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Hanafuda Guide by barticle

Version: 1.01 | Updated: 08/19/09

 Kenzan! Hanafuda Guide - Ver. 1.01 - 19 Aug 2009 - by Barticle at hotmail.com
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     01 INTRODUCTION           d88P  Y88b          Y8P      888
     02 THE HANAFUDA DECK      888    888                   888
     03 WHEN AND WHERE         888        888  888 888  .d88888  .d88b. 
     04 BUYING POINTS          888        888  888 888 d88" 888 d8P  Y8b
     05 STARTING A GAME        888  88888 888  888 888 888  888 88888888
     06 RULES OF PLAY          888    888 Y88b 888 888 Y88b 888 Y8b.    
     07 SCORING COMBINATIONS   Y88b  d88P  "Y88888 888  "Y88888  "Y8888 
     08 AUTOMATIC WINS          "Y8888P 8
     10 DISPLAY                12 COMPLETION          14 CONTACT
     11 STRATEGY               13 TRIVIA              15 THANKS

------< INTRODUCTION >-------------------------------------------- [Section 01]

This guide explains the card game Koi-Koi - played with traditional Japanese
Hanafuda (flower cards) - specifically the Koi-Koi minigame in the Playstation 3
video-game "Ryu ga Gotoku: Kenzan!", the historic offshoot from the Yakuza
series set in the feudal (samurai) period which was released between Yakuza 2
(2006 PS2) and Yakuza 3 (2009 PS3). In this guide I will refer to the video-game
simply as "Kenzan".

I don't think I'd ever seen a deck of Hanafuda before playing Kenzan so when I
first tried the minigame I found this game played with picture cards to be more
than a little mysterious and intriguing. However once you learn the rules and
how to recognise the different cards it's actually not too difficult to play.

If you can read Japanese then you will be able to read the in-game instructions
(and there's a good chance that you've played the game with real cards) so this
guide is intended for English speakers who'd like to learn how to play.

Update! ...When playing through Kenzan and writing this guide I knew very little
Japanese - I couldn't even read "yes" and "no" - but since then I've bought two
Mahjong PS3 games, both in Japanese, and I've been teaching myself how to read
the language so I'll revisit this guide and add some translations when a) I have
some spare time and b) I get a high-def television so I can read the kanji!

------< THE HANAFUDA DECK >--------------------------------------- [Section 02]

A full set of Hanafuda consists of 48 cards, broken down into twelve suits with
four cards in each. The "flower cards" really live up to their name as the cards
of each suit are marked with a different flower (or plant/tree at least), and
each of the twelve suits is also associated with a month of the year. The cards
are smaller than Western playing-cards but significantly thicker.

There are four different types of card, which I'll describe here using my own
names for them. Each type of card has a nominal points value attached to it -
these are not used in Koi-Koi but you'll often see them in Hanafuda guides.

o Basics - these are cards which just show the suit's flower/plant; these make
           up the majority of the deck; they are sometimes called "normals",
           "plains", "dregs" or "junk cards" [1 point]

o Ribbons - these cards have a ribbon on top of the flower/plant; this will
            either be a Red Ribbon, a Red Poetry Ribbon (with writing on it) or
            a Purple Ribbon; sometimes called "slips" [5 points]

o Animals - these cards show the flower/plant of the suit plus an animal, a bird
            or - in a couple of cases - an object [10 points]

o Specials - these cards feature a special item or character shown with the suit
             flower/plant; there are only five of these cards; they are also
             known as "lights" or hikari cards [20 points]

Although there are several exceptions, generally each suit has two Basic cards,
one Ribbon card and one Animal or Special.

It's important to be able to recognise the different cards and to learn which
ones go together (although the game does show you which ones match during play)
so I'll describe each in detail below. However it's much easier to show rather
than to tell so please check the following websites where you can see pictures
of all the different cards.

--> http://hanafubuki.org/cards.html

--> http://japanese-games-shop.com/miyako.html

--> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanafuda#Cards

--> http://www.pagat.com/class/flower.html

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 1  | | Month: January   | | Flower/Plant: Pine tree           |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  2 Basic cards - these are quite abstract, with pine trees of different sizes
                  shown in silhouette against (as most cards) a pale sky

  1 Red Poetry Ribbon card - pine trees plus red ribbon with writing

  1 Special card - a tall white crane (the bird!), red sun and pine trees

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 2  | | Month: February  | | Flower/Plant: Plum blossom        |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  2 Basics - these show plum flowers with yellow centres and red petals

  1 Red Poetry Ribbon - plum flowers on a branch plus a red ribbon with writing

  1 Animal - a bush warbler (green and yellow bird) in a plum tree

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 3  | | Month: March     | | Flower/Plant: Cherry blossom      |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  2 Basics - equal numbers of red and pink cherry blossom (sakura) 

  1 Red Poetry Ribbon - pink sakura plus a red ribbon with writing

  1 Special - sakura with a thick red band curving across the bottom of the
              card; this is known as the "sakura banner" or "camp curtain" card

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 4  | | Month: April     | | Flower/Plant: Wisteria            |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  2 Basics - small strands of (purple?) wisteria flowers hanging down

  1 Red Ribbon - wisteria plus red ribbon

  1 Animal - a yellow cuckoo in flight over wisteria and a red crescent moon

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 5  | | Month: May       | | Flower/Plant: Iris                |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  2 Basics - large purple iris bloom

  1 Red Ribbon - purple iris plus red ribbon

  1 "Animal" - purple iris with a yellow V-shaped plank bridge at the bottom,
               there's also a red blob at the top

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 6  | | Month: June      | | Flower/Plant: Peony               |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  2 Basics - a large red bloom with a smaller one above it

  1 Purple Ribbon - red peony flowers plus purple ribbon hanging between them

  1 Animal - two yellow butterflies over a central red flower

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 7  | | Month: July      | | Flower/Plant: Bush clover         |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  2 Basics - stems of small pale brownish flowers and small leaves

  1 Red Ribbon - clover plants plus red ribbon

  1 Animal - a dull yellow boar amongst clover plants, red band at the top

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 8  | | Month: August    | | Flower/Plant: Silver grass        |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  2 Basics - this is another abstract design, with a close-up of a dark circle
             filling the lower half of the card - I guess it's a grassy hill;
             it's sometimes referred to as the "bald head" :)

  1 Animal - yellow geese flying over the hill

  1 Special - a white full moon against a red sky over the grassy hill

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 9  | | Month: September | | Flower/Plant: Chrysanthemum       |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  2 Basics - two large yellow chrysanthemum blooms

  1 Purple Ribbon - two yellow flowers plus a purple ribbon between them

  1 "Animal" - two big yellow flowers with a red sake cup (dish) on the right
               and a red patch in the top-right corner; if you play with the
               two "Zake" combos allowed (see Section 07) then this becomes
               the most important card in the whole deck, so look out for it!

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 10 | | Month: October   | | Flower/Plant: Maple               |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  2 Basics - a collection of leaves in autumnal colours: yellow, red and brown

  1 Purple Ribbon - maple leaves plus a purple ribbon

  1 Animal - a dull yellow deer with maple leaves in the top-right corner

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 11 | | Month: November  | | Flower/Plant: Willow              |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  1 Basic - another very abstract one - this is called the "lightning" card but
            it looks like two black boxes on a red background, sort of like an
            inverted close-up image of a brick wall; in the Hanafuda game Mushi
            this is a very powerful wildcard but in Koi-Koi it just counts as a
            humble Basic card

  1 Red Ribbon - dark fringes of willow leaves hanging down plus a red ribbon

  1 Animal - a yellow swallow with a red tail flying under willow leaves

  1 Special - this is called the "rainman" card; it might not be very clear if
              you have a small screen but there's a man dressed in red under
              an umbrella, there's also a star-shaped yellow frog in the
              bottom-left corner and willow leaves in the top-left

 .-----------------. .------------------. .-----------------------------------.
 | Suit number: 12 | | Month: December  | | Flower/Plant: Paulownia           |
 '-----------------' '------------------' '-----------------------------------'

  3 Basics - each has maybe a dozen small purple buds; the three cards look
             quite similar except that one has a yellow band along the bottom

  1 Special - this is the Chinese phoenix, another busy design that's hard to
              interpret; there are red and black bits at the top and a dark
              section at the bottom with a golden bottom-right corner

There are four Red Ribbon cards in the deck...

 April/Wisteria, May/Iris, July/Clover and November/Willow

There are three Red Poetry Ribbon cards...

 January/Pine, February/Plum and March/Sakura (i.e. the first three suits)

There are three Purple Ribbon cards...

 June/Peony, September/Chrysanthemum and October/Maple

There are nine Animal cards... (okay two aren't animals, get over it!)

 February/Warbler, April/Cuckoo, May/Bridge, June/Butterflies, July/Boar,
 August/Geese, September/Sake Cup, October/Deer and November/Swallow

Finally there are five Special cards...

 January/Crane, March/Sakura Banner, August/Full Moon, November/Rainman and
 December/Chinese Phoenix

(And therefore the remaining half of the deck (24 cards) are all Basics.)

------< WHEN AND WHERE >------------------------------------------ [Section 03]

There are two locations where you can play Koi-Koi in the game, one in each of
the main urban areas. In his excellent Kenzan guide, ThePatrick refers to these
as Gion and the Suburbs, and who am I to argue? :) I'll use the same names here.

As in Yakuza 2, you can't access the minigames from the start of the game; you
have to play through the Prologue and Chapters 1 to 4 first.

Once you've completed the four flashback/training chapters (i.e. at the start of
Chapter 5) you'll find yourself in Gion (the area with the street festivals and
Kiryu's home). You'll know when you've reached this stage because your character
puts on his white(ish) kimono with the dragon on the back - obviously copied
from his backpiece tattoo in the previous Yakuza games.

In Gion you can play Koi-Koi at the gaming house which can be accessed from the
gap half-way along the curving avenue of red torii arches* that links the dojo
(in the bottom-right corner of the map) to the shrine** (half-way up the eastern
edge of the map). The building is marked in pale purple on the map and can be
found using the directory by going to option 3 from the pause menu and pressing
triangle - the gaming house is the eleventh entry on the list. Once inside you
need to go past the two reception staff and the turtle-betting table to the back
room where three minigames are available: in the room to the right a dozen men
are playing Chouhan (the odd/even dice game), in the middle there are four men
playing Chinchirorin (another dice game) and finally to the left are two men
and this is where you can play the Hanafuda/Koi-Koi game.

The other location doesn't become available until later in Chapter 5. After you
have completed the Revelation training (with the cat painting at the shrine) you
will have access to the Suburbs area to the south via the trapdoor at the back
of Kiryu's house; it's not listed on the map directory so I'll give directions.
You'll notice that there are four roads here that run roughly west-east - you
need to go to the second one from the top. If you start from the western end you
will see a stall with three men where you can play Chinchirorin, there's another
similar stall next to that and this is the Hanafuda location in the Suburbs.

At both locations there are three people who perform the same basic roles.

There's one who will sell you Gambling Points - at the Gion gaming house this is
the man sitting nearest the entrance in reception and at the Suburbs stall this
is the man in the middle. See the next section for info on buying points.

There is another who will let you trade your Gambling Points for money or prizes
- in Gion this is the man sitting farthest from the door in reception and in the
Suburbs this is the man on the left. See Section 09 for more info on this.

Finally there is one who you speak to in order to start the game - in Gion you
speak to someone at the Hanafuda table in the back room and at the stall in the
Suburbs it's the man on the right. See Section 05 for info on starting a game.

*A corridor of several adjacent torii arches is called a senbondorii.

**It's a shrine to Inari, the Shinto kami (spirit) of rice, sake, harvests and
fertility. The kitsune (fox) is Inari's messenger so it's traditional to have
statues of foxes at an Inari shrine, often a pair - a male and a female - as in
this case. Shrines dedicated to Inari are common; in present-day Japan there are
over thirty thousand - more than a third of the total number of Shinto shrines.

------< BUYING POINTS >------------------------------------------- [Section 04]

Since Koi-Koi is played as a gambling game, you need to buy points before you
can begin. It's necessary to differentiate between two different types of points
in the Hanafuda game - henceforth I will refer to the points scored in the game
simply as points and the points bought for gaming as Gambling Points (or GP).

You can buy Gambling Points in the reception area at the Gion gaming house and
from the centre man at the Suburbs location. These Gambling Points can also be
used in the two dice games and for betting on the turtle races at the gaming
house (but they're separate from the points used in the Mahjong game).

There are three important symbols which you will soon come to recognise. One is
the symbol for the unit of currency, the Mon, which looks like an X with a line
across the top; you will see this when money is involved, written after the
numbers. The next is the symbol for points which, I think, looks like a tank
with four little legs (?!); again this is written after the number. The last one
is the symbol for 10,000 which appears in any number with five or more figures,
separating the thousands from the bigger numbers. So for example 200,500 Mon is
represented by 20#0500x (where # means 10,000 and x is the Mon symbol).

The Gambling Points cost one Mon* each and you can buy either ten thousand or
one thousand GP. Both cashiers give you three options: buy 10,000 GP (which
looks like "1#p" where p is the points symbol - the kanji "ten"), buy 1,000 GP
(which looks like "1000p") or cancel.

To see how many Gambling Points you currently have go to the inventory from the
pause menu (option 1) and press R1 to view the "valuables". After buying some
points you should see an item that looks like a black plank with a circular
emblem half-way along; this will be listed after your Revelations paintings.
When you highlight this item you can see your Gambling Points total in the
second row of text at the bottom of the screen.

*The Mon was the unit of currency in Japan until the year 1870 when it was
replaced by the Yen.

------< STARTING A GAME >----------------------------------------- [Section 05]

You can start a game of Koi-Koi by speaking to someone at the Hanafuda table in
the Gion gaming house or the man on the right at the Suburbs stall. If you don't
have any Gambling Points you'll be told to get some - see previous section.

The options are very slightly different the first time you play the minigame.
The man will ask if you want to play and you can answer Yes (top option) or No
(bottom option); you will then be shown the rules of Koi-Koi before choosing
your settings and playing the game. Thereafter whenever you start a game you'll
get three options: the first option starts the game and the second cancels (as
before) and the new third option lets you view the rules again.

                          1. Play
                          2. Don't play
                          3. View rules [appears after first game]

After that he asks you to select the difficulty for the game. The first few
times you play there wil be three options - the top option is for the easiest
game, the middle option is for an average game and the short word at the bottom
is yameru which means "quit". After a few games you will get four options - the
first is easiest difficulty, the second is average, the third option (the new
one) is for hardest difficulty and then the last option is quit again.

                          1. Easiest difficulty
                          2. Average difficulty*
                          3. Hardest difficulty [appears after several games]
                          4. Quit

Next you have to set two options for the game. The top option lets you choose
whether the game will allow the Tsukimi-Zake and Hanami-Zake scoring combos (see
Section 07) - the left option is saiyou ("apply") and the right is fusaiyou ("do
not apply"). These are arguably the two most powerful combinations in the game
so you may prefer to play without them. The default setting is to allow them
though and that's certainly a good idea if you're aiming for higher scores.

The bottom option simply lets you choose how many rounds to play - three, six,
nine or twelve (the square character is kai meaning "rounds"). The full game of
twelve rounds obviously mirrors the number of suits/months and in fact during
each game the number of the current round is shown with a card from the
appropriate suit, e.g. Pine (January) in round 1 and Plum (February) in round 2.

                          1. Zake combos allowed - yes / no
                          2. Game length - 3 / 6 / 9 / 12 rounds

Finally you are shown your current Gambling Points total (top) and asked to set
how many you want to gamble on the game (bottom). You select your stake and at
the end of the game you will win (or lose!) an amount equal to the difference in
scores multiplied by the stake (see end of next section for examples).

                          1. Gambling Points total
                          2. Set your stake

The minium bet is 100 GP and if you're playing on the easiest difficulty the
maximum stake is 10% of your GP total or 200 GP, whichever is lower. On average
difficulty the maximum stake is 400 GP and on hardest it's 600 GP.

*If you've been playing the Mahjong minigame you might have noticed that the
kanji from the red dragon tile (Chun) is used for this option. It means "centre"
- in this case indicating the "middle" difficulty setting.

------< RULES OF PLAY >------------------------------------------- [Section 06]

Before the first round begins you are asked to pick one of two cards, shown
face-down. Both cards are then revealed and their suit number is shown. If you
picked the card with the lower suit number (i.e. the earlier month) then you
have the advantage of being the dealer (or Oya) in the first round and therefore
you get to take your turn before the other player, conversely if you pick the
higher number then your opponent goes first.

(In later rounds the player that won the preceding round will be the dealer and
goes first. If the previous round was a scoreless draw then the dealer "stays
on" in the new round.)

The cards are then dealt onto the virtual tabletop* - both players get a hand of
eight cards each and a further eight cards are dealt between them, I'll call
these the Table Cards. The remainder of the deck becomes a draw pile which is
placed to the left of the Table Cards.

There are two possible situations in which an Automatic Win occurs (see Section
08) but if neither happens the game continues. Also if there are three cards
from the same suit among the Table Cards then these will be stacked together.

(While playing the minigame you can press the Start button to pause the game and
view the controls, press the Select button to quit (choose the left option to
quit, then the left option to confirm) or press the triangle button to view the
scoring combinations - see Section 07.)

The first player now takes their turn. There are two phases to each turn.

In the first phase the player must select one of their cards to play (use the
d-pad or left stick to choose and X button to confirm). If this matches one of
the Table Cards (i.e. if it's from the same suit) then both cards form a "meld"
and are moved to the right of the player's hand. Melded cards are stacked into
separate piles for Basics, Ribbons, Animals and Specials (in that order). If the
card doesn't match any of the Table Cards it joins them on the table.

In the second phase of the player's turn the top card is taken from the draw
pile and, as before, if it matches a Table Card the two cards are melded and if
it doesn't then it's placed on the table.

In both phases you will sometimes have a choice of more than one card of the
same suit among the Table Cards. In this case you simply have to select which
you want and confirm with X. If there are three suit cards stacked together from
the original deal you can capture them all at once using the one remaining card
of the same suit.

The aim of the game is to form scoring combinations with your melded cards -
there are twelve different combos and each is worth a certain number of points
(these are explained in Section 07 below).

Okay, now here's the catch! Whenever you form a combo and score points you can
choose either to end the round and take the points or to play-on and risk losing
them. If you chose to continue the game (the player says "koi!" or "koi-koi!"
which means "come on") and you make another combo then your new points are added
to the previous ones and again you have the option to keep them and end the
round or to play-on. If however you choose to continue and you don't get another
combo before the round ends then the points are lost; equally if your opponent
makes a combo then they get the same option and if they choose to stop the round
and keep their points then again you lose yours!

Each time you score points you'll be shown the scoring combinations you've made
in the round and how many points they're worth. The question beneath this asks
if you want to continue (left option) or stop and collect your points (right
option); the same display appears when your opponent scores but of course he
gets to answer the question, not you!

As the game continues you'll see that the points won in previous rounds are
shown on the right of the screen. At the end of the final round the player with
the most points wins (duh!) and you win or lose a number of Gambling Points
equal to the score difference multiplied by your stake. Here are two examples:

1) Your opponent scored 10 pts. You scored 25 pts and bet 100 Gambling Points.

   You won by 15 pts and you win 15 x 100 = 1500 Gambling Points (ker-ching!)

2) Your opponent scored 22 pts. You scored only 3 pts and bet 200 GP. (doh)

   You lost by 19 pts and you lose 19 x 200 = 3800 Gambling Points (ouch!)

On the final score-sheet the winner is always listed first. If you won then the
GP are shown in green text or if you lost they're in red.

*You can skip the slow dealing animation by pressing the X button but take care
to tap it once only otherwise you might end up taking your first turn too!

------< SCORING COMBINATIONS >------------------------------------ [Section 07]

Points are scored for making scoring combinations from the cards that are melded
during a game. These combinations are also known as "yaku" - the same term used
in Japanese Mahjong to refer to the permitted scoring elements.

There are twelve different scoring combinations in the game of Koi-Koi which
I've listed here with their Japanese name, a description and notes.

o Goko (10 points)

  This is awarded for melding all five Special cards.

  Go is the Japanese word for "five". The kanji Ko (which can also be read as
  Hikari) means "light" or "lights", so Goko is "five lights".

o Shiko (8 points)

  This is awarded for four melded Special cards, but you cannot include the
  Rainman (the Special card from the November/Willow suit).

  If you have four Specials including the Rainman you can claim the Ame-Shiko
  combo (below) instead.

  If you meld the fifth Special card (Rainman) later in the round then you
  claim Goko instead of Shiko, you don't get both.

  Shi is the Japanese word for "four". (or one of them at least!)

o Ame-Shiko (7 points)

  This is a variation on the above combo - four Specials including the Rainman,
  but worth seven points instead of eight.

  If you meld the fifth Special later in the round then you claim Goko instead
  of Ame-Shiko, you don't get both.

  Ame means "rain".

o Sanko (5 points)

  Awarded for melding three Special cards, but again you cannot include the
  Rainman card.

  If you meld a fourth Special later in the round then you claim Shiko or Ame-
  Shiko instead of Sanko, you don't get both.

  San means "three".

o Tsukimi-Zake (5 points)

  Awarded when you have both the Sake Cup and the Full Moon melded.

  Tsuki means "moon", Mi(ru) is the verb "to view" and Zake is "sake" (rice
  wine) so Tsukimi-Zake is sake for Tsukimi - the traditional annual moon-
  viewing events held around the mid-autumn full-moon.

o Hanami-Zake (5 points)

  Awarded when you have both the Sake Cup and the Sakura Banner melded.

  The two "Zake" combos can be turned off in the options. (see Section 05)

  Hana means "flower" (the same kanji appears in the word Hanafuda) so Hanami-
  Zake is sake for Hanami - the Japanese springtime celebration of flowers,
  primarily the plum and cherry blossoms seen on the February and March cards.

o Inoshikacho (5 points)

  Awarded for the combination of melded Boar, Deer and Butterflies; sometimes
  also known simply as "BDB".

  Ino(shishi) means "boar", Shika means "deer" and you can probably guess what
  the kanji Cho means!

o Akatan (5 points)

  Awarded for melding all three Red Poetry Ribbon cards.

  Aka means "red". I think tan is short for tanzaku which are long, thin pieces
  of paper used for poetry; the shape is designed to be mounted on an interior
  pillar in a traditional Japanese house.

o Aotan (5 points)

  Awarded for melding all three Purple Ribbon cards.

  Ao means "blue". (sic)

o Tane (1 point*)

  Awarded for five melded Animal cards.

  *Scores one additional point for each further Animal card thereafter.

o Tan (1 point#)

  Awarded for five melded Ribbon cards (any type).

  #Scores one additional point for each further Ribbon card thereafter.

o Kasu (1 point%)

  Awarded for ten melded Basic cards.

  Kasu means "dregs".

  %Scores one additional point for each further Basic card thereafter.

At any point during the game you can press the triangle button to view, over two
pages, examples of the scoring combos. These help pages also show the combo
names written in Japanese which should help you understand the score-sheets
during a game.

The scoring combinations are listed on the help pages in the following order.
I've named the cards used in the examples there to help you learn them.

page 1, row 1 - Goko (i.e. Crane, Sakura Banner, Full Moon, Rainman & Phoenix)
              - Shiko

page 1, row 2 - Sanko
              - Tsukimi-Zake (i.e. Full Moon & Sake Cup)
              - Hanami-Zake (i.e. Sakura Banner & Sake Cup)

page 1, row 3 - Inoshikacho (i.e. Boar, Deer & Butterflies)
              - Akatan (i.e. Red Poetry Ribbons of Pine, Sakura & Plum)
              - Aotan (i.e. Purple Ribbons of Chrysanthemum, Peony & Maple)

page 1, row 4 - Tane (e.g. Bridge, Cuckoo, Bush Warbler, Butterflies & Sake Cup)

page 2, row 1 - Tan (e.g. Clover, Wisteria, Peony, Chrysanthemum & Willow)

page 2, row 2 - Kasu (e.g. Plum, Clover, Wisteria, Pine, Iris, Paulownia,
                      Chrysanthemum, Maple, Peony and Silver Grass)

page 2, row 3 - Teshi (automatic win, see below)

page 2, row 4 - Kuttsuki (automatic win, see below)

------< AUTOMATIC WINS >------------------------------------------ [Section 08]

Although they are fairly rare, there are two situations where the game will
declare an automatic win immediately after the initial deal.

o Teshi (6 points)

  This occurs when one player holds all four cards of one suit in their hand.

  Te means "hand" (as in Karate which means "empty hand") and Shi still means
  "four", so this is literally "four hand".

o Kuttsuki (6 points)

  This occurs when one player is dealt four suit pairs.

  The name is composed of two kanji, Ku and Tsuki, but a different Tsuki to the
  one that means "moon" in Tsukimi-Zake. I'm not sure what Kuttsuki is meant to
  mean - it translates as "food-attach" or something about biting?!

These are listed at the bottom of the second page of the in-game help section.

In both cases the round ends, the player receives six points, the cards are
dealt again and the next round begins.

------< CASHING-OUT >--------------------------------------------- [Section 09]

Unlike the present day gambling halls in Yakuza 2, you're not bound by modern
Japanese gambling laws so you can exchange your Gambling Points back into money
after a game instead of receiving prizes and then having to sell them. Prizes
are also available but there's no point selling these since the pawnbroker only
pays half their actual value (see below) and it's easier just to take the money.

Both the Hanafuda locations have a man who you can speak to in order to convert
your Gambling Points - in Gion it's one of the men in reception (not the one sat
by the door, the other one) and at the Suburbs stall it's the guy on the left.

In both cases you're taken to the standard shop interface where you can select
the top option to cancel, click on an item to buy or press left/right to change
the quantity, and use the bottom option to confirm/checkout. The eight items in
the list are given in the following order.

                  |     Cost*   | Resale Value | Notes
  10,000 Mon cash |  10,000 pts |      n/a     | You can use these two options
 -----------------+-------------+--------------| to convert your Gambling 
 100,000 Mon cash | 100,000 pts |      n/a     | Points back into proper money
       Manju cake |      10 pts |      5 Mon   | These are very basic (and very
 -----------------+-------------+--------------| cheap) food items - not the
           Orange |      10 pts |      5 Mon   | most exciting prizes ever...!
 Purple Health-Up |     500 pts |    250 Mon   | High-power health/spirit boost
 Lapis Lazuli gem |   5,000 pts |  2,500 Mon   | Used by blacksmith / inventor
     Spirit Water |     200 pts |    100 Mon   | Used by blacksmith
  Dragon Whiskers |   1,500 pts |    750 Mon   | Used by blacksmith

*The cost in Gambling Points is equal to the item's true value and shop price.
For example you can buy a lapis gem for 5000 Mon from a shop or for 5000 GP at a
gambling location (and you could sell it for 2500 Mon at the pawnbrokers).

------< DISPLAY >------------------------------------------------- [Section 10]

The diagram below shows the general layout of the table during a game.

             your opponent's card (face down)             opponent's melds
      ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___      __   __   __   __
     |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   |    |  | |  | |  | |  |
     |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   |    |__| |__| |__| |__|
     |___| |___| |___| |___| |___| |___| |___| |___|
                    ___   ___   ___   ___                   O_p p o n e n t
                   |   | |   | |   | |   |                  [_]    5=
       ___         |   | |   | |   | |   |                           ___
      |   |        |___| |___| |___| |___|  table           ------  |   |
      |   |         ___   ___   ___   ___                     4#    |   |
      |___|        |   | |   | |   | |   |  cards           ------  |___|
                   |   | |   | |   | |   |
    draw pile      |___| |___| |___| |___|                  K i r y u
      ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___
     |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   |     __   __   __   __
     |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   | |   |    |  | |  | |  | |  |
     |___| |___| |___| |___| |___| |___| |___| |___|    |__| |__| |__| |__|

                   your cards (face up)                     your melds

Your eight cards are shown at the bottom of the screen, while your opponent's
are shown at the top, hidden from you. The Table Cards are dealt onto the table
between these and the draw pile is to their left.

Your currently selected card in your hand is highlighted in blue and any table
cards from the same suit that match it (if any) are highlighted in yellow.

When either player melds a pair of cards these are added to four piles on the
right in the following order: Basics, Ribbons, Animals and Specials.

Any points won from previous rounds are shown on the right of the screen. The
dealer in the current round will also have a pink square next to their score,
much like the dealer marker used in the Chinchirorin minigame.

The number and Basic card between the scores tell you which round it is - in the
example above it's the fourth round so the card would be from the fourth suit,
i.e. an April/Wisteria card. This card isn't removed from the deck, it's only an
indicator, so all four cards from that suit remain in play.

------< STRATEGY >------------------------------------------------ [Section 11]

In general you should, of course, meld (capture) as many cards as possible and
aim for the ones that give a better score. So for example you'd normally chose
to capture a Special card with a Ribbon card (thereby melding both) instead of
melding two Basic cards, although there might be exceptions.

I would rank the cards in order of importance like this, starting with the most
powerful card.

1) Sake Cup

   If you're playing with the Hanami-Zake and Tsukimi-Zake combos allowed then
   you can use this card to make the two five-point combos, each composed of
   only two cards. Nice!

2) Full Moon and Sakura Banner

   These two Specials are the other half of the Tsukimi-Zake and Hanami-Zake
   pairs respectively and you can also use them in Sanko/Shiko/Goko.

3) Chinese Phoenix and Crane

   The other two Specials that can score Sanko/Shiko/Goko for big points.

4) Rainman

   The fifth Special card, but not quite as "special" as it's not allowed in the
   Sanko or full Shiko scoring combinations. Poor fella!

5) Boar, Deer and Butterflies / three Red Poetry Ribbons / three Purple Ribbons

   These can make five-point triplets in their respective groupings.

6) the other Animal and Ribbon cards

   Five of either gives you a one-point combo.

7) the Basic cards

   Ten of these give a one-point combo.

Koi-Koi is as much as game of defence as it is offence. Not only should you try
to get the best cards and combinations but you should also try to stop your
opponent from getting them.

For example if they've melded both the Full Moon and Sakura Banner cards then
you should capture the Sake Cup immediately if you get the chance. You won't get
the big scores for it but you'll stop the other player making ten points.

Although I've listed the Basic, Animal and Ribbon cards at the bottom of my
ranking above, they can still be useful in capturing cards higher up the chart.
If you've melded the Full Moon card, for example, you should retain a Basic or
Ribbon card from the Chrysanthemum suit which would let you meld the Sake Cup
card when (or if) it appears.

(Remember that not all 48 cards enter play in each round, some will stay in the
draw pile so you can't count on them making an appearance. You might have your
melded Full Moon and a Chrysanth in hand ready for a Sake Cup that never comes.)

You should also keep cards in order to make "blocking" moves, e.g. if your rival
has melded the Boar and the Deer cards then you could hang onto a Peony card
which would let you take the Butterflies and therefore prevent them making the
scoring combination with the three (sometimes you might even discard onto the
table rather than make a meld with a card you want to keep until later).

Another possibility in the above example is that the other player is holding the
Butterflies card in his hand so again it's a good idea to keep your Peony cards,
since a discard to the table would let him play the Butterflies and score.

Conversely if you've melded the Boar and your opponent has melded the Deer then
there's no point chasing the Butterflies. You should keep an eye on which cards
have been played and make your decisions accordingly.

Often you will have the option of making one of several different melds. In this
case you should consider the ranking above, also bearing in mind which cards
have been captured already. Also if you have the choice of melding, for example,
either the Crane (Pine Special) from the Table Cards with a Pine Basic from your
hand or a Paulownia Basic from the table with the Chinese Phoenix (Paulownia
Special) in your hand then I'd choose the first option - melding the Special
off the table to stop the other player potentially taking it on their turn and
hopefully getting to play the other Special in my hand later.

If you can see all four cards from one suit, among the Table Cards, your hand
and the melds then you know that you can safely save any in your hand for later
and make other melds first.

When you have two cards of the same suit in your hand but the other two suit
cards have not yet been played then you might have to take a risk. Say you've
already melded the Sake Cup and you have the Sakura Banner Special and a Sakura
Basic in your hand then of course you want to meld the Special to make the
Hanami-Zake combo. You could discard the Basic onto the table but it might get
melded, either in the "second phase" of your turn (with a stray Sakura card from
the draw pile) or in either phase of your opponent's turn. Is it worth the risk?

Finally, to koi or not to koi? The rules add a very interesting tactical element
in that you can only end the round and keep your points at the moment that you
make a scoring combination. If you play-on but then either you fail to make
another combo or your rival makes one first then your points are lost. In
deciding whether to continue you should consider a number of factors - how many
cards are left in your hand? how many combos are available? how many rounds are
left in the game? are you ahead or behind on points? is the other player close
to scoring? 

You might've made ten points and chosen to continue but if your opponent gets a
quick win with even a cheap one-point combo they can choose to end the round and
not only take that point but deny you ten! Sometimes though, you can do that to
them. :) If your rival makes a big score but "koi's" then any combo you can make
will let you end the round and force them to lose their points from that round -
even a one-point Kasu combo of ten humble Basic cards could do it.

------< COMPLETION >---------------------------------------------- [Section 12]

As with all the minigames in Kenzan, it is possible to "complete" the Hanafuda
game by meeting certain conditions. In this case your goal is to beat the target
scores for all four game lengths as shown below.

    Number of rounds  |  Target score  |  Average points per round required
            3         |       20       |                 6.7
            6         |       25       |                 4.2
            9         |       35       |                 3.9
           12         |       40       |                 3.3

Your completion targets can be viewed from the pause menu - to view your stats
for Hanafuda you should select option 6, then 9 and then 4. Each individual high
score is shown in red if it beats the target.

I would say that the shorter the game, the harder it is to achieve the target
score. As you can see from the third column above, when you play the shortest
game you need to score six or seven points in all three rounds, or perhaps get
big scores in a couple of rounds, so you need a fair bit of luck.

If you're trying to complete the minigame I'd recommend the (default) option of
allowing the Tsukimi-Zake and Hanami-Zake scoring combinations as these are the
easiest way to make a good score with few cards.

------< TRIVIA >-------------------------------------------------- [Section 13]

Although gambling games with playing-cards have been popular in Japan for
several centuries, the Hanafuda deck only dates back to the 19th century so
(like Mahjong) it wouldn't actually have existed in the period of history
depicted in Kenzan.

Hanafuda originated in Japan but similar cards are also very popular in Korea
and Hawaii.

The scoring combination Inoshikacho gave its name to a team of three ninja in
the manga Naruto. The original members of the team were INOichi Yamanaka,
SHIKAku Nara and CHOza Akimichi.

Inoshikacho also appears in the anime Dragon Ball where it's the name of a
monster - a chimera composed of elements of a boar, a deer and a butterfly!

In addition to Koi-Koi, a Hanafuda deck can also be used to play a game called
Oicho-Kabu which is a bit like blackjack but with a target of 9. Only the first
ten suits (months) of the deck are used and when cards are added the tens are
ignored, so for example June (6) and September (9) give a score of 5.

The lowest scoring hand in Oicho-Kabu is 8-9-3 (which gives a total of zero) -
this is called "ya ku sa" and is the origin of the word Yakuza.

A company that was set up to make Hanafuda in 1889 is still operating and doing
quite well for itself - it's called Nintendo! They still make Hanafuda too.

If you want to read more about Hanafuda you might like to know that there's a
book available in English. It's called 'Hanafuda: The Flower Card Game' and it
gives the rules of five different games including Koi-Koi and Oicho-Kabu. At the
time of writing (Summer 2009) the paperback edition is available new from Amazon
(specifically their American site) - you can search by the title as there's no
author given on the book's cover.

------< CONTACT >------------------------------------------------- [Section 14]

If you have any comments, additions or corrections (or praise?!) relating to
this guide please email barticle at hotmail.com - obviously changing the "at"
to an @ and removing the spaces. It would be helpful if you include the word
"Hanafuda" in the subject.

Feel free to ask about the Mahjong minigame too - after checking my Kenzan
Mahjong guide of course - but don't bother asking about any other aspects of
Kenzan; try posting on the game forum instead.

------< THANKS >-------------------------------------------------- [Section 15]

I would like to thank the following people:-

o ThePatrick for his invaluable and essential Kenzan guide

o Etsuko for her help translating some kanji that I couldn't work out

o Tom Sloper for the heads-up on the book

o Kraftwerk (and Afrika Bambaataa) for teaching me the Japanese numbers 1 to 4!

I will be happy to give credit and thanks to anyone who makes a contribution.

Kenzan! Hanafuda Guide
Copyright 2009 James R. Barton
Initial version 1.00 completed 9 June 2009
Current version 1.01 completed 19 August 2009

All trademarks and copyrights contained in this document are owned by their
respective trademark and copyright holders.

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use only. This work is subject to copyright. It may not be hosted online or
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without the advance written consent of the author. Any violation would
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The only websites with the author's consent to publish this guide are GameFAQs
(www.gamefaqs.com) and its affiliates (i.e. Gamespot).

If you find this file hosted on any other site I would be grateful if you would
inform me at the email address given at the top. Thanks!

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