 carbine has a burst
           fire mode and no option for automatic fire.

           Statistically the two weapons are very similar except for the usual
           differences you'd expect between their respective categories.

           Compared to other carbines the M4 has excellent reload times, decent
           recoil (with the usual pull to the right) and high muzzle velocity;
           it has a high fire-rate but remember you're limited to burst mode.

  Patched: The vertical recoil stats of the M16A4 assault rifle and M4 carbine
           were reduced by 17.5% in the 25 March 2014 update to make them more
           effective in the mid/long-range role.

           The M4 got a further buff in the Fall Patch with an overall reduction
           to the horizontal recoil and the first-shot recoil multiplier.

           However that multiplier was increased slightly in the Spring Patch.
           Also the muzzle drift was shifted to reduce the right pull and the
           muzzle velocity was decreased.

   Trivia: The M4 is essentially a carbine version of the M16. Its origins can
           be traced back to the Colt Commando CAR15 (and experimental XM177)
           used by special-forces operatives during the Vietnam War.

           The modern design has a 14.5" barrel which is significantly longer
           than the 10" or 11" of the Vietnam models but still much shorter than
           the 20" barrel of the full-sized M16. The M4 can also be recognized
           by its distinctive telescopic stock.

           The standard M4 has only semi-auto and burst fire modes but there's
           also the M4A1 variant, built for special units like the Army Rangers
           and SEAL's, with a full auto mode instead of the three-round burst.

           In 2010 the US Army started using the M855A1 variant of its 5.56mm
           ammunition which was optimised to give greater muzzle velocity and
           reduced muzzle flash from the shorter barrel of the M4. This round is
           also more environmentally friendly since it has a lead-free bullet
           manufactured with a copper core and a steel tip.

           In October 2015 it was announced that the US Marine Corps would be
           adopting the M4 as their new service rifle.

o Ace 21 CQB

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 35+1   Fire-rate: 770 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 71,000 pts with carbines

  Summary: The second Ace carbine uses the standard intermediate 5.56mm load and
           has the usual damage profile with 24 max damage, etc, however it does
           have the benefit of using authentic 35-round Galil magazines.

           Although there are several faster carbines, the Ace 21 has a decent
           rate of fire - it has heavy vertical recoil with it but the sideways
           recoil is quite good.

  Patched: The recoil multiplier was increased by 10% in the Fall Patch.

           In the Spring Patch the Ace got small increases to horizontal recoil
           and the recoil multiplier, both reload times were extended and the
           muzzle velocity was increased.

           (In the same patch the Ace 23 assault rifle had its magazine capacity
           increased to 35 to match this carbine variant.)

   Trivia: This time the "2" in the model number indicates the 5.56mm calibre
           and the "1" denotes the shortest 8.5" barrel option.

o Type 95B-1

     Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 30+1    Fire-rate: 650 RPM   Reload: 2.90 secs

  Unlocks: score 83,000 pts with carbines

  Summary: The final standard unlockable carbine is the Chinese Type 95B-1.

           It ties with the G36C for slowest rate of fire but it has very good
           recoil giving minimal muzzle climb/drift during automatic fire.

           The bullpup configuration confers the usual modifiers.

  Patched: Like the A91, the Type 95B benefited from adjustments to the bullpup
           penalties for PDW's and carbines in the Fall Patch so it now has even
           better moving aimed accuracy and the penalty to aimed stationary
           spread is reduced. It still has good hipfire and very slow reloads.

           In the same patch the horizontal recoil was reduced slightly and the
           muzzle velocity was increased by 50 m/s.

           In the Spring Patch the reload times were extended and are now very
           slow. The muzzle velocity was increased by another 40 m/s and there
           was a small tweak to spread increase.

   Trivia: The Chinese Type 95B (i.e. the QBZ95B) is the shorter carbine variant
           of the QBZ95 assault rifle. Both versions in BF4 have the -1 suffix
           indicating the improved models that entered service around 2010-11.

o MTAR21

     Ammo: 5.56x45mm   Capacity: 30+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 2.35 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Multitalented' assignment (multiplayer)

           o China Rising DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Achieve the following in the same match:
             - Get 1 kill with an assault rifle
             - Get 1 kill with a light machinegun
             - Get 1 kill with a sniper rifle
             - Get 1 kill with a grenade

  Summary: The MTAR stole the ACW-R's crown for having the highest rate of fire
           in the carbine category. It also has slightly less vertical recoil
           and better hipfire/moving accuracy (thanks to its bullpup design) so
           it's a good choice for close quarters. The usual bullpup penalties
           apply too though so it has inferior stationary aimed accuracy and
           only average reload times.

           To balance the high fire-rate it has the largest horizontal recoil
           and first-shot recoil multiplier stats in the carbine category.

  Patched: When China Rising was released the MTAR had accidentally been given
           the damage profile of a 5.56mm assault rifle (18.0 minimum damage)
           but this was eventually fixed in the 4 March 2014 patch. The gun now
           has the standard carbine damage pattern (15.4 minimum damage).

           Additionally the muzzle velocity and the short reload time were both
           reduced in the same patch.

           As part of the bullpup PDW/carbine rebalancing in the Fall Patch the
           aimed stationary accuracy penalty was reduced and the aimed moving
           accuracy bonus was increased. However the horizontal recoil was also
           increased by 5%.

           The reload times were shortened in the Spring Patch. Also the recoil
           multiplier was decreased and the velocity was reduced.

   Trivia: The MTAR21 (Micro Tavor Assault Rifle) was designed by IMI (Israel
           Military Industries) who previously gave us the Uzi submachinegun,
           the Galil assault rifle and the Desert Eagle hand-cannon. :)

           It's a shortened version of the TAR21 "Tavor" assault rifle which
           entered service in 2001, with the overall length reduced from 28 to
           23 inches and the barrel length shortened from 18 to 13 inches.

           See the full size Tavor on IV8888: https://youtu.be/8nDiCT3izm4

           The MTAR21 can be converted into a 9mm submachinegun that can use Uzi
           magazines and it can also be adapted to use Russian 5.45mm rounds. A
           model using the heavier 7.62mm load is currently in development.

           See the MTAR on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/HzcfTDbiXEk

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03f | Designated Marksman Rifles                                s03f |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

Like the carbines above, the DMR's can be equipped into the primary slot in any
of the four kits, replacing your assault rifle, PDW, LMG or sniper rifle.

A designated marksman rifle (DMR) is essentially a semi-auto sniper rifle which
would be used in a support role at squad level engaging targets at medium ranges
in contrast to the long ranges where you would use a proper sniper rifle. In the
game it can be used to add a more accurate weapon to any class loadout.

Initially no DMR's are available. The RFB is unlocked from progression of the
Recon class and the others are unlocked by earning XP using whichever DMR's you
have available. No further DMR's have been added to the game.

(DICE declared February 2014 to be "Player Appreciation Month". In addition to
free daily Battlepacks, double XP events and community challenges they also
released some optional free gun unlock shortcuts on the PSN store. The "DMR
Shortcut Kit" was available free to all Premium subscribers during the period
18 to 24 February and this unlocked all eight standard DMR's in the game. This
shortcut pack is now available to purchase for US$4.99, UKP3.99 or 500 Yen.)

Here's an overview of the damage profiles for the DMR's.

                      |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
           Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
      ================+========+==============+========+=================
         7.62x39mm WP |        |   8m to 75m  |        | SKS only
      ----------------|  43.0  |--------------|  34.0  |-----------------
         5.8x42mm DAP |        |   8m to 90m  |        | QBU88 only
      ----------------+--------+--------------+--------+-----------------
          7.62x54mm R |        |  15m to 60m  |        | SVD12 only
      ----------------|  45.0  |--------------|  38.0  |-----------------
       7.62x51mm NATO |        |  15m to 80m  |        | everything else

Compared to the Recon kit's bolt-action sniper rifles the DMR's do significantly
less damage with slightly more spread (less accuracy in aimed fire). However
they have much higher fire-rates and larger magazines - in BF3 most semi-auto
snipers had 10-round magazines but now most of them hold 20 rounds as standard
so you can pew-pew-pew that much longer before reloading. :)

Since being moved to their own category separate from the bolt-action sniper
rifles the DMR's no longer get the larger x2.35 headshot damage multiplier that
was previously applied in BF3; instead the usual x2.13 multiplier is used.

Patched: The DMR's were widely considered to be underpowered at launch so DICE
         gave them a significant buff in the game update on 30 January 2014.

         The minimum damage values for DMR's were increased making them now
         sufficient for a three-hit kill at long ranges. The patch also saw a
         (smaller) increase to the maximum damages, although they are still too
         low to allow a one-shot headshot kill (45 x 2 < 100). DMR's give you a
         three-hit kill in most conditions now (or a two-hit kill if one or both
         shots are headshots).

         Additionally DICE "reduced the penalty to accuracy for sustained DMR
         fire" (i.e. the spread increase per shot). This means that follow-up
         shots will be more accurate than they were previously.

         These changes made the DMR's much more viable and you should consider
         using them with any class on a large map with longer sight-lines.

         Subsequently in the 2015 Holiday Patch the damage drop-off end ranges
         for the SKS and QBU88 were both extended.

The unlockable attachments for the DMR's include the same selection of close-
range sights and medium-range scopes as the assault rifles, carbines, etc (see
Section 04a) but they cannot use the long-range scopes of the sniper rifles.

(DICE gave the following feedback on the subject: "Long-range scopes for DMR's
were tested extensively internally before release. We specifically removed these
scopes from those weapons as we found any class being able to effectively snipe
was detrimental to the overall pace and gameplay of BF4. We have no intentions
of adding those scopes to DMR's for BF4.")

Patched: In the Fall Patch every DMR apart from the SVD12 got an increase to its
         muzzle velocity - the RFB saw the largest gain (460 m/s to 600 m/s).

         The spread recovery stats were rebalanced in the Spring Patch but,
         unlike the assault rifles, PDW's, LMG's and carbines, the DMR's saw a
         single new value applied. Spread recovery was reduced from 15 to 10 for
         all DMR's so it takes longer for the accuracy to reset after firing.

         To reinforce their role as a medium-range rather than long-range weapon
         all DMR's got nerfs to their stationary aimed accuracy stats in the
         same patch, with most now approximately double their previous values.
         They all now share a value of 0.125 with the exception of the Mk 11
         (0.1) and the SKS (0.2). The bullpup modifier has been disregarded.

         Also in the Spring Patch the vertical recoil was approximately doubled
         and the first-shot recoil multiplier halved (from x2.0 to x1.0) for all
         DMR's - this had no net effect on the actual recoil experienced.

         However every DMR also saw a buff to its recoil recovery although the
         before/after values were different for each weapon so I've detailed
         these in the individual patch notes below.

The DMR's unlock with no attachments available so you'll need to use the iron
sights initially but the first unlock (10 kills) for each will be a 4x scope.

In a marksman role you'll usually want to combine a 3.4x or 4x scope with the
angled grip and heavy barrel. At shorter ranges you can use a red-dot or 1x holo
sight and the ergo grip to improve your moving accuracy.

o RFB

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 260 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs

  Unlocks: score 13,000 pts with Recon class

  Summary: Your first DMR enjoys the damage profile of the 7.62mm NATO ammo with
           long drop-offs and slightly higher max/min damage.

           Like several other DMR's, the RFB has a slow rate of fire, average
           recoil, standard aimed accuracy and a 20-round magazine. The bullpup
           design means it gets increased accuracy in hipfire and when moving
           but it also gets slow reloads.

           The right recoil is +0.3 and the left recoil is 0.0 so there's an
           overall pull to the right. Several of the marksman rifles have this
           sort of asymmetrical muzzle drift but it's not really an issue since
           the horizontal recoil will reset before the vertical does. It just
           adds a little character to each weapon.

  Patched: In the Spring Patch the right recoil was reduced and the (negative)
           left recoil was removed, making the right pull less significant.

           The two bullpup DMR's - the RFB and QBU88 - both got an increase to
           moving hipfire accuracy and a small nerf to moving aimed accuracy.

           The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 8 in the same patch.

   Trivia: This is an American bullpup battle rifle, similar in configuration to
           the Chinese QBU88 below, made by Kel-Tec of Florida.

           The concise name simply describes the gun: "Rifle, Forward-ejecting,
           Bullpup" - it's a rifle with a bullpup configuration (it squeezes an
           18" barrel into a weapon that's only 26" long) and empty cases are
           ejected forwards directly above the barrel (which makes the rifle
           suitable for either right or left-handed operation).

           The RFB's design includes a distinctive flat top, uninterrupted even
           by iron sights (it's sold without irons), but the standard scope rail
           along the front half of the gun allows various optics to be fitted.
           It uses straight 10 or 20-round 7.62mm magazines from the legendary
           FN FAL battle rifle.

           See the RFB on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/f_xvj_7aO2Y

           Kel-Tec have subsequently designed the RDB which has a similar shape
           but it fires 5.56mm rounds from standard M16 magazines and the empty
           cases are ejected behind the magazine well (the D in its name stands
           for "Downwards-ejecting"). The RDB is currently due to be available
           from late 2015 and the company already have plans to offer a 9mm
           conversion kit and models in 6.5mm Grendel, 7.62mm Soviet and 7.62mm
           NATO calibres. They are also working on the M43 variant which has a
           more classical look thanks to its steel and walnut construction.

           See the RDB and M43 on IV8888: https://youtu.be/eon4abzfUyU

           The new 5.56 version appears as the "SDAR 5.56mm" in ArmA III where
           it can be equipped with special rounds for firing underwater!

           See the RDB on Military Arms Channel: https://youtu.be/BASgtPpYfF0

o Mk 11 Mod 0

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 260 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs

  Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with DMR's

  Summary: With its mag size doubled since BF3, the Mk 11 now matches the RFB.

           Following the Spring Patch the Mk 11 now has better stationary aimed
           accuracy than the other DMR's although it's only a small difference.

           Its key strengths are its rapid reloads and superior damage profile;
           it also has quite a fast muzzle velocity.

  Patched: The horizontal recoil was reduced in the Fall Patch.

           In the Spring Patch the horizontal recoil was reduced again.

           The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 8 in the same patch.

   Trivia: Mk 11 Mod 0 is the designation used by the US Navy (and USMC) for the
           Knight's Armament Company's SR25. Although not immediately apparent
           from its images on BF3/BF4 Battlelog, it's based heavily on Eugene
           Stoner's classic 7.62mm AR10 design (which led to the AR15/M16).

           Alongside the SR15 (5.56mm) and the SR30 (.300 Blackout), KAC market
           several variants of the SR25 in their Commercial & Law Enforcement
           range: SR25 ER (Enhanced Rifle), SR25 EC (Enhanced Carbine), SR25 ECC
           (Enhanced Combat Carbine), SR25 ECR (Enhanced Combat Rifle) and the
           latest SR25E2 APC (Advanced Precision Carbine). Just a few days after
           the launch of the Battlefield Hardline beta in June 2014 the SR25 ECC
           was found hidden within the game files.

           See the SR25 on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/VoMhKrAMksg

           The weapon originated in the 90's. The most recent version or (in the
           Navy's classification scheme) "modification" is the Mk 11 Mod 2 which
           is a very similar M16-based design also made by KAC. This has already
           been adopted by the US Army as the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper System
           (SASS) with the intention of replacing their bolt-action M24's; the
           shorter M110K1 carbine model is also now available from KAC.

           See the M110 on Future Weapons: http://youtu.be/SwZQiGik41w

o SKS

     Ammo: 7.62x39mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 333 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with DMR's

  Summary: The SKS fires the 7.62x39mm Warsaw Pact round which gives slightly
           less maximum and minimum damage, however the damage is still enough
           for the standard DMR three-hit kill at any range (unless you hit the
           lower torso or leg with minimum damage). It has the highest rate of
           fire in this category giving it a good damage output rate which is
           useful at shorter ranges.

           It also benefits from the lowest vertical recoil, good hipfire spread
           (although not quite as good as the two bullpup DMR's) and a low SIPS.

           Since the Spring Patch it now has a stationary aimed spread of 2.0
           which is worse than the other DMR's (and actually matches the assault
           rifles). It also has a much lower muzzle velocity and the widest
           horizontal recoil of all the DMR's.

           The SKS already had a 20-round magazine in BF3 and it retains this.

  Patched: As part of the major DMR buff (see above) the spread increase per
           shot (SIPS) had been reduced from 0.25 to 0.18 but then in the patch
           on 4 March 2014 this was increased to 0.20 for the SKS only.

           The SKS and M39 had previously incorrectly allowed the "hold breath"
           function of the sniper rifles. This was removed in the Fall Patch.

           In the Spring Patch the SIPS was buffed to 0.15 and the gravity value
           was reduced from 15 to 9.81 m/s^2 (in line with the other DMR's).

           The recoil recovery was increased from 9 to 12 in the same patch. The
           SKS recovers from recoil quicker than any other marksman rifle.

           The damage drop-off end distance was extended from 60 to 75 metres in
           the 2015 Holiday Patch.

   Trivia: Designed by Sergei Siminov in 1943, the SKS was developed to use the
           new intermediate 7.62mm round and give a weapon that would still be
           effective at the typical engagement distances of 100-300 yards but
           without the length, weight and recoil of existing rifles.

           The SKS entered service in the Soviet army in 1949 and was copied in
           other Eastern Bloc nations giving the Type 56* in China, Karabiner S
           in East Germany and Type 63 in Korea. It was superseded by the AK47 -
           the first modern assault rifle - which had the benefit of a full auto
           fire mode and a 30-round detachable magazine compared to the 10-round
           box magazine built into the SKS (loaded individually or with a clip).

           The version in the game comes with a 20-round detachable magazine and
           a modern telescopic stock resembling that of the M4.

           *The Type 56 previously featured in Battlefield Vietnam (2004).

o SVD12

     Ammo: 7.62x54mm R   Capacity: 15+1   Fire-rate: 260 RPM   Reload: 1.95 secs

  Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with DMR's

  Summary: The new SVD12 replaces the original SVD (Dragunov) sniper from BF3.

           It has a unique damage pattern which matches the max and min damage
           of the DMR's that fire 7.62mm NATO (such as the RFB and Mk 11) but it
           has a shorter drop-off. The 15-round magazine is an improvement over
           the original SVD but somewhat limited compared to most of the other
           DMR's in BF4, although it gives fast reloads at least.

           One advantage of the SVD12 is that it has a low spread increase per
           shot (same as the SKS) which is half that of some DMR's. Otherwise
           its stats are comparable to the other models; it fires at the slower
           260 RPM rate with average vertical recoil and a small left kick.

  Patched: The SVD got a buff in the Fall Patch - the spread increase per shot
           (SIPS) was halved and the horizontal recoil was reduced.

           Unlike the other DMR's the SVD did not receive a buff to its muzzle
           velocity in the Fall Patch. Several now have higher velocities but
           among the DMR's only the SKS has a notably slower muzzle velocity.

           In the Spring Patch the horizontal recoil was reduced.

           The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 10 in the same patch.

   Trivia: The SVD12 (or SVK12?) marksman rifle is a planned DMR version of the
           AK12 assault rifle (see above).

           (The original SVD rifle was also known by the name of its designer -
           Dragunov. It was developed specifically to provide marksman support
           within infantry squads and entered Russian service back in 1963. It
           would normally be used with the 4x PSO1 scope.)

o QBU88

     Ammo: 5.8x42mm   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 310 RPM   Reload: 2.65 secs

  Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with DMR's

  Summary: The QBU has the same lower max/min damage as the SKS but a longer
           damage drop-off. It has the second best fire-rate after the SKS, low
           vertical recoil, superior hipfire/moving accuracy, good SIPS and one
           of the highest muzzle velocities in the game (only topped by the U100
           LMG following the Spring Patch).

           However the trade-off is that the magazine only holds ten rounds and
           not only does it have the smallest mags but (thanks to its bullpup
           format) it also has the slowest reload times in the DMR category. The
           long reload is especially painful (3.9 seconds) so try to always
           reload before the weapon is completely empty.

  Patched: In the Spring Patch the two bullpup DMR's both got an increase to
           moving hipfire accuracy and a small nerf to moving aimed accuracy.

           The recoil recovery was increased from 8 to 11 in the same patch.

           The damage drop-off end distance was extended from 65 to 90 metres in
           the 2015 Holiday Patch.

   Trivia: Chinese in origin, the QBU88 entered service in the late 80's. It's
           used there by the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and police forces.

o M39 EMR

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 300 RPM   Reload: 2.25 secs

  Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with DMR's

  Summary: Of the six DMR's that have the higher max/min damage the M39 has the
           highest rate of fire (the others all fire at 260 RPM) but this is
           balanced by the heavier vertical and horizontal recoil.

           It has the handy 20-round magazine but only average reload times.

  Patched: The SKS and M39 had previously incorrectly allowed the "hold breath"
           function of the sniper rifles. This was removed in the Fall Patch.

           The horizontal recoil was also reduced in the Fall Patch.

           In the Spring Patch the horizontal recoil was reduced again.

           The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 11 in the same patch.

   Trivia: The M39 Enhanced Marksman Rifle has a very modern appearance but is
           actually an update of the M14 rifle that entered US service in 1959.
           Its features include multiple Picatinny rails for scopes and other
           accessories, an adjustable stock and an integrated bipod.

           The M39 was used by the United States Marine Corps but will be phased
           out in favour of the army's new M16-derived M110 mentioned above.

           The M39 EMR resembles the M14-based Mk 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle that
           appeared in BFBC2 as an unlockable weapon available to all kits.

o Ace 53 SV

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 25+1   Fire-rate: 260 RPM   Reload: 2.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 65,000 pts with DMR's

  Summary: BF4's 7.62mm assault rifle (SCAR-H) and 7.62mm carbine (Ace 52) both
           make reappearances here in the DMR category as sniper variants.

           In early builds of the game this gun came with a 20-round magazine
           but it now has a 25-round mag that's authentic to the real Ace 53.

           That higher ammo capacity is the main attraction of the Ace DMR since
           it has the lower fire-rate and average reload times and recoil.

  Patched: The max left recoil was changed from +0.3 to -0.1 in the 4 March 2014
           patch giving it a consistent but small kick to the right.

           In the Spring Patch the reload times were made slightly longer and
           the spread increase per shot - specifically when aiming in the prone
           stance - was reduced slightly.

           The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 10 in the same patch.

   Trivia: Following the assault rifle and two carbines (see above), this is the
           fourth version of the Ace in BF4. The "5" in the model name indicates
           the 7.62mm calibre and the "3" denotes the longer 20" barrel.

o SCAR-H SV

     Ammo: 7.62x51mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 260 RPM   Reload: 1.85 secs

  Unlocks: score 82,000 pts with DMR's

  Summary: The final DMR gives comparable performance to the Mk 11, with the
           slower fire-rate, 20-round magazine and superfast reload times.

           It has slightly less muzzle velocity but very low muzzle drift.

  Patched: In the Spring Patch the horizontal recoil was reduced.

           The recoil recovery was increased from 6 to 10 in the same patch.

   Trivia: This is a sniper variant of the SCAR-H battle rifle.

           FN currently offer two versions of the 7.62mm SCAR-H with 20" barrels
           for marksman use - the PR (Precision Rifle) with the standard SCAR
           folding buttstock and the TPR with a non-folding adjustable stock.

           The two main visual differences between the in-game models for the
           SCAR-H (assault rifle) and the SCAR-H SV (DMR) are that the latter
           has a longer barrel (with an extended handguard) and it comes with a
           sexy black finish by default.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03g | Shotguns                                                  s03g |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

Like the carbines and DMR's, the shotguns can be equipped into the primary slot
in any of the four kits, replacing your assault rifle, PDW, LMG or sniper rifle.

In addition to the standard shotgun primaries the game also includes the Assault
kit's M26 MASS "gadget" and the USAS12 Battle Pickup (both described below) plus
the Shorty 12G (which is listed with the other sidearms in Section 03h).

Initially no shotguns are available. The QBS09 is unlocked from progression of
the Support class and the DAO12 can be earned by completing an assignment (in
the Second Assault DLC). Additionally the M26 MASS and Shorty can be unlocked by
progression of the Assault class and sidearms (respectively). The others are
unlocked by earning XP using whichever shotguns you have available (including
the USAS12 pickup).

(DICE declared February 2014 to be "Player Appreciation Month". In addition to
free daily Battlepacks, double XP events and community challenges they also
released some optional free gun unlock shortcuts on the PSN store. The "Shotgun
Shortcut Kit" was available free to all Premium subscribers during the period
25 February to 4 March and this unlocked all eight primary shotguns that are
normally unlockable - i.e. everything below from the QBS09 to the DBV12. This
shortcut pack is now available to purchase for US$4.99, UKP3.99 or 500 Yen.)

There are three types of shotgun in the game:

o Pump-actions: Hawk 12G, 870MCS, SPAS12 and UTS15 (all unlockables)

  With pump-actions you manually chamber a new shell after firing.

o Semi-automatics: QBS09, DBV12, M1014, Saiga 12k and DAO12 (all unlockables)

  With semi-auto shotguns the next shell is chambered for you.

o Automatic: USAS12 only (Battle Pickup)

  With auto weapons you can hold the trigger for fully automatic fire.

Shotguns can now be modified with chokes to adjust the shape of the "cone" of
pellets/darts fired (see Section 04c) and some can accept foregrips now too.

Although they can't quite match PDW's, shotguns have good hipfire accuracy so -
at typical short engagement distances - you don't need to worry about aiming
down sights (the hipfire accuracy can be further enhanced by the addition of a
laser sight which is the obvious choice of accessory for any shotgun). However
beyond very short ranges you should still ADS wherever possible.

Patched: The aimed moving accuracy of the pump-action shotguns was approximately
         doubled in the 4 March 2014 patch. This change was made to compensate
         for the lack of heavy barrel and foregrips (which you might otherwise
         use to buff the accuracy) and to make the use of slug ammo (see below)
         more viable at medium ranges. 

         In addition to the changes to the damage and pellet/dart counts in the
         Spring Patch outlined below, the standing hipfire spread was tightened
         for all shotguns (when either stationary or moving and for all ammo
         types). Overall this was a considerable buff for the shotguns.

         Additionally in the Spring Patch the spread increase per shot was
         adjusted for each gun on an individual basis. Generally the value will
         now be around 0.5 for semi-autos and around 0.2 for pump-actions.

There are four types of shotgun ammo. Buckshot is available by default and the
other three types can be unlocked like attachments by getting kills with each
weapon (80 or 90 kills for slug, 120 or 130 for dart and 160 or 170 for frag).

                                    Buckshot
                                    ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
A shotgun is a gun that fires shot. :) The standard ammo load for a shotgun is
buckshot where each shotshell contains a number of individual lead pellets but
the number of pellets will vary from one gun to another in order to balance its
rate of fire and other stats.

(With the multiple pellets per shell and scattering effect it's possible to hit
multiple targets with a single round and it's theoretically possible - and not
uncommon - to have a hit accuracy of greater than 100% with a shotgun.)

The following table shows the amount of damage caused per pellet; to make up
for their slower rates of fire the pump-action shotguns have more pellets per
shell than the semi-autos.

                        |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
             Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
         ===============+========+==============+========+=============
                        |        |              |        | Semi-auto
          12-gauge buck |  11.2  |  24m to 32m  |   5.6  |-------------
                        |        |              |        | Pump-action

At ranges of less than 25 metres you would need at least nine pellets to hit
your target for a kill (9 x 11.2 > 100).

The ARMOR spec (perk) in the Defensive field upgrade path usually applies a
x0.93 multiplier on shots to the chest/arms but with buckshot the multiplier is
reduced to x0.85 which reduces your potential for a one-hit kill.

Patched: The damage multiplier for shotgun buckshot shots to the chest and arms
         protected by the ARMOR spec was increased from x0.67 to x0.85 in the
         25 March 2014 patch, improving the chances of shotgun users.

         In the Spring Patch the start-end distances were extended from 16-30 to
         25-50 metres and the max-min damage values were standardized across all
         shotguns to 11.2-5.6 (previously 18.0-6.0 for semi-autos and 15.4-5.2
         for pump-actions). All guns now have significantly more pellets per
         shell, with pump-actions seeing the biggest increases.

         These changes had the overall effect of making shotgun performance more
         reliable. Taking the 870MCS pump-action as an example, this used to
         have twelve pellets per shell and you needed seven (58%) to hit your
         target at short range for a kill (7 x 15.4 > 100). Now it has nineteen
         pellets per shell and you need nine (only 47%) to hit for the kill. In
         addition to the longer damage drop-offs (and the tighter hipfire), you
         now need a smaller proportion of the pellets to connect.

         The Second Fall Patch (2015) contained extensive changes (documented in
         a 30-page PDF) but these were mainly aimed at re-balancing vehicles.
         However there were major changes to the shotguns which had been left a
         little overpowered by the previous tweaks. Specifically the drop-off
         distances for buckshot and dart rounds were reduced from 25-50 metres
         to 24-32 metres. Additionally the pellet counts were reduced slightly
         for the UTS15, Saiga 12k, DAO12, DBV12 and M1014 (see below).

With most guns a x2.13 multiplier is applied to headshots but for buckshot there
is no multiplier (x1) so you should always go for chest shots. The larger target
improves your chances of more pellets impacting too.

                                      Slug
                                      ¯¯¯¯
With the slug load each shell fires a single chunky projectile which does high
damage. With the post-patch headshot damage multiplier of x2.13 slugs rounds
only require 46.9 base damage to give a one-shot headshot kill.

                        |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
             Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
         ===============+========+==============+========+=============
                        |  75.0  |  12m to 50m  |  38.0  | Semi-auto
          12-gauge slug |--------+--------------+--------+-------------
                        | 100.0  |  15m to 60m  |  45.0  | Pump-action

You'll note that a pump-action shotgun with slugs does 100 max damage out to 15
metres so you can get one-hit kills on shots to the upper torso and arms too,
although this can be countered by the ARMOR spec's x0.93 damage penalty.

Patched: The muzzle velocity for slug rounds was increased in the Fall Patch.

         In the Spring Patch the stats were adjusted for pump-action shotguns
         only (since it is not possible to rebalance the number of projectiles
         as with buckshot and flechette). The start-end distances were extended
         from 12-50 to 15-60 metres and the minimum damage raised from 38 to 45.

         In the Summer Patch the headshot multiplier was reduced (to x2.13).

                                      Dart
                                      ¯¯¯¯
With the dart (or flechette) option each shell contains multiple darts instead
of pellets. Again the number of projectiles per shell varies from one gun to
another but any given shotgun will always have the same number of pellets (with
buckshot ammo) or flechettes (with dart ammo) in its shells.

This table shows the amount of damage dealt per dart.

                        |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
             Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
         ===============+========+==============+========+=============
                        |        |              |        | Semi-auto
          12-gauge dart |   8.4  |  24m to 32m  |   4.2  |-------------
                        |        |              |        | Pump-action

Darts give better penetration of light cover (like bodies!) and a tighter cone
of dispersion for the projectiles.

Patched: In the Spring Patch the start distance was extended from 20 metres to
         25 metres and the max-min damage values were standardized across all
         shotguns to 8.4-4.2 (previously 12.5-8.4 for semi-autos and 11.0-7.4
         for pump-actions). All guns now have significantly more darts per shell
         with pump-actions seeing the biggest increases.

         In the Second Fall Patch the drop-off distances for buckshot and dart
         shells were rebalanced from 25-50 metres to 24-32 metres. Additionally
         the dart counts were reduced slightly for several weapons (see below).

The ARMOR spec (perk) in the Defensive field upgrade path usually applies a
x0.93 multiplier on shots to the chest/arms but the superior penetration of dart
rounds is able to defeat the body armour and the standard x1 multiplier applies.

(Prior to the Spring Patch dart ammo had a longer drop-off and higher minimum
damage than buckshot. Now flechette rounds have the same drop-off distances and
do less damage than buckshot at all ranges. The key advantages of darts are the
superior performance against the ARMOR spec or targets behind light cover.

With most guns a x2.13 multiplier is applied to headshots but for darts (as with
buckshot) there is no multiplier (x1) so you should always go for chest shots.

                                      Frag
                                      ¯¯¯¯
With frag ammo each shell fires a single explosive round which can be used to
destroy light cover such as shutters, partitions and planters. The table shows
only the impact damage when you hit your target.

                        |  Max.  |    Damage    |  Min.  |
             Ammunition | Damage |   Drop-Off   | Damage | Weapons
         ===============+========+==============+========+=============
                        |  25.0  |              |  15.0  | Semi-auto*
          12-gauge frag |--------|  25m to 50m  |--------+-------------
                        |  40.0  |              |  25.0  | Pump-action

Frag rounds also give an additional explosive effect which causes up to 25 pts
of splash damage across a 2.5 metre radius from the point of impact regardless
of whether it hits a person or a nearby wall, floor, etc. This will cause extra
damage to your target/s and - at very short range - it can injure you too! (try
shooting at the ground right next to your character's feet and you'll see you
take 25 pts damage each time)

Patched: In the Spring Patch the start-end distances were extended from 8-40 to
         25-50 metres and the max-min damage values were changed from 20.0-5.0
         to 25.0-15.0 (for semi-autos) and from 37.5-10.0 to 40.0-25.0 (for
         pump-actions). The splash damage remains unchanged.

If you're landing hits on your target then (with the combination of impact and
splash damage) you should now get a two-hit kill out to any range with a pump-
action and out to 25 metres with a semi-auto. In theory you should be able to
get a four-hit kill at any range on a target in cover (no line of sight) as long
as you can get maximum splash damage with each shot (4 x 25 = 100).

*These stats also apply to the USAS12 pickup which only uses frag rounds.

                                       ¯¯
The Hawk, Saiga, DBV, USAS and M26 all use detachable magazines which give the
benefit of being able to fully reload the weapon more quickly. However the other
shotguns, where you load shells into the weapon individually, have the advantage
that you can interrupt the loading sequence to resume firing at any time.

The loading times given below are either the short reload for a magazine change
(e.g. "2.20 secs") or for loading individual shells (e.g. "0.55 secs x N" where
it will take 0.55 seconds to load one shell, 1.10 seconds to load two, etc).

o QBS09

     Ammo: 12-gauge    Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 230 RPM   Reload: 0.67 secs x N

  Unlocks: score 16,000 pts with Support class

           If you really don't like using the light machineguns of the Support
           class then you could use the Groza carbine instead.

  Summary: Your first shotgun primary looks like a pump-action because it has an
           internal non-detachable tube magazine but it's actually a semi-auto.

           It has the highest rate of fire and lowest vertical recoil of all the
           equipable shotguns. However it also has the smallest ammo capacity
           (six) and the same lower pellet/dart count (twelve pellets or darts
           per shell) as the post-patch DBV12 and M1014.

           With buckshot loaded you'll need three quarters of the pellets to hit
           your target to get a one-hit kill (9 x 11.2 > 100). Compare that to
           the Hawk 12G pump-action which has twenty-one pellets per shell so
           you only need around two fifths to connect for a kill.

  Patched: The spread increase per shot got a small buff in the Spring Patch.

           Also the pellet/dart count was increased to twelve per shell. (Prior
           to the Spring Patch it had more pellets than the other semi-autos but
           it also used the lower damage model from the pump-actions.)

           The per-shell reload time was increased from 0.60 to 0.67 seconds in
           the 2015 Holiday Patch.

   Trivia: The QBS09 is a modern semi-auto shotgun adopted by the Chinese forces
           as recently as 2009. The design features a fixed tubular underbarrel
           magazine, scope rail, pistol-grip and tidy sliding shoulder-stock.

o 870MCS

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 8   Fire-rate: 92 RPM   Reload: 0.67 secs x N

  Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with shotguns

           Remember you're not limited to using the QBS09 for unlocks - you can
           also use the Shorty 12G sidearm, M26 gadget or USAS12 Battle Pickup.

  Summary: In the absence of BF3's extended mags feature the shotguns now tend
           to have larger default magazines but lower rates of fire (for example
           in BF3 the 870MCS held five shells but fired at 125 RPM).

           The 870 now fires at 92 RPM but that's good by BF4 standards - it
           fires at the same rate as the SPAS12 and these are the fastest pump-
           action shotguns in the game. Compared to the SPAS it holds one less
           shell (eight) but has one more pellet/dart per shell (nineteen) so I
           would go with the 870 when using buck or darts because there won't
           be many situations when you need that extra ninth shell, especially
           when you can reload individual shells so quickly.

           The other pump-actions can offer you a bigger ammo capacity (UTS15)
           or more pellets per shell (Hawk 12G) but they fire more slowly.

  Patched: The moving/aimed accuracy were increased in the 4 March 2014 patch.

           The spread increase per shot got a big buff in the Spring Patch.

           Also the pellet/dart count was increased to nineteen per shell.

           The per-shell reload time was reduced from 0.70 to 0.67 seconds (the
           same as the QBS) in the 2015 Holiday Patch.

   Trivia: The Remington 870 dates back to the 50's but the MCS (Modular Combat
           System) is a modern version with the ability to conveniently swap
           out components (barrel, magazine extensions, stock, etc) to configure
           it for various roles. It also has a short Picatinny rail on the top
           which can readily accept a scope/sight attachment.

           The Remington 870 also forms the basis of the Knight's Armament Co's
           "Masterkey" system where the shotgun is mounted under the barrel of
           an M16 or M4 in the same manner as the M26 MASS (see below).

o M1014

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 8   Fire-rate: 210 RPM   Reload: 0.55 secs x N

  Unlocks: score 11,000 pts with shotguns

  Summary: The stats for the other three semi-auto shotguns in the base game are
           quite similar, but there are some minor variations.

           Compared to the Saiga and DBV, the M1014 fires slightly faster and
           has the lowest vertical recoil. It also has the smallest magazine but
           the fastest reload time (individual shells) of all the shotguns.

  Patched: The spread increase per shot got a small buff in the Spring Patch.

           Also the pellet/dart count was increased to thirteen per shell.

           The count was then reduced from 13 to 12 in the Second Fall Patch.

   Trivia: The M4 Super 90 was designed by Benelli of Italy in the late 90's for
           entry into the US Army's trials to find a new 12-gauge semi-automatic
           shotgun - it won the competition and was adopted as the M1014.

           See the Benelli M4 on IV8888: https://youtu.be/tV5AVhu2r58

           It's also used by the British armed forces, designated the L128A1.

o Hawk 12G

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 83 RPM   Reload: 1.95 secs

  Unlocks: score 19,000 pts with shotguns

  Summary: The most interesting feature of this pump-action shotgun is that it
           uses a detachable box magazine so you can do a full reload more
           quickly but you can't load shells individually.

           Each shell holds twenty-one pellets/darts which is more than any
           other shotgun in the game but it also has the slowest rate of fire
           and the smallest magazine capacity of the pump-action shotguns.

  Patched: The moving/aimed accuracy were increased in the 4 March 2014 patch.

           The spread increase per shot got a small buff in the Spring Patch.

           Also the pellet/dart count was increased to twenty-one per shell.

   Trivia: The second Chinese shotgun in BF4 is the Hawk 97-2 Pump Tactical.

           The original Hawk model is a clone of the Remington 870 design with a
           14" barrel, underbarrel tube magazine, solid stock and pump-action
           which previously appeared in BF2 as the NOR982 (Norinco 982).

           However the model in this game is the Tactical variant which combines
           the pump-action mechanism with a short detachable box magazine and a
           folding shoulder-stock.

           There's also a bullpup variant of it (with a similar layout to the
           AUG assault rifle) with a box magazine fed at the rear.

o Saiga 12k

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 8+1   Fire-rate: 200 RPM   Reload: 2.20 secs

  Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with shotguns

  Summary: The Saiga also has a detachable magazine but it's a semi-automatic
           design. Compared to the other semi-autos it has a fairly average
           pellet count, recoil and ammo capacity. It matches the same slower
           fire-rate of the DAO and DBV.

  Patched: The spread increase per shot got a small buff in the Spring Patch.

           Also the pellet/dart count was increased to fourteen per shell.

           The count was then reduced from 14 to 13 in the Second Fall Patch.

   Trivia: Noted for its reliability, the Saiga 12 is another Russian weapon
           derived from the classic Kalashnikov AK47 design. The model featured
           has the shorter 17" barrel - the "k" stands for korotkaya which means
           "short" - and a lightweight folding stock.

           See a custom Saiga 12 on IV8888: https://youtu.be/rgeqo_698fA

           Versions are also available in the smaller 20-gauge (including the
           20k model that featured in BFBC2) and in the lightweight .410 bore.

           A full-length Saiga with a skeletonized folding stock is available in
           the 2013 game Metro: Last Light. It's incorrectly modelled there with
           a fully automatic fire-mode and a short curved magazine.

           The Saiga 12k also appeared in Payday 2 as the "IZHMA 12G" with that
           name being a reference to the IZHMASH manufacturing plant.

o SPAS12

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 9   Fire-rate: 92 RPM   Reload: 0.67 secs x N

  Unlocks: score 37,000 pts with shotguns

  Summary: The SPAS ties with the 870MCS for the title of fastest-firing pump-
           action shotgun. Its magazine holds one extra shell but each one holds
           one less pellet.

           However if you want to use slug or frag rounds you might as well use
           the SPAS and take advantage of the slightly larger magazine and
           lower vertical recoil.

  Patched: The moving/aimed accuracy were increased in the 4 March 2014 patch.

           The spread increase per shot got a big buff in the Spring Patch.

           Also the pellet/dart count was increased to eighteen per shell.

   Trivia: The SPAS12 is made by Franchi of Italy and entered production in the
           early 80's. As fans of the first Terminator movie will know, "you can
           go pump or auto" but, for the sake of having another pump-action in
           the game, the semi-auto option is unavailable in BF4.

           The Special-Purpose Automatic Shotgun (12-gauge) was rebranded as the
           "Sporting-Purpose Automatic Shotgun" in an attempt to bypass American
           import restrictions.

o UTS15

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 15   Fire-rate: 85 RPM   Reload: 0.83 x N secs

  Unlocks: score 48,000 pts with shotguns

  Summary: The key feature here is the massive ammo capacity of the UTS - it can
           carry fifteen shells when fully loaded (but then you have to wonder
           how often you're going to need that many at one time).

           However it also fires significantly slower and it has more vertical
           recoil and a slower reload animation. It has the same pellet/dart
           count as the SPAS, that's one fewer than the 870.

           The UTS gets the usual bullpup bonuses to hipfire and moving accuracy
           and the usual bullpup penalties to aimed accuracy and reload times.

  Patched: The moving/aimed accuracy were increased in the 4 March 2014 patch.

           In addition to this the rate of fire was reduced from 100 to 99 RPM.

           The spread increase per shot got a big buff in the Spring Patch.

           Also the pellet/dart count was increased to twenty per shell.

           The count was then reduced from 20 to 18 in the Second Fall Patch.

           The per-shell reload time was increased from 0.80 to 0.83 seconds in
           the 2015 Holiday Patch.

   Trivia: The UTAS UTS15 (Urban Tactical Shotgun) was designed by UTAS Makina
           of Turkey between 2006 and 2011 at the request of Smith & Wesson who
           sought a pump-action shotgun with a large ammo cap. The design was
           inspired by the Neostead NS2000 (that featured in BFBC1 and BFBC2).

           The bullpup configuration gives a compact size while still having an
           18" barrel. The main body is made from lightweight fibre-reinforced
           polymer and features a long Picatinny scope rail on the top.

           The most distinctive aspect of the UTS15 is that it has two tube mags
           mounted next to each other above the barrel. Each magazine can hold
           seven 2.75" shells (or six 3" shells) and another can be loaded into
           the chamber (behind the pistol-grip) to give a capacity of 15 rounds.
           The cutaway body allows you to see how many shells are left (and also
           reduces weight further) and a selector switch can be used to set the
           weapon to fire only from one tube so potentially the user can switch
           between two ammo types (but sadly you can't do this in the game).

           The weapon is available via UTAS USA who sell a range of accessories
           including attachable front/rear iron sights, a 7.5" barrel extension
           and a combined laser/taclight that's integrated below the barrel.

           See the UTS15 (failing) on FPSRussia: http://youtu.be/a050T2wFKAY

           The UTS15 appears in COD: Ghosts as the "Tac 12" although you need
           the extended mags option to give the authentic 15-round capacity.

o DBV12

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 200 RPM   Reload: 2.20 secs

  Unlocks: score 59,000 pts with shotguns

  Summary: Your final shottie unlock is another Russian semi-auto shotgun with a
           detachable magazine. It performs similarly to the Saiga, with the
           same rate of fire, reload times and vertical recoil, but the DBV has
           a larger magazine while the Saiga gets one extra pellet per shell and
           a much lower first-shot recoil multiplier (applied on every shot).

           After reaching rank 100 you can work towards the 'Wall of Shotgun'
           assignment which requires you to achieve 50 kills with the DBV12 plus
           50 each with the M26 MASS (Assault gadget) and Shorty 12G (sidearm).

  Patched: The spread increase per shot got a small buff in the Spring Patch.

           Also the pellet/dart count was increased to thirteen per shell.

           The count was then reduced from 13 to 12 in the Second Fall Patch.

   Trivia: The DBV12 is a shotgun version of the AK12 assault rifle (see above);
           the real AK12 can be adapted to fire various rifle calibres and even
           12-gauge shotgun shells so it's not an unrealistic option for BF4.

           The DBV12 is conceptually quite similar to the Vepr-12 - a Russian
           semi-automatic tactical shotgun made in the Kalashnikov pattern.

o DAO12

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 12   Fire-rate: 200 RPM   Reload: 1.18 secs x N

  Unlocks: complete 'Dead Stop' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Second Assault DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Achieve the following in the same match:
             - Get 1 Shotgun Ribbon (get 6 shotgun kills in a match)
             - Raise or lower the security gate on the Caspian Border map

           Your first primary shotgun will be the QBS09 which is unlocked by
           earning 16,000 pts with the Support class. This semi-auto weapon has
           a good fire-rate so it's quite spammable and it'll do better against
           the ARMOR spec (where a single shot is often insufficient). You can
           also use the USAS12 (Battle Pickup), Shorty 12G (sidearm) or M26 MASS
           (Assault gadget) to earn kills for that ribbon.

           Naturally shotguns will prosper in close-quarters environments, e.g.
           indoors and in short-range defence around an objective. To use them
           at longer ranges fit a choke attachment and/or use the dart ammo.

           On Caspian you need to head over to the main gateway in the big wall
           immediately north of the "B" Checkpoint flag on Conquest Large. The
           control switches for the large striped vehicle barriers there are in
           the booths at ground level immediately adjacent to the barriers (and
           even if/when the booths are destroyed the switches will remain).

           In addition to Conquest mode, the gate barrier controls can also be
           accessed in Rush, Obliteration, Capture the Flag and - at the very
           edge of the map - Domination.

  Summary: The DAO enjoys a large drum magazine which holds twelve shells but it
           has a very slow reload animation compared to the other shotguns that
           are loaded one shell at a time - and in fact the two semi-automatic
           shotguns with detachable mags (the Saiga 12k and the DBV12) can do a
           full reload in the time it takes to load two shells into the DAO12!

           Relative to the other semi-auto shotguns it has the same thirteen
           pellets/darts per shell as the Saiga (one more than the others) but
           it also has the second highest recoil after the DBV.

  Patched: When it was first introduced to BF4 the DAO12 was incorrectly given
           twelve flechettes per shell when using dart ammo. In the 4 March 2014
           patch this was fixed to the normal nine per shell and the cone width
           with dart rounds was increased too.

           Additionally the rate of fire was nerfed from 220 to 200 RPM.

           The spread increase per shot got a small nerf in the Spring Patch.

           Also the pellet/dart count was increased to fifteen per shell.

           The count was then reduced from 15 to 13 in the Second Fall Patch.

   Trivia: The "Double-Action Only 12-gauge" shotgun is in fact a South African
           design from the 80's called the Armsel Striker - or possibly the
           Streetsweeper clone manufactured by Cobray of South Dakota.

           Cobray also made a .410 bore model - the "Ladies Home Companion"!

o M26 MASS

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 5+1   Fire-rate: 109 RPM   Reload: 3.00 secs

  Unlocks: score 18,000 pts with Assault class (Buck ammo)

           score 51,000 pts with Assault class (Dart ammo)

           score 88,000 pts with Assault class (Slug ammo)

           score 114,000 pts with Assault class (Frag ammo)

  Summary: The M26 shotgun is only available to the Assault class. It unlocks
           and equips as a gadget so you can pick a long-range primary (like the
           SAR21 assault rifle) and keep the M26 for close-quarters, otherwise
           you might prefer to equip two shotguns at the same time - or even
           three if you have the Shorty 12G as your secondary!

           There are four versions of the M26 to unlock, each with a different
           ammo type. The initial "M26 MASS" option comes with buckshot shells
           and then you'll unlock dart, slug and frag rounds as you progress.

           Like some of the shotgun primaries, the M26 has a detachable magazine
           so you can do a full reload more quickly. It can be fitted as an
           underbarrel attachment on the SCAR-H, M416, M16A4, CZ805 and AR160
           assault rifles using the underslung rail but otherwise it will be
           equipped as a standalone weapon (with a red-dot sight).

  Patched: In the Summer Patch the number of flechettes per shell with dart ammo
           was increased from 12 to 19 (to match the standard M26 buckshot).

           The moving ADS accuracy was buffed from 1.2 to 0.4 (the same as the
           non-bullpup pump-action shotgun primaries) in the Second Fall Patch.

   Trivia: The M26 MASS (Modular Accessory Shotgun System) was derived from the
           Lightweight Shotgun System (LSS) of C-More Systems of America which
           was inspired by the Masterkey - an underbarrel breaching shotgun made
           from a heavily modified Remington 870 (see above).

           The pump-action mechanism is operated using the folding side lever
           and it's fed by a detachable magazine which makes it easier to switch
           between different ammo types for various roles.

           In its unmounted configuration the M26 has a pistol-grip, adjustable
           shoulder stock (like that of the M4 carbine) and sling mounts.

           The M26 MASS made its first appearance in the Battlefield series in
           BF3 but it previously featured in both Rainbow Six: Vegas games as
           the prototypical XM26 LSS.

           See the M26 MASS on Triggers: http://youtu.be/XAON-kHHga4

o USAS12

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 300 RPM   Reload: 2.50 secs

  Unlocks: N/A (Battle Pickup only)

           Like the M82A3 and AMR2 sniper rifles (see Section 03d) the USAS12 is
           only available as a pickup weapon in BF4.

  Summary: Now the only automatic shotgun in the game, the USAS steps up in its
           new role as a Battle Pickup with a higher rate of fire (previously
           275 RPM in BF3) and an authentic ten-round magazine (six in BF3).

           Seemingly in celebration of the ridiculously overpowered pre-patch
           USAS/frags combo in BF3, the new USAS is not available with any other
           type of ammo - it'll always come with frag rounds loaded.

           Like the M82 and AMR there are different versions of the USAS12. The
           standard "USAS12" has a holo sight, ergo grip and green laser/light
           combo while the "USAS12 FLIR" has the 2x infra-red scope, angled grip
           and the laser/light combo again.

  Patched: At launch, unlike the other Battle Pickups, the limited ammo supply
           of the USAS12 could be replenished from an ammo crate but this has
           since been fixed and you're stuck with your default 33 shells.

           In the Spring Patch the USAS got the same hipfire spread and damage
           buffs as the other shotguns. 

   Trivia: The USAS is an American military shotgun design manufactured in South
           Korea. It takes either a 10-round box or 20-round drum magazine.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 03h | Sidearms                                                  s03h |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

Your sidearm is equipped into the secondary slot and you can pick a different
one for each class. You can use them as a back-up when your primary gun is empty
or for quick follow-up shots after firing a bolt-action sniper rifle in close
quarters; you also automatically switch to your sidearm when you're revived.

You'll sometimes want to choose a sidearm to complement your primary selection,
for example pairing the fully automatic G18 (short range) with a scoped sniper
rifle (long range) or, conversely, a scoped Magnum with a shotgun.

Initially only the P226 and Mare's Leg are available. The MP412 Rex can be
unlocked in the single-player campaign and a further three sidearms can be
earned by completing DLC assignments. The others are unlocked by earning XP
using whichever *pistols* you have available. (I've emphasized pistols there
because any points earned from using the new Shorty 12G shotgun sidearm will
count towards shotgun unlocks rather than more sidearms.)

(DICE declared February 2014 to be "Player Appreciation Month". In addition to
free daily Battlepacks, double XP events and community challenges they also
released some optional free gun unlock shortcuts on the PSN store. The "Handgun
[sic] Shortcut Kit" was available free to all players during the period 18 to 24
February and this unlocked all eleven sidearms that are normally unlockable in
online play - i.e. everything except for the MP412 Rex (campaign unlock) and the
SW40, Unica 6 and Deagle 44 (DLC unlocks). This shortcut pack is now available
to purchase for US$4.99, UKP3.99 or 500 Yen.)

You'll naturally use your sidearms in general play but if you want to chew
through the unlocks a lot faster you could try searching in the Server Browser
for custom servers running pistol-only rules on small maps. Alternatively you
might be able to find an active server running Gun Master mode (added in the
Spring Patch) and configured with the sidearms list (this will be shown as "Gun
Master Weapons Preset = 2" in the server settings).

In contrast to BF3 where you had to unlock different versions of the same pistol
(e.g. M9 Suppressed, MP443 Tactical, .44 Scoped, etc) in BF4 sidearms now have
Optic, Accessory and Barrel slots where you can equip a range of attachments and
you can even pick a camo for the new Paint slot too if you're so inclined. You
unlock attachments by getting kills with each gun, just like the primaries.

The sidearms use a wide range of ammo types with different damage models.

            |    Max.   |    Damage    |   Min.   |
 Ammunition |   Damage  |   Drop-Off   |  Damage  | Weapons
============+===========+==============+==========+=============================
   12-gauge | 13 x 11.2 |   25m to 50m | 13 x 5.6 | Shorty 12G only (buckshot)
------------+-----------+--------------+----------+-----------------------------
            |           | 12.5m to 50m |          | .44 Magnum only
            |           |--------------|   37.5   |-----------------------------
 .44 Magnum |           |   15m to 60m |          | Mare's Leg only
            |    56.0   |--------------+----------+-----------------------------
            |           | 12.5m to 50m |          | Deagle 44 only
------------+           |--------------|   28.0   |-----------------------------
.357 Magnum |           |   15m to 37m |          | MP412 Rex, SW40 and Unica 6
------------+-----------+--------------+----------+-----------------------------
    .45 ACP |    36.6   |    8m to 40m |          | M1911 and Compact 45
------------+-----------+--------------|   15.4   |-----------------------------
    .40 S&W |    30.0   | 12.5m to 55m |          | CZ75 only
------------+-----------+--------------+----------+-----------------------------
            |    27.0   |   10m to 55m |          | P226, M9 and MP443
     9x19mm |-----------+--------------|   12.1   |-----------------------------
            |    22.0   |    8m to 55m |          | 93R (burst) and G18 (auto)
------------+-----------+--------------+----------+-----------------------------
   5.8x21mm |           |              |          | QSZ92 only
------------|    22.0   |    8m to 60m |   13.5   |-----------------------------
   5.7x28mm |           |              |          | FN57 only

You'll notice that although the 93R and G18 use the same 9mm ammunition as some
of the semi-auto pistols their damage output is reduced to help balance the high
rates of fire for the machine-pistols.

In general terms you can consider the sidearms as a spectrum. At one end you
have the guns with a large ammo capacity and higher rate of fire that do less
damage per shot and at the other end of the spectrum you have the heavy pistols
with low capacities and slow fire-rate but more powerful rounds. This spectrum
is even more diverse now in BF4 with the addition of three new damage profiles.

Patched: The semi-automatic 9mm pistols have done 27 max damage since launch -
         this is sufficient to give a four-hit kill even against the ARMOR spec
         which applies a x0.93 multiplier on shots to the upper torso and arms.

         In the big 4 March 2014 patch DICE raised the max damage of all the
         other semi-auto pistols. For the M1911, Compact 45, QSZ92 and FN57 the
         small increases were made so that the BTK (bullets to kill) for these
         weapons at short range would not be affected by the ARMOR spec.

         The CZ75 already did 27 max damage so now after the patch it retains
         its edge over the 9mm pistols in being able to give a four-hit kill out
         to longer ranges (even against a target with the ARMOR spec active).

The following table gives a crude indication of each sidearm's damage output
potential. The DPS is the theoretical maximum damage-rate (damage per second);
for the Shorty shotgun this assumes that all thirteen pellets hit the target.

                          |  Maximum  |           |     |   Ammo
                   Weapon |   Damage  | Fire-Rate | DPS | Capacity
            ==============+===========+===========+=====+==========
               G18 (auto) |    22.0   |  900 RPM  | 330 |   17+1
              93R (burst) |    22.0   |  900 RPM  | 330 |   15+1
            --------------+-----------+-----------+-----+----------
               Shorty 12G | 13 x 11.2 |  100 RPM  | 242 |    2+1
            --------------+-----------+-----------+-----+----------
                     SW40 |    56.0   |  220 RPM  | 205 |     6
                Deagle 44 |    56.0   |  220 RPM  | 205 |    8+1
                  Unica 6 |    56.0   |  210 RPM  | 196 |     6
               Compact 45 |    36.6   |  320 RPM  | 195 |   10+1
                    M1911 |    36.6   |  310 RPM  | 189 |    7+1
            --------------+-----------+-----------+-----+----------
                     CZ75 |    30.0   |  360 RPM  | 180 |   12+1
                P226 / M9 |    27.0   |  400 RPM  | 180 |   15+1
            --------------+-----------+-----------+-----+----------
                    MP443 |    27.0   |  380 RPM  | 171 |   17+1
                MP412 Rex |    56.0   |  180 RPM  | 168 |     6
             QSZ92 / FN57 |    22.0   |  455 RPM  | 167 |   20+1
               .44 Magnum |    56.0   |  150 RPM  | 140 |     6
            --------------+-----------+-----------+-----+----------
               Mare's Leg |    56.0   |   66 RPM  |  62 |     6

However, as sidearms are often used to finish-off an enemy who has already taken
damage, the individual damage per round can be important too - a more powerful
sidearm has a higher chance of killing an enemy on low health with one shot.

The remodelled trigger buttons (R2/L2) on the PS4's new Dualshock 4 controller
seem to have a longer pull which is most noticeable when you're trying to fire a
pistol quickly. In order to get all your button presses to register you need to
let the button travel back to its default position each time. This shouldn't be
a problem on the slower guns (or the G18!) or if you change your controller
configuration settings to "swap L1/R1 with L2/R2 = on".

o P226

     Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 15+1   Fire-rate: 400 RPM   Reload: 1.25 secs

  Unlocks: available at start

  Summary: Your starting pistol (heh) is the first of three using the 9mm load.
           This now does 27 max damage (compared to 25 in BF3) so you can still
           get a four-hit kill on abdomen/leg shots or against the ARMOR spec.
           However the damage drop-off and minimum damage are both reduced.

           The 9mm pistols are all pretty similar, with the P226 and M9 even
           sharing the same fire-rate and magazine capacity; the P226 has the
           least vertical recoil and average reload times. The MP443 Grach has a
           larger magazine and faster reloads but significantly more vertical
           recoil and a slower rate of fire.

           If you want to go for even higher rates of fire (accepting reduced
           bullet damage) you now have the option of the FN57 and QSZ92.

  Patched: The damage drop-off start was extended from 8 metres to 10 metres for
           all three semi-auto 9mm pistols in the Spring Patch.

   Trivia: The P226 is made by SIG-Sauer of Switzerland. It was designed as a
           derivative of their P220 model for submission to the US trials in the
           mid 80's to find a new service pistol. The SIG P226 was beaten by the
           Beretta 92F (which was adopted as the M9 - see below) but it is still
           widely used by other military and police operators worldwide.

           It's available in various models/calibres/sizes but the version in
           BF4 is a fairly standard 9mm model with a 15-round magazine.

           The P226 saw brief service with the British Army (as the L105/L106) 
           but it was announced in January 2013 that the Glock 17 Gen 4 would be
           replacing all SIG's (and vintage Browning Hi-Powers) in British use.

           The compact P228 model is used by the US military designated the M11.

o Mare's Leg

     Ammo: .44 Magnum   Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 66 RPM   Reload: 0.77 secs x N

  Unlocks: available by default (added in Spring Patch on 26 May 2015)

  Summary: The Mare's Leg is a lever-action pistol-calibre rifle shortened at
           both ends so it can be worn as a sidearm in a leg holster.

           It uses the same .44" Magnum ammo as the .44 Magnum revolver (see
           below) but with longer damage drop-off distances. Cartridges are
           loaded individually into the underbarrel tube magazine (as with some
           shotguns) and a new round needs to be chambered after each shot by
           operating the lever action. This has a cool animation (best viewed in
           hipfire) but it also gives a very slow rate of fire.

           The Mare's Leg was intended to function as a "pocket sniper" which
           could supplement the loadout of any class but the end result delivers
           a limited level of performance in that role. You can get a one-shot
           headshot kill but only out to 37 metres - at longer ranges you'll
           need to land a follow-up shot. With body shots you'll need to get two
           out to 29 metres or three beyond (unless you're playing in Hardcore
           mode in which case it's a two-hit kill at all ranges).

           In most cases the 44 Mag revolver is a better choice. It fires over
           twice as fast as the Mare's Leg which makes those follow-up shots
           much easier to get. It also has the same ammo count and ADS spread.

           The default iron sights on the Mare's Leg are pretty poor - the front
           blade is too wide for accurate use - but at least your first two
           unlocks are the 4x ACOG scope and Reflex red-dot sight. It can use
           all of the short-range and medium-range optics apart from the infra-
           red scopes but none of the long-range sniper scopes apart from the
           40x Ballistic. (DICE trolling us again!)

           Since it requires two-handed operation the Mare's Leg cannot be used
           while swimming (but the game still shows the "secondary" prompt).

  Patched: Evidently the original pre-release version of the Mare's Leg was far
           too good and after testing on the CTE it got a range of nerfs to its
           fire-rate, damage profile, accuracy and scope options.

           The option of equipping a heavy barrel was added in the Summer Patch
           (this reduces the aimed spread from 0.2 to 0.1).

           In an attempt to make it slightly more useful the damage drop-off
           end distance for the Mare's Leg was extended from 45 to 60 metres in
           the Second Fall Patch (2015). This had the effect of increasing the
           one-hit headshot kill range from 29 to 37 metres.

   Trivia: Pre-dating even the ancient M1911 (see below), the original Mare's
           Leg was based on a lever-action .44-40 calibre Winchester 1892 rifle.

           The weapon and its name originated in the TV show 'Wanted: Dead or
           Alive' in the late 50's where it was used by the main character - a
           bounty hunter played by a young Steve McQueen.

           (In the 1987 movie of the same name Rutger Hauer plays the grandson
           of Steve McQueen's character. He's a bounty hunter too but he favours
           a tactical Remington 870 with a bigass 80's laser sight!)

           The in-game weapon model shows that it's been retrofitted with a full
           quad accessory rail in place of the wooden handguard, what appears to
           be a synthetic buttstock instead of the original wooden one and a new
           angular lever loop. The new rear iron sights resemble LPA's shotgun
           sights as seen on the modernized lever-action rifles built by Grizzly
           Custom Guns of Montana.

           Some companies still manufacture Winchester 1892 replicas and with
           modern materials these can handle the higher pressures from ammo such
           as the .357" and .44" Magnum loads. Chiappa - who also make the Rhino
           revolver (BF4's SW40) - make both the Winchester 1892 and a shortened
           "Mare's Leg" version in a range of calibres including .44" Magnum.

           See a .44 Magnum Mare's Leg on IV8888: https://youtu.be/VG0oQB9VK0g

           The Mare's Leg featured prominently in the movie Zombieland (used by
           Tallahassee) and in Firefly/Serenity (used by Zoe).

o MP412 Rex

     Ammo: .357 Magnum   Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 180 RPM   Reload: 3.40 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Tombstone Actual' assignment (single-player)

           Simply finish the first mission (Baku) to pass the assignment.

  Summary: The first of two revolvers in the base game, the Rex has seen some
           substantial changes since BF3. Where previously the Rex did 50 max
           damage and the .44 Magnum did 60, now both do 56 (clearly sufficient
           for a two-hit kill). However the rate of fire has plummeted from 255
           to 180 RPM resulting in a 21% drop in its rate of damage output. :(

           It still has a short damage drop-off and its vertical recoil has been
           increased in line with its big brother - it's five times that of the
           9mm P226 listed above. Overall the Rex appears to be modelled now
           more as a slightly faster but slightly less accurate .44 Magnum; its
           aimed accuracy still beats the other pistols though.

           With the standard headshot damage multiplier (x2.13) you can get a
           one-shot headshot kill with the Rex out to around 22 metres (taking
           advantage of that aimed accuracy too). Magnum rounds can be used to
           detonate enemy explosives (e.g. anti-tank mines) which is better than
           wasting a grenade. Another use is to detonate your own explosives,
           for example when you plant SLAM mines directly onto an enemy vehicle
           but it doesn't trigger them by moving.

  Patched: The Rex and .44 Magnum both suffered from a delay between pulling the
           trigger and firing the round - according to DICE this "represents the
           way these weapons work in real life". However they compromised and
           reduced this delay slightly in the big 4 March 2014 patch and then
           totally removed it in the Fall Patch.

           The reload animation was fixed in the 8 July 2014 patch. Originally
           the speedloader was shown full of cartridges after reloading!

           Previously the Magnum rounds of all the heavy pistols (revolvers and
           Deagle) gave a x2.35 headshot multiplier but this was reduced to the
           standard x2.13 in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: The MP412 Rex was designed in Russia and intended for sale in foreign
           markets ("Rex" = Revolver EXport) but it was never mass-produced.

           Its design is unusual in that it "breaks" open like a double-barrel
           shotgun, the entire barrel and cylinder assembly hinging forwards. It
           also has an automatic extractor which is why all the cases jump out
           when you break the gun to reload (and it's also why the MP412 has a
           shorter reload time that the .44 Magnum).

           The Rex is the only sidearm available in the single-player campaign
           but you can equip a second primary as your secondary instead so that
           seems a pretty fair trade.

o M9

     Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 15+1   Fire-rate: 400 RPM   Reload: 1.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 4,000 pts with sidearms

  Summary: As noted above the M9 gives very similar performance to the P226 but
           it has slightly slower reloads and a little more vertical recoil.

           The only minor benefits compared to the P226 are a higher muzzle
           velocity and evenly balanced horizontal recoil.

  Patched: The damage drop-off start was extended from 8 metres to 10 metres for
           all three semi-auto 9mm pistols in the Spring Patch.

   Trivia: The M9 is the US military designation for the Beretta 92F pistol from
           Italy, instantly familiar from dozens of appearances in movies. It
           was adopted for US service after extensive trials in the mid 80's,
           replacing the M1911 .45 which had been in service since 1911. The
           M9A1 model with an underbarrel rail followed in 2006.

           In autumn of 2012 the US Army procured a further 100,000 M9 pistols
           from Beretta USA indicating their commitment to continuing to use the
           M9 for at least another five years. However, as older M9's in service
           are reaching the end of their life-cycles, the US Army and Air Force
           are currently running the XM17 'Modular Handgun System' competition
           to find a replacement for the M9 in military roles by 2018. Beretta
           offered the upgraded M9A3 for US Army review but it was rejected.

           See the M9, M9A1 and M9A3 on MAC: https://youtu.be/jincc8cQtDo

           The stylish Italian design with the distinctive open slide is copied
           from much earlier Beretta handguns, with the 92 bearing a striking
           resemblance to their M1951 from (duh!) 1951 and even to other models
           dating back to the 20's.

           An updated version of the 92 called the "90two" was released in 2006
           with an ergonomic grip, front accessory rail, increased sight radius
           and 17-round magazine.

o QSZ92

     Ammo: 5.8x21mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 455 RPM   Reload: 1.30 secs

  Unlocks: score 8,000 pts with sidearms

  Summary: The QSZ has a large magazine size and is capable of a high fire-rate
           - halfway to the 900 RPM of the fully automatic G18! However this
           comes at a price and the Chinese 5.8mm round does a maximum damage of
           only 22 which gives a standard five-hit kill (although that jumps to
           a three-hit kill in Hardcore mode where everyone has 60 health).

           Compared to the other semi-auto pistols the QSZ has fairly average
           reload times and aimed accuracy.

  Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch they increased the max damage from 20 to 22
           and the min damage from 11.2 to 12.1. They also improved the vertical
           and horizontal recoil and the recoil recovery rate.

           At launch the QSZ92 was modelled with the 15-round magazine of the
           9mm version but the ammo capacity was eventually corrected in the
           March 2014 patch to 20+1 which is authentic and matches the FN57.

           (In the same patch the vertical recoil of the FN57 was increased so
           overall the QSZ now compares much more favourably to its rival.)

           The QSZ92 and FN57 were buffed in the Spring Patch, their minimum
           damage was increased from 12.1 to 13.5 and their spread increase per
           shot was reduced by 25% (making follow-up shots more accurate). Also
           the aimed accuracy for the QSZ was improved slightly (0.5 to 0.4).

           The two pistols still give quite similar performance but the QSZ has
           better aimed accuracy and vertical recoil while the FN57 has superior
           horizontal recoil and muzzle velocity. 

   Trivia: The Norinco QSZ92 entered Chinese service in the late 90's but they
           mostly use the 9mm model rather than the 5.8mm version in the game.

           The QSZ92 was previously available to the Chinese People's Liberation
           Army (PLA) faction in BF2 and BF2: Modern Combat.

o MP443

     Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 17+1   Fire-rate: 380 RPM   Reload: 1.20 secs

  Unlocks: score 13,000 pts with sidearms

  Summary: The last of the three 9mm semi-autos packs a couple of extra rounds
           in the magazine and has the fastest reloads of the group but the rate
           of fire is a bit slower and it experiences much more vertical recoil.

  Patched: The damage drop-off start was extended from 8 metres to 10 metres for
           all three semi-auto 9mm pistols in the Spring Patch.

   Trivia: Following a design and trial process in the 90's the MP443 "Grach"
           (Russian for "rook") was adopted by the Russian military in 2003.

           In addition to the standard 9mm Parabellum round it is also capable
           of using the same overpressure armour-piercing ammo as the PP2000.

           The Firearm Blog published a short article about the MP443 in 2007
           entitled 'Ugliest Modern Pistol'!

           The MP443 appears in ArmA III as the "Rook 40".

o Shorty 12G

     Ammo: 12-gauge   Capacity: 2+1   Fire-rate: 100 RPM   Reload: 0.67 secs x N

  Unlocks: score 18,000 pts with sidearms

  Summary: First seen in the BF3 debut gameplay trailer way back in March 2013,
           the Shorty wasn't confirmed as a multiplayer weapon until August. If
           you hadn't guessed already, the Shorty 12G is a compact 12-gauge
           shotgun which can be equipped in your sidearm slot.*

           With no ammo unlocks available the Shorty only uses buckshot shells,
           each with thirteen pellets doing 11.2 max damage apiece. That sounds
           good but you'll need nine of those thirteen pellets to hit your
           target for a one-hit kill (9 x 11.2 > 100). Another key factor is
           that the shortened weapon only holds three shells in total so you
           really need to make them count.

           By default the Shorty has no iron sights so you cannot ADS with it
           until you unlock and equip an optic attachment (the "ghost ring"
           sight unlocks after 30 kills). Like the Mare's Leg it requires two
           hands to use so it cannot be equipped while swimming.

           Points earned with the Shorty count towards your shotguns total (not
           sidearms) so you can use it to work on primary shotgun unlocks.

           *If you're a big fan of shotguns you can now equip a shotgun primary
           and shotgun secondary together with any of the four classes. With the
           Assault kit you could also take the M26 MASS in a gadget slot giving
           you three shotguns in total!

  Patched: At launch the Shorty could only use the duckbill and not the more
           useful modified/full chokes (which tighten the cone of pellets/darts)
           but now both chokes are available by default, without even needing to
           get any kills to unlock them.

           In the big 4 March 2014 patch the recoil recovery rate in hipfire was
           nerfed from 10 down to 6.

           All the shotguns saw significant changes in the Spring Patch and the
           humble Shorty was no exception. The number of pellets per shell was
           increased from eight to thirteen, the max damage reduced from 18 to
           11.2, the min damage reduced from 6 to 5.6 and the damage drop-off
           distances extended from 16-30 metres to 25-50 metres.

           Additionally the spread of standing hipfire was increased by +0.25
           but the spread increase per shot was greatly reduced for all stances.

   Trivia: The ultra-compact pump-action Serbu Super Shorty is produced by Serbu
           Firearms Inc of Florida. They take a full-size Mossberg 500 or (for
           an extra $50) a Remington 870 and lovingly convert the barrel, tube
           magazine and pump-action to create a weapon that's only 16.5" long.

           The standard model holds three shells (two in the shortened mag plus
           one in the chamber) but they also make slightly larger versions where
           the magazine holds three or four rounds and the barrel is longer.

           The folding foregrip is used to operate the pump-action.

o G18

     Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 17+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 1.20 secs

  Unlocks: score 23,000 pts with sidearms

           (Remember: kills/points earned with the Shorty 12G will count towards
           your shotguns stats so as long as you keep it equipped you won't make
           any further progress on your sidearm unlocks.)

  Summary: The Glock G18 is capable of full automatic fire at a ferocious 900
           RPM. Even with the damage nerfed (the maximum damage is 22 compared
           to 27 for the pistols firing the same 9mm load and the G18 and 93R
           have some of the lowest damage figures in the whole game) the G18 can
           still match the damage output of a 800 RPM assault rifle in CQB!

           Naturally a small weapon with such a high fire-rate is difficult to
           handle - the vertical recoil, horizontal recoil and first-shot recoil
           multiplier are all large. However at very short ranges the G18 is
           devastatingly effective and easy to use.*

           While the Glock G17 and G18 were both black in BF3, the G18 in BF4 is
           now modelled as two-tone with a coloured frame and black slide.

           *Youtube producer TheRussianBadger (playing on PC) describes the G18
           as "left-click to win".

  Patched: The ADS recoil recovery rate was fixed in the 4 March 2014 patch.

           In the Spring Patch of May 2015 the G18 and 93R saw their maximum
           damage buffed from 18 to 22 (for a five-hit kill in close quarters)
           and the minimum damage increased from 10.8 to 12.1. However the mag
           sizes were reduced too, with the Glock going from 19 to 17.

           Further changes were applied to the accuracy and recoil. Aimed and
           hipfire accuracy were improved across the board, the vertical and
           horizontal recoil were reduced and the spread increase per shot was
           also reduced. The only nerf was the smaller magazine capacity.

   Trivia: The original model of the Glock company of Austria was the G17 which
           launched in 1982, firing 9mm ammo from a 17-round magazine (hence the
           name). There are now numerous models in different calibres and sizes
           but they all share the G17's distinctive plain rectangular slide and
           advanced polymer construction.

           The automatic G18 variant was designed to meet the requirements of an
           Austrian special-forces unit. Since it chews through ammunition so
           quickly it would normally be used with a 33-round magazine but it can
           also accept any of the standard Glock magazines. Previously the G18
           in BF4 used the largest Glock pistol magazine (19 rounds) but since
           the Spring Patch is uses the original size (17 rounds).

           The other 9mm Glock models are all semi-automatics - the G19 compact,
           G26 subcompact and extended G34 variant for competition. Other models
           are available in .45 ACP, .380 ACP, 10mm, .40 S&W, .357 SIG and the
           .45 GAP (Glock Automatic Pistol) load which was designed especially
           to give the power of the classic .45 ACP in a smaller modern pistol.

o FN57

     Ammo: 5.7x28mm   Capacity: 20+1   Fire-rate: 455 RPM   Reload: 1.25 secs

  Unlocks: score 28,000 pts with sidearms

  Summary: With their original stats there was no reason to continue using the
           QSZ92 after the FN57 had been unlocked. The FN57 had a larger mag and
           the other stats were identical or better.

           Following a patch the QSZ now has the same 20+1 ammo capacity and a
           lower recoil which gives it one advantage over the FN57. However the
           FN57 still has a higher muzzle velocity and slightly faster reloads.

  Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch they increased the max damage from 20 to 22
           and the min damage from 11.2 to 12.1. They also increased the muzzle
           rise but cut the muzzle drift and improved the recoil recovery rate.

           The QSZ92 and FN57 were buffed in the Spring Patch, their minimum
           damage was increased from 12.1 to 13.5 and their spread increase per
           shot was reduced by 25% (making follow-up shots more accurate). 

   Trivia: As noted previously the FN "Five-seveN" was developed in parallel
           with the P90 (PDW) and the novel 5.7mm cartridge, although it didn't
           enter production until 1998, eight years after the P90.

           The high-velocity 5.7mm bullets are designed to penetrate modern body
           armour but they have a tendency to tumble within the target which
           causes more damage and reduces the risk of over-penetration making
           them suitable for law enforcement applications. FN boast that the gun
           is used by 300+ agencies worldwide including the US Secret Service.

           Although originally sold only to military/police operators, the gun
           has been available to civilian users since 2004. The current models
           are the USG (United States Government), the brown FDE (Flat Dark
           Earth) and the new Five-seveN Mk 2 which launched in 2013.

           FN also continue to market the Hi-Power (currently the Mk III model)
           which was first produced in 1935 and was designed by John Browning
           who also created the legendary M1911 .45 ACP handgun.

           This is the first appearance of the Five-seveN in the Battlefield
           series but the weapon has previously featured in over thirty games,
           including the Counter-Strike, Splinter Cell and SOCOM series.

o M1911

     Ammo: .45 ACP   Capacity: 7+1   Fire-rate: 310 RPM   Reload: 1.20 secs

  Unlocks: score 34,000 pts with sidearms

  Summary: The two .45" calibre pistols in the game - the M1911 and Compact 45 -
           give a higher maximum damage for a potential three-hit kill (or two-
           hit kill if one is a headshot or if you're playing Hardcore).

           They also have better stationary ADS accuracy than the other semi-
           auto pistols and excellent reload times. However they have smaller
           magazines, slower rates of fire and higher vertical recoil.

           Only the M1911, .44 Magnum and Unica 6 can use the 3x pistol scope.
           Previously the M1911's scope was only available to DICE staff but, by
           way of compensation for various launch issues, they ran a double XP
           week from 28 November 2013 and at the conclusion of this the M1911 3x
           scope was unlocked for everyone. The scope is less useful on the
           M1911 though because, unlike the Magnum and Unica, it's incapable of
           giving a one-shot headshot kill at any range (36.6 x 2 < 100).

           Achieving 45 kills in multiplayer with the M1911 earns you the ".45
           Old School" trophy/achievement. 

  Patched: The max damage was increased in the 4 March 2014 patch (see above).

           At launch the M1911 and the Compact 45 (see below) had very similar
           stats except for a larger magazine size on the Compact 45 which meant
           there was little reason to use the M1911. DICE have since given the
           M1911 a couple of buffs "to make it a viable choice once the Compact
           45 has been unlocked".

           In the 30 Jan 2014 patch the muzzle velocity was increased from 250
           to 270 m/s then in the big 4 March 2014 patch they increased its ADS
           accuracy, decreased the recoil and improved the recoil recovery.

           The M1911 is now more effective at longer ranges while the Compact 45
           retains the advantage of having the larger 10+1 ammo capacity.

           In the Fall Patch the bullet speed for both .45" handguns was buffed.
           The M1911 has the higher muzzle velocity which fits its revised role
           while the Compact 45 still has the slowest bullet speed in the game.

   Trivia: John Browning's iconic and revolutionary design remains popular today
           despite now being over a hundred years old!

           Chambered for the .45" Automatic Colt Pistol round, the handgun was
           tested against other designs in the early 1900's and adopted by the
           US Army in 1911. It remained in service until 1985 and the adoption
           of the M9 (see above), although it's still in use with the Navy, USMC
           and some special-forces units. It is estimated that over 2.5 million
           Colt 45's have been purchased during its US military history.

o 93R

     Ammo: 9x19mm   Capacity: 15+1   Fire-rate: 900 RPM   Reload: 1.35 secs

  Unlocks: score 39,000 pts with sidearms

  Summary: The 93R offers an alternative to the Glock G18, but with three-round
           burst fire instead of full auto so you'll need to keep tapping the
           trigger for successive bursts (in contrast to being able to mag-dump
           the G18 with one long squeeze of the trigger).

  Patched: In the Spring Patch of May 2015 the G18 and 93R saw their maximum
           damage buffed from 18 to 22 (for a five-hit kill in close quarters)
           and the minimum damage increased from 10.8 to 12.1. However the mag
           sizes were reduced too, with the Beretta going from 20 to 15.

           (With one round in the chamber the 93R now holds sixteen rounds which
           gives you five full bursts plus one single shot at the end.)

           Further changes were applied to the accuracy and recoil. Aimed and
           hipfire accuracy were improved across the board but the horizontal
           recoil and spread increase per shot were nerfed to bring them in line
           with the G18.

           The two machine-pistols have quite similar stats now but the 93R has
           slightly less vertical and horizontal recoil and the G18 has quicker
           reload times and now has the larger magazine of the two.

   Trivia: The Beretta 93R is based on the Beretta 92 design and launched in
           1979. The R stands for raffica which means "burst" in Italian.

           (As noted above, the 92F is designated as the M9 in US military use,
           however the Raffica is not the "M9-3R", it's just 93R. It's sometimes
           known as the Model 93R or M93R although Beretta themselves don't use
           that nomenclature.)

           Various features were incorporated to make it usable with the burst
           fire mode including an extended magazine, folding foregrip, recoil
           compensator and optional folding shoulder-stock (absent in BF4).

           See the 93R in slo-mo on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/JALH0gQa8gY

           The 92 was not the first Beretta model to be adapted into a machine-
           pistol - the M951R was based on the M1951 design in the 60's and had
           a fully automatic fire mode, supported by a longer barrel, extended
           magazine and chunky wooden foregrip.

           The 93R is officially a Cool Gun:

              http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/CoolGuns/MachinePistols

o CZ75

     Ammo: .40 S&W   Capacity: 12+1   Fire-rate: 360 RPM   Reload: 1.35 secs

  Unlocks: score 45,000 pts with sidearms

  Summary: After BF3 I was hoping that DICE would add a .40" weapon to give more
           variety to the pistol range and here it is! (thanks guys)

           The CZ75 has a max damage of 30 which gives the same four-hit kill as
           the 9mm pistols in close-quarters but it retains this ability out to
           much longer ranges. This also improves your chances of finishing off
           an enemy who has already taken damage.

           Compared to the 9mm pistols the CZ75 has a smaller ammo capacity,
           slower rate of fire, slower reloads and more vertical recoil than the
           M9 and P226 (but less than the Grach).

  Patched: In the 4 March 2014 patch they increased the max damage from 27 to 30
           and the min damage from 13.5 to 14.6 (giving it the same damage-rate
           as the M9 and P226).

           Previously the CZ75 had the same accuracy stats as the 9mm pistols
           but in the Fall Patch of September 2014 the stationary aimed accuracy
           was increased and the moving aimed accuracy was reduced. Additionally
           the reload threshold was reduced slightly.

           The CZ75 got some buffs in the Spring Patch. The minimum damage was
           increased from 14.6 to 15.4 (the same as the two .45" pistols), the
           damage drop-off end was extended by 5 metres and the magazine size
           was increased by one.

   Trivia: The CZ75 is made by the state-owned Ceska Zbrojovka company of the
           Czech Republic who also make the CZ805 and CZ3A1 (see above).

           The gun's design dates back to 1975 (hence the name) and incorporated
           a double-column magazine to greatly increase the ammunition capacity
           (the original model held fifteen 9mm rounds).

           Numerous versions have been released over the years but the version
           in BF4 fires the .40 S&W (Smith & Wesson) round which has a calibre
           of approximately 10.2mm putting it midway between 9mm and .45 ACP
           (11.4mm) and therefore giving a balance of power and magazine size.

           The most interesting variant of the CZ75 was probably the Automatic
           model from the early 90's which is a machine-pistol quite similar in
           concept to the Beretta 93R (see above). It had an extended magazine
           and could spit 9mm rounds at a rate of approximately 1,000 RPM. To
           help control the beast a spare magazine could be fitted in front of
           the trigger guard as a crude foregrip. The CZ75 Auto is playable in
           Counter-Strike: Global Offensive.

           CZ also offers several deluxe models of the CZ75 with engravings!

           Check them out here: http://www.czub.cz/en/catalog/85-engravings.aspx

           Of numerous accessories available for the range the most impressive
           is a large plastic contraption which fits around the CZ75 P-07 model
           giving it a long scope rail, side accessory rails, a folding foregrip
           and an adjustable shoulder-stock which can also carry a spare mag.

o .44 Magnum

     Ammo: .44 Magnum   Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 150 RPM   Reload: 4.00 secs

  Unlocks: score 51,000 pts with sidearms

  Summary: The 44 Mag revolver now does the same 56 maximum damage as the Rex
           but is has a much longer drop-off, extending to 50 metres where it
           does a mighty 37.5 minimum damage. You can get a one-shot headshot
           kill with the 44 Mag out to around 24 metres.

           It's more capable at reaching out to those longer distances too as it
           has a stationary aimed accuracy of 0.2 which is only matched by the
           M1911 and Mare's Leg in the sidearms category. Also - like the M1911
           and Unica - the 44 Mag has an 3x scope option, although this one is
           only available to players with Veteran status recorded (i.e. they've
           played at least one Battlefield game online other than BF4).

           Understandably the gun has very high vertical recoil (plus a slow
           recoil recovery). It also has a slower rate of fire than the Rex, it
           takes a whole four seconds to reload (even with a speedloader).

  Patched: The 3x scope attachment for the .44 Magnum unlocks as part of the
           exclusive Veteran Battlepack but this was not available at launch. In
           fact most players didn't get it until the 21 Feb 2014 patch, almost
           four months after the game was released.

           The Rex and .44 Magnum both suffered from a delay between pulling the
           trigger and firing the round - according to DICE this "represents the
           way these weapons work in real life". However they compromised and
           reduced this delay slightly in the big 4 March 2014 patch and then
           totally removed it in the Fall Patch.

           In the Spring Patch the stationary aimed accuracy was reduced from
           0.1 (matching some DMR's) to 0.2 but the moving aimed accuracy was
           improved from 1.0 to 0.8 (still worse than most pistols).

           Previously the Magnum rounds of all the heavy pistols (revolvers and
           Deagle) gave a x2.35 headshot multiplier but this was reduced to the
           standard x2.13 in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: The ".44 Magnum" is the Taurus Model 44. Specifically it's the 44SS6
           model denoting the .44 calibre, stainless steel finish and 6" barrel.

           Also available are the Model 608 version which holds eight rounds of
           .357 Magnum and the 44SS8 with an 8" barrel for the Dirty Harry look.

o Compact 45

     Ammo: .45 ACP   Capacity: 10+1   Fire-rate: 320 RPM   Reload: 1.20 secs

  Unlocks: score 57,000 pts with sidearms

  Summary: The Compact 45 has the same damage profile and reload times as the
           M1911, a larger magazine and slightly higher fire-rate.

           However the M1911 has less recoil and, following a couple of balance
           patches, it also now has better aimed accuracy and muzzle velocity so
           that's the better choice for longer ranges.

  Patched: The max damage was increased in the 4 March 2014 patch (see above).
           A minor error on crouch/prone accuracy was fixed at the same time.

           In the Fall Patch the bullet speed for both .45" handguns was buffed.
           The M1911 has the higher muzzle velocity which fits its revised role
           while the Compact 45 still has the slowest bullet speed in the game.

   Trivia: When the 9mm Beretta 92F was adopted as the M9 service pistol of the
           US military in 1990 it replaced the Colt M1911 which uses the larger
           .45 ACP calibre. Further trials were conducted between 2005-2006 to
           find a modern .45" handgun to replace the M9 and the HK45 pistol was
           designed by H&K, taking various features from their previous USP and
           P30 models, as their entry to this Joint Service Pistol competition.
           The trials were ultimately cancelled but the HK45 is available now
           for police and civilian use.

           The HK45 is an ergonomic design with distinctive finger grooves on
           the front of the pistol-grip and interchangeable backstraps on the
           rear to adjust to fit the user's hand. It also has a Picatinny rail
           (a requirement of the JSP programme) making it easy to fit a taclight
           or laser attachment under the barrel. It takes a 10-round magazine
           and is sometimes seen bicoloured with a tan frame and grey slide.

           The HK45 Compact (or HK45C) is smaller, lighter and takes either an
           8-round magazine or a 10-round magazine with an extended floorplate
           (as seen on the BF4 model). It has an underbarrel accessory rail but
           no grooves on the grip.

           See the HK45 Compact on TAC-TV: https://youtu.be/8T9TEOxUK4U?t=5m9s

           (Larry Vickers discusses his input on the pistol's design during a
           range session with the MoH Warfighter dev team)

           The gun was playable in the Battlefield Hardline beta as the standard
           secondary of the Enforcer class but relabelled as the HK45C.

o SW40

     Ammo: .357 Magnum   Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 220 RPM   Reload: 3.80 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Curve Ball' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Naval Strike DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Get 10 kills with RGO Impact hand-grenades

           The Impact grenades unlock after scoring 1,500 pts with grenades and
           can be equipped into the grenades slot on any class loadout. Instead
           of having a timer fuse, the grenade will detonate on impact (hence
           the name!) - it will explode almost immediately after contact with
           terrain so your target has no time to evade.

           The Impact grenades were rebalanced in the 4 March 2014 patch - the
           max damage was raised from 67 to 80 but the splash radius was reduced
           so they now hit harder but you need to be more accurate with them.
           On a Normal server a single grenade is insufficient to get a kill on
           an uninjured enemy but you're now more likely to finish someone off
           if they have partial health. Even before the patch an Impact grenade
           could give a one-hit kill in Hardcore mode.

           In the Fall Patch the inner blast radius was nerfed further and the
           number of RGO Impact grenades you carry was reduced from two to one.

           If you play as Support you can drop ammo to resupply your grenades
           but measures to reduce grenade spam in the 25 March patch included a
           reduction to the rate at which Impact, Mini, Flashbang and Smoke
           grenades can be resupplied from an ammo box. The resupply time for
           all grenades was greatly increased in the Fall Patch too.

           I got an Impact grenade kill on a low-flying transport helicopter
           that was trying to cap a flag. :) I guess I must've hit a gunner.

  Summary: Given its name, we can only assume that DICE intended to make this
           revolver fire the same .40" S&W load as the CZ75. However it actually
           uses .357" Magnum rounds like the Rex so it has the same max damage
           as the other heavy pistols and the same shorter drop-off as the Rex.

           For me the biggest difference between the SW40 and the Rex is that
           the former has a significantly higher rate of fire which gives it an
           excellent max damage-rate, beaten only by the shotgun Shorty, auto
           G18 and burst 93R and almost matching the high DPS of the Rex in BF3.
           The SW40 gives the same maximum rate of damage as the Desert Eagle in
           close quarters although the Deagle 44 has a longer damage drop-off.

           Inevitably there are a couple of factors that balance the SW40 versus
           the Rex. The first is that the SW40 has a slower reload (which makes
           sense as it lacks the Rex's auto-extractor) and the second is its
           inferior accuracy - it has the same spread as most of the semi-auto
           pistols while the Rex is one of the most accurate sidearms; the SW40
           also suffers from a larger spread increase on follow-up shots.

  Patched: The trigger delay was removed in the Fall Patch (see above).

           The "Swagnum" got a small buff in the Spring Patch, with the vertical
           recoil reduced from 2.0 to 1.6 (for the other four Magnum handguns
           the value remained at 2.0).

           Previously the Magnum rounds of all the heavy pistols (revolvers and
           Deagle) gave a x2.35 headshot multiplier but this was reduced to the
           standard x2.13 in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: In real life the weapon is the Chiappa Rhino and it looks like it has
           the 4" barrel option in BF4 which makes it the Rhino 40DS model.

           Taking design cues from the earlier Unica 6, the Rhino is a radical
           departure from the traditional revolver format. The barrel is much
           lower than usual because the gun fires from the bottom chamber of the
           cylinder rather than the top one. This puts the axis of the bore in
           line with the shooter's arm which makes recoil easier to handle and
           allows more intuitive aiming. Additionally the cylinder is a flat-
           sided hexagonal shape so the weapon can be more readily concealed.

           See the Rhino on IV8888: https://youtu.be/GD7fh6RS0Xk

           The Rhino is available in 2", 4", 5" and 6" barrel options, chambered
           for .357 Magnum, .40 S&W, 9x19mm and 9x21mm and with either a black
           or chrome finish (the latter being the so-called "White Rhino").

           See the White Rhino on Miculek.com: https://youtu.be/YbDUWACwRqk

           Guns.com reviewed the 6" Rhino with a gold finish in April 2014 and
           branded it "the futuristic pimp's choice"!

           Chiappa is based in Bresica, Italy although they also have a centre
           in Dayton, Ohio. In contrast to the modern looks of the Rhino, the
           company's catalogue includes a wide range of historic replica rifles,
           revolvers and shotguns - they even make the Mare's Leg! (see above)

           The longer 6" model of the Rhino appeared as an unlockable sidearm in
           Ghost Recon: Future Solider called the "Wild Boar". It also features
           in ArmA III as the "Zubr .45" even though the Rhino is not available
           in .45 ACP (and generally that calibre is uncommon in revolvers).

o Unica 6

     Ammo: .357 Magnum   Capacity: 6   Fire-rate: 210 RPM   Reload: 4.10 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Big Splash' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Dragon's Teeth DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Play on any Dragon's Teeth map to activate assignment
           o Activate the floodgates on the Sunken Dragon map
           o Get 5 kills while swimming

           On Sunken Dragon there's a prominent flood barrier or dam structure
           to the north side of the map which has a row of four elevated control
           towers. Just to the north-east of the west tower is a control room -
           you can access this directly from the stairs behind the west tower or
           take the ladder up to the east tower, follow the gantry to the west
           and then take the door in the east corner of the west tower.

           Inside the control room is a bank of four monitor screens and two
           buttons. You can use the controls here to drain or refill the lake.
           If there's a circle prompt on one of the buttons you can use this to
           either "Lower Water" or "Raise Water". The lake Levolution sequence
           takes about a minute to complete so if it has already started you'll
           need to wait until it's done.

           The floodgate controls can be accessed in Conquest, Conquest Large
           and Capture the Flag game modes on the Sunken Dragon map.

           Obviously you can swim in the sea but you can also swim in lakes and
           rivers if the water is deep enough, however you are only technically
           "swimming" when you cannot switch to your primary gun. While swimming
           the following functions are available:

           - fire pistol
           - use knife
           - throw hand-grenades
           - plant M2 SLAM anti-vehicle mines* (Engineer kit)
           - use repair tool (Engineer kit) i.e. to "unrepair" an enemy vehicle
           - plant and detonate C4 (Recon/Support kits)

           The waterways on the Lumphini Garden map are deep enough for swimming
           and can give opportunities for short-range pistol kills. Similarly
           you could try the interior of the large floating restaurant on the
           Sunken Dragon map when the water level is raised (see above). I got
           several pistol kills swimming off small islands with Conquest flags
           on the Naval Strike maps. Paracel Storm, Floodzone and Dragon Pass
           can be used for swimming kills too.

           *If you plant SLAMs on a boat they will detonate when it moves but
           you can also trigger them on a stationary target by shooting directly
           at them with a heavy pistol (revolver or Deagle).

  Summary: The Dragon's Teeth DLC added two such heavy pistols to the game: the
           Deagle 44 firing .44" Magnum (like the .44 Magnum revolver) and the
           Unica 6 which shoots .357" Magnum (like the MP412 Rex and the SW40).

           All three .357 six-shooters have the same damage profiles and almost
           identical recoil stats. The SW40 has the highest fire-rate but the
           Unica is close behind while the Rex is significantly slower. The Rex
           has the quickest reload and the Unica has the slowest (see below).
           The Rex also has the best aimed accuracy, followed by the Unica and
           then the SW40.

           The main reasons to run with the Unica 6 are to harvest the headshots
           required to unlock the Desert Eagle (see below) and perhaps to have a
           pistol with an unlockable 3x scope option (with more power than the
           M1911 but faster fire-rate than the .44 Magnum).

  Patched: Previously the Magnum rounds of all the heavy pistols (revolvers and
           Deagle) gave a x2.35 headshot multiplier but this was reduced to the
           standard x2.13 in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: Like its successor the Rhino (see "SW40" above), the Mateba Model 6
           Unica is a revolver with the barrel aligned to the bottom chamber of
           the cylinder. However the Unica 6 design was even more unusual since
           it had a true semi-automatic mechanism which is very uncommon among
           revolvers (they usually use either a single or double-action).

           In production from 1997 to 2005, the Unica 6 was available in three
           different calibres (.357" Magnum, .44" Magnum and .454" Casull) and
           with several barrel length options. There was also the Mateba Grifone
           model which was a pistol carbine with an 18" barrel, a shoulder-stock
           and a very long handguard.

           The design has been criticised for being too complicated and too
           heavy compared to conventional revolvers. A further potential issue
           is that weaker rounds might give insufficient recoil to operate the
           semi-automatic mechanism.

           In BF4 the Unica 6 has a reload animation which has been described as
           "flamboyant". With the other revolvers in the game your character
           uses a conventional mechanical speedloader to insert the new rounds
           into the gun but with the Unica 6 he uses a basic ring speedloader*
           which is fitted around his finger and is shaken off after use, this
           giving the weapon the slowest reload times in the sidearm category.

           A Mateba revolver features prominently in the classic cyberpunk anime
           Ghost in the Shell.

           *This resembles the one-piece rubber speedloader from Maxfire.

o Deagle 44

     Ammo: .44 Magnum   Capacity: 8+1   Fire-rate: 220 RPM   Reload: 2.75 secs

  Unlocks: complete 'Recoil Kinetics' assignment (multiplayer)

           o Dragon's Teeth DLC required
           o Multiplayer Rank 10 required
           o Big Splash assignment required (see above)
           o Get 20 headshot kills using the Unica 6

           The good news about the Unica 6 is that it has the same high damage
           profile as the Rex and SW40 revolvers so it gives a one-shot headshot
           kill out to around 22 metres.

           If you're in a hurry to unlock the Desert Eagle you'll probably want
           to keep the Unica equipped and use it effectively as your primary
           (use the pistol at short range wherever possible and aim high). That
           could be quite frustrating in most games though so head to the small
           close-quarters maps of TDM and maybe seek-out a level playing-field
           in a pistol-only server (search on "pistol" in the Server Browser).

           For a more leisurely approach just equip the Unica on all four kits
           and remember to use it whenever you catch an enemy unawares. Instead
           of going for that knife kill take a second for a precise headshot.
           Prone enemies make especially good targets, including ones that have
           just been revived. :)

  Summary: The Deagle - or Desert Eagle if you're not into the whole brevity
           thing - shoots the same .44" Magnum load as the .44 Magnum revolver
           (although post-patch it delivers significantly less minimum damage).
           It gives a one-shot headshot kill out to around 24 metres - as you
           might expect from the legendary "Juan Deag". :)

           Comparing these two handguns, the Deagle's authentic 8+1 ammunition
           capacity clearly beats the revolver's six. The other benefits of the
           Desert Eagle are the much higher fire-rate (matching the SW40), the
           fastest reloads of all the heavy pistols and unlockable suppressors.

           (The strengths of the .44 Magnum are its excellent aimed accuracy,
           sufficient minimum damage for a three-hit kill at range, lower
           horizontal recoil and 3x scope (Veteran unlock), so it's the better
           choice for filling that "very long-range sidearm" niche.)

  Patched: The original Deagle was widely regarded as being overpowered but it
           received a range of nerfs in the Fall Patch.

           Previously it did the same 37.5 minimum damage as the .44 Magnum,
           earning it a reputation as a "pocket DMR" for its three-hit kill at
           long ranges. Since the patch it now does the same 28 minimum damage
           as the SW40/Unica/Rex although it retains the much longer drop-off
           distance of the .44 Magnum.

           Additionally the ADS stationary accuracy was reduced, the horizontal
           recoil was increased and the muzzle velocity was decreased, all three
           changes serving to further limit its "sniping" potential.

           Previously the Magnum rounds of all the heavy pistols (revolvers and
           Deagle) gave a x2.35 headshot multiplier but this was reduced to the
           standard x2.13 in the Summer Patch.

   Trivia: What would a modern military FPS game be without the ubiquitous*
           Desert Eagle? The correct answer, of course, is "more realistic". :P
           Seemingly designed mostly to look cool at the range and look, well,
           big in movies, the Deagle is not a practical weapon for military use.
           Models weigh between 3.9 and 4.5 pounds which is twice the weight of
           a typical modern(ish) military sidearm like the M9 (see above).

           The gun was designed by Magnum Research Inc of America in conjunction
           with Israeli Military Industries (of Uzi and Galil fame) and entered
           production in 1982. It is unusual among handguns in that it uses a
           rifle-style gas-operated mechanism.

           Originally only made in .357" Magnum calibre, the Deagle has since
           become available in .44" Magnum, .41" Magnum and of course the hefty
           .50" AE (Action Express). The current version is the Mark XIX which
           has a standard frame size for all calibres which means you can
           convert the pistol very easily by switching the barrel and magazine.

           Watch FPSRussia demonstrate that here: http://youtu.be/O1_ERm1446I

           The Mark XIX also comes with a top rail for fitting a scope and on
           newer models this is a standard Picatinny rail. In BF4 however the
           gun is modelled with an underbarrel rail for the laser sight and
           tactical light attachments (and no 3x scope option is available).

           Naturally the Deagle comes in a number of various exterior finishes.
           The current range from Magnum Research includes black, burnt bronze,
           matte chrome, brushed chrome, polished chrome, bright nickel, satin
           nickel, titanium gold, titanium gold with Bengal tiger stripes and of
           course 24K gold!

           *See: http://www.imfdb.org/wiki/Desert_Eagle


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 04 | ATTACHMENTS                                                 s04 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

Every primary firearm or sidearm has a series of accessories, sights/scopes and
sometimes ammunition types that unlock by scoring kills with that gun.

You'll get a new standard attachment every ten kills and these will include the
sights and scopes that match your weapon, e.g. Russian optics for a Russian gun.
At any stage you might receive the non-standard variants in the bronze, silver
and gold Battlepacks you earn as you rank up but, to ensure that you eventually
get everything, after the initial unlock sequence you'll receive Battlepacks
specific to the weapon (containing all the other attachments) every 50 kills.

Let's consider the Russian AEK971 as an example. (The Kobra is the Russian red-
dot sight, the PSO1 is the Russian 4x scope, the PK-A is the Russian 3.4x scope,
the PKA-S is the Russian 1x holo sight and the PBS4 is the Russian suppressor.)

      o Kobra sight (10 kills)            o PKA-S sight (130 kills)
      o laser sight (20 kills)            o magnifier (140 kills)
      o ergo grip (30 kills)              o stubby grip (150 kills)
      o muzzle brake (40 kills)           o PBS4 suppressor (160 kills)
      o PSO1 scope (50 kills)             o AEK971 Battlepack (210 kills)
      o canted ironsights (60 kills)      o AEK971 Battlepack (260 kills)
      o angled grip (70 kills)            o AEK971 Battlepack (310 kills)
      o heavy barrel (80 kills)           o AEK971 Battlepack (360 kills)
      o PK-A scope (90 kills)             o AEK971 Battlepack (410 kills)
      o flashlight (100 kills)            o AEK971 Battlepack (460 kills)
      o bipod (110 kills)                 o AEK971 Battlepack (510 kills)
      o compensator (120 kills)

(To view the specific attachments unlock sequence for any given weapon look it
up under the Unlocks/Weapons tab of your Battlelog profile.)

Those weapon-specific Battlepacks will contain all the other attachments (that
you haven't already received in general Battlepacks) i.e. the infra-red scopes,
the NATO/Chinese red-dot sights, the NATO/Chinese holo sights, the NATO/Chinese
3.4x scopes, the NATO/Chinese 4x scopes, the NATO/Chinese suppressors, the flash
hider and all the other foregrip types (a further 21 attachments in total). Each
weapon pack will also give you either a temporary XP boost or a new camo.

You receive various bronze/silver/gold Battlepacks as you progress through the
multiplayer ranks; in addition to random non-standard attachments for random
weapons these will also yield XP boosts, paints (for guns and vehicles), camos
(for your soldier), emblem shapes, dogtags, knives and Battlelog avatars.

You can view/open the Battlepacks you've earned under My Soldier \ Battlepacks
off the main menu, during a match from the "pause" menu accessed by pressing the
Options button or on your online Battlelog account.

(In May 2014 DICE announced that players would be able to purchase Battlepacks:
US$1 for a bronze Battlepack, US$2 for a silver and US$3 for a gold. If you want
to waste money on more 25% XP boosts that you'll never get around to using and a
few attachments you don't want for guns you don't use then be my guest!)

                                       ¯¯
To access your guns/attachments/gadget/vehicles loadout menus press Square on
the respawn screen during a match. You can also adjust your set-up within your
Battlelog account or in the Test Range. You can use the Test Range to experiment
with different loadouts - although you only have access to the guns and attach-
ments that you've unlocked - and you can practise using vehicles too.

Disallowed options are highlighted in red, for example the 2x magnifier cannot
be used in conjunction with iron sights or a medium/long-range scope.

You can choose your gun attachments to customise your weapon to suit different
roles, for example fitting a red-dot sight, laser sight, suppressor and ergo
grip for close-quarters use or a 4x scope (and canted irons as a back-up), heavy
barrel and angled grip or maybe a bipod for long ranges. You can also use them
to counter weaknesses of your gun, for example if your weapon has a particularly
wide horizontal recoil you can fit a compensator to reduce it.

In BF3 most weapons had slots for a sight/scope and two attachments with the
option of using unlockable camo on only a few selected guns. Now in BF4 most
guns get five slots - Optic, Accessory, Barrel, Underbarrel (or Auxiliary on a
sniper rifle) and Paint; even sidearms get four slots now.

The option of extended mags from BF3 (for LMG's, shotguns and several PDW's) is
no longer available. Generally the standard guns now hold more ammo by default.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 04a | Optics                                                    s04a |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

When you start using a gun for the first time you'll be forced to use its iron
sights unless it's a sniper rifle which comes with an optical scope attached
(although you have the option of removing it and using the irons if you want).

In BF4 the sights and scopes are now grouped into three categories:

           Close-Range              Medium-Range            Long-Range
      anything up to 2x zoom     3.4x and 4x zooms     6x and higher zooms

The close-range sights and medium-range scopes can be used in any primary gun
category but the long-range ones can only be used with the sniper rifles.

The range of sights and scopes here will be mostly familiar from BF3 but DICE
have added four Chinese optics (Coyote, HD33, Prisma, JGM4), a second infra-red
scope (FLIR) and two very high magnification sniper scopes (20x and 40x).

You also now have the options of supplementing some optics with canted irons,
a magnifier or the variable zoom function (see below).

Patched: You can now customize the reticle appearance in your close-range and
         medium-range optics (under Options \ Gameplay \ Advanced Options). You
         can adjust the size, glow and colour (RGB mix) of the reticle.

When using an automatic weapon and aiming down a scope/sight you'll experience
an effect called "visual recoil" - your optics will shudder and jump around in a
dramatic manner which has no relation to the gun's actual recoil or aim.

Patched: Since the Fall Patch the body of the optics will still jump about with
         visual recoil but the reticle/crosshairs within will now track the
         weapon's true point of aim during automatic fire. This change was
         applied to all red-dot sights, holo sights and medium-range scopes but
         not to the infra-red sights initially.

         A further change to optics in the same patch was improved visibility of
         sight reticles against brightly lit backgrounds (e.g. sun and snow).
         This change was presumably made in anticipation of the predominantly
         snowy terrain of the Final Stand DLC maps, although it also fixed the
         major weakness of the Coyote RDS.

                                  Iron Sights
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
These are the gun's built-in sights used when no other sight/scope is attached.

                 Red-Dot Sights (RDS) - Reflex / Coyote / Kobra
                 ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The iron sights (and the weapon itself) are often very obtrusive and give a poor
view of your target and the surrounding area. The red-dot sights overcome this
by mounting a large unobstructed aperture on top of the gun with a red-dot (on
the Reflex and Coyote) or red "T" reticle (on the Kobra) to mark the centre. The
red-dot sights offer no magnification and only give the effective zoom which is
equivalent to aiming down the gun's iron sights normally.

The US Reflex sight has a thick border that takes up more of your screen so you
might prefer the Kobra or Coyote (although for any of the NATO weapons you can
only unlock them via Battlepacks). The new Chinese Coyote has a larger viewing
window and thinner frame but personally I prefer the Russian Kobra because its
large T-shaped reticle allows faster target acquisition.

Patched: The "Winter Patch" of 3 March 2015 included many changes to the game
         but few notable changes to the actual guns. However it did add both
         "improved clarity" for all red-dot sights against bright backgrounds
         and a tweak to the Kobra's reticle to make it more authentic.

The Reflex sight in the Battlefield series is modelled on the RX01 Reflex 1x24
made by Trijicon who also manufacture the ACOG scope range (see below). In real
life it comes with a yellow dot instead of red.

The Coyote is based on the Chinese JH406 unit. The design features a distinctive
flat sunshade on top of the frame.

A real Kobra sight allows the user to switch between four different reticles,
the other three options being a dot (used for the Red Dot Sight in BFBC2), a
chevron and both of those together.

                        1x Sights - Holo / HD33 / PKA-S
                        ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The 1x sights operate on a similar principal to the red-dot sights but now the
dot is surrounded by a small circle which greatly improves the visibility of
your point of aim. With the reticles virtually identical, in this group my pick
would be the Chinese HD33 sight which has a wider viewing area; as soon as this
sight is available I'd use it in preference to the US Holo or Russian PKA-S.

On a real-life EOTech Holo sight the two square buttons at the rear are used to
adjust the brightness of the reticle up/down to suit your environment and the
circular NV button allows you to temporarily dim the marker when you want to use
the sight in conjunction with night-vision equipment.

The HD33 is modelled on the American TRUGLO Tru-Brite sight.

The Russian sight is correctly known as the PK-AS rather than PKA-S.

                                 F2000 (1.6x)
                                 ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
This sight unit is unique to the F2000 assault rifle in the Second Assault DLC.

The minor zoom can be beneficial at short/medium ranges but the sight has a very
thick border which will greatly impair your vision around your target.

                      Night Sights - IRNV (1x) / FLIR (2x)
                      ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Both of these give a thermal image which can be used to detect enemies in dark
environments or when camouflaged against foliage.

When you ADS the sight image will be the same size with both attachments but the
Infra-Red Night-Vision scope (IRNV) gives a basic 1x zoom and a green view with
heat sources highlighted yellow while the Forward-Looking Infra-Red scope (FLIR)
has a 2x zoom and a greyscale sight image with heat sources marked white. Both
attachments also have a rudimentary range finder incorporated in the scope view.

The IR sights are severely blinded by taclights and the flare "grenade" so you
can use either of these to counter enemies using the IRNV or FLIR.

Both units are fairly large and occupy a big chunk of your screen.

Patched: After extensive testing in the CTE, the IR scopes saw a range of tweaks
         in the Spring Patch (in anticipation of the forthcoming night map/s).

         They are now more effective at detecting enemies in a range of lighting
         conditions and the differences between the two scopes have been made
         more distinct - the IRNV gives better visibility overall but only shows
         enemies at shorter ranges (100 metres) while the FLIR allows you to see
         enemies at medium ranges (200 metres) but gives an inferior view of the
         game world (this is particularly significant on the "Thermal" optics
         which are the vehicle equivalent of FLIR).

         The ability of laser sights, flashlights and flares to blind infra-red
         scopes was also increased.

         With the addition of the night map Zavod: Graveyard Shift in the Summer
         Patch the visibility of night-vision scopes was also improved.

         Following extensive abuse of the smoke+IR combo in Rush mode the IRNV
         and FLIR scopes were adjusted in the Second Fall Patch so that they can
         no longer see through smoke. (Additionally both the M18 and 40mm smoke
         grenades now un-spot enemies within the smoke when they detonate.)

The FLIR scope is modelled on one of the ThOR scopes made by ATN Corp of San
Francisco. The digital scopes of the ThOR series each offer a different range of
magnification, with the best giving up to 40x zoom. (for only US$8,700!)

                       3.4x Scopes - M145 / Prisma / PK-A
                       ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
These scopes give a level of zoom that will be useful at medium ranges but with-
out most of the penalties applied to larger scopes. However all scopes from this
size upwards give a slightly slower time to ADS.

The M145 has a much thicker surround which limits your peripheral vision outside
the scope view. All three sights have a combination of black and red reticle
markings designed to work against both light and dark backgrounds. The American
M145 has more complex crosshairs while the Chinese Prisma has simpler crosshairs
and the Russian PK-A more closely resembles a holo sight.

The M145 is the US Army's variant of the Elcan C79 and is used primarily on the
M240 and M249 light machineguns.

The Prisma is really the CP1 Prismatic 3x scope from SIG Sauer, the same folks
that brought us the SG553 carbine, MPX submachinegun and P226 pistol.

In real life the PK-A is a 1x red-dot scope but it was given a 3.4x zoom here to
provide a Russian equivalent to the other two in this group.

                         4x Scopes - ACOG / JGM4 / PSO1
                         ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The 4x scopes give you a little more magnification than the previous ones.

The ACOG and PSO1 both have red chevrons marking the centre of the scope while
the JGM4 has black crosshairs with a central red T-shaped reticle that glows
against a dark background but all three are quite usable. The Russian PSO1 has a
heavy border from the scope's rubber eyecup and the Chinese JGM4 has a weird bit
that sticks out on the left side so I think the American ACOG is the best choice
here simply because it occupies less of your screen both in and out of ADS.

The ACOG name is a registered trademark of American company Trijicon and stands
for Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight. Although the scope gives 4x magnification
in BF4, Trijicon manufacture a range of ACOG models with various magnifications
from 1.5x up to 6x and with different lens sizes and reticle shapes/colours.

(In fact the 6x scope in BF4 is actually a Trijicon ACOG too - see below.)

The JGM4 is based on the Chinese K&M JGBGM7 4x scope.

The 4x PSO1 scope was designed specifically for use with the SVD Dragunov as a
designated marksman rifle (DMR). The distinctive curved "graph" in the reticle
image can be used to determine ranges based on a human target with a height of
1.7 metres (5 feet 7 inches), for example if the target fits neatly between the
curve and the horizontal line below at the "6" mark then the range is 600m.

                   CL6X (6x) / PKS07 (7x) / Rifle Scope (8x)
                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
These scopes give enhanced magnification for long-range sniping - unlike the
previous categories, each scope provides a different level of magnification. The
6x and 8x scopes have prominent large crosshairs that fill your scope view and
the 8x also has clear mil dots which can be used to help factor bullet-drop.

Any weapon using a scope with 6x mag or higher will suffer penalties. The scope
will "sway" when aiming so you will often want to tap L3 to hold your breath (to
steady your aim for about five seconds); you can also equip and deploy a bipod
to counter the sway effect. Additionally the "glint" of sunlight reflecting off
the lens will be visible to enemies when you aim at them.

When you ADS with any scope between 6x and 40x your view will be restricted to
the narrow field visible through the scope - you will have no peripheral vision
outside the circle of the scope image.

For sniping it's recommended to find a magnification that you're comfortable
with then always use the same one so you get used to it.

The CL6X is described in-game as the "standard issue 6x Chinese scope" but in
fact it's modelled on an American optic - the TA648* made by Trijicon. In real
life the reticle would be either a chevron or a dot and horseshoe ring, plus a
graduated vertical line below to determine drop. The real scope also has a rail
on top of the housing which allows the user to mount a back-up holo sight.

The 7x PKS07 is an actual Russian military scope, the standard optic for their
SV98 sniper rifle.

*TA648 = T A 6 48 = Trijicon / ACOG / 6x magnification / 48mm objective

                   Hunter Scope (20x) / Ballistic Scope (40x)
                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
In BF3 the ballistic scope had a 12x magnification and was the most powerful
optic in the game - now we have options of 20x and even 40x!

These would only ever be necessary for very long-range shots and for most
applications the 6/7/8x scopes would be sufficient. If you must use them then
remember you can combine them with either the canted irons or the variable zoom
to give you an alternative to the standard insane levels of magnification. You
should also avoid the Scout Elite or FY-JS rifles as their damage drop-off is
such that you cannot get a one-hit headshot kill beyond 101 or 135 metres.

Both scopes give a similar circular sight image with simple crosshairs.

              Ghost Ring / Mini (RDS) / Delta (RDS) / Scope (3x)
              ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The sidearms get their own range of optics to replace the basic iron sights.

The ghost ring sights have a large circular ring at the rear and a simple blade
at the front and both glow red making them clearly visible even against a black
background which is a very handy feature.

The Mini and Delta are both miniature red-dot sights. The Delta sight has a thin
border and a more prominent triangular reticule.

The 3x scope is exclusive to the .44 Magnum, M1911 and Unica 6 pistols. I've
seen Threatty on Youtube using this as a low magnification spotting-scope when
running a bolt-action sniper rifle with long-range optics. This gives a wider
field of view and also has the advantage of not suffering from scope glint.

The Mini (RDS) is based on the real-life Trijicon RMR sight.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 04b | Accessories                                               s04b |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

This category includes secondary sights, lights and lasers. Where an accessory
has two modes (e.g. on and off!) you can toggle between them by pressing d-pad
up or by tapping T (for "Toggle") if playing on PC with the default controls.

                               Canted Ironsights
                               ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
This accessory adds a set of back-up iron sights on the side of the weapon at
about 45 degrees to the top. When using a sight/scope attachment this allows you
to switch between using the optics and the canted irons (by pressing d-pad up).

This feature is particularly useful when running a higher magnification scope
that would otherwise be inconvenient in close-quarters engagements.

Since it would be redundant you cannot equip the canted ironsights attachment
when you're using a gun with the default iron sights (no sight/scope fitted).

You might prefer to use a low magnification scope in conjunction with the canted
ironsights instead of having a 1x sight supplemented by the magnifier because
it's significantly quicker to toggle between a scope and canted irons.

Canted irons are a standard feature on the ECC and ECR variants of KAC's SR25
and the M110 military model (all related to BF4's Mk 11 DMR).

                                   Magnifier
                                   ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The magnifier can be fitted on your scope rail behind a sight unit and flipped
in/out (by pressing d-pad up) to add a 2x zoom to your aimed view.

It can only be used with a red-dot sight (RDS) or a basic 1x sight. It cannot be
used in conjunction with iron sights, infra-red (IRNV/FLIR) scopes or any of the
medium or long-range scopes (so if you have any of those options equipped you
will be unable to select the magnifier accessory and vice versa).

While adding only half the magnification of a 4x sight like the ACOG, it gives
your weapon a little more versatility across short to medium ranges. However it
does take up quite a lot of space on your screen.

The magnifier attachment in BF4 appears to be based on the Aimpoint 3XMag with
an Aimpoint TwistMount. The 3XMag can also be used unmounted as a 3x monocular.

                          Flash Light / Tactical Light
                          ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The flash light has no statistical effects but it can be used to illuminate a
small area and to blind/disorient hostiles when you aim at them. The game notes
that lights are especially effective at dazzling IRNV/FLIR scope users.

As veterans of BF3 will attest, these can be very annoying for friendlies so
turn the light off if you don't need it (you can toggle on/off with d-pad up).

The taclight works much like the flash light except it turns on automatically
when you ADS (press L2 to aim). This functionality was previously only available
in BF3 if you were playing on PC and edited your key bindings and mouse config
to put the light switch and ADS on the same button.

You might consider using one of the light accessories on your sidearm since this
can give a slight advantage when you meet an unexpected enemy in close quarters
and your main weapon is empty.

At longer ranges the lights will usually only serve to highlight your position
to enemies and give them something to aim at!

                Laser Sight / Tri-Beam Laser / Green Laser Sight
                ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
When you use hipfire (i.e. when shooting without pressing L2 to ADS) you will
experience greatly reduced accuracy (increased spread) compared to normal aimed
fire (for example the M416 assault rifle has a stationary aimed spread of 0.2
and a standing hipfire spread of 3.0). The laser sights improve your hipfire
accuracy by providing a 33% reduction to your hipfire spread.

Patched: The spread multiplier for standing hipfire was buffed from 0.75 to 0.67
         in the Fall Patch.

         In the Spring Patch the same improvement was applied to hipfire in the
         prone and crouching stances.

As usual you can turn the device on/off by pressing d-pad up. When you switch
the laser attachment on you'll notice that your hipfire crosshairs in the centre
of the screen will tighten slightly indicating the accuracy bonus applied.

If you play in Hardcore mode the hipfire crosshairs are disabled and therefore
you can use the laser's dot for aiming as you would in real life. In this role
the three dots of the tri-beam laser option are particularly effective.

Although there's no statistical effect, the bright dot of the laser can also
help with target acquisition in aimed fire - against a dark backdrop it's easier
to see than the crosshairs of a sniper scope and when you move your point of aim
rapidly it trails behind the crosshairs centre showing your true aim.

The beam of the laser is visible to the enemy (even from the side) so remember
to turn it off if you are hiding behind a crate/corner or want to make your
position harder to determine in dark areas or at longer ranges. Also don't
forget that the laser is turned on by default every time you respawn.

Why not pick the red three-dot laser for that authentic Predator vibe...? :)

                               Laser/Light Combo
                               ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
As the name suggests, this attachment combines a laser sight with a flashlight.

You can press d-pad up to switch between the two but, since no other button is
available for accessories, you cannot switch it off - either the laser or the
light will always be on.

The d-pad prompt at the bottom of the screen shows the currently selected mode.

                                 Variable Zoom
                                 ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
This accessory adds an additional 14x zoom mode to any of the long-range scopes
(on sniper rifles). You can switch between the default and 14x modes by pressing
up on the d-pad - the on-screen d-pad tip will indicate your current zoom.

You would usually use the variable zoom with the 6x, 7x or 8x scopes in which
case it provides a higher magnification option for engaging more distant targets
but you could also equip it with the extreme 20x hunter or 40x ballistic scopes
to give you less severe magnification!

The variable zoom can only be used in conjunction with the long-range scopes so
if you want to switch to a medium-range scope or close-range sight you'll need
to unequip the variable zoom option first.

                                  Range Finder
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The range finder attaches to the front of your gun on the left side. It measures
the distance in metres to whatever your rifle is currently pointing at.

A small screen on the device shows the distance reading (bottom number in red)
and your current zeroing setting (top number in blue). The same data will also
be displayed when aiming down a high-magnification scope, with the measured
distance on the right (red) and the zero distance on the left (blue).

Naturally the range finder is very handy for long-range sniping when used in
conjunction with the zeroing feature (see Section 02a). For example if you see
a distant enemy target and the range finder gives the distance as 392 metres you
can set the zeroing to 400m (tap d-pad down to cycle values) and you will then
be able to aim neatly on the guy's head without having to allow for bullet-drop.

As an alternative to the range finder within the Recon class you can also use
the PLD gadget (Portable Laser Designator) to measure the range to your target.

                                 Target Detector
                                 ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The Target Detector is unique among attachments - it's unlocked by completing an
assignment, it can only be used on carbines and DMR's and once unlocked it is
available on all your guns in those categories.

The attachment is unlocked by completing the 'Eye Spy' assignment in the Final
Stand expansion. This requires you simply to get two Spotting Ribbons and to
kill twenty enemies using any combination of carbines and DMR's.

The Target Detector fixes to your gun like a laser sight on the rails to the
right of the handguard. Now when you ADS the accessory will automatically spot
any unmarked enemies within a narrow cone around your point of aim.

If you usually use the same finger for spotting (R1) and firing (R2) this saves
you from having to switch between the two buttons. Also it seems to have no
cooldown so it works reliably every time without "overheating".

If you're forever turning off the laser sight on your carbine to avoid detection
or you never use those canted irons on your DMR then you might as well put the
Target Detector on your weapon instead.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 04c | Barrel Attachments                                        s04c |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

You can replace the standard barrel or fit a range of attachments to the end.

                                Standard Barrel
                                ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
This is just the default configuration when you have no other option selected.

                                  Heavy Barrel
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Fitting the HBAR greatly improves the aimed accuracy of the weapon, reducing the
stationary ADS spread by 50%. However the trade-off is that your gun's vertical
recoil will also increase by 30%.

Patched: In the big Fall Patch the recoil penalty was reduced from 50% to 30% in
         order to make the heavy barrel a more viable choice.

         The 4 March 2014 patch had previously added a 33% bonus to aimed
         accuracy while moving. In the Fall Patch this was reduced to 17% but a
         general reduction of 8.5% to spread increase per shot was also added,
         improving the accuracy of bursts and follow-up shots.

In BF3 the heavy barrel attachment extended the damage drop-off distance by 50%
so your bullets did more damage at longer ranges, in BF4 however the HBAR has no
effect on the damage profile.

                           Muzzle Brake / Compensator
                           ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
These attachments serve to dissipate propellant gases at the end of the barrel
and thereby reduce recoil; however the accuracy of the weapon is reduced too.

The compensator applies a 25% reduction to the muzzle drift (horizontal recoil)
so it will be most beneficial on a gun that suffers from sideways recoil. In
exchange for this buff it adds a 30% penalty to your spread increase per shot -
your accuracy during sustained fire. This will make the weapon less effective at
longer ranges or with longer bursts, although you can offset some of this effect
by using the stubby grip or potato grip (see below).

Patched: In the Spring Patch the x1.3 multiplier that increased the maximum
         spread for the compensator in all stances was removed. This means that
         the deviation will now be capped at the standard value rather than at a
         larger value (worse accuracy). However the 30% penalty to SIPS still
         applies when using the compensator so you'll hit that limit sooner.

The muzzle brake applies a 10% reduction to muzzle rise (vertical recoil) but it
also gives a 12.5% penalty to the spread increase per shot.

Patched: Previously the muzzle brake had the same numbers as the compensator
         (-25% recoil and +30% SIPS) but the overall effects - both the bonus
         and the penalty - were reduced in the Fall Patch.

         In the Spring Patch the x1.125 multiplier that increased the maximum
         spread for the muzzle brake in all stances was removed. However the
         12.5% penalty to SIPS still applies when using the muzzle brake.

Since it's much easier to manually counteract the effect of vertical recoil, the
compensator will often be more useful. However if your weapon already has low
horizontal recoil - or you don't want to reduce your effectiveness with medium-
range bursts - you should leave it off.

                                  Flash Hider
                                  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The flash hider conceals the prominent bright "muzzle flash" when firing your
weapon which could otherwise reveal your position to the enemy. This would be
more beneficial in darker environments or when people are using smoke grenades
and your muzzle flash is more obvious.

Patched: Originally the flash hider had no statistical effects and, lacking any
         penalties, it was the obvious choice if there were no other barrel
         attachments that you wanted to use. Since the Spring Patch however it
         now applies a 17% penalty to the spread decrease per second - the rate
         at which your accuracy recovers after firing.

         Suppressor / LS06 Suppressor / PBS4 Suppressor / R2 Suppressor
         ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
Commonly (but incorrectly) known as a "silencer", a suppressor can be fitted to
the end of the barrel reducing the sound made when the weapon is fired; it also
functions as a flash hider (see above).

Normally in BF4 firing a gun causes the player to be temporarily marked on the
enemy's minimaps but with the suppressor equipped this doesn't happen and this
will often give a significant tactical advantage (however if the enemy team has
a commander deploying UAV's or a Recon operating a MAV drone there's a very good
chance that you'll be spotted already).

There are a few penalties for using a suppressor:

o Reduced muzzle velocity - this will make it harder to hit moving targets and
  increase the effect of bullet-drop (see Section 02a).

o Reduced accuracy for stationary hipfire - the added weight of the suppressor
  at the end of the barrel causes a 20% increase in standing hipfire spread.

o Inability to use other barrel attachments - if you pick the suppressor you'll
  sacrifice the ability to use other attachments like the compensator or heavy
  barrel (and therefore lose the bonus to recoil or accuracy they provide).

o Increased weapon length - it'll be harder to hide behind a corner!

In BF3 the suppressor attachment also had the effect of shortening the damage
drop-off distances for your gun but this is no longer the case in BF4 - weapons
retain their standard damage values at all ranges.

For added authenticity you should use the R2 (or standard) suppressor on a NATO
weapon, the PBS4 on a Russian gun and the LS06 on Chinese firearms.

The only difference between the suppressors is purely cosmetic - but it's a big
difference! I only ever use the vanilla or R2 suppressors.

Most real ammunition is supersonic which means its muzzle velocity is greater
than the speed of sound (at sea level this is around 340 m/s) and you get the
usual "crack" sound which is actually a small sonic-boom. A suppressor can still
reduce the sound of supersonic loads (its main function is to slow and cool the
propellant gases to reduce the loud muzzle blast) but to be properly quiet you
need to use either subsonic ammo or a suppressor that's specifically designed to
bleed the velocity to below the speed of sound.

Patched: Previously fitting a suppressor would reduce any gun's muzzle velocity
         to below 340 m/s, presumably representing a switch to subsonic ammo. In
         the Fall Patch most guns got a buff to their suppressed muzzle velocity
         in an effort to make the attachment more viable at longer ranges. In a
         few cases they raised the velocity to supersonic values (greater than
         340 m/s) although none of the revised speeds exceeded 400 m/s.

         Some guns previously had extremely slow suppressed velocities (below
         200 m/s) but now these all have bullet speeds of at least 270 m/s.

                                CS5 Suppressor
                                ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
This suppressor is unique to the CS5 sniper rifle in the Dragon's Teeth DLC.

Authentic to the real-life gun, this suppressor is equipped on the rifle by
default as soon as you unlock it. However you can still unlock the four standard
suppressors (see above) for the CS5 as well.

                Suppressor / TGPA5 Suppressor / QSW06 Suppressor
                ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The pistols get this separate range of suppressors (NATO, Russian and Chinese
respectively) which function in the same way as the ones for primary weapons.

If your primary weapon is unsuppressed you might like to run with a suppressor
on your sidearm to give you a stealthy option when you need it.

Due to the open nature of the cylinder on a revolver, the .44 Magnum, MP412 Rex,
SW40 and Unica 6 sidearms cannot be fitted with a suppressor.

                     Full Choke / Modified Choke / Duckbill
                     ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
In addition to the muzzle brake and compensator attachments the shotguns also
have a choice of three chokes which modify the size/shape of the cone of either
pellets (buckshot ammo) or flechettes (dart ammo) as they leave the barrel.

The modified choke makes the cone tighter and the full choke makes it even more
narrow, focusing the pellets/darts so that more of them hit a distant target.

Patched: In the Spring Patch the full choke's recoil penalties were removed and
         the stationary hipfire accuracy penalties were reduced. The modified
         choke's ADS recoil penalties were removed and the hipfire accuracy
         penalties were also removed.

The duckbill on the other hand increases the width of the cone - the horizontal
scatter of the pellets - as indicated by the wide elliptical hipfire reticle. If
this option is used in conjunction with canted ironsights then the scatter will
be extended along a 45-degree diagonal instead!

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 04d | Underbarrel Attachments                                   s04d |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

Underbarrel attachments are attached under the barrel. :9

Where BF3 had only one foregrip you now get a choice of six although they only
offer three different statistical effects so I've grouped them here. It's kinda
tempting just to take the one that looks coolest but it's best to study their
effects and pick the foregrip that best suits your play-style and would be most
beneficial to your current weapon/loadout/role.

Patched: Originally the grips had no statistical penalties but since the Spring
         Patch they now all give a 34% penalty to the spread decrease per second
         (the rate at which your accuracy recovers after firing).

                        Ergo[nomic] Grip / Vertical Grip
                        ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
You will suffer increased spread (reduced accuracy) if you fire while moving -
this can be thought of as either a "movement penalty" or a "stationary bonus"
(depending on your perspective). The ergo and vertical grips reduce this effect
by reducing your spread while moving by 50% in all stances so they'll be best
suited to a close-quarters run-and-gun situation.

As with all three pairs of grips listed here, the ergo and vertical grips give
exactly the same effect - the only difference between them is cosmetic.

                          Angled Grip / Folding Grip
                          ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
These two attachments both reduce the first-shot recoil multiplier (see Section
02e) by 20% so they would be most beneficial if you prefer to fire single shots
or short controlled bursts.

Patched: The statistical effect was nerfed from 33% to 20% in the Spring Patch.

The angled grip is modelled on the original AFG (Angled Foregrip) manufactured
by Magpul. This is only available in three colour options: Flat Dark Earth and
two shades of green. In the game it comes in FDE (dark tan) which looks okay on
a SCAR-H in its default paint scheme but on most other guns you'll probably be
keen to upgrade to the black folding grip (which will be a Battlepack unlock).

                           Stubby Grip / Potato Grip
                           ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
The last two grip options both reduce the accuracy penalty of full automatic
fire by 20% (i.e. they reduce the spread increase for each successive shot);
they also reduce by 17% the maximum spread cap that will be applied. Naturally
these effects are most useful when firing longer bursts at range.

Patched: The reduction to spread increase per shot (SIPS) was buffed from 15% to
         20% in the Spring Patch. However the reduction to the max spread was
         also reduced from 33% to 17%.

The real "Miki" potato grip is made by Fab Defense of Israel; like several of
their foregrip models there's a hollow horizontal tube running through the grip
which allows the user to mount a removable flashlight inside it.

                           UGL Rail / Underslung Rail
                           ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
When your Assault class loadout includes both an assault rifle equipped with the
UGL rail (underslung grenade-launcher rail) and the M320 grenade-launcher in one
of your gadget slots you will have the launcher automatically attached under the
rifle's barrel thus enabling you to switch between the two weapons more quickly.

(When you have the grenade-launcher underslung on a Russian or Chinese assault
rifle it will appear as the Russian GP30 launcher instead of the M320.)

The SCAR-H, M416, M16A4, CZ805 and AR160 assault rifles get the underslung rail
option instead of the UGL rail. This attachment can be used to mount either the
M320 grenade-launcher or the M26 MASS (shotgun).

The rails are unavailable for the FAMAS, Ace 23, F2000 or Bulldog but all other
assault rifles get one automatically as soon as the gun unlocks.

                                     Bipod
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯
The bipod is deployed automatically when you aim, either in the prone position
or when you're standing or crouching behind a suitable ledge.

When deployed the bipod reduces vertical recoil by 90%, horizontal recoil by 75%
and the first-shot recoil multiplier by 85%. Combined with your weapon's natural
recoil recovery after each shot this has a massive effect on the recoil that you
experience in sustained automatic fire and therefore the bipod is especially
useful on the LMG's which have more recoil and larger magazines.

A deployed bipod also improves your stationary accuracy. The LMG's receive a
larger bonus here, with a 95% reduction in stationary aimed spread.

The bipod has no negative statistical effects but you only enjoy these bonuses
when it's deployed so if you're going to be on the move it might be better to
pick one of the grips which has a full-time effect. Also the time it takes to
deploy the bipod can sometimes be an inconvenience plus you have limited arcs of
horizontal and vertical movement. Going prone with a bipod leaves you pretty
vulnerable to flanking and grenades too.

The bipod is available for all light machineguns (unlocked by default), DMR's,
sniper rifles, assault rifles and carbines (even the shorter bullpup carbines
the Type 95B-1 and A91).

Patched: The bipod for the AN94 was added in the Summer Patch.

         Additionally the concrete "pillbox" emplacements on some maps were
         fixed so that you can now deploy a bipod on the window ledges.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 04e | Auxiliary Attachments                                     s04e |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

Instead of having an underbarrel slot, the sniper rifles have an auxiliary slot
with only two options.
                                 Straight Pull
                                 ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
When the straight-pull bolt is equipped your character will chamber the next
round automatically after firing and without coming out of your aim view. This
makes it much easier to track the position of your target between shots.

                                     Bipod
                                     ¯¯¯¯¯
A deployed bipod gives the usual bonuses to recoil and accuracy (see above); on
a sniper rifle it also removes the need to press L3 to briefly steady your aim
when using a high-magnification scope.

Using a bipod removes your ability to strafe (in order to avoid incoming fire
from enemy snipers) and the accuracy buff is unnecessary on a sniper rifle so
the straight-pull bolt will usually be the obvious choice in this slot.

.-------------.----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 04f | Paint                                                     s04f |
'-------------'----------------------------------------------------------------'

In BF3 you could only unlock camos for a few specific guns but BF4 has a range
of over ninety paint styles that can be added to the loadout of any of your guns
including the sidearms. (NB a "paint" can be equipped onto guns and vehicles but
a "camo" is for your soldier and will be faction-specific)

Various patterns are available, sorted into the categories Naval, Snow, Urban,
Woodland, Autumn, Desert, Adaptive and Misc. The "adaptive" paints are the most
interesting of these because you simply select the pattern you want to use and
the game will automatically apply a colour scheme to match the dominant terrain
of the current map at the start of each match so you don't need to change it -
but you probably will get a blue gun on an island map!

The vast majority of the paints are unlocked via Battlepacks so you should focus
on unlocking all the attachments for several guns if you want to get all the
paints. However some of the unique designs from the Misc category are earned by
completing Veteran (silver) assignments in multiplayer. You can view the assign-
ments, their requirements and your progress under the Assignments tab of your
online Battlelog profile or in-game under My Solider / Awards / Assignments.

You can also create your own custom emblem which will be displayed on your gun,
soldier and vehicles (to a greater extent this feature was bugged on consoles
until the January 2014 patch) and on the killcam info shown to your victims
after you kill them. After logging into your online Battlelog account click on
Soldier (top left), then Customize (top right) then Emblem to access the emblem
design tool.* Each emblem can include up to twenty layers - or forty if you're a
Premium subscriber.

*Direct link: http://battlelog.battlefield.com/bf4/emblem/edit/personal


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 05 | CONTACT                                                     s05 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

I welcome feedback, corrections and contributions on this guide. Contributions
will usually be reworded but will always be fully credited to the submitter so
be sure to tell me the name you want me to use.

You can email me at barticle at hotmail.com - obviously changing the "at" to an
@ and removing the spaces. It would be helpful if you include "Battlefield" or
"BF4" somewhere in the subject line to get my attention.

I prefer contact by email but if you have trouble with your emails (inbox full,
webmail blocked, overzealous spam filter, etc) and/or you don't hear back from
me within a few days then feel free to message me via GameFAQs.

My permission should be sought before using any content from this document for
your own website or guide although I'm happy for my BF4 ascii-art logo to be
used if it's credited to me (Barticle) and you tell me where you're using it.


.------------.-----------------------------------------------------------------.
| Section 06 | THANKS                                                      s06 |
'------------'-----------------------------------------------------------------'

I would like to thank the following:-

o Sym and everyone at Symthic.com for the weapon stats and other game data

o tehmoriz for posting the DLC weapon stats ahead of the Symthic.com updates

o CobaltRose for posting the buffed CBJ-MS damage stats

o www.youtube.com/user/DANNYonPCin720p for the Wagner easter egg

o Gamespot, Down4life, JackFrags, LevelCap and Daskro for pre-release gameplay
  footage from E3, Gamescom and the Youtuber preview event in September 2013

o Modern Firearms (guns.ru) for info on some of the guns

o Internet Movie Firearms Database (imfdb.org) for info on some of the guns

o Olof Janson (gotavapen.se) for info on the CBJ-MS

o The Firearm Blog (thefirearmblog.com) for recent news stories

o KriegsMeister for posting the SR338 model ID

o Battlefield Wiki for the 44 Mag model ID and some info on previous BF titles

o Jack again for a sneak peek at the China Rising guns and gadgets

o MarbleDuck and DarthVeda for CTE developments coverage

o Yuwai, Syco Clown, Oracle-Raven, Truth_and_Arms, Scarlet-Raven, slaveanselmo,
  crimsonfoxm1911, MetalZoic, Siculu, Oblivion_Slayer, dejavu1982, Rafahil19,
  OhGood, terrysmay04, Eviator, nordendorf, Girtablulu and elementofprgress for
  helpful forum posts

o some of my favourite Youtube gaming channels for Battlefield content:

  - http://www.youtube.com/user/bigMooney06
  - http://www.youtube.com/user/rivaLxfactor
  - http://www.youtube.com/user/LevelCapGaming
  - http://www.youtube.com/user/Matimi0
  - http://www.youtube.com/user/jackfrags
  - http://www.youtube.com/user/darthveda
  - http://www.youtube.com/user/MarbleDuck
  - http://www.youtube.com/user/izzygonecrazygaming

o MP1st for BF3 and BF4 news

  - http://mp1st.com/category/battlefield/

o Hank & Jed for the fantastic Battlefield Friends (BFF) series :)

  - http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLF8C97115E5BCBA92

o Andrei Machado, eyesix, Cousin Silas, Zinovia and Eos for super sounds

I will be happy to give credit and thanks to anyone who makes a contribution.
        ___________                                          ___        
        \______   /                              ___        /  /        
              /  /                       __      \_/       /  /         
             /   \___ ________ _________/  \__ ___ ______ /  /  ________
.-------o   /  __   / \___   //  ___/\_   ___//  //  ___//  /  /  __   /
| ANOTHER  /  / /  /_____/  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /   \/  / 
'---------/  /-/  //  __   //  /-----/  /---/  //  /---/  /--/  _____/---------.
         /  / /  //  / /  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /  /         GUIDE |
        /   \/  //   \/  //  /     /   \_ /  //   \_ /   \ /   \________ o-----'
        \______/ \______/ \_/      \____/ \_/ \____/ \___/ \___________/
--
Battlefield 4 Firearms Guide
Copyright 2013-2015 James R. Barton
Initial version 1.00 completed 26 December 2013
Current version 1.11 completed 16 December 2015

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If you find this file hosted on any other site I would be grateful if you would
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