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    FAQ/Walkthrough by Warfreak

    Version: 0.6 | Updated: 04/26/11 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

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    Author: Warfreak
    Version: 0.6
    Date Started: 28/09/10
    NOTE: This Guide will Contain Spoilers. YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED!
    *('@')~~~~~~Watch In Awe, Watch In Awe, Aeria Gloris, Aeria Gloris~~~~~~('@')*
    Use Ctrl+F to quickly navigate this guide.
                                  Table of Contents
     §1 Introduction
        [1.01] Introduction
        [1.02] Version History
        [1.03] Steam
     §2 Civ V, Basics
        [2.01] Game Intro
        [2.02] Wealth, Culture and Happiness
        [2.03] Great People
        [2.04] Combat
        [2.05] Cities and Growth
        [2.06] Victory
     §3 The 18 Civilizations
        [3.01] Arabia
        [3.02] Aztecs
        [3.03] China
        [3.04] Egypt
        [3.05] England
        [3.06] France
        [3.07] Germany
        [3.08] Greece
        [3.09] India
        [3.10] Iroquois
        [3.11] Japan
        [3.12] Ottoman
        [3.13] Persia
        [3.14] Rome
        [3.15] Russia
        [3.16] Siam
        [3.17] Songhai
        [3.18] United States
        The DLC Nations
        [3.19] Babylon
        [3.20] Mongolia
        [3.21] Spain
        [3.22] Inca
        [3.23] Polynesia
     §4 City-States
        [4.01] City States Intro
        [4.02] Cultural City States
        [4.03] Militaristic City States
        [4.04] Maritime City States
        [4.05] City State Missions
     §5 Environment
        [5.01] Terrain Tiles and Features
        [5.02] Natural Wonders
        [5.03] Resources
     §6 Technology
        [6.01] Ancient Era
        [6.02] Classical Era
        [6.03] Medieval Era
        [6.04] Renaissance Era
        [6.05] Industrial Era
        [6.06] Modern Era
        [6.07] Future Era
        [6.08] Tech Map
     §7 Buildings, Improvements and Projects
        [7.01] Improvements
        [7.02] Buildings
        [7.03] Wonders
        [7.04] Projects
     §8 Units and Promotions
        [8.01] Ancient Era
        [8.02] Classical Era
        [8.03] Medieval Era
        [8.04] Renaissance Era
        [8.05] Industrial Era
        [8.06] Modern Era
        [8.07] Future Era
        [8.08] Promotions
     §9 Social Policy
        [9.01] Social Policies
        [9.02] Tradition
        [9.03] Liberty
        [9.04] Honor
        [9.05] Piety
        [9.06] Patronage
        [9.07] Commerce
        [9.08] Rationalism
        [9.09] Freedom
        [9.10] Order
        [9.11] Autocracy
    [A] Contact Information
    [B] Credits
    [C] Webmaster Information
    [D] Copyright Notice
    *~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Now, Let the Guide Begin~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
    [1.01] Introduction
    If you stand back enough, you will be able to recognise the V as the same
    V behind the name of the game. Anyway this is my guide, number 63 actually,
    and I will probably support all the Civ 5 games, so future expansion packs,
    just like my coverage on Civ 4. Basically, this game is a lot different, so
    first things first, cover the differences. 
    First off, I know there is going to be a lot of copy pasta from the 
    Civilopedia from the game, however, given how clunky I find it now, and how
    it is more annoying to use, it will be put here, and besides, you might want
    to get some context on why some leaders are so, well, out there.
    And for anyone curious to my game edition, it's the lovely Special Edition
    or the Collectors edition. Who can resist metal figurines of archers and a
    metallic death robot?
    For those that care, my Steam ID is antisniperwarfreak, and more or less, I'm
    using Steam to either play this, Total War, L4D2, or TF2. Although being 
    based down under, lag will get most of you. 
    [1.02] Version History
    Version 0.0 [29/9/10]
    Template done, started on the guide proper.
    Version 0.1 [4/10/10]
    Guide is way too big for starters, might have to remove history, but Chapter 
    2 and 3 are done.
    Version 0.2 [12/10/10]
    Well, City States are done. 
    Version 0.3 [27/03/11]
    Update on the DLC stuff. Planning to get this one done, when I have time.
    Version 0.4 [10/04/11]
    Finished the Environment section, half of technology done. 
    Version 0.5 [11/04/11]
    Update on goody huts, all of tech done. 
    Version 0.6 [26/04/11]
    Marathon Update, the guide is now complete. Enjoy. I might update when new
    patches come out, or DLC, but that is in the future. Otherwise, enjoy. 
    [1.03] Steam
    This is a copy and paste on how to use Steam in an offline capacity for those
    that are interested. I've stolen this from my Empire: Total War guide, and I
    don't think any of this has changed, and I don't use Steam in an offline 
    capacity any more, thanks to my new wireless connection, so my PC isn't in 
    it's offline mode anymore. And a few pieces are editted, cause well, this 
    isn't Total War.
    Install the game, but you need the Net first. Steam will prompt you to put in
    the serial code, and if need be, create an account if you don't already have
    one. It will install the game, and it will take some time. Go do some 
    homework or something, cause you won't have time to when this is done. When
    it is done, adjust your settings. 
    Now, if you want to play and you don't have the internet access all the time,
    such as dial-up users, access Steam and use the My Games tab. Let the game be
    updated via Steam, and wait until it gives the 100% Ready sign. Then, you can
    launch the game.
    Quit, making sure it works, and head to settings, making sure that the "Don't
    Save Account Credentials" Button IS NOT ticked. Now, you can go offline, or
    when you next use Steam and you are offline, Steam will access your offline
    account and Empire: Total War, since it is 100% Ready, will be able to be 
    played offline. 
    This is a quick summary of this link
    So if you are still lost, read there. This part is necessary just to make sure
    no one has problems with Steam, and everyone can play it. 
    However, there will be problem using Steam. Given that you need it to be at
    the 100% ready sign to play, the latest patches, which amount to a nice 
    total of about 500mb, you will be downloading for a long time if you are 
    using a dial-up connection, and still it will take hours on a decent ADSL/
    Cable line. 
    Also, the download speed will vary, given the time on the day, the speed of
    your connection, the speed of the servers, the amount of users, etc, so it
    will take some time. This can cause some problems. Therefore, if you wish
    to avoid updates, I suggest you always start in offline mode, otherwise, you
    will be here for a while.
    [2.01] Game Intro
    There are many differences between this game and Civ 4. As someone who has 
    played pretty much every single Civ game since Colonization and Civilization,
    which were released all that long time ago on DOS, there has been a lot of
    differences, but let us start small.
     - Hex Tiles - 
    Yes, the square tiles are gone, the diagonal tiles are in the dustcans of
    history, they are replaced with hex tiles, and although it might be a bit
    of a shock, they look horribly nice. They are very well done, and old civ
    players really wouldn't notice too much of a difference. 
     - Cities can Bombard and Defend - 
    Yes, that is right, cities can now bombard enemies that come within 2 tiles
    of the city. That means, get too close, and watch the city rain projectiles
    on you. Therefore, there cannot be a rush early in the game, because they 
    can just attack enemies that decide to get too close. This makes them very
    strategic as well in terms of placement, they can be used as offensive weapons
    as well, and they are very useful overlooking a chokepoint or bottleneck.
     - Leadership Traits - 
    The way each leader is arranged is different. There are 18 civilisations,
    and each have a single leader. There are no more dual leaders, which is a bit
    of a shame, but that makes thing a little more tolerable. Each civilisation 
    has a specific power, the Americans have the Manifest Destiny, whereas the
    Chinese will have the Art of War, something that is related to each of them.
    Each civilisation will have 2 unique features that are specific to them, 
    besides their power. They will either have 1 unique building and 1 unique
    unit, or they will hav 2 unique units. For example, the Americans will have
    the Minuteman and the B17 as their unique units, whilst the Chinese will have
    the Chu-No-Ku as their unique unit and the Paper Maker as their unique
     - Religion - 
    What was introduced in Civ 4, the concept of religion, has been removed. This
    was done mainly because it wasn't very effectively implemented, but it has 
    been removed. 
     - Civics - 
    Yes, Civics have pretty much been redone completely. This means that you 
    don't get to choose a government system when it is time to do so, however,
    you will be picking civics or rather, social policies. This is where you
    accumulate culture points from your cities, and from here, you will be able
    to pick new policies from that. This is talked about heavily in the manual,
    and I'll jibber a bit more about it later. 
     - Technology - 
    Whilst the tech tree is still there, ready to be pruned, tech trading has been
    changed. No longer can you just trade technology back and forth like some sort
    of commodity, rather, technology is traded in the form of agreements, where 
    you and another party will basically create a research pact, and that,
    although costing money, will lead to a joint venuture to create new tech. 
    And the biggest change is, no more Leonard Nemoy. 
     - Stacks - 
    No more stacks. Stacks of units are now gone, banished, erased. No more can
    you send a stack of 50000 armoured units into a city and watch them pulverise
    the enemy defences. One hex tile can only hold a civilian unit, such as a 
    settler or worker, and a military unit, such as a warrior or catapult, no 
    more. Of course, you can move past them, but you cannot now have stacks. 
    That concludes most of the major changes, now we will go into depth about the
    smaller changes and the overall scope of the game. 
    [2.02] Wealth, Culture and Happiness
    There are three things that you need to keep an eye on, you want to keep an
    eye on your wealth, or gold, your culture levels, and overall happiness.
     - Happiness
    Happiness is now global. Previously, it was on a city level, so your goal
    was to make each city happy. This has how been changed, it is measured in
    terms of overall happiness. If your empire is unhappy, then your empire won't
    grow in terms of city growth. If your empire is extremely unhappy, then your
    army will suffer, they will get combat penalties. 
    Happiness is effected mainly by population. The more people in your cities,
    the more unhappiness that will be there. Another is that as the number of
    cities grow, so does unhappiness. And finally, annexed cities that you have
    conquered from your enemies, they will be unhappy.
    To improve happiness, there are many things. Wonders and buildings are the
    main ways to improve happiness, as well as luxury resources and the discovery
    of natural wonders.
     - Culture
    Culture is used for two things. Culture is used in your cities to expand
    your borders, so it is in your interest to build culture up to get new
    tiles for your cities, and by extension, your empire. The second thing culture
    is used for is that whilst your cities generate culture, all these points
    are tallied up and you can spend them on social policies, which is discussed
    in depth later.
    There are several ways to get culture. The first, your starting city and the
    palace within, will generate culture. The next method is to build up culture
    producing buildings in your cities. As time grows and your technology builds
    up, buildings produce more culture. 
    Wonders are also the way to go, next to all wonders will produce culture as
    a result. Social policies, that are the result of culture spending, will boost
    culture production, and even from wonders. 
    There are specialists in cities, which will use up a citizen in your cities
    for culture production. You can also use Great Artists to build Landmarks to
    generate more culture. And finally, there are city states, which can be 
    partnered to gain culture.
     - Wealth
    Finally, money can by everything. Money is generated from your cities, or 
    from Great Merchants, trade routes, conquering enemies and city states. There
    are many ways to earn gold, but there are even more ways to spend it.
    A good deal of your money will be spent on regular maintenence, both of
    buildings and roads/railroads, as well as upkeep for your military units. But
    when you have a surplus from that, you can spend it in a variety of ways. 
    You can spend your money buying tiles in your cities, buying buildings, 
    upgrading your older units, and a lot of other things, that you can always
    figure out in game. 
    One thing to learn are trade routes. These are basically trading routes 
    between your cities. To have a trade route, cities need to be connected to the
    capital to trade, by either roads or railroads. The interesting thing here
    is that if a city has a trade route with a capital, then it can form an 
    instant trade route with cities over water with a harbour.
    For example, if you have a coastal city, that is connected with your capital
    city via a road/railroad connection, that coastal city will have a trade 
    route. That coastal city can give all other coastal cities under your control
    an instant trade route if both have harbours. Just a neat little trick. 
    [2.03] Great People
    Great People are people who have made significant contributions to humanity
    during their time on Earth. There are 5 different types of Great People, there
    are great Artists, such as Mozart, Beethoven and Shakespeare who have 
    influenced the world with their artistic creations. Then there are Great 
    Generals, who have lead their men into battle, such as Robert E. Lee, Lord
    Nelson and Rommel. 
    You also have Great Engineers, who have influenced the world with their
    buildings and architecture, including Alexander Graham Bell, Nicholas Tesla 
    and Leonardo da Vinci. Next to join the ranks are Great Scientists, whose
    discoveries have aided mankind for eons to come, including Ptolemy, Aristotle,
    Copernicus, Newton, Kepler, Galileo and many others.
    And finally, there are Great Merchants, who have lead the way in the world
    of commerce, including Columbus, Magellan, Coco Chanel, Adam Smith and 
    Marco Polo.
     - Generating Great People
    Great People are mainly generated from cities. Each city will, with the
    proper buildings or Wonders, will generate great person points. It is mainly
    done through specialists; engineers, artists, merchants and engineers in the
    cities will generate wealth, culture, as well as great person points for their
    respective profession. 
    There are 4 different meters as such. So great person points generated in
    cities will be for a specific specialist, so Great Engineer points will not
    conflict with Great Merchant points, and so forth. 
    You can boost Great Person production points with wonders. The Hagia Sophia,
    for example, will boost the generation of these points by 33%. 
    For Great Generals, it is different. Points for Great Generals are gained from
    battle, as you can guess, so the more units you defeat, the more points you
    gain, since points are directly related to EXP points from battle.
     - Golden Ages
    A Great Person can be used to foster a Golden Age. A Golden Age is basically
    a period of time where civilization has increased it's knowledge about the
    world, and their surroudings, at an astounding rate. Think of the time period
    such as Rome under the leadership of Caesar and Augustus, the Renaissance in
    Italy, the development during the reign of Napoleon.
    In Civ 5, a golden age is a time where advancements in knowledge is mimicked, 
    where every tile that generates coins, will produce an extra coin, whereas
    tiles that produce production hammers will generate an extra hammer. This 
    lasts depending on how it is generated. A Great Person can lead the way, but
    the Golden Age will last longer if it was generated by excess happiness. 
    As of the latest patch, a Golden Age will result in 20% extra production from
    a city, rather than 1 hammer per tile. 
     - Using Great People
    A Great Person can be used to generate Golden Ages, and these can be powerful
    in short bursts, this can push you far ahead in the game, where you are 
    producing more, and gaining more money. But otherwise, a Great Person has
    two other options, they can be used generate a special improvement, and they
    can use their special ability. 
     - Great Artist
     - Landmark Improvement
     - Culture Bomb Ability
    The Great Artist can leave their mark in history with the Landmark, where a
    tile can be used to generate 5 culture points if it is worked on. This is 
    useful for new cities, where culture generation is quite important early on
    in the game. 
    The Culture Bomb ability is quite useful, where the tile that the artist is
    standing on, as well as the 6 surrounding hex tiles, will be converted to
    your empire. This includes foreign land, where they will be turned to your
    empire. Although they cannot be used to convert cities, it is a useful tactic
    to culture bomb an enemy city, to convert their best food or production tiles
    to your empire, and even though you can't use it, you can deny it's use to 
    the enemy.
    There are no limits to how many times a tile can be culture bombed, but it 
    would not be seen a friendly act.
     - Great Engineer
     - Manufactory 
     - Hurry Production Ability
    The Great Engineer can be used to build a Manufactory tile, which is basically
    a tile improvement that generates 3 production hammers when it is worked,
    which makes it quite useful for a city that is used as a production base.
    The Hurry Production ability is used such that the Engineer will speed the
    production of whatever is being built. Most of the time, the building, Wonder
    or unit will be instantly completed, but for the Wonders late in the game, it
    will be less immediate production, but more of a big boost in production 
    This is really useful to quickly speed up Wonder production, to beat the enemy
    so they cannot get that wonder. 
     - Great General
     - Citadel
     - Combat Bonus Ability
    The Great General is made to generate the Citadel, which is useful when it is
    in your lands. When the Citadel is on land that you control, the Citadel will
    deal damage to all units next to it that isn't friendly. But if it were to
    change hands, it will be under the control of the new owner.
    Combat Bonus is basically where all friendly units within 2 tiles of the 
    General gets a boost to their combat abilities, regardless of their combat
    type. That applies to both offensive and defensive combat, it doesn't matter,
    they just fight better.
    Genghis Khan is the unique unit for the Mongolian DLC country, and he is
    only different in that he provides a better combat buff to surrounding units,
    and that he has much better movement, up to 5. 
     - Great Merchant
     - Customs House
     - Trade Mission Ability
    The Great Merchant can build the Customs House, which will generate 4 gold per
    turn when it is worked. That makes it very useful for a city that is based off
    gold production, and that also ends up very nice for your empire, given the
    infinite amount of uses gold has.
    The Trade Mission is an ability that is basically a trading mission. Send the
    Great Merchant to the city of a City State, and they will launch a trade 
    mission, which will end up generating a lot of gold for your empire, as well
    as improving relations between your empire and the city-state.
     - Great Scientist
     - Academy
     - Learn New Technology Ability
    The Academy is an improvement that will boost the amount of science that is
    generated. When an academy tile is worked, it will generate 5 science points 
    for your scientific endeavours. This is useful early on, where tech costs a 
    lot less, it is less relevant in the modern age where tech is quite expensive
    to research.
    The Learn New Technology ability is probably one of the most powerful 
    abilities that you can get. It will pretty much instantly research a new
    technology for you, and it can be any technolgy that you can research at the
    current point in time, it doesn't have to be the tech that you are researching
    right now. 
    The Great Scientist is quite balanced, early on, the Academy is one of the
    best choices, but later on in the game, their ability is far more useful. 
    [2.04] Combat
    Combat is quite simple, move a unit from one tile to another. The two units
    fight, and the winner wins. Quite simple.
    Well, early on in the game, where units are rather basic, it is quite 
    easy. You need to know that terrain will impact on how you fight, terrain
    such as hills and forest are good places for your forces to fight, given that
    they can hide from the enemy, but places such as the roaming deserts and 
    marshes are places where you get negative combat effects, since your forces
    are bogged down, making easy targets. 
    Later on in the game, units can be upgraded, and some of these will use some
    strategic resources. These resources must be kept and maintained, but lets
    say you have 4 iron, and 4 swordsman that use iron. If you lose control of 
    2 iron, your swordsman will get negative effects, since you do not have
    sufficient materials to supply them. 
    It is at this point, where combat will split off into different branches.
     - City Combat
    Fighting cities is harder in this game. To attack and conquer a city, you need
    to reduce the health of the city down to zero. Think of this as a militia, a
    city will be able to attack all units within 2 tiles of the city, causing 
    moderate damage. This militia in the city will needed to be tamed, to zero
    health, before you can send a unit to capture the city. 
    This makes conquering a city a team effort. You can either use siege units
    to bomb the city into submission, and then capture it, or just use the 
    strength in numbers to conquer the city. 
     - Ranged Combat
    Ranged combat is more interesting, where you can get units such as archers
    attack from a range. They are quite devastating when used in groups, they
    should be used in pairs or trios, with a melee unit to protect the archers
    from the enemy. 
    Archers however, are quite weak when they are engaged in melee combat, and
    they will be literally slaughtered if they face overwhelming melee attacks. 
     - Siege Combat
    Related to city combat, a siege unit can be used to fight both enemies and
    cities alike. A siege unit, such as a catapult, must take one movement
    point to set up their weaponry, and then they can be used to wipe out enemies
    and reduce the health of cities. 
    Siege units are what you need to use to attack cities. Given that cities can
    attack, and do quite a fair amount of damage to melee units, it is best to
    use siege units that literally wipe the floor of a city's health, before
    sending in a melee unit to capture the city.
     - Mounted Combat
    Mounted combat is basically where you stick a guy on a horse and tell the
    guy to fight. Mounted units are powerful before they have higher movement
    or mobility, where they have double the amount of movement points of a 
    normal ground unit. They also have an attacking bonus, you do not want to
    be a poor guy on the ground facing a knight. The combination of high attack
    power and high movement are useful to remove ranged units, where your 
    melee units gang up on enemy melees.
    However, mounted units are weak against lancers, so you really want to be
    careful, but given that melee units are strong against lancers, you need to
    be able to balance your army.
     - Naval Combat
    Naval combat is interesting in that you can use your ships for ship to ship
    combat, but primarily, your navy is used to bombard enemy cities and units
    into submission. 
    Later on in the game, where you can roam the seven seas with your navy, 
    units such as submarines and missile cruisers change the game. From that
    point, a navy is used as a powerful support platform, they can use guided
    missiles to bombard enemies, air units to have naval aviation power, and
    submarines, to sneak attack and sink enemy naval units.
     - Air Combat
    Air superiority is one thing that you always want in this game. You have
    three types of units. You have your bombers, which are used to bomb the
    crap out of units and cities. They do heavy damage to ground/naval units
    as well as cities. 
    The second type of unit are fighters, which are used to bait out enemy
    fighters, and destroy them, clearing a path for your bombers. Bombers aren't
    that good with fighters, but your own fighters/interceptors are. 
    Finally, there are gunships, which don't fight enemy fighters per se, but
    they are useful that they don't need to be based in a city's airfield to
    use, and they are quite powerful against ground targets, and cities. 
     - Missile Combat
    Missiles are quite fun to use. There are two types of missile, your normal
    guided missiles, which are useful to eliminate normal units without to 
    much drama, and they are quite cheap and easy to build.
    The second type of missile are nuclear missiles, which can do a huge amount
    of damage, as you would expect from a nuke, but expect some diplomatic 
    backlash from other civilizations, but then again, if they get a little
    antsy about it, fire a few nukes at them. But in order to access nukes, you
    need the Manhattan Project to be researched first, either by yourself or
    another civilization, it doesn't matter which. And then some uranium. And
    then, nuclear strikes!
    [2.05] Cities and Growth
    Cities are the mainstay of your civilizations, without your cities, you
    have will nothing to play with. Your cities are build by settlers, with the
    surrounding lands built up by workers. And from there, the sky is the limit.
    To build a city, you need more people, or a higher population, in your cities.
    For that, you need 2 food per citizen. With your current citizens fed, the
    excess food is stored, and when it reaches a certain limit, you will get a 
    new citizen, and the process continues until you reach a point where you
    can't support more people. 
    With citizens, you can let the game assign them per a certain playstyle, so
    the game defaults with a balanced city, or you can order your city to focus
    on something, be it gold generation, food generation, science generation, etc.
    Or you can manually assign your citizens to do whatever you want them to do,
    and optimize your cities that way. 
    With your population growing, you can build structures and Wonders in your
    cities to make them even more productive. Since each Wonder and building
    has their benefits, as well as disadvantages, it is up to you what you want
    to concentrate on. After all, all the time you are building that Wonder, you
    cannot build units to fight battles, and so forth. 
    When you have research the necessary technology, you will be able to build
    roads, and later on, railroads. With these roads, connecting them to your
    captital city will spawn a trade route, which generates gold. And these
    are useful for your military, since they can move across the terrain faster
    on roads, compared to normal tiles. 
    [2.06] Victory
    There are 5 ways to win in this game. You can win through Domination, 
    Science/Spaceship, Diplomatic, Cultural and Default. 
    Domination is basically where you are the last standing player with control
    of your original capital city. Basically, last person standing with control
    of their first city, will be the winner. It is regardless of what actually 
    has been done, it just takes into account the last man standing.
    So if you have conquered 15 other capital cities, and the last enemy manages
    to sneak in and take your capital, then they will win. There are ways to
    circumvent this though. If you set it that you do not automatically lose
    when you lose your capital, your capital will be replaced, and although you
    cannot continue your domination, you can recapture your capital and then
    go back to the fight. So if you are the unlucky guy who loses their capital
    straight away, you can still win domination games, you just need recapture
    your capital.
    The second type is the spaceship victory. That means building up the 
    necessary technology to build the spaceship parts, and then building them,
    move them to your capital city, and then launch off into space. This is
    difficult, since it can only be achieved late in the game, and you need to
    move your spaceship parts to the capital if they aren't built in the 
    capital, and they can be destroyed en route, so make sure they are 
    The third type of victory will be a cultural victory. Basically, the first
    person to have fully researched 5 different social policy branches will
    win a cultural victory, and this will take time, since it does take a fair
    amount of time to build up all that culture to win. Then you need to build
    the Utopia Project to win the game.
    The fourth type of victory is diplomatic. Basically, you build the United
    Nations, and every few turns, there is a vote, and basically, you need the
    majority of the votes to win. In order to get the votes, you need a mix
    of combat and diplomacy. You need to own the city-states, such that they
    are allied with you, and that will have them vote for you. 
    Since enemy civilizations will always vote for themselves, you can fight
    them, defeat them, and liberate them, and although they will return as a 
    civ in their own right, they will always vote for you.
    Finally, there is the 2050 victory, basically, whoever has the highest
    score will win. Score is determined by a variety of things, such as tiles
    that you control, cities, population in the cities, techs, future tech
    researched and the number of Wonders.
    [3.01] Arabia
     Leader          - Harun al-Rashid
     Unique Unit 1   - Camel Archers, replaces Knights
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Bazaar, replaces Markets
     Civilization Power
      - +2 Gold per Trade Route
     ~ History
    "The Muslim Empire of the Caliphate - also known as the Islamic Empire or the
     Arab kingdom - came into existence after the Prophet Mohammed's death in 632
     AD, created by Mohammed's disciples as a continuation of the political
     authority he established. During its long existence the Caliphate would grow
     to enormous size and power, dominating Spain, North Africa, the Middle East,
     Anatolia, the Balkans and Persia, ruling an empire that at least rivaled that
     of the Romans at the height of their power.
     The Arab Empire began in Medina, on the Arabian Peninsula, in what is now
     known as Saudi Arabia. The interior is generally inhospitable desert -
     barren, sandy and hot with summer temperatures reaching as high as 130
     degrees F. Medina and Mecca occupy the more fertile coastal regions along
     the Red Sea.
     The Umayyads were a merchant family based in Mecca. They had converted to
     Islam in 627, becoming prominent supporters of Mohammed and his successors.
     The early Umayyad caliphs were based in Damascus, Syria, and the Syrian army
     formed the backbone of the Arab military forces. The Umayyads expanded
     Arabian power east, building outposts and sending expeditions into Central
     Asia and northwestern India. In addition the Umayyads launched the invasion
     of North Africa. In the 7th century they constructed a Mediterranean fleet
     with which they launched a series of unsuccessful raids against Christian
     The Umayyad Caliphate reached its zenith under the reign of Abd al-Malik
     (reigned 685-705). In the west, Abd's armies overran much of Spain, while in
     the east the Caliphate invaded Sind in India and conquered Bukhara,
     Samarkand, Khwarezm, and many more places too hard to spell. al-Malik also
     oversaw a reorganization of the Caliphate's bureaucracy, economy, and the
     institution of a post service. During his reign the arts flourished,
     particularly architecture.
     The empire suffered a decline after Abd al-Malik's death. A series of
     mediocre caliphs combined with economic troubles and military reverses in
     the east and west fueled tribal rivalries within the Caliphate, and in 750
     the Umayyads were defeated and overthrown at the Battle of the Great Zab
     The Umayyads were defeated by the Abbasids, another powerful family. The
     first Abbasid Caliph, Abu al-Abbas, was a ruthless leader who upon achieving
     power immediately set about exterminating anyone else who might have a
     legitimate claim upon the throne. He was successful, as the Abbasids would
     remain in power for another three centuries. Not without a certain grim
     panache, he gave himself the name as-Saffah, which translates as "the
     The Abbasids shifted the capital of the Caliphate to Baghdad. This reflected
     its concentration on events in the east - Persia, India, Central Asia - and
     subsequent de-emphasis on North Africa and the Mediterranean. The Abbasids
     were more overtly religious than the Umayyads, and under them the Caliphate
     more closely followed Islamic law.
     Harun al-Rashid (reigned 786-809) was the fifth Abbasid caliph. He ruled
     Arabia at the height of its wealth and power. In his early years Harun led
     military expeditions against the Byzantine Empire; his successes earned him
     the nickname al-Rashid, "the one following the correct path." While Rashid
     did have to put down a number of internal revolts, the empire was mostly at
     peace during his reign, and the Caliphate grew monumentally, spectacularly
     wealthy. For more details on Harun al-Rashid, see his Civilopedia entry.
     The Arab empire of the medieval period was far more advanced than
     contemporary Europeans; Harun al-Rashid's Baghdad may have held a million
     people at the same time that Charlemagne's Aachen was a "capital" of ten
     thousand. Centers of learning attracted scholars from across the Muslim
     world to great cities such as Baghdad, Damascus, and Cordoba. The Arabs of
     this period made many advances in medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and
     other areas, as well as translating many of the classics of the Ancient
     Greeks into Arabic, thereby saving them from destruction.
     During the period of the Crusades, Christian Europe began a sustained assault
     against the Arabic world. The greatest of Muslim generals from this period
     was Salah al-Din, better known as Saladin, who successfully defeated the
     Third Crusade and recaptured Jerusalem for the Arabs.
     As the Middle Ages ended, however, the Empire began to fragment under
     increasing pressure from both external and internal forces. The sheer size
     of the Empire made centralized government nearly impossible, and the caliphs
     were forced to put down numerous insurrections by rebellious local leaders.
     The debate over the rightful heirs to Mohammed's leadership continued to
     fester. In the west the Europeans wrested control of Spain from the
     caliphate, while in the east the Ottomans began their inexorable expansion
     into the heart of the Arabian Empire.
     In 1258 a Mongol army under Hulagu Khan captured Baghdad and executed
     Caliph al-Musta'sim, bringing the Arabian Empire to an abrupt end.
     For most of the past five centuries, much of the Arab world has been ruled
     by foreigners; first by the Ottoman Turks, then by the Western colonial
     powers. Since the onset of de-colonization in the 1950s, traditional Arab
     values have been modified through the combined pressures of urbanization,
     industrialization, and Western influence. However, the ancient tenets of
     Islam are still followed by millions of faithful across the globe.
     Although now divided between dozens of different countries, the lands once
     part of the greater Arabian Empire owe much to their ancient common
    The Arabians are a fun race to play with, you can always mimic the current
    Middle East conflict, however, their power is very useful for a large
    empire. An extra 2 gold per trade route, with an empire of 40 cities connected
    to the capital will lead to an extra 80 gold per turn, in addition to the
    usual benefits that trading brings into the civilisation. 
    The Bazaar is a nice building, it replaces the market. It does the same job
    as the market, with the 25% extra gold as well as the specialist slot, but
    the unique thing is that an additional luxury resource for each resource 
    near the city. So 1 wine turns into 2, 2 into 4, and so forth. 
    The unique unit is the Camel Archer, a unique mounted unit which allows for
    movement after attack, as well as a powerful ranged and melee attack for
    units within the Medieval Era, which is when you get access to this unit. 
    However, like all mounted units, pikemen and spearmen are their worst
     Harun al-Rashid
     ~ History
    "Harun al-Rashid (which translates roughly as "Aaron the Rightly Guided") was
     the fifth Abbasid Caliph, ruling the Arabian Empire from 786 to 809 AD.
     During his reign the Caliphate stretched from Spain in the west to Anatolia
     in the north to India in the east, and it was the largest and most powerful
     political entity in the world. Harun was an able ruler, and his reign was a
     time of scientific and cultural advancement and prosperity for his subjects.
     The son of the third Caliph and al-Khayzuran, a Yemeni slave girl, Harun
     came to power following the death of his brother, Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi
     al-Hadi. Al-Hadi died of a stomach ailment under somewhat suspicious
     circumstances, and some believed that his mother had al-Hadi poisoned because
     she had much stronger influence with her younger son, Harun. True or not,
     al-Khayzuran was one of Harun's chief advisors until her death in 789.
     At the start of Harun's reign, the Caliphate's capitol was in Baghdad, a new
     city founded by an earlier Caliph. The city was a center of arts, science and
     religion, with many beautiful buildings. There Harun founded the "House of
     Wisdom," a library and research facility which collected and translated
     scientific writings from Persian, Indian, Greek, and Roman texts. Under Harun
     Baghdad would blossom, becoming perhaps the largest and richest city in the
     world. Later Harun would move his government to the strategically important
     city of ar-Raqqah, but Baghdad would remain a great city of arts, science and
     commerce for centuries to come (the city would be conquered and sacked by the
     Mongols in 1258).
     A somewhat fantastic description of Harun may be found in "The Thousand and
     One Nights," in which the Caliph is described as living in a sumptuous palace
     flowing with gold, silver, and jewels. Although exaggerated, there is a
     strong element of truth to the tale. During Harun's reign huge amounts of
     wealth poured into the Empire, and a goodly portion of it made it to the
     Caliph's coffers. According to ancient historians, Harun's wife insisted that
     all utensils and plates at her table be made of gold and festooned with
     Politically, Harun attempted to maintain cordial relations with the European
     powers. He had direct diplomatic relations with Charlemagne, and in these
     pre-Crusade years Europeans had free access to Jerusalem and the Holy Lands.
     He also had diplomatic relations with the Imperial Court in China. However,
     his relations were somewhat less friendly with the Byzantines.
     Under his father, Harun had led an army through Turkey to the gates of
     Constantinople, capitol of the Byzantine Empire. After negotiation with the
     Empress Irene, Harun agreed to spare the city in return for an annual tribute
     of 70,000 gold coins. When Irene was deposed and the Byzantines reneged on
     the agreement in 806, Harun led another army north and once again forced the
     Byzantines to capitulate.
     Harun became ill and died in 808 while on his way to deal with a revolt in
     Iran. He was succeeded by his son, al-Amin. His passing marked the beginning
     of the slow decline of the Arabian Empire, after his death pieces of it were
     carved away by external enemies and internal revolt. Although the Empire
     would continue to exist for some centuries, it would never again reach the
     brilliant heights it had under Harun al-Rashid.
     Although there were wars and internal trouble, most of Rashid's reign was
     peaceful and prosperous. The Caliphate enjoyed economic and industrial
     growth, plus an explosion in trade. Harun was a lover of music and poetry,
     and he gave lavish gifts to artists in his court. Although not necessarily a
     great leader, Rashid did rule the Arabian Empire competently at the very
     height of its power and wealth."
    Harun is an interesting enemy to face. With this guide, along with a nice 
    history about them, for those who can't be bothered using the Civilopedia, 
    which is a lot more confronting to use, I will give you their actual 
    approaches to the game, as how they will, as the AI, will fight you in the
    game. As a future note, if you don't want to read the history, just skip
    past the second chunk of history for the Leader, and you'll get to the 
    analysis of the AI Leader.
    All scales are out of 10, the closer to 10 they are, the more likely they
    are going to use that type of approach to whatever the scale is on. 
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 4/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 7/10
     City State Competitiveness - 4/10
     Boldness                   - 3/10
    Harun is very competitive in terms of building wonders, he is one of the
    mostly likely leaders to compete in terms of building Wonders, so if you
    want those Hanging Gardens in your city, you will really want to build them
    quick, Harun will also want them, the race is on. He is interesting in the
    city states, as well as aiming for victory conditions, but not as much as 
    some other leaders. And he isn't the type to go demanding what he wants or
    tries to get his way.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 3/10
     Hostile   - 5/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 7/10
     Afraid    - 5/10
     Friendly  - 6/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Harun is more likely to use deception and be guarded, he is likely to play
    all nice, and offer you some trade agreements, such as a research pact to
    remove your gold reserves, or be guarded, not giving anything away. He is 
    friendly somewhat, if the price is right. He is least likely to go to war 
    to get what he wants, which is nice. No one likes war, unless you start to
    piss me off.
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 3/10
     Friendly      - 6/10
     Protective    - 7/10
     Conquest      - 4/10
    Harun will be more willing to build up a strong alliance with the city 
    states, and offer to protect them, so that if you were to declare war on the
    city state, they will declare war on you, and then there will be some real
    issues. He will, on occasion, take their lands for his own personal gain 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 4/10
     Defensive         - 6/10
     City Defence      - 6/10
     Military Training - 5/10
     Reconnaissance    - 5/10
     Ranged            - 7/10
     Mounted           - 6/10
    When you are going to face his army, Harun will be playing the defensive 
    side. He is more likely to used ranged units, such as archers and his camel
    archers, which will be harder to counter with melee units, and will be using
    a fair amount of mounted units. He will scout out your area though, and he
    will be training his troops through buildings such as barracks. When you 
    decide to advance, make sure you bring enough to smash his defences. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 4/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 4/10
     Naval Growth           - 4/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 4/10
    Harun isn't a powerful naval user, he is more likely to just use the seas to
    transport his forces, not to use them to bombard your cities, which is nice
    if you have a fair amount of coastal cities. 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 3/10
    When it comes for the time for air power to dominate, Harun won't be using
    his air units to his advantage. He won't be sending helicopter gunships to
    rain on your parade, or bombers to blow up your city. Something nice to know
    at least.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 5/10
     Growth           - 5/10
     Tile Improvement - 6/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 8/10
     Science          - 7/10
     Culture          - 6/10
    Harun will concentrate mainly on gold production, apt given that his special
    power is to do with gold, but he will focus on science and culture as well, 
    which makes him fast to research new technology as well as adopting new social
    policy. In terms of improvements, he will build them, but he will build them
    to improve gold first, and gold foremost.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 7/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 6/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    Despite his inability to use air power well, he will nearly always go for the
    spaceship victory, building and completing the Apollo project, which is very
    handy when you are facing him, he will be less likely to kill you than to
    build up his little spaceship, which drains his production from units to kill
    you with. 
    [3.02] Aztecs
     Leader          - Montezuma
     Unique Unit 1   - Jaguar Warrior, replaces Warrior
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Floating Gardens, replaces Watermill
     Civilization Power
      - Gain Culture for each enemy unit killed
     ~ History
    "The Aztecs were a Native American civilization that occupied central Mexico
     for roughly one hundred years in the 15th and 16th centuries. The Aztecs
     ruled a mighty empire and possessed a rich culture, producing some of the
     most impressive pre-Colombian architecture in North America. Today the Aztecs
     are best remembered for the bloodiness of their religious practices and
     rapidity with which they collapsed in the face of external assault. 
     The Aztec Empire was located in the "Mesa Central" or central plateau in the
     heart of modern Mexico (Mexico City is built atop the ruins of the Aztec
     capital city of Tenochitlan.) The Valley of Mexico is dominated by a number
     of conjoined lakes: Zumpango, Xaltocan, Texcoco, Xochimilco, and Chalco. The
     area features abundant rainfall and a temperate climate, and the land is
     incredibly fertile.
     The origin of the Aztec people is uncertain, but their origin stories suggest
     they were a tribe of hunter-gatherers on the northern Mexican plateau before
     they migrated down to Meso-America in the 12th century. The word "Aztec"
     comes from "Aztlan" ("White Land"), an allusion to northern Mexico. The
     Aztecs reached central Mexico sometime around 1250; what happened to them
     before that period is mostly speculation and myth.
     At the time of the Aztecs' arrival, the population of central Mexico was
     divided between hundreds of small tribes or city-states, the most important
     of which were the Azcapotzalco and the Culhuacan. During the early period the
     Aztecs were vassals of the Azcapotzalco, who in 1325 gave them permission to
     settle on a small island in Lake Texcoco, where they founded their capital
     city, Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs remained subject to the Azcapotzalcos for
     around 100 years.
     By the fifteenth century, the Azcapotzalcos had become a strong regional
     power. In 1427 the Azcapotzalco leader, Maxtla, had the Aztec leader
     Chimalpopca assassinated and laid siege to the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
     To defeat the Azcapotzalcos, Chimalpopca's successor Itzcoatl allied with two
     other powerful city-states, Texcoco and Tlacopan. The allies successfully
     raised the siege of Tenochtitlan and shortly thereafter conquered the
     Azcapotzalcos themselves.
     Over the next century the "Triple Alliance" would come to control all of
     central Mexico, eventually extending its power across the entirety of the
     country, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Tenochtitlan would become the
     dominant member in the alliance, making the Aztecs de facto rulers of a vast
     continental empire.
     In 1440, Montezuma I succeeded his uncle Itzcoatl to become ruler of the
     Aztecs. During his reign Montezuma solidified the Triple Alliance. He
     extended the Alliance's control to the Gulf coast, subjugating the Totonac
     and the Huastic people. He also led successful campaigns against other
     neighbors, including the Mixtecs, Cotaxtla, and Orizaba. (It's important not
     to confuse Montezuma I with his unfortunate and incompetent namesake,
     Montezuma II, about whom see below). Montezuma I died in 1469. For more
     details on Montezuma I, see his Civilopedia entry.
     While Montezuma I held the throne, his half-brother Tlacaelel was engaged in
     reforming the Aztec state. He literally rewrote the Aztec religion, according
     to some sources ordering the burning of hundreds of texts because of
     historical inaccuracies. Under Tlacaelel, the Aztec religion stated that the
     Aztecs were chosen people, destined to be above all others. Tlacaelel also
     emphasized the importance of militarism and ritual sacrifice in the Aztec
     religion, a change which would have far-reaching and devastating effects upon
     the Aztecs and the region as a whole. Tlacaelel oversaw the creation of many
     temples and religious buildings, including the Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan,
     dedicated to the Aztec god of war Huitzilopochtli.
     Politically, Tlacaelel was one of the architects of the Triple Alliance. He
     is said to have ordered the burning of conquered people's histories to ensure
     that his people's worldview was dominant. He also strengthened the Aztec
     nobility and priesthood at the expense of the peasants.
     Tlacaelel died in 1487, probably much to the relief of Central American 
     historians everywhere.
     At the height of its power, the Aztec Empire dominated an area of nearly
     200,000 square miles (slightly under a third the size of modern Mexico), with
     some five to six million subjects. Somewhat like the Mongols, the Aztecs left
     the subject tribes to their own devices as long as the requisite tribute was
     paid. The Aztecs were great traders, and Aztec merchants happily did business
     with allies and enemies alike. Lacking a monetary system, trade was based
     upon the barter system.
     Possessing no draft animals or wheeled vehicles, the Aztecs constructed a
     vast road network designed for foot travel. In addition to merchants, these
     roads were in constant use by soldiers and military couriers, making them
     safe enough for women to travel on alone.
     The Aztec religion as revised by Tlacaelel believed that a steady stream of
     sacrifice was required to keep the universe operating properly. Sacrifice
     was required to keep the rain falling, the crops growing, the sun rising, and
     so forth. Sins were expiated by sacrifice. The Aztecs sacrificed animals,
     wealth, food, their own blood - and human beings. The Aztecs claimed that
     they sacrificed over 80,000 prisoners to reconsecrate the Great Pyramid of
     Tenochtitlan in 1487, though many historians believe this to be a massive
     exaggeration, with 5,000 or fewer being the most that would be logistically
     possible given the size of the sacrificial table. Even if the smaller number
     is closer to the truth, that's still quite a lot of blood and beating hearts
     to deal with.
     The Aztec religion placed a premium upon the sacrifice of enemy warriors
     captured in battle, which became something of a problem once the Empire had
     conquered pretty much everybody within reach. This led to a form of
     ritualized combat known as the "Flower Wars," under which two sides would
     meet at a prescribed time and place for the specific purpose of battling to
     acquire prisoners. Once the battle was over, each side would take their
     prisoners back to their cities for religious sacrifice.
     In 1502 the ninth emperor Montezuma II (1502-1520) succeeded his uncle
     Ahuitzotl as the ruler of an empire that had reached its greatest extent,
     stretching from what is now northern Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua. The
     Aztec empire was still expanding, and its society still evolving, when its
     progress was halted in 1519 by the appearance of Spanish adventurers on the
     Gulf Coast.
     In February of 1519, Hernan Cortes led an expedition into Central America,
     leading a force of 500 men, 13 horses and a small number of cannon. In
     mid-August he marched on Tenochtitlan after burning his ships to discourage
     retreat. Along the way he gathered many Native American allies eager to
     assist in the downfall of the hated Aztecs.
     According to Spanish records, Cortes was greatly assisted in his conquest by
     Aztec religious traditions that said that the God Quetzalcoatl would return
     as a white man from across the water. The Aztecs were not certain if Cortes
     was Quetzalcoatl, which made them reluctant to fight him. Cortes' godhood was
     further confirmed by his command of horses, dogs, firearms and cannon which
     the Aztecs had never seen, and which at first naturally terrified them.
     By the time Cortes reached Tenochtitlan, he had a huge following of native
     allies. Montezuma II welcomed the Spaniards into the city peacefully,
     whereupon Cortes made him prisoner. Through Montezuma Cortes ordered the
     Aztecs to provide the Spanish with huge amounts of treasure. Eventually, the
     Aztecs stoned Montezuma to death and drove the Spanish out of their capital,
     but Cortes got reinforcements and returned, laying siege to the city. In 1521
     the city fell and was razed, and in August the last ruler of the Aztecs was
     The Empire was vanquished, destroyed by ambitious foreigners with advanced
     weapons who took advantage of the native majority's hatred for their Aztec
     overlords. Unfortunately for the natives, the Spanish were not especially
     nicer to their subject people and it would be some time before they would
     once again be free from oppression and once again have some control over
     their own destinies."
    2 Videos that any self-respecting Civ Fan must watch, who hasn't had one-more-
    turn-itis? No one, that who. Anyway, the Aztecs are a funny bunch, they are
    especially strong in terms of war, given their special power. They have the
    best in terms of early starts, they will get the Jaguar Warriot, which is 
    superior to the normal warrior, and they will get the Floating Gardens, 
    which gives 15% more food and 2 extra food for each worked lake tile as long
    as the city is located next to a river or lake. 
     ~ History
    "A mighty warrior and leader, Montezuma I helped propel the Aztec nation to
     greatness and glory. He should not be confused with his unfortunate grandson
     Montezuma II, who watched helplessly as his empire was dismantled by Spanish
     Montezuma (whose name means "he frowns like a lord") came from a royal
     family. His father Huitzilihuitl was the second Aztec "tlatoani" or emperor,
     and his mother, Miahuaxihuitl, was the daughter of the ruler of the city of
     Cuauhnahuac. Following his father's death, Montezuma's uncle Itzcoatl was
     elected. Montezuma's older brother Tlacaelel was one of Itzcoatl's closest
     advisors, while Montezuma served as a general in the Aztec army.
     Following Itzcoatl's death in 1440, Montezuma was elected emperor. Tlacaelel
     did not seem at all unhappy about being bypassed (perhaps he thought he'd
     live longer if he didn't get the crown), and by all accounts he served his
     brother faithfully. Montezuma's coronation was a huge ceremony involving the
     sacrifice of many prisoners.
     Despite the opulence of his political title, it appears that Montezuma
     himself lived modestly, in a simple palace with "just a few wives." When not
     engaged in religious duties or matters of state, he spent much of his time in
     consultation with his friends and advisors.
     During his reign Montezuma and his brother Tlacaelel worked to improve the
     Aztec city Tenochtitlan. Among other improvements they constructed an
     aqueduct system which brought a good deal of fresh water into the city. Of
     course as Tenochtitlan grew, in addition to fresh water it required ever
     greater amounts of food to sustain its hungry population. Since Central
     America lacked draft animals, every single morsel of food had to be
     transported to the city on somebody's back. Montezuma's government employed
     state inspectors to ensure that every piece of arable land within walking
     distance was planted and maintained. He also ordered the construction of a
     dike system to alleviate flooding and to provide more farmland.
     Montezuma and his brother also constructed many temples in and around the
     city, including a new temple to Huitzilopochtli, the god of battle. The
     temple of Huitzilopochtli was consecrated in 1455 with the sacrifice of a
     large number of Huaxtec prisoners of war.
     Probably at the urging of his brother, Tlacaelel, Montezuma instituted
     Sumptuary Laws which codified and reinforced the already-stratified Aztec
     class system. A person's station in life determined what he or she could
     wear and how he or she could speak. The poor were not allowed to wear cotton
     cloth, sandals or any clothing that extended below the knee. Only the
     nobility could live in homes of greater than one story. Crimes were punished
     by slavery, the lowest of all classes, or by being sacrificed.
     During Montezuma's rule, his brother Tlacaelel worked on reforming the Aztec
     religion. He rewrote the Aztec religious texts, ordering the destruction of
     many others which did not agree with his interpretations of the Aztec history
     and religion. Under Tlacaelel the Aztec religion became more militaristic,
     demanding ever more sacrifices of captured enemy soldiers. The need for
     prisoners for sacrifice would over time become one of the driving forces
     behind Aztec foreign policy.
     As ruler Montezuma sought to strengthen the "Triple Alliance" between the
     Central Mexican city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan. He also
     expanded the Aztec empire by conquering Panuco, the Totonacs, Coatzocoalcos
     and the Chalca. Some theorize that he conquered the tribes for their tribute,
     hoping to ensure a continuous food supply for Tenochtitlan, which despite his
     best efforts continued to suffer from periodic famine. Another theory is that
     he did so to feed the Aztec religion's every-chronic need for prisoners of
     war to sacrifice. Yet another theory is that he did it because that's what
     Aztec Emperors did - conquer stuff. The answer is likely to be something of
     a combination of all three theories.
     Montezuma died in 1469. He was succeeded by his 19-year-old cousin,
     Axayacatl, who would be the father of Montezuma I's namesake, the unfortunate
     Montezuma II who would lose everything to Spain.
     Generally, Montezuma was a successful ruler. He expanded his empire,
     personally led his armies to victory, and worked hard to improve the lot of
     his people. He certainly was a bloody man, personally sacrificing thousands
     of prisoners to his thirsty gods. But his religion said such barbarity was
     necessary - blood was required to ensure that the sun would rise, the crops
     would grow, and the Aztec nation would continue to prosper.
     Could he have cut back on the ritualized murder? Possibly. But the thought
     might never have occurred to him - or anybody else in the area at the time.
     It's useful to remember that the more "enlightened" people of Europe were
     busily burning heretics alive at roughly the same time. And while that
     doesn't in any way make Montezuma's actions any better, at least it puts them
     in some kind of context."
    Montezuma is very aggressive, and when you watch that video, you will figure
    that he expands and conquers all those who get in his path. So if you are 
    near him in terms of civilization, you might want to build up some defences and
    have units around him 24/7, just to make sure he doesn't pull off anything 
    sneaky on you. 
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 6/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 2/10
     City State Competitiveness - 5/10
     Boldness                   - 8/10
    Montezuma isn't going to compete with you on Wonders, but he will compete for 
    the favours from the City States, but what really does set him out is his 
    boldness. He will demand what he wants, if he doesn't get it, he will get very
    pissed, and will be, as you will see later, declare war on you.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 7/10
     Hostile   - 6/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 5/10
     Afraid    - 7/10
     Friendly  - 4/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Montezuma is one that deals with strength. When he meets you, he is more 
    likely to declare war on you, and be willing to deceive you and then declare
    war, rather than to be friends with you and be involved in a group hug. 
    However, build up an army strong enough to match him stride for stride, or
    declare war on him with a superior force, and he will back down. It is 
    either put up or shut up with Montezuma.
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 5/10
     Protective    - 3/10
     Conquest      - 7/10
    Montezuma isn't there to be friendly towards the city states, he is there to
    conquer them. He is one of the most likely leaders to attack the city states
    and take them over. He will ignore what others are doing towards the city
    states, which will tend to get him into more wars than necessary, but that is
    his culture, no to respect others. Beside, he only sees the city state as a 
    small city with a few military units, not looking at the protector with a
    few hundred riflemen on their borders. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 8/10
     Defensive         - 3/10
     City Defence      - 4/10
     Military Training - 6/10
     Reconnaissance    - 6/10
     Ranged            - 5/10
     Mounted           - 5/10
    Montezuma will focus on his ground units a lot. He will focus on the offensive
    units, anything that can be used to attack, he will use it. He will scout out
    your lands, and then send in units, including siege units, to march on your
    lands. However, the lack of defence will help you significantly, you will be
    able to easily take over his lands once you defeat his standing army. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 3/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 3/10
     Naval Growth           - 4/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 4/10
    Montezuma will, by large, neglect his naval units significantly. He will be
    more likely to use them as a support role at most, but more likely, the extent
    of his naval prowess will be to ship units across the sea to set your cities
    on fire. 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 4/10
    Air power isn't something that is on Montezuma's mind, he isn't there to use
    air units as an offensive strategy, rather, as best, support. And that's a 
    good thing, bombers aren't the best thing you want to face when they decide
    to rain death on your cities. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 8/10
     Growth           - 5/10
     Tile Improvement - 5/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 5/10
     Science          - 4/10
     Culture          - 5/10
    The only thing that stands out, above average, is that Montezuma expands and
    he will expand aggressively. This is why he is one of the most hated enemy
    leaders to face, he will expand and declare war to gain land, and he does
    not build an economy to match that expansion. It is nice to note that he 
    isn't that tech inclined though, so whilst you will be using riflemen, he
    will still be stuck using Jaguar Warriors. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 6/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 6/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 7/10
    For someone who doesn't like to tech up, he will go for the spaceship 
    victory, more often than not, although it will take him a fairly long time
    to get there. This is quite good, although his armies marchingn into your
    land isn't that good. 
    [3.03] China
     Leader          - Wu Zetian
     Unique Unit 1   - Chu-Ko-Nu, replaces Crossbowman
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Paper Maker, replaces Library
     Civilization Power
      - Great General effective and spawn rate increased
     ~ History
    "Summarizing the rich history of China in several paragraphs is a daunting
     task indeed. China is a civilization spanning some six thousand years and
     comprising a large fraction of humanity. There is evidence of man's
     prehistoric ancestors living in China some two million years ago, and modern
     man has lived in the area for at least 18,000 years, possibly much longer.
     Geographically, China can be divided into three main areas: the mountainous
     highlands of the west, the rugged south, and the eastern lowlands bordering
     the Yellow and East China Seas. Bisected by a number of major rivers, the
     incredibly fertile lowlands have been the center of power in China, and
     whoever controls that area controls Western Asia.
     The Xia Dynasty is the earliest known centralized political entity in China.
     While the specific dates of the dynasty remain open to debate, many reputable
     scholars agree that the Xia existed from around 2000 BC to 1600 BC. The Xia
     did not control all of China; their power was largely centered in northern
     China, the area which would eventually become known as Manchuria. The Xia
     were eventually overtaken by the Shang, who lasted from around the 18th to
     the 12th century BC. The Shang were in turn ousted by the Zhou, who held
     power until around the 9th century BC. From the 9th century to the 2nd China
     suffered through the unending agony of near-constant civil war during the
     so-called Spring and Autumn period, which in turn was followed by the Warring
     States period. Eventually, in the second century BC, the Qin Dynasty
     conquered its rivals and established the first truly unified Chinese state.
     Their successors, the Han, introduced the office of the Emperor, the single
     leader who would rule all of China.
     Over the succeeding centuries China would be ruled by the Tang and the Song
     dynasties. In 1271 AD the country would be conquered by the Mongol leader
     Kublai Khan, who would begin his own dynasty, known as the Yuan. A century
     later, the Yuan would be overthrown and the Ming dynasty would gain power,
     lasting until the 16th century AD. The Qing replaced the Ming, ruling until
     1912 AD, when the Republic of China was established. The Republic lasted
     some fifty years, until it was overtaken by the People's Republic of China
     in 1949. As of this writing, the People's Republic remains China's current
     A creative and innovative people, China has given the world some of the most
     important inventions in history, including paper, gunpowder, the compass, and
     movable type. (This section is mandatory whenever Chinese history is
     discussed, in case you were wondering. It's a law.)
     Throughout much of its history China has remained an insular and isolated
     civilization, largely ignoring - and ignored by - the rest of the world. This
     was not difficult, as for many centuries China long held a distinct
     technological and military edge over any and all external foes. And any
     threats it could not defeat militarily (such as the Mongols, who conquered
     China in 1271), it simply absorbed into its own dominant culture.
     This changed during the 18th and 19th centuries. By this period, the European
     powers and Japan had achieved a significant technological advantage over the
     Chinese. This edge, combined with vastly superior naval forces, better
     armaments, superior communications and advanced military tactics, allowed the
     foreign powers to dominate much of the rich Chinese coastal cities, where
     they could engage in extremely profitable business (including the infamous
     opium trade). The weak and corrupt Chinese central government was unable to
     oust the hated foreigners, who remained until most were driven out by the
     Japanese during and following World War II.
     Emerging triumphant over the Nationalists shortly after World War II, the
     Communist government spent the subsequent fifty years consolidating power,
     modernizing infrastructure, and improving the lives and education of its vast
     population, a process which included a number of massive missteps, including
     the idiotic "Cultural Revolution" which did its best to destroy China's
     intellectuals. In the past 40 years China has emerged as a major world power,
     an economic behemoth which will soon dwarf all other economies including the
     once unstoppable United States.
     China is not without its difficulties, however. Much of its energy is
     expended simply supporting its huge and growing population base. Pollution
     is becoming a major problem as more and more factories are built, and more
     and more automobiles are clogging the bigger cities. Tibet - which depending
     upon your point of view is either a captive nation or an integral part of
     China - remains an open wound and major political distraction for China. None
     of these are insurmountable, though, and China stands poised to dominate the
     21st century."
    The Middle Kingdom, China is a powerful nation to play. With the Paper Maker,
    you will get a nice boost to your gold reserves, since it does give you some
    gold per turn as well. The Chu-Ku-No is a very nice unit, it has the ability
    to attack TWICE and as a ranged unit, it will be effective in removing the
    biggest threat, the Longswordsmen, at a distance before they have a chance 
    to strike. The Art of War will allow you to get Great General quicker, and
    this is useful for 2 reasons, the ability to build Citadels, and more 
    importantly, the source of a new Golden Age. 
     Wu Zetian
     ~ History
    "Like most civilizations, China has been male-dominated throughout much of its
     history. Until very recently, women were afforded few rights, and direct
     power was all but totally denied to them. For a woman to attain the rank of
     Emperor, to become the most powerful person in China, was almost unheard of.
     Only one person in the entirety of Chinese history was able to do so. That
     person was Wu Zetian, one of the most remarkable rulers - female or male -
     the world has ever seen.
     A shockingly beautiful child, at the age of 13 (in approx. 639 AD) Wu became
     a concubine of Emperor Taizong. She did not have any children with the
     Emperor, and at his death in 649 she left the palace to become a Buddhist
     nun, as was common for childless concubines at the time. That should have
     been the end of her story. However, Fate was to give her another chance at
     Like much of Chinese politics of the day, this gets extremely complicated.
     Empress Wang, the wife of the current Emperor Gaozong (son of the late
     Emperor Taizon), was afraid that Gaozong was becoming too infatuated with
     Consort Xiao. This was indeed a matter of some concern, as consorts had in
     the past been known to supplant empresses, who were often killed as a result.
     To divert her husband's attentions from Consort Xiao, the Empress had Wu -
     who was still young and beautiful - returned to the palace and reinstated as
     This tactic was a complete success - too complete, in fact, for in a few
     years she had supplanted both Consort Xiao and Empress Wang in Emperor
     Gaozong's affections. Both ladies were killed, and she attained the rank of
     Empress. Some historians believe that she killed her own infant daughter and
     framed the Empress for the murder. While this is not proven, subsequent
     events have suggested that such an act was well within her scope.
     As Empress Consort, Wu moved quickly to consolidate her power. Forging
     alliances with certain powerful officials, she had those who opposed her
     demoted, exiled, or killed. She was an able advisor to the Emperor, and he
     delegated more authority to her as time passed. By 660 AD, the Emperor began
     to suffer from a debilitating illness (which some said was caused from slow
     poisoning by Wu), and he passed much of the day-to-day management of the
     Empire to Wu, who was then about thirty-five years old. Wu showed herself to
     be an able administrator, with sharp wit and extensive knowledge of history
     and literature. She also showed a remarkable ability to seek out and destroy
     those who plotted against her as well as those who might someday pose a
     threat. When Emperor Gaozong died in 683, she was inarguably the most
     powerful person in China.
     Following Gaozong's death, Wu's son Zhongzong became Emperor. He immediately
     began displaying troubling signs of independence, including appointing
     officials to important posts without consulting with his mother. This
     threatened to undermine Wu's power base, and she took decisive action.
     Zhongzong was deposed and exiled, and Wu's youngest son, Ruizong, became
     Emperor. Taking no chances this time, however, Wu kept the new Emperor in
     virtual isolation. Having no doubt learned from the unhappy example of his
     older brother, the titular Emperor kept very quiet and did nothing to offend
     the Dowager Empress.
     In 690 AD, Wu took the throne herself, her son Ruizong reduced in title to
     Crown Prince. This caused a certain amount of displeasure among
     traditionalists, which Wu handled in her usually efficient and brutal manner.
     She expanded the powers of the secret police, who answered directly to her,
     and hundreds were exiled, imprisoned or murdered. She held this post for some
     15 years, until, at the age of 80 and seriously ill, she was deposed. She
     died later the same year.
     As a leader, Wu was considered to be an able administrator and shrewd judge
     of character. She promoted and supported able men, and in return she received
     their firm loyalty. Generals appointed by her conquered Korea, adding that
     wealthy land to the Empire. She was quick to destroy any she saw as a threat,
     and the early years of her reign as Emperor were bloody and repressive, even
     by Chinese standards. As she grew more secure in her throne, however, she
     reined in the secret police, and even her enemies grudgingly praised her for
     her competence and decisiveness.
     In short, her rule was benevolent to those who were no challenge to her, and
     lethal to those who were. All in all, Wu Zetian remains one of the most
     fascinating rulers in history, and well worth further study."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 3/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 5/10
     City State Competitiveness - 7/10
     Boldness                   - 7/10
    The Dowager Empress isn't there to win ultimately, she is there to make your
    life as miserable as possible. She will strongly compete to take and corrupt
    the City States, as well as making relatively bold moves. She is someone you
    want as an ally, not as an enemy, because she isn't a big threat as an enemy.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 4/10
     Hostile   - 6/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 7/10
     Afraid    - 5/10
     Friendly  - 7/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Wu Zetian is about as likely to hate you as she is to love you. She is either
    friendly towards you in the game, or she is going to threaten you with her
    armies. She is willing to use deception to get her way, such as decoy 
    agreements to drain your gold and resources, and is willing to defend her
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 4/10
     Friendly      - 6/10
     Protective    - 7/10
     Conquest      - 5/10
    Wu Zetian is quite protective of the City States, she will be friends with
    them and then protect them, so declaring war on them will lead to you 
    declaring war on her. However, that doesn't exclude her from conquering 
    the city states, she just prefers to make them her pawns, rather than to
    send her troops needlessly against them. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 5/10
     Defensive         - 7/10
     City Defence      - 5/10
     Military Training - 4/10
     Reconnaissance    - 4/10
     Ranged            - 7/10
     Mounted           - 5/10
    Given that the unique unit is a ranged unit, you can gather that Ranged Units
    are going to be a big hit with Empress Wu. She is more than willing to use
    ranged units, so you are going to have to quickly take them out with your
    mounted cavalry units or attain first strike. She is also quite likely to 
    play real defensive, so don't be surprised to see walls all around her cities
    with garrison within them. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 5/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 4/10
     Naval Growth           - 5/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 5/10
    Empress Wu isn't afraid to use naval units, which isn't a bad sign, but you
    don't have to worry about her to use a navy as a real threat, to her, a navy
    under her control will be there to support naval invasions or bombardments, 
    but it isn't her main strike weapon. 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 3/10
    Empress Wu won't really use air units as much as other nations would, she is
    more likely to use a ground force to blow something up, rather than a nice 
    shiny stealth bomber. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 4/10
     Growth           - 8/10
     Tile Improvement - 4/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 5/10
     Science          - 8/10
     Culture          - 6/10
    The Chinese are really big on growing nice big cities, so you can expect them
    to concentrate most of their effects around resource tiles related to food
    production. They are likely to have big cities, and that means big production
    and gold production. Also, they are very quick to tech up, given their unique
    building, and will adopt social policies quickly as well, so you might want
    to keep an eye out for them. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 6/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 6/10
     Diplomacy     - 3/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    As you can see, Wu Zetian isn't really interested in a diplomatic victory, the
    UN? Screw the United Nations, more like Useless Notion! Anyway, they are most
    likely to develop a space program and shoot of into the stars, and given their
    quick growth and tech growth, that is a pretty credible threat, so if a space
    victory is an option, you might want to keep an eye on them, and declare war
    if you want to stop them from winning. 
    [3.04] Egypt
     Leader          - Ramesses the Great
     Unique Unit 1   - War Chariot, replaces Chariot Archer
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Burial Tomb, replaces Temple
     Civilization Power
      - Wonders are constructed 20% Faster
     ~ History
    "Few civilizations have left such an indelible mark on history as that of
     Egypt. Living astride the mighty Nile River for some 5,000 years, Egypt is
     one of the oldest surviving civilizations on the planet. Among many other
     firsts, Egypt is credited with the invention of writing around 3000 BC. Using
     sophisticated mathematics, Egyptian scholars plotted the movement of the
     planets with great precision. And of course, the Egyptians were the ancient
     world's greatest architects, creating monuments and temples that still awe
     and inspire us today.
     Egypt is a riparian (river-based) civilization lying alongside the Nile,
     which, at some 4000 miles in length, is the longest river on the planet.
     Egypt occupies the northern section of this river in a narrow but extremely
     fertile corridor running through otherwise harsh desert terrain of the North
     African Sahara desert. While the physical area of Egypt extended a great
     distance to the east and west, the vast majority of that terrain is empty
     useless desert, and through its history almost all Egyptians have lived
     within walking distance of the river.
     Until the implementation of damming projects in the 20th century, the Nile
     flooded its banks in the summer of every year. Egyptian farmers relied on
     these floods to bring water and fresh nutrients to their fields, and a dry
     year could easily spell famine and disaster to the population. The Nile also
     provided a good deal of protein to the Egyptians, who were adept fishermen
     and who early on mastered the construction and handling of small watercraft.
     The Mediterranean Sea lies to the north of Egypt. A mild and generous sea,
     the Mediterranean encourages exploration and trade between all civilizations
     who live on its borders.
     The first settlers of the Nile valley are thought to have arrived around 7000
     BC, driven to the river as climate change turned the surrounding once-fertile
     lands to desert. By 5000 BC crops were being raised in local settlements
     along the river, and as agriculture improved the settlements grew in size and
     power. Luxury items such as mortuary pottery, copper ornaments, beads, and
     cosmetics begin to be seen in burial sites from that period, suggesting a
     significant growth in wealth and leisure in the culture.
     Increased wealth also allowed for the creation and maintenance of military
     forces which could be used to conquer other nearby cultures. By approximately
     3000 BC much of Egypt was unified. The first king mentioned in the historical
     records is Menes, who founded the capital Memphis, is credited with many
     irrigation works. His "First Dynasty" would last for some two centuries.
     The First and Second and Dynasties are known collectively as the "Early
     Dynastic Period" and last from approximately 3100 BC to 2600 BC. During this
     period Egypt extended its control south along the Nile and east and west
     along the coast of the Mediterranean.
     This period spans the years from approximately 2600 BC to 2100 BC. The Old
     Kingdom period is best known for the large number of pyramids constructed as
     tombs for pharaohs. Egyptian vessels traveled the Mediterranean and Red Seas,
     trading for items such as food, spices and Lebanese cedar, as well as
     luxuries like myrrh (a type of incense), ebony, and gold. The Old Kingdom
     ended when a severe drought caused the collapse of the central government,
     already weakened by corruption and civil war.
     The Old Kingdom Period is followed by the First Intermediate Period, then the
     Middle Kingdom Period, the Second Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom
     Period, the Third Intermediate Period, then the Late Period. During these
     periods (lasting from 2100 BC to perhaps 600 BC) the Egyptian government
     would rise and fall several times, and periods of strife and internal
     conflict would be followed by periods of great peace and prosperity. External
     foes would invade when Egypt was weakened, and the pharaohs would extend
     their empire when Egypt was strong.
     In 525 BC Egypt was captured by Persia, who would control the country until
     it was taken by Alexander the Great in 332 BC as he systematically dismantled
     the Persian Empire. After Alexander's death the Greeks established the
     Ptolmeic Dynasty.
     The able Ptolemies ruled in an unbroken line until the death of Cleopatra VII
     in 30 BC. Her suicide marked the end of Pharaonic rule and the beginning of
     Egypt's centuries as a Roman and Byzantine province. Although swept by the
     Islamic tide in 642 AD, Egypt was to remain under foreign occupation -
     Arabic, Ottoman, French, and British - until after World War I, when she
     finally gained her independence from a British administration weary of
     overseas conflict. From 1922 through 1952, Egypt appeared to be one of the
     world's most successful constitutional monarchies. But it was ripe for
     revolution; the military coup of July 1952 led by Gamal Nasser, ironically,
     finally made Egypt an island of stability in a turbulent Middle East.
     Egypt's mastery of monumental architecture is virtually unmatched in history.
     The Egyptians were also great sculptors, creating many quite beautiful
     statues of their pharaohs and gods. They also made beautiful and delicate
     works of gold, jewels and other precious metals, many of which have been
     discovered in tombs and vaults. Actually, much of Egyptian culture and arts
     seems to have been dedicated to death, entombment and the afterlife (or
     perhaps art on those subjects was most likely to have been entombed and thus
     has survived better than non-death-related artwork).
     Religion was extremely important to Egyptian society. The religion has an
     incredibly rich pantheon of gods, and a detailed and complex creation mythos.
     The pharaoh was both a man and a god, and he was responsible for interceding
     with the gods on his subjects' behalf. The priests also served as the
     society's civil servants. (If the Egyptians ever heard of the concept of
     separation of church and state, they wanted nothing to do with it.) The
     Egyptians believed in an afterlife for those judged worthy, and they believed
     in sorcery and magic. Many historians believe that the Egyptians saw the
     pyramids as pathways to the realm of the gods for those buried inside.
     Clearly, it is impossible to do justice to a 5000-year-old civilization in
     the space of these short paragraphs. At her height Egypt was a mighty,
     continent-spanning empire, whose scientific and cultural advancements brought
     incalculable benefits to humanity. And its greatest works, the pyramids, can
     still astonish the modern viewer, much as they did to those who saw them
     4,000 years ago."
    Egypt is very useful to play if you are to build Wonders. 20% off the actual
    production cost of wonders is useful, and couple that with the effects of 
    marble and one of the social policies, and you will be building the wonders
    like they were normal buildings. The War Chariot is nice, it doesn't require
    you to have access to horses to build, and there is improved movement. But
    the best is the Burial Tomb, besides improving culture like a normal temple,
    it will give 2 Happiness as well, and trust me, that gets VERY USEFUL later
    in the game. But this comes at the cost of double pillage gold for the enemy
    when they capture the city.
     Ramesses the Great
     ~ History
    "Ramesses II is considered to be Egypt's greatest and most powerful pharaoh.
     Taking the throne in his twenties, Ramesses ruled Egypt for more than 60
     years. Ramesses is remembered as a great military leader as well as for the
     extensive construction programs he instituted. He is also remembered for
     building a new capital city, Pi-Ramesses. Some historians believe that
     Ramesses is the pharaoh in the biblical story of Moses.
     Egypt having recently emerged from a period of declining power and prestige,
     Ramesses' father, Seti I, spent a good deal of time subduing rebellious
     provinces in Asia. The Hittites, based in Asia Minor, were extending their
     power southward, and the two great civilizations were engaged in a protracted
     struggle for control of Syria and Palestine. The young Ramesses accompanied
     his father on some of these campaigns; by the age of 10 he was given the rank
     of captain - though this was almost certainly ceremonial, it does suggest
     that his military training began at an extremely young age. Ramesses assumed
     the throne in his early twenties, following his father's death.
     Four years after becoming pharaoh, Ramesses led an army north to retake the
     rebellious provinces that his father had been unable to conquer. The campaign
     was apparently successful, and the army advanced as far as Beirut.
     In the following year Ramesses attacked the Hittite stronghold at Kadesh. The
     Battle of Kadesh is one of the few battles from that period of which we have
     records. Believing the citadel to be abandoned, Ramesses approached
     incautiously and was ambushed by a large Hittite chariot force hiding beyond
     the fort. Although Ramesses achieved a marginal victory in that battle, his
     army was so weakened that he had to retreat to Egypt, leaving the fort in
     Hittite hands. Ramesses continued to battle the Hittites for some twelve more
     years, attaining tactical victories, but unable to hold the contested land
     for any time.
     In addition to his wars with the Hittites, Ramesses campaigned in Nubia and
     Libya, extending his rule to the west and south. However these were of much
     less importance as these enemies posed little threat to the survival of
     Eventually realizing that further combat was pointless, in the twenty-first
     year of his reign, Ramesses agreed to a peace treaty with the Hittites. This
     is the earliest known peace treaty in recorded history. Interestingly, the
     treaty was written in two versions: the Egyptian version states that the
     Hittites sued for peace while the Hittite version states that it was the
     Egyptians who requested an end to hostilities.
     This treaty appears to have stabilized the borders between the two great
     powers, and no further combat between Egypt and the Hittites occurred during
     Ramesses' reign.
     Early in his reign Ramesses moved his capital from Thebes north to a city in
     the Nile Delta, which he renamed "Pi-Ramesses ." The new location was near to
     his ancestral home, but more importantly it was far closer to the troublesome
     Northern provinces and the dangerous Hittite border. In a few short years the
     once-sleepy village was transformed into a major governmental center as well
     as an arms manufactory. The city was graced with a beautiful palace and many
     temples, as well as numerous statues and other ornaments.
     Pi-Ramesses was abandoned long after Ramesses' reign. For many centuries the
     site was lost, but archeologists have recently discovered ruins that they
     believe belong to the ancient city.
     During his reign Ramesses constructed many public works across Egypt. Many of
     these were temples and monuments, but he also constructed storehouses,
     government buildings, water works, and so forth. Evidently a tireless
     self-promoter, Ramesses covered Egypt with statues and carvings of himself,
     often recarving those of previous pharaohs with his name and image. (Ramesses
     ordered his masons to deeply engrave his image in the stone so that future
     pharaohs would have trouble doing the same to him.)
     Many historians believe that Pi-Ramesses is the city "Raamses" mentioned in
     the Old Testament of the Bible, one of the "Treasure Cities" constructed by
     the Israelites during their Egyptian Captivity. Some believe that Ramesses is
     in fact the pharaoh of the Biblical story of the Exodus, the ruler who Moses
     forced to free his people. However, this is open to debate (particularly
     since Ramesses II lived a very long life and emphatically did not drown in
     the Red Sea).
     Ramesses died at the age of 90. He was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the
     Kings, but he was later moved to a secret location. His body was discovered
     in the late 19th century and is now on display in the Cairo Museum. It is
     difficult to guess whether the pharaoh would be outraged by the desecration
     or if he would enjoy the publicity.
     Ramesses II ruled Egypt as pharaoh for approximately 66 years, the second
     longest reign in Egyptian history. He stabilized his empire's borders and
     concluded a highly successful peace treaty with its most important rival, the
     Hittites. He clearly cared for his people's welfare and spent much treasure
     on massive public works. He is regarded by later Egyptians as the greatest
     pharaoh in history, a conclusion it is difficult to dispute."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 4/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 9/10
     City State Competitiveness - 5/10
     Boldness                   - 5/10
    As you can gather from Ramesses' power, you can tell he will be a VERY STRONG
    competitor to build Wonders. If you want to build wonders, you will want to
    build them quickly, otherwise, Ramesses will be there to build them before you
    even get a chance to do so. He is an average player in terms of city states
    and being bold, but again, build Wonders quickly, they contribute to score, 
    and although Ramesses will not want to win that much, if it comes down to 
    score, you might be in some sort of trouble.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 3/10
     Hostile   - 7/10
     Deceptive - 6/10
     Guarded   - 7/10
     Afraid    - 6/10
     Friendly  - 5/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Ramesses will not really want to declare war, but he will get to the point 
    where his sabre-rattling will really piss you off. When I was playing as 
    China, his constant threats that I was a puny empire annoyed me so much that
    his was suing for peace after I took his capital city and had riflemen look
    at his spearmen. He will be hostile to you, and he will be defensive, and he
    will also be very scared of you, move troops to the border and he will take
    notice of you. And it won't be pretty. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 5/10
     Protective    - 7/10
     Conquest      - 5/10
    Ramesses isn't there to take over city states, he is quite opportunitistic, if
    it is in his way, he probably would take the city, but he is more likely to 
    protect City States, and as such, entering war with a City State will probably
    drag him along as well. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 4/10
     Defensive         - 6/10
     City Defence      - 6/10
     Military Training - 3/10
     Reconnaissance    - 5/10
     Ranged            - 6/10
     Mounted           - 6/10
    Ramesses is likely to use all sorts of units, so expect a good mix of ranged,
    melee and mounted units attacking your lands. However, the good news is that 
    his army will be lacking in training, he will lack promotions on his units, 
    and this will be interesting, battlefield-tested veterans against green 
    recruits is murder in any situation. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 5/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 3/10
     Naval Growth           - 5/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 5/10
    Another leader who doesn't use their navy as they should, it is really there 
    to support and sometimes as an offensive armed force, but what is interesting
    is that Ramesses will not really use naval units to scout, but will use them 
    to attack you, which is interesting. 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 4/10
    Really, Ramesses may use aerial units, but won't really use them exclusively
    as their only military force, realistically, his army will be quite balanced,
    a nice even mix between ground, naval and aviation units. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 5/10
     Growth           - 6/10
     Tile Improvement - 7/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 7/10
     Gold             - 6/10
     Science          - 5/10
     Culture          - 7/10
    As you will expect from a man who likes to build Wonders, he will concentrate
    heavily on production, and you can expect him to build mines and lumber mills
    where he can. This will also lead to a lot of tile improvement, so get your
    pillage axes ready. And as a byproduct of his Wonder production, you can 
    expect big growth in culture from Ramesses. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 6/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 8/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    Ramesses is quite interested in building wonders to advance his score to 
    victory. This makes him quite dangerous if you cannot win outright, in 
    particular, on huge maps where you can't possible conquer the entire 
    planet quickly. 
    [3.05] England
     Leader          - Queen Elizabeth I
     Unique Unit 1   - Longbowman, replaces Crossbowman
     Unique Unit 2   - Ship of the Line, replaces Frigate
     Unique Building - None
     Civilization Power
      - All Naval units capable of Ocean travel get 2 extra Movement Points
     ~ History
    "England is located on Great Britain, a "green and pleasant" island off of the
     western coast of Europe. It is the largest member of the political entity
     known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
     Historically a seafaring people, for much of the past 500 years the English
     have used their incomparable navy to project their power into Europe and
     across the globe.
     England occupies the greater part of the island of Great Britain (along with
     the Welsh to the west and the Scots to the north). At some 80,000 square
     miles in size, Great Britain is slightly larger than the state of Kansas in
     the USA. Until approximately 6000 BC a land bridge connected Great Britain to
     Europe; since that time the two have been separated by the English Channel,
     which is some 20 miles wide at its narrowest point.
     England is endowed with rolling hills and plentiful natural resources,
     including coal and (at one time) extensive forests. Benefitting from warm
     water brought to its shores by Atlantic Ocean currents, England enjoys
     plentiful rainfall and relatively mild winters.
     The first detailed written description of England comes from the Romans, who
     under Julius Caesar invaded Great Britain in 55 BC. Caesar found an island of
     perhaps one million Celtic people divided into various warring tribes and
     possessing an Iron Age level of technology. Caesar led two expeditions to the
     island in total, and though he fought several successful battles, unrest in
     Gaul drew him off the island before he could solidify his conquests.
     The Romans returned to Great Britain 90 years later - and this time they came
     in force. In 43 AD four legions (some 20,000 soldiers) under Aulus Plautius
     landed somewhere on the southern or south-eastern coast (the exact location
     is unknown) and made their way inland. After a number of stiff battles they
     crushed the local opposition, establishing a provincial capital at
     Camulodunum (Colchester). Over the next fifty years the Romans extended their
     borders west, conquering Wales despite fierce resistance, and north as far as
     the river Tyne. In 122 AD construction was begun on Hadrian's Wall, a
     fortification designed to protect Roman Britain from the fierce Picts
     (proto-Scots) in the northern highlands.
     The Romans remained in power in Great Britain for another three centuries,
     until approximately 410 AD. They had a profound effect upon the natives
     during their occupation, introducing important advances in agriculture,
     technology, architecture, and letters.
     As the Roman military presence retreated from Britain and Western Europe -
     under pressure from invading Germanic tribes such as the Vandals - local
     warlords appeared to fill the power vacuum. But none were strong enough to
     hold off the ever-increasing attacks on the island by the Picts, the Irish,
     and other barbarian invaders. According to legend, King Vortigern invited the
     Germanic Saxons into Britain to fight the Picts, but in 442 AD the Saxons
     turned on their hosts and conquered much of the lowlands. The Saxons remained
     in power for roughly fifty years until they were driven out largely thanks to
     the skilful use of cavalry by the surviving British.
     In the mid sixth century a fresh wave of Germanic invaders, the Anglo-Saxons,
     reappeared, and they all but annihilated the original inhabitants, driving
     the remnants of the population west into Cornwall and Wales. The Anglo-Saxons
     would remain in power for several centuries, a period which saw the
     conversion of the population to Christianity, and a great increase in
     scholarship on the island, largely centered on the new Christian monasteries.
     It is during this period that the inhabitants of south-east Great Britain
     began to consider themselves "English."
     By the ninth century England (and Scotland and Ireland, not to mention much
     of Europe) was under continuous assault from Scandinavian raiders known as
     the Vikings. The Vikings captured cities and towns along the North Sea, and
     by the middle of the century they controlled almost half of Great Britain,
     including London. In 877 Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, was able to stop
     their advance into Southern England, and over the next 50 years he and his
     heirs fought relentlessly to retake all of the Danish conquests. Athelstan,
     Alfred's grandson, was the first man to rule all of England in 927.
     However, the Danes were not finished with England, and another wave of raids
     began in 980. Worn down by 20 years of continuous fighting, in 1013 the
     English surrendered and accepted Sweyn of Denmark as their king. Sweyn was
     succeeded by Canute, who ruled until 1035. The Danes and the English
     coexisted fairly peacefully for the next 30 years until 1066, when England
     was once again subject to invasion.
     On September 27, 1066, William, Duke of Normandy, launched a major invasion
     against England, leading 6000 knights and foot soldiers across the English
     Channel. After defeating the English army and killing the English King Harold
     at the Battle of Hastings, William marched on London. By December of 1066
     most of the English nobility had sworn allegiance to William, and he was
     crowned at Westminster Abbey on Christmas. Under Norman rule the country's
     historical ties with Scandinavia were largely severed and England came into
     much closer contact with Europe.
     Lots of history occurred in England over the next 400 years. There were
     bitter power struggles, revolts, civil wars, as well as wars in Europe,
     Scotland and elsewhere. There were several Crusades, a number of plagues and
     famines, and there were many kings named Richard and Henry, some of whom
     appeared to be quite mad. Unfortunately, space and time constraints require
     us to move rapidly to the 16th century, and the rise of Elizabeth.
     Queen Elizabeth I was one of the most remarkable rulers in English history.
     The daughter of King Henry VIII, Elizabeth took the throne in a period of
     great social and religious upheaval in England (and across Europe).
     Intelligent, beautiful, and with a great deal of courage, Elizabeth
     inherited a country that was virtually bankrupt, on the brink of religious
     civil war, and under threat of conquest by its much stronger neighbor, Spain.
     During her reign Elizabeth I united the country, confounded Spain's attempts
     at conquest, and ushered in one of the great golden ages of arts and
     literature in human history. She also oversaw a major expansion of the
     English navy, which would dominate the world's seas for centuries.
     Elizabeth I died childless, and the English throne passed to James, the
     Stuart King of Scotland, who became James I of England. Charles I, James's
     successor, was overthrown by Parliament after the English Civil War
     (1641-1645). The crown was reinstated in 1660, but much weaker, serving "at
     the will of Parliament."
     In 1707, the "Acts of Union" united the kingdoms of Scotland with that of
     England and Wales. The English and Scottish Parliaments were merged, and
     England ceased to exist as a political entity. However, England was the
     largest, wealthiest and most powerful part of the United Kingdom, so much
     so that many still use the terms England and the United Kingdom
     interchangeably, much to the annoyance of the Welsh and Scots (and later,
     the Northern Irish).
     In 1800 the United Kingdom attempted to unite with Ireland, becoming the
     "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland." Many of the largely Roman
     Catholic Irish were bitterly opposed to the union, leading to a terrible
     insurgency that lasted for over a century. In 1922 the southern portion of
     Ireland was granted its independence, and the UK was once again renamed,
     this time becoming "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
     Queen Elizabeth's reign saw the first British colony established on the New
     World, while the powerful British navy protected the growing British
     interests across the world. England's earliest colonial interests lay in the
     Caribbean and North America, but over time they expanded into Asia and the
     South Pacific as well. As British power grew in India, all European
     competition was driven out, and the English East India Company came to rule
     the subcontinent in everything but name.
     In the late 18th century Britain lost control of much of North America to the
     Thirteen Colonies (later, the United States of America) in a long and
     difficult revolution. While this was a great blow to British prestige, the
     Empire continued to expand unabated, and by the early 20th century the
     British Empire was the largest and most powerful in history, encompassing one
     quarter of the Earth's landmass and human population.
     For much of its history, the UK has sought to keep anyone from becoming a
     dominant power in Europe, and to keep anyone from developing a navy to rival
     that of the UK's. During Elizabeth's reign Spain was the biggest threat, and
     the UK sought to bankrupt Spain by intercepting the Spanish treasure fleets
     from the New World and to support insurgencies taking place in Spanish
     possessions. In the 17th century the UK fought a series of wars against the
     Netherlands when Dutch ships threatened British naval primacy.
     In the 19th century the UK faced off against the mighty French Empire under
     Napoleon Bonaparte. The French had an incomparable army and perhaps the
     greatest general in human history, while the UK had its navy and the wealth
     from its worldwide empire. The titanic struggle lasted some 12 years, but
     eventually Napoleon was defeated and the UK emerged victorious.
     The 20th century of course saw the UK pitted against Germany (and allies) in
     two terrible conflagrations, World Wars I and II. These wars would test the
     British to the limits of human endurance, and though the UK would be on the
     victorious side, the cost in wealth and human lives would leave the nation
     exhausted and virtually bankrupt, bereft of much of its once-great empire."
    As you can gather, England is best on maps with a significant amount of water
    on them. Maps such as archipelago are best for them because of the significant
    advantage 2 movement points has. On maps with large swathes of land, such as
    Terra or Continents, then it is really to use the navy as a support role, 
    whereas you should be using it as a mighty force in it's own right. The first
    of the nations with 2 units, the Longbowman is an improvement over the 
    Crossbowman in that it gets +1 to it's range, making it attack from 3 tiles,
    which is also outside the city's bombardment range. The Ship of the Line is 
    an advancement on the Frigate as it gets extra vision and extra attack 
     Queen Elizabeth I
     ~ History
    "Elizabeth I was a remarkable woman living in a remarkable age. Beautiful,
     brilliant, and as tough as nails, she survived and indeed thrived, ruling in
     an era when most women were little more than chattel.
     Born to King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, who her father had executed for
     failing to give him a male heir, Elizabeth's early life was filled with
     danger. Growing up an unwanted daughter of a insane father who was destroying
     England's ties to the Catholic Church and engaging in civil war so that he
     could legally marry another woman (several other women, as it turned out),
     Elizabeth had to use all of her wits to survive. Elizabeth received an
     excellent education at the hands of various tutors, including the great
     scholars of the day. She was an outstanding student, and could speak five
     languages fluently.
     When King Henry VIII died, the throne passed to his young son, Edward. At
     fifteen Elizabeth was implicated in a plot to overthrow him. She came close
     to being executed, surviving only because she was able to convince her
     skeptical interrogators that she knew nothing of the plot.
     When King Edward died in 1553, Elizabeth's older sister Mary assumed the
     throne. An ardent Catholic, Mary was quite unpopular with a number of
     Protestant noblemen, who attempted unsuccessfully to overthrow her in 1554.
     Once again Elizabeth was implicated, but once again she talked her way out of
     execution. Queen Mary died in 1558, and at last Elizabeth became Queen.
     Elizabeth was an extraordinary ruler. She established the Protestant Church
     as the official Church of England. However, she attempted to stem the
     persecution of Catholics in the country - at least as much as was possible
     when the Catholic nobility were actively plotting her demise. She also
     restored the debased currency of England, a step crucially necessary to
     restore the nation's flagging finances.
     Elizabeth used all of the tools available to her to achieve her goals. She
     carefully crafted an image for herself as the "Virgin Queen," greatly
     increasing her popular support. She received countless offers of marriage
     from nobility and indeed from kings across Europe. But she accepted none of
     them, instead using her unmarried state to control her friends and foes
     alike; if one faction got too strong, she could drive them back into line by
     suggesting that she was considering marrying someone from an opposing
     Elizabeth was a great patron of the arts, particularly music and literature.
     She made England a center of culture, where great artists like William
     Shakespeare flourished. During her reign the first English playhouse was
     built, followed shortly by others including Shakespeare's Globe. And in 1574
     weekday performances were made legal. An admirer of poetry, Elizabeth wrote a
     number of noteworthy poems herself.
     Militarily, Catholic Spain was England's greatest threat. Spain was the great
     continental power of the day, and its leader, King Philip, had upon more than
     one occasion expressed the intent of invading England. In 1588 he tried,
     building a huge armada to conquer the upstart nation. Elizabeth quickly
     organized the country's navy to fend off the fleet, and by a combination of
     superior tactics, ship design, and some foul weather at just the right
     moment, they defeated the Spanish foe. England was not to be seriously
     threatened with invasion for about 400 years.
     During Elizabeth's reign England, France, Spain and the Dutch all set up
     colonies in the New World. Elizabeth employed a large number of privateers to
     attack foreign ships and colonies, as did most other nations. Spain and its
     New World wealth remained the privateers' favorite targets.
     Overall, with the exception of her lucky triumph over the Spanish Armada,
     Elizabeth was not a successful war leader. She oversaw various half-baked
     military incursions into Ireland, France and the Netherlands, none of which
     redounded to her credit.
     Elizabeth died in 1603, having ruled 45 years. Although in her later years
     military and economic reversals had dimmed her luster to the point that many
     in England were relieved that she finally passed on, history acknowledges
     that she left her country in a much better state than when she came to power.
     Her great skills were an unerring survival instinct and flair for
     self-promotion, personal charisma, and toughness matching that of the
     strongest rulers in history. No better words can serve to describe her than
     her own: "I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the
     heart and stomach of a king."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 5/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 5/10
     City State Competitiveness - 8/10
     Boldness                   - 4/10
    Queen Liz is extremely competitive, she is evenly matched to go for gold as 
    well as construct nice big wonders, but she is most competitive to go for the
    City States, she will want them under her control, one way or another. The
    good thing is, she isn't really big on threats, which is nice if you are 
    scared by her.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 5/10
     Hostile   - 7/10
     Deceptive - 6/10
     Guarded   - 7/10
     Afraid    - 5/10
     Friendly  - 4/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    She isn't going to be one of the friendly leaders, she is more likely to go
    to war with you than to be friends. Given the historical context, it is quite
    understandable, her foreign policy was to be defensive, and not really attack.
    The reason for such a high hostility score is simple, back in her era, pretty
    much the whole of Europe was against her, given that Catholicism was strong in
    nations such as France and Spain. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 5/10
     Protective    - 7/10
     Conquest      - 6/10
    Liz is about as likely to be protective of the city states as she is going to
    conquer them. That does leave you in a bit of a bind, to protect them, you 
    need to defend against her, whilst if you want to attack them, you need to 
    attack her. And given how competitive she is to gain the furvor of the the 
    city states, this is a credible threat.
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 3/10
     Defensive         - 6/10
     City Defence      - 6/10
     Military Training - 5/10
     Reconnaissance    - 6/10
     Ranged            - 8/10
     Mounted           - 3/10
    Given that one of their unique units is a ranged unit, it is understandable
    that Liz will want units to blow you up from range, including archers and 
    later on, artillery units. She is far more likely to use her units to bolster
    her defences, rather than attack, something that the history makes rather 
    clear when your read it. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 8/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 8/10
     Naval Growth           - 7/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 7/10
    This scale makes her the first real standout from the other leaders already
    talked about. Whereas other leaders will use their navy as a support/escort
    role, Good Queen Bess will be using her navy a lot, she will use them to 
    attack your coastal cities, blockade them, and set you up for a ground 
    invasion. In this sense, her Navy is her Army, whereas many leaders will 
    use their Army to do the talking, she will use the Navy to do the talking. 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 5/10
    Nothing really stands out here, Elizabeth isn't really likely to use air
    power to it's fullest, such as stealth bombers dropping payloads out of the
    sky, but she is willing to use them in conjunction with her powerful navy, and
    given the deadly mix of Carriers and Aircraft, along with her powerful 
    units to scoff out Submarines, she is quite deadly if you let her develop 
    some naval force.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 6/10
     Growth           - 4/10
     Tile Improvement - 6/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 6/10
     Gold             - 8/10
     Science          - 6/10
     Culture          - 6/10
    If you want to take out a leader with a large stash of Gold, Elizabeth is one
    of the prime targets, she is likely to have a ton of cash on her. However, 
    given her good defensive capabilities, she isn't going to let you have the 
    gold without a fight, and hope that her cities aren't all around the coast 
    where her Navy will give you a powerful run for your money. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 5/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 5/10
     Diplomacy     - 6/10
     Spaceship     - 6/10
    Her civilization overall won't be too unbalanced, she will go for any 
    victory really, she doesn't stand out here, but she is willing to use
    military force to get her way, something that is reflected above, but not
    [3.06] France
     Leader          - Napoleon Bonaparte
     Unique Unit 1   - French Foreign Legion, replaces Infantry
     Unique Unit 2   - Musketeer, replaces Musketman
     Unique Building - None
     Civilization Power
      - All Citys get 2 Culture Points per turn until Steam Power
     ~ History
    "Located in Western Europe, bordering six (or seven, depending upon how you
     count them) European countries and with coasts on the Atlantic Ocean, the
     English Channel, and the Mediterranean, France has long been one of the great
     political, military and cultural powers of the Western world.
     France is a country of plains and green forests with ancient mountain ranges
     on its south-east and west borders. A beautiful, fertile land, France is
     blessed with some of the best wine-growing climate and terrain in the world.
     Located in a temperate zone and bordered on the south by the warm
     Mediterranean, the French climate is generally kindly and conducive to
     The gentle waters of the Mediterranean facilitated exploration and settlement
     of the coast of southern France. Greece founded the colony of Massilia
     (modern Marseille) as early as 600 BC, but the earliest written records of
     exploration of the country's interior comes hundreds of years later from the
     Romans, who began campaigning in "Transalpine Gaul" (Gaul across the Alps) in
     the first century BC. There the Romans encountered mostly Celtic people, plus
     a few surviving pre-Celtic Iberians and Ligurians. They also met many
     Germanic people emigrating into Gaul from points north and east.
     Roman control over Gaul was gradual but inexorable. In 121 BC Rome sent
     armies into Gaul to assist Massilia against encroaching Celts, and also to
     defend its overland route into Spain (where it had important possessions).
     This led Rome to claim a chunk of southern Gaul as a province, which survives
     today as the "Provence" region of France. In 58 BC Caesar launched a major
     campaign against the interior of Gaul. The war lasted some eight years, at
     the end of which Gaul was more or less securely a Roman possession.
     With the exception of a few notable but easily-crushed rebellions, Gaul
     remained fairly content as a Roman province for several centuries. The
     country thrived under Roman rule, and remnants of wealthy Roman-style villas
     can be found across the French countryside. As it was pacified Gaul became a
     springboard for further Roman expansion, both northwest across the Channel
     into Great Britain, and northeast into the barbarian Germanic lands.
     During the third and fourth centuries AD, as Roman power began to wane across
     Western Europe, Gaul came under increasing pressure from invaders from the
     north and east. Rome concentrated its power upon holding the Danube River and
     stopping barbarians from crossing into Italy, leaving Gaul under-defended. In
     the mid-third century Gaul suffered major incursions by the Germanic Alemanni
     and Franks, and the territory wasn't retaken by Rome until 274. As the
     countryside grew hostile and dangerous, the cities and towns fortified, a
     process which would continue through the Middle Ages.
     Christianity, which was introduced to Gaul around 250 AD, had taken root
     across the country by the end of the fourth century.
     In 395 AD, Rome was divided into an eastern and western half, and Western
     Rome all but abandoned Gaul as it tried desperately to protect Rome itself
     from barbarian invasion out of Austria and Germany. As a result, in 405-406 a
     large number of Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine into Gaul, carving out
     permanent homes for groups such as the Franks and Burgundians. The Visigoths
     drove far south, occupying land in Aquitaine. By 476 the Romans had been
     totally driven from power in Gaul by Germanic invaders.
     During the Middle Ages (400-1200 AD), France was divided into a number of
     smaller kingdoms ruled by the heirs of the various Germanic invaders. In the
     late 5th century King Clovis of the northern Franks unified most of the
     country (with the exception of some stubborn Visigoth holdouts in the south).
     Clovis was the first of the "Merovingian" kings to rule the unified country.
     He moved his capital to Paris, and he gained a degree of recognition from the
     Roman Emperor, which gave his rule legitimacy.
     When Clovis died in 511, the kingdom was divided between his four sons, who
     spent the next five decades fighting each other for the country. As a brother
     died, his land was apportioned among the surviving brothers. This continued
     until 558 when there was only one brother standing. The Merovingian kingdom
     remained united a whopping nine years, until that king died and the kingdom
     was once again apportioned between his sons. This cycle of conquest and
     division would continue for centuries, costing the lives of thousands every
     As the eighth century opened, another strong Frankish family arose to
     challenge the Merovingians. Based in northern Austrasia, the Carolingians
     defeated their local neighbors and came to dominate northern France/Germany.
     At first they threw their support behind the Merovingians, but when King
     Theodoric IV died in 737, the Carolingian King Charles Martel was strong
     enough to assume direct power, leaving the throne empty. During his reign
     Charles was able to stop the Muslims' incursions into France and extend his
     power into Germany as well.
     Charles was followed by Pippin the Short, who, with the blessing of the Pope
     in Rome openly assumed the throne. Upon his death the kingdom was divided
     between his two sons, Carloman, who didn't last long, and Charlemagne, who
     Charlemagne's father died in 768, and his brother in 771, leaving him sole
     king of France. He pursued a policy of expansion into Germany and Muslim-held
     Spain, having more success against the Germans than he did against the emirs
     in Spain. He intervened in Italy on the side of the Pope, whose territories
     were under threat from the Lombards to the north. He conquered the Lombards
     and had himself crowned their king, and he created the Papal States, earning
     a good deal of gratitude from the Church.
     By the end of the eighth century Charlemagne was the undisputed power in
     Western Europe, ruling much of the territory which would become modern
     France, western Germany, the Benelux countries and northern Italy. In 800 AD
     Pope Leo III crowned him emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, making him the
     legal successor to the Caesars of the western Roman Empire.
     Following Charlemagne's death in 813, his son Louis the Pious inherited the
     throne. When he died Charlemagne's grandsons once again began fighting over
     the kingdom, and in 843, at the Treaty of Verdun, the Holy Roman Empire was
     divided into three sections along north-south lines. These were Francia
     Orientalis, the eastern territories, Francia Occidentalis, the western
     territories, and Francia Media, perilously wedged between them. Although
     smaller, Francia Occidentalis approximated the borders of modern France, and
     some scholars date the creation of the modern country to the Treaty of
     The new kingdoms weren't especially stable, and the people of France endured
     another 300 years of incessant warfare and familial backbiting as the various
     kings and nobility struggled for dominance. Life wasn't made any easier by
     the arrival of the Vikings, who raided as far inland as Paris, often
     demanding a huge ransom before they would go away. They remained active
     through the ninth and tenth centuries, some settling permanently in Normandy.
     The rulers also had to deal with English monarchs who claimed territories in
     the west, including portions of Aquitaine, Brittany, and Lombardy. It took
     several centuries to push the Brits entirely off of the continent.
     As the new millennium approached, the Capetian family gained the French
     crown. They too spent much time fighting each other as well as the various
     nobility who challenged their reign.
     King Philip II, who reigned from 1180-1223, did much to strengthen the
     monarchy. When not off fighting at the Crusades with his friend Richard the
     Lionheart, Philip reorganized the government, modernized the French economy,
     and defeated the English, Flemish and Germans singly and in groups. King
     Louis IX (reigned 1226-1270), further consolidated the country.
     As the fourteenth century opened, France was the most powerful country on the
     continent. In 1328, Philip VI assumed the throne. Edward III, King of
     England, owned Aquitaine and also had a slender claim to the French throne,
     which he hadn't pressed at the time of Philip VI's succession. However, in
     1337 Philip VI confiscated Aquitaine, and in response Edward III reinstated
     his claim, bringing France and England to war.
     The English pursued the war on the seas and by fomenting rebellion among
     France's Flemish subjects. In 1346 an English army won a famous battle at
     Crecy but were unable to follow this up with any further success and were
     forced to evacuate the continent more or less empty-handed. In 1347 the Black
     Death struck, killing huge numbers of people and delaying the war. Hard
     fighting broke out anew in the 1350's, during which the French king managed
     to get himself captured by the English, who demanded a huge ransom for his
     release. The French refused to pay, and the king died in captivity in London.
     The war continued to drag on until 1420, when the Treaty of Troyes declared
     the unification of the French and English crowns on the infant head of Henry
     VI, king of England and France.
     This did not sit well with everyone. The French nobleman Charles VIII had a
     fairly strong claim to the throne, and many French patriots preferred him to
     any English ruler. This included a strange young peasant woman named Joan of
     Arc. Within a few years Joan had led the French on to victory, driving the
     English back on all fronts. Charles was anointed king in 1429, and Joan was
     burned at the stake a year later.
     By the 16th century, there was a good deal of resentment against the Catholic
     Church across Europe, which was seen to be greedy and corrupt. In 1517 Martin
     Luther nailed up his "Ninty-Five Theses," condemning the excesses of the
     Church. Martin Luther's movement gained many followers in France, and by 1534
     the king issued the first of a series of anti-Huguenot (Protestant) edicts.
     This did little to stop the spread of the movement. By 1562 the two sides
     were in open warfare, which continued on and off for decades. It ended in
     1598, when the Edict of Nantes granted tolerance to the Huguenots.
     In the seventeenth century the power of the crown was enhanced, largely
     through the work of one man, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal and Duke of
     Richelieu. Richelieu was an extremely able minister and one of the most
     colorful characters in history. Brilliant, calculating, and ruthless, he
     worked ceaselessly to expand the king's power and prestige and to destroy his
     enemies. He also moved against the Huguenots, who retained their religious
     freedom but lost their military power.
     In 1643, the remarkable Louis XIV took the throne. Known as the "Sun King,"
     Louis seduced and tamed the French monarchy, establishing the Palace of
     Versailles as the most opulent court the world had ever seen. Underneath the
     foppish trappings Louis was an ambitious ruler. During his reign he fought in
     three major wars and several minor conflicts. Louis would reign for an
     astonishing 72 years, dying in 1715. He still holds the record for the
     longest reign of a European monarch.
     The eighteenth century saw an increase in power and wealth of the nobility,
     the emergence of a French middle class, and the further destitution of the
     peasantry. Philosophically, the Enlightenment tended to undermine the belief
     in the traditional institutions such as the Church and the monarchy. In 1776
     the American Revolution broke out, and the French saw a free people throw off
     an oppressive monarchy in favor of democracy and self-rule. This would
     further stoke unrest already building throughout the country.
     In 1789, close on the heels of the American Revolution, the French peasants
     and middle class revolted against the nobility and the king. The Revolution
     was a brutal, bloody affair, with the king and perhaps 50,000 other French
     citizens being executed by the newly-invented guillotine (a triumph of
     Enlightenment science).
     In the early phases of the Revolution the people marched on the Bastille,
     abolished the nobility, and forced the king to accept a constitutional
     monarchy. But the new Assembly degenerated into warring factions struggling
     for primacy and was unable to govern. Without government sanction the Paris
     Commune murdered some 1350 prisoners. In September 1792 a Constitutional
     Convention met and abolished the monarchy, declaring a republic. Austria and
     Prussia demanded the restitution of the king, threatening retaliation against
     the French population if they resisted. The revolutionary government saw this
     as evidence that the king was conspiring with the enemy; he was condemned to
     death and executed in January of 1793.
     Later in 1793 the "Committee for Public Safety" unleashed the "Reign of
     Terror," ensuring public safety by guillotining some 15,000-40,000 of the
     public, many without trial. Several local revolts broke out, primarily caused
     by peasant outrage at the treatment of the Catholic Church at the hands of
     the Revolutionaries, but these were crushed with great ferocity.
     In 1795 the new French constitution established an entirely new form for the
     French government. Executive power was held by "The Directory," a panel of
     five directors elected annually by the new bi-cameral legislature. However,
     the new form of government proved unmanageable, and in 1799 a man named
     Napoleon Bonaparte seized power.
     This extraordinary man was born in French-owned Corsica and trained in
     artillery in the French army. In 1799 he staged a coup d'etat, installing
     himself as First Consul, a position he pretty much invented. Within five
     years he crowned himself Emperor. For sixteen years he ruled France, taking a
     bankrupt, revolution-torn country and making it into the most powerful force
     in Europe. Time and again he fought and defeated every other country within
     reach, singly and in alliances against him, save one, England. Unable to
     create a navy that could stand up to the unmatched British Navy, he could not
     reach and destroy his most implacable foe.
     For fifteen years Napoleon marched and counter-marched triumphantly across
     Europe, until finally defeated by yet another coalition at Leipzig, and then
     a year later at Waterloo. 
     After Napoleon's final defeat, the victorious countries instituted a
     constitutional monarchy in France, which lasted for some 40 years, until
     Napoleon's nephew, Louis Napoleon was elected president by popular vote in
     1848, declaring himself king in 1852. He remained in power until 1870, when,
     goaded by Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck, he made an unfortunate
     decision to go to war against Prussia. The war was a humiliating disaster.
     The Prussians made brilliant use of their rail network to concentrate before
     the French were ready to fight, and on September 2, 1870, Napoleon and his
     entire army were captured.
     The war resulted in the overthrow of the monarchy once more, replaced by the
     Third Republic, the humiliating loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Prussia/Germany,
     and a burning desire for revenge which would serve France badly in the coming
     The First World War was caused by a huge failure of European diplomatic
     common sense and imagination, as countries formed a bewildering web of
     alliances and treaties, binding their fates together in ways that they barely
     comprehended. The war was initiated by a blatant land-grab of Serbia by
     Austria-Hungary, using as casus belli ("our excuse for shooting at the
     neighbor") the murder of an Arch Duke by a Serbian terrorist. The Arch Duke
     was killed on June 28, 1914, and by August Europeans were killing each other
     on three different continents.
     There were two sides in the conflict, the Central Powers, consisting of
     Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria, facing off
     against the Triple Entente, of the United Kingdom, France, and Russia. On the
     Eastern Front the Germans struck quickly, destroying a completely outclassed
     Russian army and nearly driving them out of the war. On the Western Front,
     they drove deep into French territory before being stopped east of Paris by
     desperate defensive operations from France and the UK.
     For the next four years France was divided by a hellish 5000 foot-long line
     of trenches across the countryside, with men fighting and dying in the tens
     of thousands, and success being measured in advancing inches. The land was
     poisoned by thousands of corpses, exploded and unexploded ordnance, and
     chemical warfare. In 1917 the United States entered the war, and German
     morale began to collapse. By 1918 the German government fell and the new
     government signed an armistice.
     France had been bled white by the war, with two million dead (four percent
     of their entire population) and over four million wounded. The territory that
     had been at the front or behind enemy lines was a wasteland of festering
     corpses and cities and villages in ruin. Their fury at Germany resulted in a
     demand for huge reparations, both to help France rebuild and to punish the
     enemy. While this policy might have had short-term benefits, it had two major
     negative results: it embittered the German people, making them thirst for
     revenge, and it disgusted the Americans, making them less inclined to become
     involved in European messes in the future.
     The Second World War was a painful and humiliating disaster for France. As
     the Germans rebuilt their war machine after World War I, the French, who were
     desperately short of manpower following the Great War, constructed the
     Maginot Line, a rather magnificent line of fortresses, underground bunkers
     and trenches on the border facing Germany. If the German army had tried to
     punch through that line, it would have certainly suffered great losses of
     manpower, and more importantly, taken precious time.
     Unfortunately, for political reasons the French had not extended the Line to
     the sea, as it would have placed Belgium outside of the defenses, and for
     their part the Belgians refused to fortify their border with Germany for fear
     it would anger the Germans. Thus when the Germans decided to invade France
     they simply bypassed the Line and drove through Belgium. The French and
     British were never able to establish a stable defensive line against the
     crushing German blitzkrieg, and France was overrun in weeks, surrendering on
     June 22, 1940.
     On June 6, 1944, British, American and Free French troops landed at Normandy
     and began liberating France from German occupation. The German army retreated
     slowly, putting up a stubborn defense, but with Soviet troops closing in on
     German soil from the east, catastrophic troop losses on all fronts, the total
     loss of air superiority and an unending rain of Allied bombs on German
     factories and cities, defeat was inevitable. Paris was liberated on August
     25, 1944, and Germany surrendered on May 7-8, 1945.
     The years following World War II saw France grudgingly divesting itself from
     its overseas possessions, fighting painful and ultimately futile wars in
     Vietnam and Algeria. At the same time it was rebuilding at home, creating a
     new and modern country out of the ashes of the Great Wars. It possesses a
     large immigrant population, including many Muslims, and it too is suffering
     through the difficulties caused by the current painful clash of cultures
     between Islam and the West.
     French arts are flourishing as never before, and Paris - the "City of Lights"
     - is once again the cultural center of the world. France has become a leading
     member of the European Union, alongside its former enemy Germany. In
     historical terms this is an astonishing triumph of common sense and suggests
     a bright future for France, Europe, and the world."
    France has probably the longest of histories, but rightfully deserved, besides
    being surrender monkeys, thank you popular culture. Anyway, France is pretty
    powerful in terms of culture, an extra 2 culture per turn might not sound 
    like a lot for a city until you have a large empire, and 2 culture a turn 
    for 40 cities sounds like a fair amount. Enough to discount the 15% increase
    in policy costs after creating a city. 
    France has 2 decent infantry units, the Musketeer, which replaces the
    Musketman, does more damage than the Musketman, and indeed makes it a viable
    alternative to a person using Longswordsmen, which will be outdated with
    the advent of rifling. Also, there is the French Foreign Legion, which
    will replace Infantry, which share identical firepower and combat 
    effectiveness on the field, but the French Foreign Legion get a 20% boost to
    combat strength when they fight outside friendly territory. 
     Napoleon Bonaparte
     ~ History
    "It is virtually impossible to overstate the military genius of Napoleon
     Napoleon Bonaparte was born on the island of Corsica, where he entered a
     military academy at the age of ten. In school he displayed a great aptitude
     for mathematics, history, and geography, as well as a total indifference to
     literature and the humanities. At fourteen he was commissioned as a
     sub-lieutenant in an artillery regiment. When the French revolution broke
     out, Napoleon sided with the Revolutionaries and was appointed
     lieutenant-colonel of artillery, where he quickly made a name for himself as
     a successful commander.
     Early on Napoleon displayed both his military brilliance and his ability to
     navigate the perilous political landscape of Revolutionary France, where one
     false step could cost you your head - literally. By 1794 he was a
     brigadier-general, and by 1795 he was appointed command of the French Army of
     the Interior. He was 25 years of age. Over the next few years Napoleon led
     French armies to major victories over various continental foes, including the
     extremely powerful Austrians.
     Capitalizing on his success and his growing popularity with the citizens and
     the army, in 1800 he overthrew the government and appointed himself "First
     Consul." Five years later he would crown himself "Emperor and Consul for
     Life," displaying his fine contempt for the democratic roots of the
     Revolution that brought him to power.
     An exceptional administrator, Napoleon rapidly reorganized the government,
     repealed the more radical and violent laws of the Revolution, and reopened
     the churches, cementing his popularity with the people of France. However,
     France was still at war with most of Europe, and Napoleon once again took to
     the battlefields, where he won stunning victories against Austria, causing
     that country and England to make peace.
     England remained nervous of France's imperial intentions, and war resumed in
     1803. Napoleon found himself facing a daunting alliance that included
     England, Austria, Russia and Sweden. Acting with amazing speed and cunning,
     Napoleon used his "interior lines" to concentrate his forces against the
     dispersed enemy. He rapidly marched across Europe, capturing the capital of
     Austria and then crushing the Russian forces at the battle of Austerlitz.
     Austria sued for peace once again. For several years Napoleon would defeat
     every foe that came against him. He crushed the Prussians, the Spanish, and
     the Austrians yet again. However, Russia and England remained undefeated.
     Eventually Napoleon decided that he would never be safe in Europe as long as
     Russia, aided by the perfidious English, was on his flank. With England
     secure behind the Channel and its superb navy, he had little choice but to
     attack Russia, the only foe in the alliance his armies could reach. In 1812
     he led half a million men to attack Moscow. The Russian forces retreated
     before his advance, taking or burning anything that might be of use to the
     invaders, while in the rear Cossack raiders destroyed Napoleon's supply
     lines. Bonaparte did reach and capture Moscow, but once again the Russians
     had removed or burnt anything there that might feed his men, and he was
     forced to retreat, fighting the Russian troops and the even more deadly
     Russian winter mile after bitter mile. By the end of the campaign Napoleon
     had lost 96% of his army.
     Upon returning to Paris, Napoleon immediately recruited another army of
     350,000, but his image of invulnerability was gone, and all Europe rose
     against him. Prussia, Russia and Austria allied against him, and England
     threw more troops into contested Spain. Though Napoleon was to again win
     famous victories, his enemies continued their relentless attacks. Eventually
     the allies drove their way into Paris, and Napoleon abdicated. For his
     trouble he was given rulership of the island of Elba, along with an income of
     six million francs, to be paid by France. 
     Later he would return to France and try to regain power one last time, but he
     was finally and irrevocably defeated by an English and Prussian army at
     Waterloo in Belgium. This time he was confined for life at the island of
     Sainte-Helene, a thousand miles from the coast of Africa. He died there in
     Napoleon was one of the most brilliant generals of all time. He moved his
     troops with astounding rapidity, and he always knew exactly where to strike
     in order to cause the most damage. Domestically he turned out to be a decent,
     imaginative ruler and France flourished under his control (until his endless
     wars sapped her strength and will to fight). An Army general to his core, he
     never was able to create a navy able to seriously challenge England's
     dominance over the oceans.
     In the end, he just couldn't beat everybody."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 8/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 6/10
     City State Competitiveness - 7/10
     Boldness                   - 8/10
    Napoleon is a hard foe to face, simply because he is just very competitive, 
    and is often overlooked by people and their blind hatred of Montezuma. He
    is willing to do whatever it takes to win, and that means competing in all
    arenas, and that is what makes him hard to face. He will build Wonders to
    dazzle the world, he will influence the City States, he will make threats
    against you should you annoy him. 
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 7/10
     Hostile   - 3/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 6/10
     Afraid    - 2/10
     Friendly  - 6/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Funnily enough, Napoleon is quite willing to work with you, when he first
    meets you, but he is most likely to declare war on you with the French forces
    behind him. He won't be afraid by your show of force, so you will just have 
    to crush him utterly and burn his empire to the ground to show him who's
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 4/10
     Friendly      - 6/10
     Protective    - 7/10
     Conquest      - 7/10
    Napoleon is as likely as to protect a City State as he is to conquer it, he
    will not hesitate to use ones near you as buffer states between you and him, 
    and he isn't worried about people crying when he captures a city state being
    protected by someone else. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 7/10
     Defensive         - 3/10
     City Defence      - 5/10
     Military Training - 6/10
     Reconnaissance    - 5/10
     Ranged            - 6/10
     Mounted           - 5/10
    Napoleon isn't that big a fan of Artillery as you would think, however, he
    is willing to go full out and be extremely aggressive. You can expect him to
    deploy a lot of frontline infantry, the melee type, such as spearmen early
    on in the game to riflemen and the French Foreign Legion later in the game
    if you let him live that long. His forces are going to be hard to defeat in
    battle less you have a technological advantage, and the only downside to his
    military abilities is that of defence and defending. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 5/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 6/10
     Naval Growth           - 5/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 5/10
    As you would expect, Napoleon isn't that interested in a Navy, at best, it 
    will be used as a support role, or a self-defence force, he really isn't
    interested in using them to the fullest. This is expected though, he was
    outclassed by England during the Napoleonic Wars, and clearly, going to 
    sea against the foes at the time was quite a foolish move. 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 5/10
    Again, Napoleon is another leader that really doesn't use Air Power to the 
    fullest capacity, he will use them at best, in support roles, such as 
    bombarding your cities or just taking out close units, he won't be using them
    exclusively, he has men on the ground to wipe you out for that purpose. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 8/10
     Growth           - 5/10
     Tile Improvement - 6/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 4/10
     Science          - 7/10
     Culture          - 8/10
    Surprisingly, Napoleon is a man of Science and Culture, not a surprise given
    his actual administration of France. He is willing to expand quickly, so if 
    you have the units, you can easily take a few settlers and workers off him. He
    is quick to move up the technology tree, and very quick to adopt social 
    policy, in my Marathon game, I have reduced Napoleon to 3 cities, and he has
    already fully completed 2 policy trees, the best anyone has gotten to. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 4/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 4/10
     Diplomacy     - 4/10
     Spaceship     - 7/10
    It seems that the AI loves to have a spaceship victory, probably because
    that is the easiest way to do it without bloodshed. It isn't that interested
    in keeping his people that happy, well, that's a given, seeing that most
    people were in the Army when he was in charge, so there were no one to be
    unhappy at all. 
    [3.07] Germany
     Leader          - Otto von Bismarck
     Unique Unit 1   - Landsknecht, replaces Pikeman
     Unique Unit 2   - Panzer, replaces Tank
     Unique Building - None
     Civilization Power
      - When destroying a Barbarian Encampment, 50% chance to gain 25 Gold and a
        Barbarian Unit. 
     ~ History
    "While various "Germanic" peoples have occupied northern-central Europe for
     thousands of years, the modern political entity known as "Germany" is
     extremely young, created almost singlehandedly by the brilliant Prussian
     politician Otto von Bismarck some 140 years ago. During its brief existence
     Germany has had a profound effect - for good and for bad - on human history.
     Germany encompasses a variety of terrains, from snow-covered mountains in the
     south to rolling hills in the west to the flatlands of the east. It is
     crossed by several major rivers which provide water for crops and transport
     for goods. Its hills and mountains are rich with natural resources and its
     plains are fertile. Germany has a temperate climate and abundant rainfall,
     ideal for European-style agriculture.
     For centuries northern-central Europe has been occupied by Germanic people,
     roughly defined as people who speak Germanic languages (rather than say the
     Romantic languages of Italy, France and Spain). Evidence suggests that
     Germanic tribes lived in northern Germany as far back as the Bronze Age. It
     appears that during this period Southern Germany was originally populated by
     peoples of Celtic origin; they were however eventually "Germanized" as the
     Germanic tribes' influence spread south.
     The first historical information on the Germanic tribes comes to us from
     about 50 BC, when the Roman general Julius Caesar encountered and fought
     various tribes while conquering the province of Gaul (an area roughly
     encompassing modern France). Caesar established the eastern border of Gaul at
     the Rhine River, beyond which most of the "barbaric" German tribes lived.
     The Romans and Germanic people maintained an uneasy peace (punctuated by
     various raids and border skirmishes) for some forty years until approximately
     10 BC, when the Roman armies invaded Germanic territory from two directions,
     crossing the Rhine to the west and the Danube to the east. This proved to be
     a catastrophic miscalculation: the barbarians were astonishingly tough
     opponents and a number of Roman legions were destroyed. The humiliated Romans
     retreated to the previous borders of the Danube and the Rhine, no further
     incursions were attempted for several centuries, and the two sides coexisted
     more or less peacefully until 350 AD.
     During that period there was a good deal of commerce between the Romans and
     the Germans, with the Germans trading raw material in exchange for Roman
     manufactured and luxury goods. Over time the Germans learned pottery and
     advanced agricultural techniques from the Romans, and they even began using
     Roman money.
     As the fourth century progressed, the Germanic tribes began to come under
     increased pressure from "Hunnish" tribes migrating into Germanic territory
     from further east. This pushed the Germanic people into Roman territory. Over
     the next fifty-odd years parts of Rome were overrun by the Visigoths, Suebi
     and Vandals. The city of Rome itself was sacked several times, and several
     Roman emperors died fighting the invaders. The Romans eventually came to
     terms with some of the invaders, granting them territory and some measure of
     protection from the advancing Huns.
     With the death of Attila in 435 the Hun Empire collapsed, and the Germanic
     tribes no longer needed Rome's protection. A number of tribes declared their
     independence from Rome, and within a short period a Visigoth kingdom was
     established in southwest Gaul, a Burgundian kingdom was declared in southeast
     Gaul, a Frankish kingdom was established in the north, and the Lombard
     kingdom was created on the Danube - and the Western Roman Empire ceased to
     Once established in north-western Gaul, the "Franks" (the Germanic peoples in
     Roman Gaul) began to expand eastward across the Rhine and back into
     non-Romanized Germanic territory, where the non-Romanized Germanic tribes
     remained as stubbornly independent as ever. The subjugation of the tribes
     spanned three centuries of war, conquest, rebellion, treachery, punishment,
     and more war. Religion was one of the great impediments to peace: the Franks
     had become Christian and they sought to spread the gospel into the barbarian
     lands. The Germanic tribes were pagans and did not want to abandon their
     religion. Christianity would emerge victorious, eventually, but it was a long
     and difficult (and often bloody) process.
     The Franks themselves were not a unified monolithic entity: they spent as
     much time fighting themselves as they did battling external foes. The
     earliest line of rulers, the Merovingians, remained in power until the middle
     of the seventh century, when they were overthrown by the Carolingians, a
     rival faction from the north. The Carolingians were blessed with a series of
     extremely able kings who, allied with the Catholic Church, extended Frankish
     power across much of central Europe.
     The greatest of the Carolingians, Charlemagne (742-814) was a brilliant
     military leader and a canny politician. He continued his father's and
     grandfather's subjugation of the Germanic tribes, and he extended his empire
     into southern France and then Italy. In exchange for protecting Rome from the
     Saracens and the Byzantines, the Pope crowned him Emperor of the Holy Roman
     Empire. Today Charlemagne is considered to be one of the founders of France
     and of Germany, not to mention the first man to unite Western Europe since
     the Romans.
     Upon Charlemagne's death, his only son Louis I (Louis the Pious) assumed the
     throne. Louis had more than one son, and when he died the Empire was divided
     between them. Many years would pass before any single person would again rule
     so large a portion of Europe.
     Louis the Pious' son, Louis the German, inherited the eastern portion of the
     Holy Roman Empire, which included the Kingdom of Bavaria and other
     territories in what would become Medieval Germany. Much of his reign was
     spent fighting the Slavs, the Vikings and his brothers, inheritors of the
     middle and western portions of Charlemagne's empire (the areas which would
     later become France and the Benelux countries). Louis the German ruled for
     some 50 years (ca. 825-876), providing political stability to his war-torn
     kingdom. When not engaged in battle with his neighbors, Louis was an early
     patron of German letters who promoted the creation of monasteries in his
     In the two centuries following Louis' reign, external pressure from Danes,
     Saracens and Magyars, weakened the central government, and as it proved
     incompetent to protect its citizens from attack, power devolved to local
     authorities, resulting in a patchwork of smaller mostly independent duchies
     who became independent political units in everything but name. Following the
     death of the last Carolingian German king, the German dukes elected first a
     Frankish duke to be king, but when he proved incompetent the title went to a
     Saxon duke.
     The Saxons remained in power for some centuries. They successfully held off
     the attacks of the eastern barbarians (though an attempt to expand German
     power east proved disastrous). By the late 10th century Otto I had invaded
     and conquered much of Italy. Pope John XII crowned him Emperor, beginning a
     powerful alliance between the German state and the Church that lasted over a
     This alliance was not permanent, however. Eventually, the popes grew to
     resent the German kings' increasing power over the Church's property and
     personnel. Reformers within the Church decried the corruption of bishops and
     abbots who purchased their positions from kings and duchies (the sin of
     "simony"), claiming that only the pope should make such appointments. Matters
     reached a peak in 1075, when King Henry IV demanded that Pope Gregory VII
     abdicate; Gregory responded by excommunicating Henry. Facing a civil war,
     Henry was forced to beg the pope for forgiveness. The pope gave it, but Henry
     was badly weakened and was unable to quash the rebellion, which dragged on
     for some 20 years. Although Henry IV survived, the German monarchy was
     permanently weakened by the struggle.
     During this period German power continued to grow in Central Europe, as
     German kings and duchies conquered and colonized non-German territory to the
     east and west. King Frederick I (Frederick Barbarossa), who reigned from
     1152-1190, campaigned to reconquer Lombardy and Italy. Although unsuccessful
     against the Lombards, he (and his heirs) did make substantial gains in Italy.
     Frederick died in 1190, while leading the ill-fated Third Crusade towards the
     Holy Land. According to legend he drowned while bathing.
     Frederick's heirs were unable to unify the increasingly fragmented Germany,
     and when Frederick II, Barbarossa's grandson, died in 1250, the crown was
     left vacant for some time. Although others would eventually claim the crown,
     none would again wield true monarchical power.
     By the late 14th century the dissolution of Germany was all but complete.
     Germany would remain divided for some five long centuries. By the 18th
     century Austria (under the Habsburgs) and the kingdom of Prussia were the two
     dominant powers; at the beginning of the 19th both were engaged in the
     desperate struggles of the Napoleonic wars that convulsed Europe. In the
     Congress of Vienna in 1814 which followed Napoleon's defeat, many of the
     states which comprised the old German empire were joined together in the
     German Confederation. Austria and Prussia both sought to dominate the
     Confederation; their incessant squabbling and jockeying for position left the
     new state weak and divided.
     In 1861 King William I of Prussia appointed Otto von Bismarck Prime Minister
     of Prussia. Three short years later Bismarck led his country into war with
     Denmark, adding that country to the growing Prussian empire. In 1866 Prussia
     went to war against Austria, after Bismarck's cunning machinations left the
     Habsburg Empire isolated and vulnerable. Prussia easily defeated its once
     mighty competitor, driving Austria from the Confederation.
     In 1870 Prussia went to war with France, utilizing its incomparable railroad
     network to launch a lightning assault that the French were totally unprepared
     for. The French were crushed and the Prussians claimed the disputed
     territories of Alsace-Lorraine. Having decisively beaten the only two land
     powers who might have stopped them, Bismarck and the Prussians announced the
     formation of the German Empire, the direct ancestor of modern Germany.
     Germany would dominate central Europe for the next 50 years.
     The story of World War I is well known. At heart, that war was a horrible
     failure of diplomacy as lesser men tried to emulate Bismarck's tactics. In
     the years leading up to that cataclysmic event, the Great Powers of Europe
     found themselves almost helplessly falling into two armed camps, each side
     linked together by a labyrinthine of diplomatic agreements which left little
     room for actual diplomacy. Country A was treaty-bound to Country B, who had
     promised to come to Country C's aid if it went to war with Country D, who was
     similarly allied to Countries E, F, and G.
     In 1914 the entire house of cards came tumbling down following a blatant
     attempt to engulf Serbia by Austria-Hungary. Using the assassination of an
     Austro-Hungarian nobleman by a Serbian anarchist as an excuse,
     Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Russia honored its treaty with Serbia
     and declared war on Austria-Hungary, and Austria-Hungary's ally Germany
     mobilized its forces to attack Russia, which caused France (still smarting
     from the loss of Alsace-Lorraine 40 years earlier) to mobilize against
     Germany. England, France and Russia's ally, had little choice but to also
     declare war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.
     Although it enjoyed great initial success early in the war, crippling Russia
     and overrunning half of France, Germany and its allies were unable to deliver
     the final killing blow to its enemies, and the war degenerated into a hideous
     stalemate which lasted for four horrible years of trench warfare. Britain's
     command of the seas and the United States' entry into the war finally broke
     Germany's will to resist. Sick of war, under pressure on all fronts and
     seeing no chance of victory, the German people revolted. The Kaiser fled to
     the Netherlands; the Germans declared a Republic, and on November 11 1918
     they signed an Armistice agreement. By war's end some 15 million people had
     been killed and much of Europe was a stinking wasteland of mud, corpses and
     unexploded ordnance.
     The victors were not overly kind to Germany following the war. France took
     back the disputed territories of Alsace-Lorraine, and the allies imposed huge
     war reparations on the already-destitute country, which was forbidden to
     maintain a significant military. (Austria-Hungary fared no better: the empire
     was dismembered on ethnic lines into Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and
     Yugoslavia, and the Ottoman Empire was similarly hacked into pieces.)
     Germany was prostrate, bankrupt, and under threat of occupation if it did not
     pay huge sums of money to its neighbors (who it should be noted in fairness
     were not in much better shape themselves and who desperately needed the money
     to rebuild). Many wondered if Germany would ever be able to recover from the
     catastrophe of World War I.
     Again, the events leading up to World War II are well-known. Trading upon the
     anger and humiliation felt by the German people, Adolf Hitler and his fascist
     Nazi (National-Socialist) party gained control of the German government. The
     Germans rebuilt their country, economy and military with astonishing
     rapidity, while Jews, homosexuals, Gypsies and other minorities were
     persecuted with increasing ferocity.
     While Germany's former enemies watched supinely, Hitler united Germany with
     Austria, then gobbled up Czechoslovakia. Isolated by France, England and the
     US, Stalin's Communist Russia helped Germany dismember helpless Poland. This
     caused France and England to declare war against Germany, but neither country
     had the military power to launch an offensive war against Hitler's growing
     In 1940 Germany invaded France via the Netherlands, Belgium and the Low
     Countries. France's defenses were outflanked, and the German tanks made short
     work of the inferior French and British armaments. In a little over a month
     France had surrendered and the British had been driven off of the continent.
     In 1941 Germany turned its attention to the East. The mighty German war
     machine carved a bloody swath into the belly of the Soviet Union, destroying
     entire Soviet armies hurled into its path to stem the assault. By late 1941
     Germany seemed on the verge of destroying Soviet Russia and achieving
     undisputed mastery of continental Europe.
     Despite its early astonishing successes, Germany was unable to destroy the
     Soviet Union. Crippled by Stalin's purge of the officer's corps some years
     before and ill-equipped and ill-trained, the Soviet army fought heroically to
     stem the German advance. Though it cost them huge, terrible casualties to do
     so, the Red Army halted the Germans before they could capture Leningrad or
     Moscow, buying Stalin time to train and equip a huge military force with
     which to launch his counter-offensive.
     In the Western Front, things were looking no better for Germany The United
     States had entered the war (following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor),
     and American and British forces began to undermine German power first in
     Africa and then Italy. As the Russian forces ground their way west against
     extraordinary German resistance, the Americans and British invaded France,
     opening up another front against Hitler's forces. Bled white and unable to
     defend fronts, the German army finally collapsed. Hitler committed suicide,
     and in May 7-8 1945 Germany surrendered.
     Germany paid heavily for its transgressions. Millions of Germans died in the
     war, including a staggering number of German Jews who were murdered by their
     Germany countrymen. The Soviet Union (which itself suffered tens of millions
     of casualties) expanded its borders westward into Polish territory and Poland
     was in turn awarded German eastern territory, including all of Prussia, where
     fifteen million Germans were driven from their homes into what remained of
     Germany. Germany herself was divided and occupied by the Allies, Russia
     occupying Eastern Germany while France, the United Kingdom and the United
     States occupied Western Germany and half of Berlin.
     In the years after World War II Germany has made yet another remarkable
     comeback. Following the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet
     Union, East and West Germany have reunited, becoming once again an economic
     powerhouse unrivaled in Europe. Germany has become an enthusiastic member of
     the European Union, and perhaps most astonishingly, a close friend and ally
     of France. The German people seem to accept responsibility for their nation's
     horrible crimes in World War II and seem determined to make sure that they
     never reoccur. In short, Germany has become a powerful force for world peace
     and unity in the twenty-first century."
    It is surprising, that one of the most dangerous and powerful nations in the
    20th Century has now become one of peace, rather than power. That said, at 
    least one of the iconic military units will be noticed in Germany. The 
    Landsknecht is only different to the Pikemen in terms of production cost, for
    the cost of 1 Pikemen, you get 2 Landsknecht, despite similar attack values.
    The Panzer, the iconic image of Germany during World War 2, replaces the
    Tank, and benefits from 20% more strength than the Tank as well as an extra
    movement point compared to the Tank. 
    Their unique power is quite useful early in the game. Given the spawn rate
    of barbarian encampments, and how military strategies are different this 
    time round with attacking cities, it is possible to rush early game by getting
    many units from encampments, and then attacking cities with them. Later in
    the game however, this ability is next to redundant. 
     Otto von Bismarck
     ~ History
    "Otto von Bismarck, also known as the "Iron Chancellor," is perhaps the most
     significant figure in German history. During his long political career
     Bismarck unified Germany and founded the German Empire; Germany was
     transformed from a weak and loose confederation of states into a powerful
     united country that would come to dominate continental Europe.
     Descended of a noble Prussian family, Bismarck certainly inherited the
     arrogance of the Prussian Junker class. He was a poor student who excelled at
     dueling and was quite a historian and linguist. However, he spent much of his
     time drinking with the other aristocrats in their exclusive fraternity.
     Unable to accept the discipline required for military service, Bismarck
     instead entered the Prussian diplomatic corps, where his skill quickly
     brought him to the attention of the Prussian Kaiser. Appointed to the German
     Federal Diet (congress), Bismarck worked to increase Prussian status and
     power within Germany. Eventually he would rise to the rank of Prussian Prime
     Minister, where after years of long struggle, he succeeded in unifying
     Germany under Prussian rule. Bismarck would accomplish this through crafty
     diplomacy, aided by a series of successful wars.
     Once Germany was unified, Bismarck's main foreign policy aim was to keep the
     peace in Europe, mostly by isolating France, Germany's historic enemy. In
     this he was largely successful. He engineered a war with France in 1870 in
     order to draw several German states (Bavaria, Baden, and others) into the
     German empire. In the war, France was quickly defeated.
     Having achieved his objective of acquiring the German states, Bismarck argued
     for fairly lenient terms, but the German people and military wanted more, and
     he was forced to annex the French provinces of Alsace and Loraine. Bismarck
     knew that this would be trouble in the long run - before the war he had told
     a colleague, "Supposing we did win Alsace, we would have to maintain our
     conquest and to keep Strasbourg perpetually garrisoned. This would be an
     impossible position, for in the end the French would find new allies - and we
     might have a bad time." This, of course, is exactly what happened in World
     War I, where Germany had a very bad time indeed.
     Although an ardent conservative and monarchist, Bismarck was the first
     European leader to promote a system of social security for workers. He
     rebuilt the German monetary system, introducing for the first time a single
     currency. He also helped fabricate the new country's code of civil and
     commercial law. His benevolence was not universal, however; while
     emancipating the Jews, Bismarck also enacted laws aimed at restraining
     Germany's Catholics.
     As a diplomat, Bismarck's greatest weakness was his single-minded desire to
     weaken France. He was largely successful during his lifetime, but in doing so
     he made France into an implacable enemy, which would have dire consequences
     in the next century. Domestically, Bismarck's great flaw was his indifference
     to the lives of the German people. As Germany grew in power and stature, the
     people's lives improved but little. His social security system did some good,
     but he enacted that mainly to avoid having to make greater concessions to the
     German Socialists.
     Bismarck was a great leader, perhaps the greatest European leader of the 19th
     Century. His triumphs outweighed his defeats, and he almost single-handedly
     turned a group of bickering kingdoms into a mighty state. Although his
     policies did contribute to the disasters in Germany's future, those were more
     so a result of his successors' inability to adjust to the changing
     geopolitical climate in Europe."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 7/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 6/10
     City State Competitiveness - 7/10
     Boldness                   - 4/10
    Like most leaders, Bismarck is quite competitive, and loves to build his 
    Wonders alongside taking City States, but he is quite lacking in boldness, he
    isn't the type to come along and start trash-talking you, but that doesn't 
    mean he won't do it. 
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 7/10
     Hostile   - 4/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 7/10
     Afraid    - 4/10
     Friendly  - 7/10
     Neutral   - 4/10
    Bismarck is quite difficult to follow. He loves war as much as he loves 
    trying to be your ally. He isn't afraid of you, but the problem is that he
    either is allies with you, or is at war with you. And for some reason, if he
    manages to build up his forces, it will be war. Of course, when he decided to
    attack my outnumbered forces with his Landsknecht, he forgot that pikemen have
    a massive disadvantage when they attack Riflemen. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 4/10
     Friendly      - 5/10
     Protective    - 7/10
     Conquest      - 7/10
    Like Napoleon, he is either going to protect the city states or attack and
    conquer their lands. This is another thing that is really up to the AI, they
    will more likely protect city states close to you, because declaring war on 
    you will lead to city states sending units against you, whilst conquest is for
    areas that you won't get to. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 5/10
     Defensive         - 6/10
     City Defence      - 6/10
     Military Training - 8/10
     Reconnaissance    - 8/10
     Ranged            - 5/10
     Mounted           - 7/10
    Bismarck is a big fan of using strong military units for the time. What unit
    he uses depends on his tech, and to a lesser extent, how much money he has to
    play with. He will have an extensive army of scouts early in the game, mainly
    to ensure that he knows what he is up against, and will use a lot of mounted/
    armoured units, because they are fast and powerful, so be prepared to counter
    that with AT guns and Pikemen when he sends such units.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 3/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 3/10
     Naval Growth           - 4/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 4/10
    As one would expect, Bismarck doesn't concentrate on a navy, at best, it is 
    used to protect his crossing forces, but he doesn't use them like Elizabeth
    does in terms of bombarding your cities with them. As such, you can pretty
    much be sure to gain the element of surprise when you send in a fleet around
    the back of his empire, and some firepower to take a few cities, and that 
    should really rile him up.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 6/10
    Bismarck is willing to use air in a more strategic and tactical role than 
    other leaders, who tend to use it as support at best. He will drop bombs on
    your cities, and counter your own efforts with interceptors, so at least he
    is will to fight an air war, rather than just give you air supremacy right
    from the get go. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 6/10
     Growth           - 5/10
     Tile Improvement - 6/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 8/10
     Gold             - 5/10
     Science          - 7/10
     Culture          - 5/10
    Bismarck is concentrated heavily on production, which is apt given that 
    he does tend to produce a hell of a lot of military units. Even when his
    frontline may be worn out from heavy fighting, you will see a lot of units
    just being fed from his cities to your killing fields. He is also pretty
    quick to tech up as well, which requires you to keep up with him, or you will
    face some highly developed units at your doorstep.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 5/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 4/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    Another person going for the Spaceship victory route, it seems that most AIs
    like to go to this route to win, rather than relying on Diplomacy, which is
    rather disappointing for someone like Bismarck, who was a very good statesmen,
    managing to isolate France well, so I would have expected him to have done
    better here. 
    [3.08] Greece
     Leader          - Alexander the Great
     Unique Unit 1   - Companion Cavalry, replaces Horseman
     Unique Unit 2   - Hoplite, replaces Spearmen
     Unique Building - None
     Civilization Power
      - City-State influence is decreased at half its usual rate, and recovers
        at double the speed of normal civilizations. 
     ~ History
    "It is difficult to overstate the impact that Greece has had upon Western
     culture and history. Classical Greece has given birth to some of the greatest
     artists, philosophers, scientists, historians, dramatists and warriors the
     world has known. Greek warriors and colonists spread their culture throughout
     the Mediterranean and into the Near and Far East. The heirs to Greece, the
     Romans, further promulgated Greek thought throughout Europe, and from there
     it spread across the oceans and into the New World.
     Greece and her people are credited with an astonishing number of inventions
     and discoveries, including the first theatrical performance, work of history,
     and philosophic treatise. The Greeks provided the West's first recorded
     sporting event, poem, and building dedicated to theatre. In politics, the
     Greeks created the world's first known democracy and republic. Greek
     influence is still all around us: today's doctors still take the Hippocratic
     Oath, and modern architects still look to classical Greek forms for
     inspiration. To a large degree, Western civilization is Classical Greek
     Greece occupies a large, wide peninsula which juts south from the Balkans
     into the Eastern Mediterranean, between the Ionian Sea and the Aegean. The
     peninsula is almost bisected by the Gulf of Corinth, which opens into the
     Ionian Sea and runs east almost all the way across the landmass, leaving only
     a narrow isthmus connecting north and south. Greece is quite mountainous,
     with narrow fertile valleys separated by imposing hills and peaks. Summers
     are warm and winters are mild in the coastal lowlands, but snowfall is not
     uncommon in the mountains.
     Historically the Aegean Sea has been a Grecian lake. Classical Greece
     dominated the hundreds of islands of the Aegean as well as the rocky coast of
     Anatolia (Turkey) to the east.
     Little is known about the earliest inhabitants of Greece. They were all but
     destroyed during the Bronze Age, circa 1900 BC, when a large wave of
     Mycenaean tribes migrated into Greece from the Balkans. The new inhabitants
     were largely dominated by the Minoan civilization of Crete for some 500 years
     until approximately 1400 BC, when the Mycenaeans threw off Minoan control.
     Homer's Iliad and Odyssey date from the Mycenaean period. Although altered by
     time, they nonetheless provide at least a glimpse into Mycenaean warfare,
     politics, religion, and daily life.
     Mycenaean civilization collapsed in 1100 BC, for reasons that are still under
     debate, but which might be linked to the influx of a yet another new group of
     immigrants from the north, the Dorians. For approximately 300 years following
     the Mycenaean collapse, Greece entered a period known as the "Greek Dark
     Ages," from which little written record survives.
     The so-called "Archaic Period" begins in the mid-seventh century BC, at the
     end of the Greek Dark Ages. During this period the Greeks begin once again
     keeping records; however, the Mycenaean written language had been lost in the
     Dark Ages, so the Greeks borrowed from the Phoenicians, modifying their
     letters to create the Greek alphabet.
     The first recorded date in Greek history is 778 BC, the year of the first
     Olympic Games. This earliest Olympics apparently consisted of one event, a
     foot race of some 200 yards in length, and it was won by Coroebus of Elis,
     a cook. The Games were held every four years. Over the next decades the
     Greeks added other events, including a 400 yard race, a marathon, wrestling,
     the javelin and discus, and eventually boxing and chariot racing.
     The Archaic Period is marked by a great Greek colonization movement, in which
     a large number of communities sent out groups of citizens to colonize the
     islands and coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean. Exactly why the Greek
     citizens left their homes to form colonies is open to speculation; some think
     the settlers were motivated by greed, believing that they could more easily
     make their fortunes elsewhere, while other historians believe that population
     pressure was at least partly responsible. Over the next several centuries
     Greek colonies were formed on the coast of North Africa, Sicily, Mainland
     Italy, Anatolia, Egypt and the Middle East. The colonies tended to be
     independent, but they generally maintained close ties to the colonizing
     The term "polis" is used to denote the ancient Greek city-state.
     Traditionally the term denotes the classic Athenian-style political unit - a
     large central city dominating much smaller nearby towns and villages, but the
     term also describes a group of allied smaller towns with no totally dominant
     central city (this is closer to the organization of Sparta). Both forms began
     to appear in the eighth century BC. Some historians believe that the major
     cities grew up around religious temples, while others believe that the Greeks
     copied the organization from the Phoenicians, who had been building similar
     political organizations for years.
     Each polis was a sovereign political organization, answerable only to its own
     citizens. Although the citizens of the city-states shared a common language,
     history and nationality (Greek, of course), that did not stop them from
     bickering among themselves constantly and going to war with one-another as
     the mood took them. The polis might band together to face a common enemy, but
     such alliances were quickly abandoned when the immediate crisis was over.
     There were four dominant Greek city-states - Corinth, Thebes, Sparta and
     Athens. Of those four, Sparta and Athens were the most powerful. Eventually
     the battle for supremacy between the two would shake the Greek world to its
     The Spartan polis was located in a relatively poor and forbidding area in
     central southern Greece. In the 8th Century BC Sparta went to war with nearby
     Messenia. Sparta was victorious, conquering Messenia and enslaving its
     people, who came to be known as the "Helots." The Helots bitterly resented
     their enslavement and attempted several revolutions. In order to keep their
     slaves in place Spartan society became highly militarized, with every Spartan
     male required to leave home and enter military service at an extremely young
     age. The Spartan soldiers were highly disciplined and virtually fearless, and
     were generally acclaimed as the best foot soldiers in Greece.
     Athens was located in south-eastern Greece, in a wealthy and fertile region
     known as Attica. In stark contrast to Sparta, the Athenians were a mighty sea
     power. They celebrated arts and culture and learning rather than the austere
     military life of the Spartans. (However, lest one become overly-fond of
     Athens and overly-censorious of Sparta, it should be noted that the Athenians
     too had slaves and were not adverse to conquering rival cities for plunder.)
     In the late 6th century BC Athens was ruled by the tyrant Peisistratos,
     followed by his sons. An Athenian aristocrat asked the Spartan king Cleomenes
     I to help overthrow the tyrants; after doing so the Spartan king appointed
     his own puppet ruler in their place. In response the Athenians kicked out the
     Spartan puppet and formed a new government in which all citizens (excluding
     women and slaves, of course) shared power equally, thus creating the world's
     first democracy. The Spartans attacked Athens, seeking to restore their
     puppet, but the Athenians defended their city with great tenacity, and the
     Spartans were forced to withdraw. This began a rivalry between the two powers
     that would last for centuries.
     The period known as "Classical Greece" begins when the Athenians overthrow
     their last tyrant and continues until the death of Alexander the Great. The
     Classical period sees an explosion of art, architecture, literature, science
     and political thought, a glorious Renaissance of human culture and knowledge.
     Consider how many Greeks from this period that we are familiar with -
     Leonidas I, king of Sparta, Pericles, the leader of Athens, the historians
     Herodotus and Xenopohon, the philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the
     playwrights Euripides, Sophocles, and Aristophanes, Hippocrates the physician
     - these men lived 2500 years ago, and we still remember them. Is there any
     other period in history that can claim so many great men appearing at one
     time, in one tiny corner of the map?
     While this was an extraordinary era, this period also contained a whole lot
     of really bloody, nasty warfare, and many of the great men of the time
     devoted much energy and effort to killing one-another. It is interesting to
     speculate whether this was a golden age in spite of the incessant warfare, or
     because of it.
     At the start of the fifth century BC, the Greek cities on the coast of
     Anatolia (Ionia) were under the control of the Persians, a vast and powerful
     empire to the south-east. In 499 BC the Greek cities revolted. Although
     several mainland Greek cities came to their aid, they were unable to stand up
     to the strong Persian response, and all were retaken.
     Seven years later (492 BC), the Persians launched a massive assault on Greece
     in retaliation. The Persian invasion came in two wings - a huge army
     accompanied by a powerful naval force which covered its flank. The army
     advanced through Thrace and Macedonia, but the force's general was wounded,
     and the army retreated back to Asia Minor.
     In 490 BC the Persian fleet landed a huge force (somewhere between 20,000 to
     100,000 soldiers) in Attica. They were met by a much smaller force of perhaps
     9,000 Athenians and 1,000 Plateans, who defeated the Persian army in detail.
     This bought the Greeks some 10 years of peace.
     In 480 BC, the Persian king Xerxes I launched another massive attack on
     Greece, this time leading some 300,000 troops onto the peninsula. The huge
     force rapidly overwhelmed the central Greek cities and marched inexorably
     towards Athens. The invaders were met by a far smaller group of Spartan and
     other troops at Thermopylae; the defenders fought tenaciously and to the last
     man, buying enough time for the Athenians to evacuate their city. Although
     homeless, the Athenians still had their powerful navy, which they used to
     destroy the Persian ships and cut off supplies to the Persian army in Athens.
     Within a year the Spartans gathered a great army and attacked the occupiers,
     who were defeated and largely destroyed.
     By 478 BC the Athenians had returned to their largely ruined city and began
     reconstruction. They formed an alliance (the "Delian League") with various
     island cities, and permanently expelled the Persian navy from the Aegean Sea.
     Following the defeat of Persia, the Athenians demanded large amounts of money
     from the other members of the Delian League, which they planned to use to
     rebuild the destroyed city. As the Athenians had by far the biggest navy, the
     island cities were forced to comply. The Athenians grew richer and more
     powerful than they had ever been in history, and the Delian League became in
     fact, if not in name, the Athenian Empire.
     Alarmed at Athens' growing power, Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League, an
     alliance with other concerned Greek land powers including Corinth and Elis.
     By 458 BC war broke out between the Delian League and the Peloponnesian
     League. The war ground on inconclusively for several years, until a peace
     treaty was signed in 445 BC. The uneasy peace lasted until 431 BC, when the
     two sides once again came to blows.
     The war continued for decades. The Spartan forces invaded Attica and besieged
     Athens, and the city fell victim to a massive and deadly plague which killed
     thousands, including the great leader Pericles. But Athens survived, and the
     Spartans were driven back. The Athenian navy harassed the enemy coastlines
     and overseas allies, draining the Peloponnesian League's larders and
     treasuries. Neither side was able to gain an advantage, and in 421 BC they
     signed another peace treaty.
     The "Peace of Nicias," lasted six years. It ended in 415 BC when Athens
     launched a massive invasion of Sicily, which contained a number of cities
     allied with Sparta. The Athenian attack was a long, costly catastrophic
     failure which resulted in the annihilation of the invading army and the
     almost total destruction of the Athenian navy. Athens was badly crippled,
     both at land and at sea.
     In 405 BC the Spartan navy (with the help of the Persians) defeated the
     Athenian navy and imposed an impenetrable blockade on Athens. Starving and
     with no hope of external aid, Athens capitulated. The victorious Spartans
     imposed heavy penalties on Athens, divested it of its overseas possessions
     and forbid it from building a navy.
     With the city-states of southern Greece badly weakened by decades of brutal
     warfare, the balance of power moved north, to Macedon. In 338 BC Philip II
     led an army south, accompanied by his 16 year-old son, Alexander, who had
     already proven himself in battle, having led a small Macedonian army to crush
     a Thracian revolt. After dispatching several smaller forces, Philip and
     Alexander thoroughly defeated a combined Theban and Athenian army at the
     Battle of Chaeronea. He then moved to Corinth, which capitulated without a
     Philip made preparations to launch a major invasion of Persia, at the head of
     a large army of Macedonian and other Greek warriors. However, he was
     assassinated in 336 BC and at the age of 20, Alexander was proclaimed King of
     Upon news of Philip's death, the southern Greek city-states attempted to
     revolt, but Alexander moved south at the head of 3000 Macedonian cavalry, and
     the terrified city-states quickly surrendered. He then headed north into the
     Balkans, where, in a lightning campaign he defeated several armies much
     larger than his force.
     While Alexander was securing his northern borders, a number of southern
     city-states including Thebes and Athens rebelled once more. In response
     Alexander burned Thebes to the ground, selling most of its citizens into
     slavery. Athens immediately capitulated and pleaded for mercy. Having made
     his point, Alexander had no further trouble with the southern Greek
     In 334 BC Alexander led an army of 40,000 Greeks across the Hellespont into
     Persian territory. For here suffice it to say that in 10 short years
     Alexander conquered all of Asia Minor, Persia, Egypt, and parts of Western
     India. He died at the age of 32 in 323 BC with no heir, leaving his
     fragmented empire in the hands of his generals and their children.
     Greece did not remain unified after Alexander's death. As the polis returned
     to their squabbling, they fell piecemeal under the control of Rome, the
     growing power to the west. By 146 BC Macedon was a Roman province, and over
     the next century the rest of the country was taken.
     In 330 AD, the Byzantine Empire supplanted the Roman rule in Greece. The
     Byzantines remained in power for some 1,000 years, until they were supplanted
     by the Ottomans. The Ottomans ruled Greece from the mid-fifteenth century
     until the early nineteenth, when Greece regained its independence in 1829,
     almost one thousand, eight hundred and fifty years after the Roman conquest."
    Greece was quite a powerful nation back in its day, and no more 300 Jokes or
    THIS IS SPARTA! jokes. Anyway, The Greeks are very good with city states, so
    your influence and gold spent there will last much longer compared to that
    of normal city states. Even if you piss them off, they will be happy once
    again, in a while. However, their greatest flaw will lie longer in the game
    where their units and power isn't as useful.
    Their Hoplite is more powerful than the Spearman in terms of raw strength,
    whilst their Companion Cavalry is more useful as it has more power, better
    movement, and has the unique ability to produce a Great General after going
    into battle, which isn't a bad thing at all. Everyone loves a nice Citadel
    to plop down next to their aggressive neighbour. 
     Alexander the Great
     ~ History
    "Alexander the Macedonian is unquestionably one of the great warlords of all
     time. In 17 short years he marched his army to victory after victory across
     Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle East, conquering every civilization he
     could reach.
     Alexander was the son of King Phillip II, an extremely successful king and
     warlord who had restored his kingdom from the verge of extinction and then
     led his people to triumph by conquering Athens, Illyria, and Thrace - the
     three powers who, a few short years before, had been on the verge of
     conquering Macedonia. As the son of the most powerful monarch in the
     "civilized" world, Alexander got the best of everything, including education
     - the scholar Aristotle, the great thinker of Western Civilization, was his
     Taught by his mother Olympias that he was descended from Hercules and
     Achilles, Alexander did not lack for self-confidence, even at a very young
     age. At the age of 14 Phillip left him in charge of Macedonia while he was
     away attacking Byzantium; Alexander crushed a Thracian rebellion during his
     father's absence. Two years later he commanded the left wing of his father's
     army during the battle in which Phillip's forces defeated the allied Greek
     states and conquered all of Greece.
     The next year Alexander's good fortune deserted him, for a while, at least.
     King Phillip divorced Alexander's mother for a woman named "Cleopatra
     Eurydice", and mother and son fled Macedonia. Alexander and his father were
     reconciled some time thereafter, but Alexander's position as Phillip's heir
     would have been in grave jeopardy had Phillip not conveniently died before
     producing another son.
     Following the conquest of Greece and the Balkans, King Phillip had been
     working on building an army to invade and conquer Persia. In 336 Phillip was
     assassinated by the captain of his bodyguard, Pausanias, while attending his
     daughter's wedding. (Some believe that Alexander's mother, Olympias - or
     indeed Alexander himself - was behind the assassination, but as Pausanias
     conveniently died during the murder there was no actual proof.) At the age of
     twenty Alexander was proclaimed king by the Macedonian army and nobility. He
     celebrated his victory by murdering all potential rivals to the throne, then
     resumed planning his father's interrupted invasion of Persia.
     Alexander's force consisted of 30,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 cavalrymen, a
     huge army for the day, and was accompanied by engineers, surveyors,
     scientists, and even historians.
     In battle Alexander had amazing success against the Persians. He repeatedly
     beat their best soldiers, routinely fighting against odds of 10-to-1. His
     success can be attributed to his military genius, his force's superb training
     and equipment, and their magnificent esprit de corps, largely engendered by
     their faith in Alexander's invincibility.
     Alexander appeared to be without fear. He commonly led the elite Macedonian
     Companion Cavalry into the thick of battle personally, and he received a
     number of dangerous wounds during his military career, none of which dampened
     his military ardor.
     Having secured Persia's surrender, Alexander then moved south, conquering
     Syria, Palestine, much of modern Iraq, and eventually Egypt herself. He
     returned to Persia, destroyed the last of the Persian forces and took over
     the entire country. He continued east, eventually coming into contact with
     the great Indian King Porus, who fought him to a standstill. Alexander
     eventually won the conflict, but at such a heavy cost that his men begged him
     to end the campaign and let them return to their families. Alexander himself
     returned to rule his empire from the captured city of Babylon.
     In eight short years of fighting, Alexander had conquered more territory than
     any other living being. He successfully led his forces into battle against
     all of the great nations of the day, but none could stand against him. He was
     the absolute ruler of the largest empire the world had ever seen.
     Apparently he found this boring.
     Once in Babylon, Alexander began an inexorable decline. He began drinking
     heavily and engaging in all kinds of available debauchery (and there was much
     debauchery to be found in Babylon). He became subject to fits of anger and
     bouts of paranoid delusion. One night, in a state of blind rage and under the
     influence of alcohol, Alexander murdered Clitus, his closest associate. This
     barbaric act was to haunt Alexander for the rest of his life - which wasn't
     very long.
     In June of 332 BC, his body weakened by his excesses, Alexander died of
     malaria. He was 32 years old.
     "When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no
     more worlds to conquer."
     This extraordinary man (and his father before him) conquered Greece, the
     Balkans, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Persia, and Asia as far east as
     Afghanistan. His empire did not long survive Alexander's death - it was
     simply too large for any mere mortal to hold - and it was divided between a
     number of Alexander's generals. But Alexander's conquests allowed Hellenic
     culture to spread across most of the known world, and Greek would become the
     language of culture, art and science for centuries to come.
     With the exception perhaps of one or two religious leaders, no single man has
     had such a great effect upon western civilization as did Alexander the
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 8/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 7/10
     City State Competitiveness - 3/10
     Boldness                   - 8/10
    Alexander is bold indeed, he pretty much will do what he pleases, and that
    mainly is to exterminate you. He is very competitive and one of the main
    contenders to get into fights and defeat you. He is also very competitive to
    build wonders for his nation, but if you are chasing city states, then don't
    worry too much, Alexander doesn't really have much interest in them.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 7/10
     Hostile   - 7/10
     Deceptive - 4/10
     Guarded   - 5/10
     Afraid    - 3/10
     Friendly  - 5/10
     Neutral   - 4/10
    Well, Alexander is one who is pretty much without any allies in the game,
    simply because he is pretty damn hostile to everyone and is quite willing to
    go to war with them. So if you are defending against him, sure, it is bad 
    news that you are at war with him, but the good news is that he is probably
    stuck at war with a lot of other nations, and that will be his downfall, his
    troops will be spread thin across multiple fronts. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 4/10
     Friendly      - 5/10
     Protective    - 3/10
     Conquest      - 8/10
    Alexander really doesn't care about he city states, but like the city states
    in Greece, he will conquer those who get in his path. So if you are the 
    protector of one of these cities, then you might need to watch out for
    Alexander because his attack on a city you are protecting will drag you into a
    war with him, something that he is clearly not afraid of.
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 8/10
     Defensive         - 5/10
     City Defence      - 5/10
     Military Training - 5/10
     Reconnaissance    - 5/10
     Ranged            - 3/10
     Mounted           - 8/10
    Alexander will really concentrate on two types of units, the cavalry units,
    which later turn into armoured units, and the melee units, such as your 
    standard warrior, hoplites, pikemen, and the like. That does make him hard to
    defeat, but knowing the counters to melee infantry are good ranged units that
    can pick them off and anti-cavalry units to take out his mounted units, it 
    does make him predictable in terms of attack.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 5/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 5/10
     Naval Growth           - 6/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 6/10
    Alexander really won't look to the seas, again, the navy for him is more of a 
    supporting act, rather than the main player, and that is another good thing 
    for your empire, especially on water-heavy maps, where naval combat is key. 
    You can quickly take out his ground units as they travel across the water
    with powerful naval units, and he won't do a thing to stop you.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 3/10
    Alexander will really ignore the air when you have the ability to use air
    units, but although he won't challenge you in the skies, he will challenge you
    with Anti-Air units on the ground to shoot your guys out of the sky, and that
    could make life that much harder on you.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 8/10
     Growth           - 4/10
     Tile Improvement - 4/10
     Infrastructure   - 4/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 3/10
     Science          - 6/10
     Culture          - 7/10
    Another cultural leader, he will focus heavily on expansion of his empire, and
    that means a lot of settlers that you can intercept and capture for your own
    nation. He will focus on science a fair bit, so he will get stronger units 
    along the way, and will adopt policy rather quickly as well. He is clearly not
    one to be underestimated. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 5/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 7/10
     Diplomacy     - 7/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    Alexander, like most leaders, will focus heavily on the Spaceship victory 
    method, and will tend to use diplomacy when it suits him, but that is at odds
    with his military abilities, who is going to vote for you when you have 
    already conquered everyone? Like mentioned above, he will tend to build 
    Wonders as well, so you will want to beat him to the race. 
    [3.09] India
     Leader          - Gandhi
     Unique Unit 1   - War Elephant, replaces Chariot Archer
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Mughal Fort, replaces Castle
     Civilization Power
      - Unhappiness from Cities is doubled, but Unhappiness from population is
     ~ History
    "The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world and
     the largest democracy. A land of contrasts, India contains great wealth and
     grinding poverty. It possesses high-tech cities and primitive villages. In it
     one can find beauty and squalor, hope and despair. It is one of the oldest
     civilizations on the planet, yet India is considered an "emerging" market.
     In short, India is one of the most fascinating civilizations on the planet.
     India is a diamond-shaped country. It borders the Himalayan Mountains to the
     north, while to the south a relatively flat plane juts out into the Indian
     Ocean between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The plains are bisected
     by a regular series of west-to-east running rivers, many of which are prone
     to flooding in the Monsoon season.
     India is some 1,270,000 square miles in area, roughly one-third the size of
     the United States of America. Its climate tends to be tropical/sub-tropical,
     with a more mountainous climate to the far north.
     Archaeologists have discovered evidence of agricultural cultivation in India
     dating as far back as the 7th millennium BC, with the first signs of urban
     communities appearing around 2500 BC. The so-called Indus civilization
     flourished for eight centuries. Some experts believe that the Indus had an
     empire of some 500,000 square miles in size, with a (more or less) uniform
     language and currency and which supported an extensive trading network.
     For reasons that remain unclear, the Indus civilization collapsed some time
     around 1800 BC. The major cities all but disappeared, as did all traces of
     central authority. Some scholars believe that this was the result of
     environmental degradation resulting in widespread starvation, making larger
     urban populations unsustainable, while others suspect that large migration
     into the area by foreign invaders are responsible for the collapse. Whatever
     the cause, this post urban period lasted for almost one thousand years.
     The "Early Vedic Period" is dated from approximately 1500 to 800 BC. It is
     named after the "Vedas," which are the earliest surviving Indian written
     material, composed some time during this period. Four major Vedic texts have
     thus far been discovered - the Rigveda, the Samaveda, the Yajurveda, and the
     Atharvaveda. These texts describe religious/mystical practices of the
     so-called "Aryan" people of India, a group which probably migrated from
     Europe into India some time around 2000 BC. The Hindu religion traces its
     origin back to this period.
     At the beginning of the Vedic period many people had returned to a nomadic
     way of life, and the clan was the major political unit. Over time the
     population returned to a more stationary existence, and the clan chief
     evolved into a king with political and religious - as well as military -
     authority. As taxation evolved, the state grew in wealth and power.
     This period also saw the widespread use of iron and the return to urban life,
     especially in the Ganges valley. Indian civilization was once again on the
     The Rigveda, the earliest of the Vedic texts, describes the mythological
     basis for the Indian "caste" system, which apparently developed during this
     period. Caste is hereditary: a person is born into his or her station, and no
     advancement is possible. 
     There appear to have been four major castes in Indian culture during this
     period: the Brahmans, the priestly caste, the Kshatiriyas, the military and
     land-owning caste, the Vaishyas, the merchants and skilled workers, and the
     Sudras, the unskilled workers.
     The caste system has proven remarkably persistent throughout Indian history.
     Vestiges can still be found in modern times, despite the Indian government's
     rigorous attempts to stamp it out.
     By around 500 BC more than a dozen major states could be found in India. Some
     of these states were monarchical, while others had a more oligarchic system
     of government. They fought with each other regularly, seeking to expand their
     influence and power.
     In addition to their internal conflicts, the Indian states were under
     pressure from forces outside of India. In 326 BC Alexander the Great invaded
     northwest India, conquering the province of Punjab before turning back. In
     the early 2nd century BC Demetrius, the Greek king of Bactria, conquered a
     large portion of northwest India, and his heirs ruled the area for some time.
     In the meantime, the eastern portions of India were invaded by Central Asian
     nomadic tribes, driven out of China by the Han emperors. Over time the
     invaders were driven out or assimilated, leaving behind a powerful influence
     on Indian history and culture.
     Chandragupta Maurya (340 - 290 BC) was the founder of the Maurya Empire. A
     great military and political leader, he unified much of the Indian
     subcontinent under his rule. The empire was further expanded by his son
     Ashoka the Great (304 - 232 BC). Ashoka continued his father's conquests for
     some years, but later in his life he embraced Buddhism and non-violence,
     constructing many Buddhist temples across India and doing much to further
     that religion in Southern Asia. The Maurya Empire went into decline after
     Ashoka's death, and in 185 BC the Brahmin general Sunga assassinated the
     Maurya king and seized power, establishing the Sunga dynasty.
     Religion has always been a powerful force in India. Three major world
     religions were established in the sub-continent, and other external religions
     have found significant favor among the populous.
     Hinduism is the predominant religion of India. The roots of Hinduism date
     back to the Vedic period, making it the oldest surviving religious tradition.
     Approximately one billion people practice Hinduism, 90% of whom reside in
     India. Hinduism is less a specific creed and mythology than a collection of
     religious traditions and tenets. A remarkably open belief system, Hinduism
     embraces monotheism, polytheism, pantheism and several other "isms" as well.
     Dharma, ethics, Samsara, the cycle of life, death and rebirth, Karma, cause
     and effect, and Yoga, the paths to enlightenment, are important concepts in
     the Hindu religion.
     Buddhism is a set of beliefs based upon the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama
     (563 BC - 483 BC), the Buddha. Buddhism teaches its followers how to achieve
     nirvana and escape the endless cycle of suffering and rebirth through ethical
     conduct, meditation, exercise, and study. Buddhism spread slowly throughout
     India until it was embraced by Ashoka the Great, who constructed many
     Buddhist temples throughout India and actively exported the religion to other
     countries. Over time Buddhism was supplanted in India by Hinduism (and later
     Islam), until it was virtually extinct by the twelfth century AD. It has
     enjoyed a slight resurgence in India in modern times.
     Jainism is a religion that teaches its practitioners how to achieve the
     highest state of consciousness through study and self-discipline; it is a
     non-violent religion. It originated in the 9th century BC and survives today
     with perhaps 4 million followers in India and 100,000 more worldwide.
     The Gupta Dynasty ruled Northern and Central India from AD 320 to AD 540.
     Some scholars have called this period the "Golden Age" of India, a period in
     which Indian literature, art, architecture, and philosophy flourished.
     However, by the mid-fifth century much of the Gupta Empire had been overrun
     by Central Asian invaders known as the "Hunas." (It's unknown whether this
     group had any relation to the Huns who invaded Eastern Europe.) This period
     brought further Central Asian influence into India.
     Following the collapse of the Guptas, India saw the rise and fall of a series
     of smaller kingdoms, none of whom rose to the size or power of the Guptas.
     The Muslims began raiding the Indian coast in the seventh century AD.
     However, the first significant military incursion into northern India
     occurred in the late 12th century by Muslim Turks under Sultan Mahmud of
     Ghazna, who conquered the Punjab and led many successful raids into northern
     and central India. Delhi was conquered in 1193, and the Delhi Sultanate was
     established. The Mamluk dynasty ruled the sultanate until 1290, when they
     were supplanted by the Khalji dynasty. The Khalji were in turn overthrown by
     the Tughlaq, and so forth. The fun continued until 1526, when Babur of Kabul
     defeated whoever happened to be in charge at that time and established the
     Mughal Dynasty, which would survive some three centuries.
     While the Muslims would never quite manage to conquer all of India, they did
     rule a large majority of the country. Much of the population remained Hindu,
     despite several Muslim rulers' vigorous attempts to convert them to Islam.
     Over time the Mughal Empire gradually declined, coming under increasing
     attacks from the Afghans, Sikhs, and Hindus. It received its death blow at
     the hands of the British.
     The first European known to sail from Europe to India was Vasco da Gama,
     the Portuguese explorer who reached Calicut, India on May 20, 1498, after a
     voyage of some nine months. Upon leaving India, da Gama left behind several
     men to start a trading post, the first of many such European posts upon the
     long coast of India. The Portuguese quickly followed up da Gama's success
     with both trading and military vessels, setting up strategic bases in India
     and East Africa, seeking to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. The sturdy
     Portuguese ships were easily able to defeat any Arab and Indian vessels that
     might dispute their mastery. (It was the Indian weakness at sea which
     ultimately made them so vulnerable to European conquest.)
     The Portuguese maintained their trading posts through the 16th century, until
     they were annexed by Spain in 1580. The Spanish concentrated their naval
     power to protect their vast interests in the New World, allowing the Dutch
     and English to challenge their dominance of India.
     In the 1600s the Dutch began setting up their trading empire in the Pacific
     and Indian Oceans. They had no interest in conquest or in spreading their
     religion: they just wanted the spices. The majority of their trade was with
     the East Indies (Indonesia), although they did establish a few posts in
     southern India (for pepper and cardamom). The Dutch successfully dominated
     Indian trade for years, defeating other European countries' attempts to cut
     into their monopoly.
     In the early 17th century the English sought to challenge Dutch dominance
     over the East Indies, hoping for a piece of the spice trade. They were
     decisively rebuffed by the Dutch navy. Looking for somewhat easier prey, they
     attacked the Portuguese forces in India. After defeating the Portuguese in
     1612, they received a favorable trading treaty with the Mughals, who had
     resented the Portuguese dominance of the sea. The English traded peacefully
     with the Mughals for 70 years, until they unsuccessfully attacked the Mughals
     in 1686. Having learned a lesson, the English returned to peaceful relations
     with the Mughals for the next 50 years.
     The French too sought to establish trading relations with India in the 16th
     century. They enjoyed success for some years, but events in Europe left them
     open to attack from other European powers. Their fortunes rose and fell in
     inverse proportion to those of the British and the Dutch.
     In 1757, the British East India Company's army fought the forces of the Nawab
     of Bengal, who was angry at the company's refusal to pay taxes. The Company's
     army was victorious, and the victors occupied Bengal, the first of many
     cities and provinces it would conquer in the name of "free trade." Over the
     next century the Company expanded its rule, taking advantage of the fractured
     Indian landscape of small, weak kingdoms and princely states. The British
     used bribery, threats and military means to expand their power, and by 1850
     they controlled most of the sub-continent.
     In 1857 the Indians rebelled against the British. This rebellion is variously
     called "The Indian Mutiny" or the "First War of Independence." While the
     rebellion enjoyed initial success the British Army sent in large numbers of
     troops to reinforce the Company's beleaguered forces; these professional
     soldiers quickly defeated the rebellious Indians. Following the rebellion the
     British Crown took over governance of India from the British East India
     Company. India would remain the "Jewel" of the British Crown for the next
     ninety years.
     While the British Empire profited greatly from its domination of India,
     British rule was not entirely without benefit to the Indian people. The Brits
     educated the Indians, bringing them into contact with more advanced European
     science and technology. They constructed a solid network of telegraph lines,
     roads and railroads across the country. They also united the Indian people
     against them, giving everyone an equally-detested common enemy. It is this
     last effect that made an Indian independence movement possible.
     At the turn of the 20th century, the Indian Independence movement was fueled
     by growing frustration of Indian intellectuals who were barred from
     participating in their own government. The British constructed institutions
     of higher learning in India, giving the Indians the general understanding
     that they could take over control of the instruments of government once they
     had received the proper education and served the necessary apprenticeships.
     It soon became apparent that these were hollow promises, as the British kept
     the higher offices for themselves and froze out the most promising native
     candidates, no matter how brilliantly they did in university. This was a
     disastrous policy for the British, for it created a class of highly-educated,
     highly-dissatisfied Indians.
     The first Indian National Congress convened in December, 1885 with 73
     representatives, most of whom were lawyers, businessmen, and landowners.
     Among other things, it demanded parity between Indian and British candidates
     for governmental positions, a reduction in the amount of money that India
     paid to its British government, and an end to the Anglo-Burmese War (largely
     fought with Indian soldiers under British officers). By the turn of the
     twentieth century, the Indian National Congress was calling for self rule.
     In the meantime, Muslim Indians feared that their interests would not be
     served by the majority Hindu Indian National Congress, and they created a
     parallel organization, the Muslim League, to fight for Muslim independence.
     The Muslim League and the Indian National Congress worked together only with
     great difficulty, and eventually differences between the two organizations
     would have catastrophic results for the country.
     When World War I broke out, the Indian National Congress enthusiastically
     backed the British war effort. In fact, Gandhi himself toured Indian villages
     urging men to join the British army. The support was given on the assumption
     that Britain would repay Indian loyalty with political concessions, if not
     dominion status or even independence. In the event the British did not move
     quickly enough to satisfy the Indian expectations, and Indian resentment
     In 1921, Mahatma Gandhi (1869 - 1948) assumed leadership of the Indian
     National Congress. He implemented a policy of "satyagraha," resistance
     through non-violent civil disobedience. He led mass rallies, marches and
     protests, including the famous "Salt March" in 1930, in which he and
     thousands of followers marched to the sea to make salt in protest of the
     British tax on that vital mineral. He was imprisoned on a number of
     occasions, including a two-year stint in 1942 during which his wife died and
     he contracted malaria. He was eventually released because the British feared
     he would die in prison.
     Despite his enormous popularity in India and around the world, Gandhi was
     unable to bridge the growing differences between Indian Hindus and Muslims.
     Even as he was bringing independence to his country, religious strife was
     tearing it apart.
     Weakened by two World Wars and unable to find an answer to Gandhi's
     satyagraha tactics, in 1947 the British Parliament passed the Indian
     Independence Act. The Act recognized two countries: Hindu India and Muslim
     Pakistan. Pakistan was divided into two sections, one on the east and the
     other on the west, separated by 1000 miles by the much larger India between
     them. Something like 15 million people were displaced during the
     disintegration of India: Hindus fled from the newly-created Pakistan into
     Hindu India, and Muslims fled India into Muslim Pakistan. Perhaps one million
     people died during the upheaval.
     The new nations were openly hostile to each other, and over the years have
     fought a number of wars. Much of the tension has been related to border
     disputes. In 1971 India intervened in a civil war in East Pakistan, which
     gained its independence from West Pakistan and became the nation of
     The three nations that once comprised historical India have taken very
     different paths in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Bangladesh is a
     parliamentary democracy, a highly-dense country much subject to floods,
     cyclones and famine, though life for its population has steadily improved
     since its independence in the '70s.
     Pakistan is the sixth largest country in the world and the second largest
     Muslim country. While its economy has done well in the past 25 years, it
     remains locationally-challenged. To the east is India, its old enemy, with
     whom it has an ongoing border dispute, and both sides have recently acquired
     nuclear weapons. To the west is Afghanistan, which is loaded with Taliban
     terrorists who use Pakistan as a refuge, and really angry American soldiers
     equipped with the finest and most powerful weapons the world has ever seen.
     If Pakistan can achieve some kind of stable peace with India and figure out
     a way to keep the Taliban and Americans from tearing it apart from within, it
     might have a glorious future.
     India is the world's second most populous country and a thriving democracy.
     It is loud, boisterous, and has a growing and vibrant economy. It has a
     technological base second to none, and an education system that rivals that
     of the United States. It also has a large army and an arsenal of nuclear
     weapons, both mostly pointed at Pakistan. If it can figure out how to step
     down hostilities with Pakistan, it stands poised to be one of the great
     powers of the next century."
    India is a powerful nation with one of the best powers in the game, the 
    ability to double the unhappiness from cities, from 2 to 4, to halving the
    unhappiness from cities due to population, which is especially useful later
    on in the game, where population spirals beyond 10. This is quite a useful
    perk, but it has really bad effects early on in the game, so it is hard to
    balance it out. 
    The War Elephant is a nice mounted unit, that does not require horses in 
    order to produce, which is evidence since I see an elephant and not a horse
    underneath the rider, but is significantly stronger than the unit it
    will replace. The Mughal Fort provides additional culture on top of the
    defensive bonuses for the city, as well as gold after you have learn the
    Flight technology, which is a nice touch as well, to counter the maintenance
     ~ History
    "Mohandas Gandhi was an Indian patriot who led India's nonviolent independence
     movement against British Imperial rule in the early to mid-twentieth century.
     He pioneered "satyagraha," or resistance to tyranny through mass civil
     disobedience, a ploy used to great effect against the British Raj.
     Mohandas Gandhi was born in an India under British rule. The son of the Prime
     Minister of the small state of Porbandar, in his youth Gandhi displayed none
     of the brilliance that would mark him as an adult; in fact the young man was
     a mediocre student and quite shy. He entered into an arranged marriage at the
     age of 13, the usual custom of the period. Apparently he did not enjoy the
     experience, later calling the practice "the cruel custom of child marriage."
     Upon graduating from high school, Gandhi decided to follow his father into
     state service. To this end he decided he would go to England to study. His
     father having just died, Gandhi's mother did not want him to go, allowing him
     only after he had promised to abstain from wine, women, and meat. His caste
     looked upon traveling over the ocean as unclean; when he persisted they
     declared him an "outcast." He learned much about England and the English
     during his time in that country, knowledge which was to prove invaluable
     later in his career. In 1891 Gandhi passed the bar and set sail for India. He
     attempted to set up practice in Bombay, but was unsuccessful and shortly
     relocated to South Africa.
     Gandhi enjoyed more professional success in South Africa, but he was appalled
     by the racial bigotry and intolerance he found there. He spent the next
     twenty years of his life in South Africa looking after the interests of all
     under-classes, not just the Indians. It was here that Gandhi began to refine
     and teach his philosophy of passive resistance. He was jailed several times
     for opposition to the so-called "Black Acts," by which all non-whites were
     required to submit their fingerprints to the government. When the government
     ruled that only Christian marriages were legal in South Africa, Gandhi
     organized and led a massive non-violent protest, which eventually caused the
     government to back down. It was here that Gandhi acquired the title of
     "Mahatma," which means a person venerated for great knowledge and love of
     In 1915, Gandhi returned to India. He shocked the world when he expressed his
     humiliation that he had to speak English in his native land, and he shocked
     the Indian nobility when he chided them for their ostentatiousness, telling
     them that they should hold their jewels and wealth in trust for their
     Thus Gandhi began his long campaign to free his country from English rule.
     He followed two paths - he shamed the oppressors and he demanded sacrifice
     from his people. For the next thirty years Gandhi was to tirelessly exhort
     his people to passive resistance, leading strike after strike, march after
     march, fasting himself to the point of incapacity, enduring innumerable
     beatings, and months and even years in prison. At one point he made a
     historic trip to England, where he won over much of the English working and
     middle classes, to the great irritation of the government. Despite
     innumerable setbacks and years of endless toil, he persisted. In 1946,
     exhausted and virtually bankrupt by World War II, the English agreed to
     vacate India, but in doing so divided the country between Hindu and Muslims,
     which Gandhi abhorred.
     The partition sparked an outbreak of religious violence, in which Muslims
     were massacred wholesale in India, and the same fate awaited Hindus in
     Pakistan. The countries were in chaos. In response, Gandhi went on a fast,
     refusing to eat again until the violence ceased. Astonishingly, his fast
     worked: the peoples of India and Pakistan were unwilling to see their great
     hero die, and they sent him letters and representatives promising to stop the
     killings and begging him to end the fast. He did so, to the relief of
     millions. Twelve days later, Gandhi was assassinated.
     Today Gandhi is considered to be one of the great figures in human history.
     He is recognized as a courageous and tireless champion for justice and moral
     behavior, in South Africa fighting just as hard for the rights of other
     downtrodden people as he did for fellow Indians. He is also acknowledged as a
     brilliant political leader who organized a successful independence campaign
     against one of the most powerful empires the world has ever seen. Of him,
     Martin Luther King said, "Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 2/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 3/10
     City State Competitiveness - 3/10
     Boldness                   - 2/10
    Gandhi is a peaceful leader, so he really won't be threatening you or will
    he be attacking you, or competing for wonders, which is relatively odd. So,
    he isn't a big threat, what is he then?
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 3/10
     Hostile   - 4/10
     Deceptive - 3/10
     Guarded   - 7/10
     Afraid    - 3/10
     Friendly  - 7/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    As you could guess, Gandhi is a peaceful soul, so his military reponse is
    mainly to guard his empire, and he is quite friendly, so that he will more 
    than willing ally with you, which is good. This also makes him a nice target
    to take over, when no real army to speak of. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 7/10
     Protective    - 7/10
     Conquest      - 3/10
    As you can guess, Gandhi will be there to protect the city-states, but not
    there to conquer them. So if you are going to declare war on some city 
    states, you might want to make sure you can handle Gandhi and his many 
    defensive units that he will be using. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 4/10
     Defensive         - 5/10
     City Defence      - 7/10
     Military Training - 3/10
     Reconnaissance    - 4/10
     Ranged            - 7/10
     Mounted           - 7/10
    Gandhi is there really to defend, and ranged units will do this well. He will
    concentrate heavily on city defence, so you will pretty much need to bring
    in siege units to attack his cities. Also, the amount of mounted and armoured
    units he will use will be quite high, so make sure that if you are facing him,
    you will need to bring in appropriate counters.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 3/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 3/10
     Naval Growth           - 3/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 3/10
    Gandhi will really not focus on a navy at all, he is more likely to focus on
    city defence. If anything, a navy will be used as a defensive mechanism, there
    to guard the city against naval invaders, but that would be the extent of his
    naval power.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 3/10
    Again, Gandhi is not there to use military force, it doesn't fit him or his
    historical character. He will use air power sparingly, he will have them 
    around his cities, but he won't be there dropping bombs from the cargo bay 
    as you would expect.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 3/10
     Growth           - 8/10
     Tile Improvement - 5/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 4/10
     Science          - 6/10
     Culture          - 8/10
    Gandhi will focus on several big cities, rather than a sprawl of many cities
    in a big empire. He will focus heavily on culture, which will have him 
    building up his social policies rather quickly, which will be a problem if
    you are aiming for a culture victory.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 8/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 6/10
     Diplomacy     - 8/10
     Spaceship     - 7/10
    As you can see, besides the standard spaceship victory, Gandhi will focus on
    the diplomatic victory, and that means controlling the votes via the UN. 
    He will focus a lot of his resources on keeping his people happy, since that
    does have good effects on growth. Basically, Gandhi will be there to fill
    the void, rather than attack, like other leaders. 
    [3.10] Iroquois
     Leader          - Hiawatha
     Unique Unit 1   - Mohawk Warrior, replaces Swordsman
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Longhouse, replaces Workshop
     Civilization Power
      - In friendly territory, units move through forest and jungle with the
        movement cost as if it were a road.
     ~ History
    "According to tradition the Iroquois Confederation came into being around AD
     1570. The Confederation was a union of five (later six) Native American
     tribes. The Iroquois are an amazing people: with a population that probably
     never exceeded 20,000, lacking a written language and possessing no
     manufacturing base at all, for two centuries the Iroquois managed to hold
     their own against the French, English, Dutch, and later Colonial Americans.
     The Iroquois occupied a large section of upper New York State bordering Lake
     Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The land is hilly and forested, and in
     the 17th century teemed with abundant game including deer and beaver. The
     Iroquois had access to many waterways, including Lake Ontario, the St.
     Lawrence, the Finger Lakes and dozens of rivers, which provided excellent
     fishing, as well as rapid movement by canoe.
     Winters in Upstate New York can be long and bitterly cold - particularly when
     Arctic air is blowing southeast across the Great Lakes - and heavy snowfall
     is not uncommon. Summers are cool and pleasant.
     Members of the Iroquois Nation call themselves "Haudenosaunee," which
     translates roughly as "People Building a Long House." The term "Iroquois" was
     used by non-Iroquois. Its original meaning is unclear, but it may be a
     bastardization of a Huron word meaning "snake." (The Hurons and the Iroquois
     did not much like each other.) Alternatively, it might be a corruption of a
     Basque (Spanish/French ethnic group) term meaning, "killer people." (The
     French didn't much like the Confederacy either.)
     With apologies to the Haudenosaunee we will use the more common term,
     "Iroquois," because few non-natives would recognize Haudenosaunee - and
     because Haudenosaunee is too long to fit on the game screen. For similar
     reasons we have chosen to use the name "Hiawatha" for the Iroquois leader
     rather than "Ayonwentah" (see below).
     According to legend, the Confederacy began when a Chief named Dekanawidah or
     "the Great Peacemaker" convinced a warrior named Ayonwentah to give up
     violence and cannibalism and advance "peace, civil authority, righteousness,
     and the great law." (Ayonwentah is believed to be the basis for the poet
     Longfellow's character "Hiawatha.") Together the two great men unified five
     tribes who formed the league: the Seneca, Onondaga, Mohawks, Cayuga, and
     Oneida. A sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined the Confederacy many years
     later, in 1722.
     The Iroquois had a remarkably advanced government, particularly for people
     with no writing. The Confederacy was governed according to a constitution
     known as the Gayanashagowa, or "Great Law of Peace." Each tribe governed its
     own internal affairs; the Great Council dealt only with issues which faced
     the entire nation - treaties, border disputes, war and peace, and so forth.
     The Great Council was comprised of 50 sachems (roughly, "chiefs"). Each tribe
     provided between 8 and 14 sachems (depending upon the tribe's population and
     status) to the Council. The sachems were elected by councils of clan mothers.
     The Tadadaho was the symbolic leader of the Grand Council but had no real
     political power; the Council worked on consensus and required majority
     agreement before any action could be taken.
     Once united, the Iroquois rapidly became the most powerful native group in
     northeastern America. In 1609 the Confederacy went to war with the French and
     their Canadian Indian allies. The fight was over control of the fur trade,
     particularly the skin of the beaver.
     In the early 17th century, Europe craved beaver pelts, which they made into
     hats. Having hunted the European beaver nearly to extinction, European
     traders turned to the New World, where there were still plenty of beavers
     left. When native Americans discovered that Europeans would give them metal
     tools and even guns for the pelts, competition for the lovable toothy rodent
     became quite fierce.
     In 1610 the Iroquois made contact with Dutch traders at Fort Orange, New
     Netherland (present-day Albany, New York) who supplied them with large
     numbers of firearms in return for pelts. This increase in firepower allowed
     the Iroquois to beat back the French and their allies and expand their empire
     west to Lake Michigan and south to the Tennessee River. Access to guns also
     accelerated the extinction of the beaver in Iroquois territory, which in turn
     caused the Iroquois to attack north, seeking land where the beavers were
     still plentiful.
     For several decades the bloody war persisted. By the middle of the 1600s the
     Iroquois had defeated the Huron, Erie, Neutral and Susquehannock tribes,
     assimilating thousands and driving the remainder out of their territory.
     By 1660 the Iroquois had secured their southern and western flanks and were
     launching regular raids against New France. The French Canadians were unable
     to stop the attacks and appealed to the motherland for support. France
     responded by sending a regiment of French troops, the first professional
     European soldiers seen in Canada. The French troops went on the offensive and
     invaded Iroquois territory several times, with mixed results.
     In the meantime the English captured the Dutch colony of New Netherland,
     cutting the Iroquois off from their major European trading partner. Under
     mounting pressure from the reinforced French forces and unable to resupply
     themselves with weapons, the Iroquois made peace with the French. However
     they continued their westward and southern expansion, finding easier prey
     among the native tribes with little or no access to modern European weapons.
     After taking over the Dutch territories, the English made contact with the
     Iroquois. As always the English were happy to stick a thumb in the eye of the
     French, and they cheerfully resumed trading weapons to the Iroquois, urging
     them to use them against the northern foe. By the 1680s war had resumed
     between the French and Iroquois.
     In 1687 the French launched another invasion of Iroquois territory, this time
     with a massive army of some 3000 soldiers and militia. The French employed
     "scorched earth" tactics, burning Iroquois villages and crops, and many
     Iroquois died of starvation in the subsequent winter. The Confederacy
     responded with a number of reprisal raids, killing colonists and burning
     French supplies as far east as Montreal.
     In 1688 England went to war with France over some European issue that seemed
     extremely important at the time (the conflict variously named, "King
     William's War" and the "War of the English Succession"), and each side's
     colonies dutifully began to do their best to destroy each other. The Iroquois
     allied with the English colonies, the Canadian Indians with the French, and
     both combatants engaged in brutal raid and counter-raid, resulting in
     indiscriminate slaughter of those unable to run away very quickly (e.g.,
     women, children, and the aged). Eventually everybody pretty much ran out of
     money and decided to call the whole thing off, and fighting ceased in Europe
     and the New World.
     By the beginning of the 18th century, the Iroquois' attitudes toward the two
     European powers began to change. As English power on the continent grew,
     English settlers began to encroach on Iroquois territory. In the meantime,
     the French too were feeling pressure from England, and they sought allies
     against the southern menace. The Iroquois played one power against the other,
     buying time for their tribes to recover from decades of fighting.
     In the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Iroquois sided with the British
     against the French. The British were victorious, pushing the French right out
     of North America. This greatly increased British power over the native
     populations, including the Iroquois, who were totally dependent upon the
     British for weapons.
     The American Revolution began in the 1770s. At first the Grand Council
     remained neutral, but by 1777 they decided to join the war on the side of the
     British. Like the previous wars against the French, the Iroquois and Colonial
     forces engaged in bloody hit and run raids, burning villages and crops,
     killing the weak and unlucky on either side.
     The American Revolution ended in 1783. The treaty between the United States
     and Great Britain ceded all Iroquois territory to the United States, ignoring
     the unfortunate fact that a sovereign nation happened to already be living on
     that land.
     The Iroquois Confederacy basically ended with the end of the American
     Revolution. A group of Iroquois moved north into Canada, onto land given to
     them by Britain in gratitude for their help in the American Revolution.
     Others chose to stay in upstate New York, trying to maintain their tribal
     existence in the face of American colonial and cultural imperialism. Many
     still survive today despite some two centuries of terrible hardship, a
     testament to the amazing spirit of the Haudenosaunee people."
    The Iroquois are a funny bunch, their powers are not what you would expect 
    at all. Their power is quite useful on heavy forest maps, the ability to
    move quickly allows them to respond against threats to their empire real
    quick, compared to the slow movement that units will have to face when they
    normally enter forest tiles. 
    I don't get the point of their unique buildings and units though. From both
    stats and manual, the Mohawk Warrior is identical to the Swordsman in every
    aspect, there is no superiority there, which is very odd. The Longhouse will
    increase production by 1 for each forest tile that is worked, but that is 
    up to you. 
     ~ History
    "Hiawatha (or "Ayonwentah") is the legendary chief of the Onondaga Indians
     who, with the equally-legendary Chief Dekanawidah, formed the Iroquois
     Confederacy. Little is known about Hiawatha the man; according to Iroquois
     tradition he taught the people agriculture, navigation, medicine, and the
     arts, using his great magic to conquer all of man's supernatural and natural
     enemies. Hiawatha is also believed to have been a skilled orator who through
     his honeyed words persuaded the five tribes - Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas,
     Senecas, and Mohawks - to form the Five Nations of the Iroquois.
     What little the West knows about Hiawatha is usually seen through the prism
     of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's remarkable epic poem, Song of Hiawatha.
     No verdict is possible on such a legendary figure. The only thing that can be
     said is that however it occurred, the alliance of the Five Nations proved to
     be long and remarkably sturdy, even in the face of ever-increasing pressure
     from the advancing Europeans to the east. Whoever built that alliance
     certainly did an outstanding job."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 3/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 4/10
     City State Competitiveness - 3/10
     Boldness                   - 2/10
    Hiawatha is an odd leader, he really doesn't concentrate that much on trying
    to compete with you as a leader, or does he decide to make any threats with
    you, so like Gandhi, he does appear to be a peaceful leader, rather than one
    who is willing to rain ICBMs on you. 
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 4/10
     Hostile   - 3/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 4/10
     Afraid    - 5/10
     Friendly  - 7/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Hiawatha is going to be a friendly leader to play with, he is more likely to
    be friendly than he is to be declaring war on you, yet again, it doesn't mean
    that he won't declare war, just less inclined to do so. He is quite deceptive
    that he will trick you before leading into war, but hey, people do that all
    the time, nothing new. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 7/10
     Protective    - 6/10
     Conquest      - 3/10
    Another leader who won't go for the jugular when it comes to City States, he
    will do the noble thing and try to protect them from harms way. He will be 
    more than willing to protect them, and often be on good terms, so watch out
    when attacking city states that are near him. They will often be protected by
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 3/10
     Defensive         - 7/10
     City Defence      - 7/10
     Military Training - 4/10
     Reconnaissance    - 6/10
     Ranged            - 6/10
     Mounted           - 4/10
    As you can see, Hiawatha plays real defensive, he doesn't attack, just defends
    really well, and once you get past his units, often it will be a very tough
    fortress of a city that you will be facing as the last battle. He will have a
    fair amount of scouts everywhere, and don't be surprised that he has ranged
    archers hiding in the trees somewhere, that's just what he does. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 3/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 3/10
     Naval Growth           - 4/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 4/10
    Again, another leader who really doesn't pay much attention when it comes to
    the high seas, and delegates it to the role of support rather than a force of
    it's own, which, later in the game, it will be, with aircraft carriers and
    submarines making havoc for anyone crossing waters without an escort. 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 4/10
    And again, another leader who doesn't really look at the strengths of air
    power as it should be viewed as. However, given the defensive nature of 
    Hiawatha, he will be pretty willing to use lots of anti-air defences 
    against you to stop you from using air power to its fullest, so be
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 6/10
     Growth           - 6/10
     Tile Improvement - 4/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 6/10
     Science          - 5/10
     Culture          - 7/10
    Hiawatha is going to focus on his cities evenly as far as production, science,
    culture and gold is concerned, but the thing is, don't expect him to go and
    build improvements that will take down forests, this guy is more than 
    likely to end up with a lot of forest tiles on his lands, and that does make
    things harder for your forces when they invade.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 7/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 6/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    And again, the AI will tend to go for a spaceship victory here, which is
    nice, more competitors for the spaceship. He will tend to have a pretty
    happy empire, which is really good for growth on his part, so when you sack
    his cities, you will be getting quite a bit of gold. 
    [3.11] Japan
     Leader          - Oda Nobunaga
     Unique Unit 1   - Sumurai, replaces Longswordsman
     Unique Unit 2   - Zero, replaces Fighter
     Unique Building - None
     Civilization Power
      - A units combat strength and defensive strength remains unchanged even when
        damaged in combat.
     ~ History
    "The islands of Japan are born of the unimaginable violence of plate
     tectonics, arising as the Pacific Plate is ground beneath the Eurasian Plate.
     The result is a mountainous land of great beauty and peril, where the people
     live and thrive in a narrow corridor between volcano and sea.
     Japan is a small country, with a total landmass approximately equal to the
     size of the American state of Montana. Mountain ranges cover 80% of the
     country. Japan is made up of four main islands, Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku,
     and Kyushu, plus dozens of smaller islands. The land is young in geologic
     terms, meaning the mountains are high and rugged and the rivers are narrow
     and torrential. There are many volcanoes in Japan, some quite active.
     Earthquakes are not uncommon (nor are attacks by giant radioactive monsters).
     Japan possesses a monsoonal climate - its climate is governed by wet and dry
     seasonal winds. In the winter the western side of the country faces cold, wet
     air from Siberia and the Sea of Japan, resulting in steady rain or snow. In
     the summer the eastern portion of the country gets steady wet air from the
     It is generally believed that settlers moved into Japan some 20,000 years ago
     (give or take 10,000 years) during the Paleolithic Period, the stage of human
     development characterized by the use of primitive stone tools. The migrants
     probably crossed the Sea of Japan via several land-bridges which for a time
     connected the islands with Korea and Asia.
     While little is known about the pre-historic Japanese, it is clear that at
     some early point they gained enough sea-craft to travel safely and easily
     between islands, as Japanese culture and language is remarkably homogeneous
     throughout the chain. (This would not be the case if the island populations
     were isolated from each other for an extended period of time.)
     The "Pre-Ceramic" culture was followed by the Jomon, which occurred from
     7500 - 250 BC. (The term "Jomon" refers to a style of pottery in which cords
     are pressed into the clay to make artistic patterns.) In addition to the
     invention of pottery, this period saw the important progression from chipped
     to polished tools. The Jomon people were largely hunter-gatherers and
     The Jomon culture was followed by the Yayoi, which ran from roughly 250 BC
     - AD 250. This culture originated in Kyushu and featured advances in pottery,
     basic agriculture, plus utilization of iron and bronze implements. The Jomon
     also adopted ceremonial burial practices, irrigation, and textile weaving.
     Some of their technological and cultural advances were likely
     self-discovered, while others were probably gained from contact with China
     and Korea. With these advantages, the Yayoi culture quickly spread across
     Japan, overwhelming the more primitive Jomon culture.
     The earliest surviving written accounts of Japan are found in China, dating
     from the Han period of that culture. It stated that in approximately AD 50
     the "state of Nu in Wo" sent emissaries to the Later Han court. "Nu" was one
     of more than 100 states that made up "Wo" (Japan). Chinese court later states
     that some time after AD 250 a "Queen Himiko" ruled over a confederation of
     more than 30 states, with a capital at Yamatai. No one is certain where
     Yamatai was located, and no written Japanese records survive from that
     Because of the scarcity of Japanese records, there is a lot of controversy on
     exactly when and how Japan unified. It is known that some time during the 4th
     century Yamatai disappeared and the Yamato kingdom arose. By the mid-4th
     century Japan had sent a large army on a mission of conquest to the Korean
     peninsula; to do so would require a great deal of central control fairly
     early in that century.
     During the Yamatos' reign, farmers began using iron tools for cultivation,
     and the land saw more advanced creation and flooding of the fields used to
     grow rice, a tasty and highly-nutritious grain that would quickly become the
     cornerstone of Japanese cuisine. These advances meant that fewer farmers
     could grow greater amounts of food, allowing the Yamatos to dedicate surplus
     manpower to conquest and to the construction of large tombs for themselves.
     At this time the Japanese imported a number of technological advances from
     its neighbors, the most important of which may be writing from China; along
     with Chinese script came Confucianism.
     The 5th century saw the Yamatos change to a more militant posture. The
     reasons for this are under debate. Some believe it is the result of an
     invasion and conquest of the kingdom by external warriors, while other
     historians believe that the Yamatos simply began more aggressively utilizing
     their advanced military and agriculture technology without any particular
     foreign influence. Whatever the cause, the Yamatos made use of their military
     to attack southern Korea, evidently in order to seize control of iron
     resources found in the area. The need for access to resources unavailable on
     the home islands would be a primary driver of Japanese foreign policy in the
     coming centuries.
     This period also saw the genesis of the "uji-kabane" system in Japan. The
     term "uji" can be translated as "clan," while kabane refers to a hereditary
     title of nobility. Under this system people living in an agricultural
     community became members of a single clan, each member of which had a
     specific place within the communal hierarchy. It was believed that a
     bountiful harvest could be assured by paying proper respect to one's
     ancestors and clan gods, and thus ancestor-worship became an important
     component of the uji-kabane system.
     The 6th century saw the decline of Yamato status and influence as the
     military suffered reverses at home and abroad. As the Yamatos lost power,
     local clan leaders gained it. The loss of central authority naturally
     resulted in greater internal conflict, as warlords sought to fill the growing
     power vacuum.
     The 6th century also saw the introduction of Buddhism in Japan, probably from
     Korea. Prince Shotoku was a proponent of Buddhism. Ruling at the turn of the
     century, he took the principles of peace and salvation as the ideal for his
     court. Interestingly, Chinese Confucianism was also gaining ground among the
     Japanese nobility; Shotoku apparently looked to Confucianism for guidance as
     well. Shotoku was in power from 592 - 628 BC; the Yamato clan saw a temporary
     revival of its power and influence during his realm.
     The Japanese court fell into chaos following Shotoku's death. The powerful
     Shoga family seized power and killed Shotoku's heirs. They in turn were
     overthrown in 645 by Prince Nakano Oe and Nakatomi Kamatari, who killed all
     of the Shoga and anyone else who opposed the imperial family. After
     destroying their foes they instituted political reforms which increased the
     strength of the central government and weakened the more powerful clans.
     At about the same time that the Japanese codified their administrative laws,
     they instituted criminal and civil laws as well. In doing so they borrowed
     heavily from the T'ang Chinese codes, altering them as necessary to fit
     Japan's specific needs. Under the Japanese system the people were divided
     into free men and slaves. Less than 10% of the entire population of Japan
     were slaves; the majority of people were freemen engaged in farming.
     The political system survived reasonably intact for several centuries, but by
     the 10th century flaws in the structure began to undermine the government.
     Several great clans gained control of important government positions, using
     their power to funnel huge amounts of wealth into their coffers. Taxes were
     increasingly high, and power and wealth continued to accrue to the central
     aristocracy, at the expense of the provincial clans and the farmers
     everywhere. Partly as a result of growing dissatisfaction with central
     government, a new class of warrior aristocrats known as "Samurai" began to
     The tenth and eleventh centuries saw the rise of the Samurai as a major new
     power in Japan. Outside of court Samurai warlords conquered entire provinces;
     inside the court they became bodyguards and generals for the aristocracy.
     Towards the end of the 11th century the Samurai general Taira Kiyomori gained
     so much power and influence that he became the prime minister and virtually
     ran the Imperial court. In fact, his son Antoku ascended to the Imperial
     throne in 1180. Taira rule did not last long, however; in 1185 they were
     destroyed by the Minamoto clan in a sea battle which culminated a five-year
     bloody struggle for primacy known as the "Gempei War."
     After the victory, Minamoto leader Joritomo established a military
     government, or "shogunate," in which the shogun (short for seii taishogun, or
     "barbarian-quelling generalissimo") would rule Japan in the name of the
     Emperor. This form of government proved remarkably persistent, surviving
     almost 700 years before it was abolished in 1868.
     Over the next several centuries power passed to the Hojo family, who in the
     early 12th century beat back an attempt by Emperor Go-Toba to regain actual
     power. At the end of the 12th century they defeated several Mongol attempts
     to invade Japan, helped by two fortuitous typhoons which destroyed large
     numbers of attackers at crucial points in the battles. The Japanese called
     these storms kamikaze, or "divine winds" sent by Heaven to protect them from
     the barbarians.
     The Hojo clan remained in power until 1333, when Emperor Go-Daigo launched
     a coup to return actual power to the imperial family. He was assisted in the
     battle by a large group of aristocrats, plus several Samurai clans and some
     militant Buddhist monks. A number of important allies of Go-Daigo were
     unhappy with their cut of the spoils, however, and in 1336 they revolted,
     driving the emperor north into the Yoshino Mountains. For the next 60 years
     there were two imperial courts, the Northern and Southern, with control of
     Japan split between them. The Southern emperor remained a figurehead, with
     real power in the hands of the Southern shogunate. In 1391 the imperial
     courts were reunited, with power held by the great shogun Ashikaga Takauji.
     The 14th century saw growth in the power of the farming families and
     communities, and concomitant increase in resistance to the warlords. Large
     uprisings broke out in 1428, 1429 and 1441, and almost yearly afterwards.
     In 1467 civil war broke out over who should succeed the shogun Ashikaga;
     this war would drag on for some 10 years and see the destruction of many
     large temples and the displacement of great numbers of civilians. Although
     the war ended in 1477, central authority was badly eroded, and the era saw
     numerous local rebellions and the rise of a new class of local warlords
     known as "daimyo."
     The years 1338-1573 are known as the "Warring States period." This period saw
     near-incessant warfare, as the shogunate and the imperial family were both
     nearly powerless, and battles for primacy among the daimyos raged across the
     countryside. Many castles were constructed during these years, and Japanese
     warriors grew quite adept at siege warfare, especially after European traders
     taught them how to manufacture muskets.
     In 1549 the father of a young nobleman named Oda Nobunaga died, leaving his
     son some land, some money, and a group of Samurai retainers. Within eleven
     years he had defeated all opposition and taken control of Owari province. A
     brilliant visionary and military leader, Oda quickly adopted the new musket
     firearms, using them with deadly efficiency against those who stood against
     him. In 1562 he allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu, a neighboring feudal lord who
     would turn out to be one of the great leaders of all time.
     In the 1560s Nobunaga marched on and captured Kyoto, the historical center of
     power of Japan. In 1573 he deposed the Shogun, consolidating his actual and
     ceremonial power. By the time of his death by assassination in 1582 Oda had
     unified nearly half of Japan. See Oda's Civilopedia entry for more details on
     this remarkable leader's life.
     Oda was succeeded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the son of a peasant who rose to
     prominence as a warrior and later commander in Oda's service. By 1590
     Hideyoshi had unified all of Japan. As part of his policy to strengthen the
     central government, he disarmed the peasantry and instituted tax reform. He
     also instituted a feudal system, forcing farmers to stay in their villages
     and artisans and merchants to remain in the cities. Hideyoshi died in 1598,
     and Tokugawa Ieyasu took his place. In 1603 he assumed the title of shogun.
     Having happily utilized western weapons and personnel to achieve the
     unification of Japan, Tokugawa quickly came to see them as potential threats
     to his rule. He (and his heirs) all but obliterated Christianity in Japan,
     ousted virtually all westerners from the islands, and forbid the use of
     muskets to any but his warriors. For the next several centuries Japan
     remained stubbornly isolated from the west, a state that probably saved it
     from the humiliating European occupation and colonization suffered by so
     many of its Asian neighbors.
     In the 19th century the Netherlands were the only European power trading with
     Japan, and their contact was quite limited. By mid-century several attempts
     had been made by various European powers to establish diplomatic relations
     with Japan, but with no success. Seeking ports to fuel its merchant and
     fishing fleet, the United States decided to press the issue, sending a
     modern fleet under the command of Commodore Matthew C. Perry into Uraga Bay
     in 1853. The shock of foreign military power displayed right at Japan's
     hitherto inviolate shores destroyed the ancient Tokugawa shogunate, and power
     at long last reverted back to the Emperor.
     The young Meiji emperor, who succeeded to the throne in 1867, began a policy
     of radical reform in Japan, seeking to make it militarily and economically
     equal to the western powers whose modern warships ruled the seas around it.
     The so-called "Meiji Restoration" was an extraordinary effort in which in a
     period of less than a century Japan abolished feudalism, almost entirely
     disbanded the Samurai class, and returned ownership of land to the farmers
     who worked it. The government initiated a program of industrialization, which
     proved remarkably successful in a very short period of time. In the late 19th
     century Japan adopted a constitution roughly based upon European models.
     By the early twentieth century, Japan had emerged as a major power - the
     great power in the Pacific, save for the United States - though other
     countries were slow to recognize it, much to their misfortune.
     In 1894, China went to war with Japan over who would control Korea. Japan won
     easily, gaining nominal independence for Korea from China, plus Formosa, the
     Liaotung Peninsula, the Pescadores Islands, and several other pieces of
     territory for itself. Japan also extorted unfair trade agreements from China.
     The western powers insisted that Japan return the Liaotung Peninsula to
     China, who then leased it and its important naval base to Russia. This
     infuriated Japan.
     In the Boxer Rebellion (1900), Chinese citizens rose up against all of the
     foreigners busily selling them opium and robbing their country blind. The
     western powers and Japan responded by sending in troops who slaughtered the
     Chinese citizens and occupied yet more Chinese terrain. Russia occupied
     Manchuria, which Japan saw as a threat to its Korean and Chinese possessions.
     In 1904 the Japanese attacked the Russian fleet without warning (a strategy
     which they would reemploy later against other inattentive westerners with
     great effect). The Japanese were spectacularly successful against the
     Russians, proving to an astonished world that they could take on a major
     western power and lick it.
     In the peace treaty with Russia, Japan received primacy in Korea, plus it
     acquired Russia's possessions in China. President Roosevelt received the
     Nobel Peace Prize for brokering the treaty. (There were not many Chinese or
     Koreans on the Nobel committee at that time.)
     Bolstered by its success against China and the west, Japan seized the
     opportunity to increase its power in East Asia. It tightened its grip on
     Korea and its portion of China, and in World War I it seized Germany's
     possessions in Asia and the Pacific. In the post-war period a series of
     military treaties between European powers, the United States and Japan
     sought to limit Japanese expansion while assuring Japan of its independence.
     In the 1930s the militarists came to power in Japan, in part as a response to
     the hardships the country faced during the Great Depression. Western and
     Chinese tariffs (and anti-Japanese racism) limited Japan's ability to earn
     money through exports, money it needed to purchase food for its growing
     population. The militarists argued that the only way to open foreign markets
     was through force. That, plus fear of communists and growing anger with the
     government caused the Japanese military to seek to expand its power
     structure. In the late 1920s the military increased operations in Manchuria
     without government approval, and the government was too weak to stop them.
     In May of 1932 naval officers murdered the prime minister, and in 1936
     several important politicians were assassinated as rebellious military units
     took over central Tokyo. Though the rebellion was quickly put down, it was
     clear that the government survived only at the military's pleasure. The new
     young Emperor Hirohito was believed to be a progressive, but he remained
     silent over fears that the throne itself would be imperiled if he spoke out.
     It was clear that the Japanese military was in charge of the country, in
     fact if not in name.
     By the 1930s Japan's relations with the USSR, England and the United States
     were bad, and getting worse. The USSR resented its defeat by Japan in the
     last century, and it also hoped that the Japanese government would be
     overthrown and the country would become a workers' paradise just like Russia.
     England and the US were opposed to Japan's brutal policies in China and
     Korea, and feared that Japan's growing naval might would threaten their own
     considerable interests in Asia and across the Pacific. Attempting to counter
     the English/American pressure, in 1936 Japan signed a mutual defense pact
     with Germany and Italy, and another in 1940. Facing a growing German threat
     on the west, the USSR sought to shore up its eastern borders by signing a
     non-aggression pack with Japan in 1940.
     After the Nazis attacked Russia in 1941, Japan occupied northern Indochina,
     seeking to block British supply routes into China, where it supported the
     Nationalist Chinese forces against Japan. In response the United States froze
     Japanese assets and, worst of all, implemented an oil embargo against Japan.
     Japan had two choices: agree to US terms and retreat from Indochina and
     possibly China itself, or seize the rich oil fields of the Dutch East Indies.
     Negotiations between the US and Japan went nowhere, and the Japanese
     government decided upon war.
     World War II started out remarkably, shockingly well for Japan, with hugely
     successful surprise attacks on the US bases at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and in
     the Philippines. The Japanese Navy nearly drove the battered US forces right
     out of the Pacific Ocean, but they were never quite able to deliver the final
     killing blow. Over the next few years the United States industry built ships,
     planes, guns, and submarines, more than replacing their early losses. The US
     Navy and Army learned quickly and soon began the grindingly, heartbreakingly
     difficult task of driving the tenacious Japanese back across the Pacific.
     In August of 1945 the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan,
     largely destroying the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and Japanese
     surrender followed quickly.
     After the war Japan lost all of its overseas possessions. In addition, it was
     subject to United States occupation, and the USSR occupied some northern
     islands (the ownership of which still remains under dispute).
     American occupation was relatively benign, as these things are judged. The
     Americans imposed a democratic constitution on Japan and barred Japan from
     possessing a military. The US also helped (forced) Japan to dismantle the
     remnants of its feudal system and institute a vast program of land reform. It
     also helped Japan to rapidly rebuild its infrastructure and monetary system.
     The US hoped that Japan would become a vital, thriving democracy and
     capitalist nation, a counter-balance to the growing Communist power in Asia.
     In this it has succeeded far beyond its wildest dreams.
     Benefitting from the terms imposed upon it by the victors of World War II,
     Japan has used the money other nations have had to spend on militaries on
     more beneficial and profitable endeavors. Japan today is indeed a thriving
     democracy and an economic powerhouse. Although it has suffered from
     government/business cronyism which led to a collapse of the Japanese banking
     system in the '90s, overall Japan has enjoyed a meteoric rise in economic
     power since the war. Its people are highly educated and motivated and quite
     technologically advanced.
     As the United States' position in the Pacific has weakened and other powers
     have grown, Japan has cautiously begun to rebuild its military. It still
     relies on the US for the bulk of its defenses, but for how long it can
     continue to do so remains unknown.
     Assuming that Japan can maintain cordial relations with its neighbors,
     Russia, China and South Korea - and assuming that North Korea doesn't
     implode - Japan's future is bright."
    Japan is a nice country to play as. They have a nice power, the Bushido, 
    which is very useful in combat. A riflemen that has been weakened to 3 health
    points left will still be as effective as one that is on full health, and
    that is a major benefit, allowing them to inflict heavy damage on their
    last breath or defend like crazy before sending them back to healing.
    Their units are nice as well. The Samurai is 20% more powerful when it is 
    fighting in open terrain, on top of all the other bonuses that may be on 
    them, and they during battle, they are more likely to create a Great 
    General from an epic battle. The Zero is the same as a normal fighter, but
    it receives a bonus when it engages other fighters as well, which is a nice
    powerful boost.
     Oda Nobunaga
     ~ History
    "Oda Nobunaga was a 16th century Japanese warlord. Both a brilliant general
     and a cunning politician - as well as an early adopter of new technology -
     Nobunaga fought and backstabbed his way to domination over nearly half of
     feudal Japan. His two lieutenants, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu,
     would complete the job after his death, reunifying Japan for the first time
     in over a century.
     Oda Nobunaga was born in 1534 AD, well into the "Sengoku" or Warring States
     period in Japanese history. During this period feudal Japan was divided into
     provinces run by powerful "daimyos" (territorial lords), while a weak shogun
     ruled in the name of a still-weaker Emperor. The Sengoku period saw an almost
     complete overthrow of the established order, with local lords overthrowing
     their daimyos, retainers overthrowing their lords, and inferior family
     branches fighting each other for dominance. It was a remarkably brutal period
     in Japanese history, and the nobility had to be smart, powerful and lucky to
     Nobunaga was born the son of a wealthy government official in the small and
     unimportant Owari province. Following his father's death in 1551 he inherited
     his father's title, wealth and military vassals. He was all of 17 at the
     time, and by all accounts was a wild and unruly child. According to legend
     Nobunaga acted so badly at his father's funeral that one of his friends and
     retainers committed seppuku (ritual suicide) in humiliation. Shocked and
     sobered by his retainer's death, Nobunaga began to take his position and
     obligations seriously.
     Over the next ten years, Nobunaga rose to dominate Owari province,
     systematically co-opting or destroying anyone who stood in his way. The
     series of alliances, battles, betrayals and murders Nobunaga engaged in to
     achieve victory is bafflingly complex, rivaling the most intricate plot of a
     South American "telenovela" (soap opera). Here's how it went:
     At the time of his father's death, the Oda clan was divided into many
     factions. Some favored Nobunaga as the legitimate heir, while others favored
     his younger (and less wild) brother, Nobuyuki. Meanwhile, his late father's
     brother, Nobutomo, used his position as deputy to the powerless Owari
     province's "shugo," (military governor) Shiba Yoshimune, to advance his claim
     to leadership of the Oda clan. But when he learned that the shugo secretly
     favored Nobunaga's claim, Nobutomo had Shiba Yoshimune murdered.
     Meanwhile, Nobunaga convinced another of his father's brothers, Oda
     Nobumitsu, to turn on Nobutomo (who, we must remember, had just murdered
     Owari shugo Shiba). Nabunaga and his Uncle Nobumitsu attacked and killed
     Uncle Nobutomo in Kiyosu Castle. By destroying his uncle, Nobunaga gained
     control over Owari province's new shugo, Shiba Yoshikane (Shiba Yoshimune's
     heir). He used Shiba Yoshimune to gain alliances with the Imagawa and Kira
     clans, who also owed allegiance to Shiba.
     Nobunaga then fielded an army to Mino Province to aid Saito Dosan against his
     rebellious son, Saito Yoshitatsu, but he was unsuccessful and Dosan fell.
     In 1556 Nobunaga's brother, Nobuyuki (remember him?) rebelled with the aid of
     Shibata Katsuie and Hayashi Hidesada. Nobunaga defeated the conspirators at
     the Battle of Ino. Showing unusual mercy, he pardoned his brother and his
     allies. His brother repaid him by immediately planning another revolt, but he
     was betrayed by his onetime ally Shibata Katsuie, who informed Nobunaga of
     his plans. Nobunaga then murdered his brother.
     And so on. By 1559 Nobunaga had destroyed all of his rivals and was
     undisputed master of Owari Province, though he kept Shiba Yoshikane in place
     as a puppet shugo (at least until he discovered that Yoshikane was secretly
     plotting against him with the Kira and Imagawa clans, at which point Nobunaga
     removed him from his position).
     Having secured Owari province, Nobunaga began to expand his power across
     Japan. In 1560 he led a laughably small army against a far superior force
     which was on its way to Kyoto to overthrow the weak Ashikaga Shogun,
     achieving a shocking victory against brutally long odds. 
     One key to Nobunaga's military success was his early adoption of the new
     weapons which were beginning to appear in Japan at the time, brought in by
     European traders. He was one of the first daimyos to organize entire musket
     units, giving him a great advantage against his more backwards foes. He was
     also a gifted manager, making full use of the agricultural and mercantile
     wealth of Owari to support his war efforts.
     In 1568 Nobunaga marched on Kyoto, putting up his ally Ashikaga Yoshiaki as
     his puppet Shogun. By 1573 the two men had fallen out, and Nobunaga deposed
     Ashikaga, at last ending the long Ashikaga Shogunate. 
     Nabunaga consolidated his hold on Japan by attacking various politically
     powerful Buddhist sects. The monks put up incredibly stubborn resistance,
     some holding out for more than a decade. Nobunaga distributed the captured
     religious property to various samurai and nobility, further earning their
     loyalty. Nobunaga was friendly with the European Jesuit missionaries who
     appeared in Japan in ever larger numbers (probably because they had no
     political power with which to threaten him). He did not convert to
     Christianity, however.
     By 1582 Nobunaga had established firm control over central Japan and had
     begun attempting to expand his power westward. However, during a military
     campaign he was betrayed by a subordinate at Honno-ji temple and was forced
     to commit seppuku. His murderer survived him by just eleven days before
     being defeated by Nobunaga's loyal lieutenants, who would go on to complete
     the unification of Japan he so ably started.
     Oda Nobunaga is generally agreed to be one of the three greatest leaders in
     Japanese history. His two lieutenants, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa
     Ieyasu, are the other two. By 1590 Hideyoshi had completed the conquest of
     Japan, and following his death Tokugawa Ieyasu would come into power,
     creating the Tokugawa Shogunate which would rule Japan for centuries to come.
     Together these three men created the modern state of Japan.
     Nobunaga was a brutal man in a brutal time. But by helping to unify Japan he
     brought an end to the brutal wars that had been ravishing his country for
     more than a century.
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 7/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 5/10
     City State Competitiveness - 6/10
     Boldness                   - 8/10
    Oda is an aggressive leader, he will charge you down if you appear weak in 
    front of him, and he plays to win, he doesn't play to lose, like other leaders
    who are more than content just to hold your hand and bide your time. That does
    make him dangerous and very hard to fight. 
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 7/10
     Hostile   - 5/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 7/10
     Afraid    - 2/10
     Friendly  - 4/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Yes, when he meets you, he isn't likely to make friends with you, he is more
    than likely to attack you and set your cities on fire. He isn't afraid if you
    either, so in a time of peace, don't expect a few powerful units on the border
    deter him from not attacking you, he will attack you regardless. He is a 
    dangerous foe, a brutal man, but his was a brutal time. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 4/10
     Protective    - 7/10
     Conquest      - 7/10
    Oda is either going to protect or destroy the City States and it is more of a
    coin toss, rather than an equation as to what he would do. Again, he is more
    likely to protect the ones that are next to his enemies, since the armies of
    the City State can be used as well. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 8/10
     Defensive         - 5/10
     City Defence      - 5/10
     Military Training - 8/10
     Reconnaissance    - 5/10
     Ranged            - 5/10
     Mounted           - 4/10
    Oda is going to march you down with a good old physical beatdown. Oda is more
    likely to use melee units, but they will be trained, so expect him to
    establish barracks to train his troops up from the ground, so you aren't going
    to be facing green recruits, but some battle-seasoned veterans. He is still
    powerful on the defensive as well, so just because you have defeated the
    incursion, doesn't mean you will defeat the defences of his empire.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 7/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 5/10
     Naval Growth           - 6/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 6/10
    Oda will use naval units on you, and not in a supporting role, rather, as a 
    force of its own. This will be different, you will actually have to face 
    attacking naval units, and given that they normally attack from a range, you 
    will need to develop some nice tactics to get the upper hand. Submarines are
    useful here.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 6/10
    Given that one of the unique units for the Japanese is the famed Zero fighter
    from World War 2, it isn't surprising that Oda will use air power a fair bit
    during his battles against his enemies. If you annoy him enough, he will bomb
    your cities using bombers, and that is something you want to protect yourself
    against. He isn't that willing to hand air supremacy over to you.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 8/10
     Growth           - 5/10
     Tile Improvement - 5/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 6/10
     Science          - 4/10
     Culture          - 6/10
    Oda will tend to expand quickly, but that is about it, he really doesn't have
    too much of a preference on how he runs his cities, or where he will settle, 
    but he will settle quickly, so have units around in order to capture a free
    settler or worker off him, and save you the trouble of getting one yourself.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 5/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 5/10
     Diplomacy     - 7/10
     Spaceship     - 7/10
    Again, with the spaceship victory, but it is odd considering the diplomatic
    victory there, however, given the protective nature of City-States Oda has,
    it isn't all that surprising. Otherwise, there isn't really that much of a 
    surprise in how Oda will approach his neighbours. With a samurai sword and a
    nice swing. 
    [3.12] Ottoman
     Leader          - Suleiman the Magnificant 
     Unique Unit 1   - Janissary, replaces Musketman
     Unique Unit 2   - Sipahi, replaces Lancer
     Unique Building - None
     Civilization Power
      - When destroying a Barbarian naval unit, there is a 50% chance of 
        converting it to your cause and earning 25 Gold.
     ~ History
    ">The Ottoman Empire was born in Anatolia (in modern Turkey) at the start of
     the 13th century. It expanded into three continents and thrived for some six
     centuries. Many Americans know very little about the Ottoman Empire (it
     occupies the blind spot Americans have for pretty much everything between
     Greece and China). This is a great pity, for the Ottoman Empire was vast,
     powerful, and extremely interesting.
     At its peak, the Empire stretched from Hungary in the north to Basra in the
     east to the shores of the Indian Ocean in the south to Morocco in the west.
     With enormous holdings of land on three continents, it's impossible to
     generalize about the Ottoman terrain or weather. They ruled over mountains,
     hills, plains, swamps and desserts. Temperatures in Egypt in the summer can
     rise to as high as 110 degrees Fahrenheit, and in Hungary they can fall to
     well below freezing during the winter.
     The Ottoman Empire is named for Osman I (1259-1326). Osman was a prince of
     Bithynia, a small province in Anatolia (Turkey), strategically located
     bordering the Black Sea, the Bosporus, and the Sea of Marmara. Bithynia had
     until recently been a part of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, a Muslim empire
     that had ruled much of Anatolia for over two centuries. As the Sultanate
     declined in power (following crippling invasions by Mongols), the neighboring
     power of Byzantium sought to expand into Anatolia. It was unable to fully
     pacify the region, and Osman I took advantage of Byzantine weakness to push
     west toward Byzantium.
     In the 14th century, Byzantium power was fading rapidly. The eastern heir to
     the Roman Empire, Byzantium once possessed enormous holdings in Italy,
     Eastern Europe, Anatolia, the Middle East and North Africa, but by 1300 its
     domain was reduced to portions of Greece, the Balkans, and western Anatolia.
     Over the next century the Ottoman Empire would steadily grind away at the
     fading empire, first in Anatolia, then in the Balkans. When the Ottomans
     captured the Bulgarian capital of Nicopolis, located on the strategic Danube
     river, the Bulgarian king appealed to Christian Europe for assistance against
     the growing Muslim menace. In 1396 an army of Knights from Hungary, Burgundy,
     Venice, the Knights Hospitaller and Bulgaria set forth to defeat the
     The Battle of Nicopolis is often called the "Crusade of Nicopolis." The
     numbers of combatants involved is unknown, with estimates ranging from around
     10,000 knights, footmen and archers on either side to 200,000 on either side.
     (The latter numbers are generally agreed by modern historians to be absurdly
     high.) According to early historians, one side in the battle was outnumbered
     by at least two to one, though they tend to disagree vehemently on which side
     that was. In any event, the invading Crusaders marched south from Hungary and
     laid siege to Nicopolis.
     From all accounts the Crusaders suffered from divided command and gross
     overconfidence, a not uncommon problem among mixed armies of the day. The
     siege was sloppy and the Crusaders posted no sentries. However, one
     Burgundian leader, the experienced veteran Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy,
     disobeyed orders and sent out a reconnaissance in force that encountered the
     approaching Ottomans, saving the Crusaders from an extremely rude surprise.
     On the morning of the battle, the Ottoman forces, under the command of Sultan
     Bayezid I, were arrayed on a hillside overlooking the city of Nicopolis. The
     Crusaders were lined up opposite the Muslims in front of Nicopolis, their
     backs to the Danube.
     One of the Crusader leaders noted that the first line of Ottoman troops were
     militia, untrained and ill-equipped, designed to blunt the force of an
     attacker before it met the main Ottoman infantry. He recommended that the
     infantry lead the assault against these troops, and that the Crusader knights
     be stationed on the flanks, supporting the infantry and engaging the
     dangerous Ottoman sipahis (cavalry). The French knight Philippe d'Eu
     denounced this plan, claiming that it was dishonorable and demanded that the
     knights have the honor of leading the charge against the enemy. This plan was
     The Ottomans had placed a wall of sharpened stakes in their front lines,
     designed to kill advancing horses and stop a determined cavalry charge.
     Although the Crusader knights crushed the Ottoman militia, many were unhorsed
     in the charge, and the attack became quite disorganized. The Ottoman infantry
     retreated and the Christian knights followed triumphantly without reforming,
     believing they had crushed the cowardly enemy.
     However, the Ottomans had kept a force of sipahis in reserve, and Bayezid
     committed them at this point - a large force of fresh cavalry facing the
     exhausted and unhorsed knights. At the same time other Ottoman troops began
     to flank the exposed Crusader positions. Badly outgeneraled at every point,
     the Crusader force collapsed and surrendered. Many of the European noblemen
     were ransomed for a good deal of treasure, while a lot of the common soldiers
     were massacred in retaliation for similar European behavior earlier in the
     The capture of Nicopolis secured the Ottoman holdings in the Balkans for some
     time. Now all that remained of the once mighty Byzantine Empire was the city
     of Constantinople.
     In 1399 the Mughal leader Tamerlane (Timur) declared war on the Ottoman
     Empire, disrupting Bayezid I's European campaign. Tamerlane was a descendant
     of Mongol conquerors who led his troops triumphantly through Persia, India,
     central Asia and Anatolia. In 1402 Bayezid's troops met Tamerlane's army at
     the battle of Ankara.
     Once again it's almost impossible to determine the number of forces involved
     in the battle, with numbers ranging from 1,000,000 on each side to as few as
     140,000 for Tamerlane and 80,000 for Bayezid. Whatever the number, it is
     generally agreed that Tamerlane's army significantly outnumbered Bayezid's.
     The battle opened with a large attack by the Ottomans which was broken up by
     accurate arrow-fire from the enemy horse archers which inflicted significant
     damage to the attackers. As the battle progressed a significant portion of
     Bayezid's troops deserted and joined Tamerlane's army. Now badly outnumbered
     and exhausted, Bayezid's army was defeated and he was captured shortly
     thereafter, dying in captivity. Having secured his flank against the
     Ottomans, Tamerlane left Anatolia and returned to India to continue his own
     empire's expansion.
     After Bayezid's death civil war broke out in the Empire as his four sons
     fought over the crown. The so-called "Ottoman Interregnum" lasted for some 11
     years until 1413, when Mehmed Celebi, the last surviving brother, assumed the
     title of sultan.
     Sultan Mehmed I and his son Murad II spent a number of years restoring
     central power within the Empire, repairing the damage done during the
     Having secured his control of the Ottoman Empire, in 1423 Murad II besieged
     Constantinople, leaving only after he had extorted an exorbitant sum from the
     Byzantines. Murad then went to war with Venice, an extended affair that ended
     with an Ottoman victory but on terms that kept Venice as a major mercantile
     power in the Eastern Mediterranean. He also began a long-running war with
     Hungary over control of Walachia.
     As the Ottoman Empire grew, so too did the power of the Turkish nobility, who
     Murad II saw as an increasing threat to his rule. To counter the Turks, Murad
     created the Janissaries, a military force of Christian slaves. He gave the
     Janissaries lands from his latest conquests, the income and status from which
     made them an effective balance to the old-moneyed Turks in the Empire. Murad
     continued to attempt to expand further into Europe until 1444, when he made
     peace with all of his enemies and retired, passing the throne to his son
     Mehmed II.
     Sultan Mehmed II reigned for some thirty years, 1451-1481. One of his early
     acts was to once again lay siege to Constantinople. His vizier and other
     Turkish nobles bitterly opposed the attack, which they rightly saw as a
     prelude to still further Ottoman expansion and diminution of their power
     within the Empire.
     The siege lasted less than two months. Mehmed had a force of 100,000 at his
     command, and Constantinople was defended by perhaps 7,000 soldiers. The
     defenders fought stubbornly, beating off waves of Ottoman assaults
     accompanied by heavy cannon fire. Eventually the Ottomans broke in and
     flooded the city, overwhelming the defenders through sheer weight of numbers.
     Although the Ottomans enthusiastically sacked the city, Mehmed treated its
     citizens with mercy, sparing their lives and leaving them their houses and
     possessions (or at least those that hadn't already been looted). He treated
     the non-Muslims with respect, and many Jews emigrated to the Ottoman Empire,
     seeking protection from European persecution.
     Mehmed II made Constantinople the capital of his Empire, giving him a
     strategic foothold at the edge of Europe.
     Over the next century the Ottoman Empire continued to expand into Europe, as
     well as into the Middle East and Africa. In addition to its superb land
     forces, the Empire had developed a powerful navy. The Ottoman navy dominated
     the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, and it had a significant force in
     the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, where it competed with growing European naval
     powers such as Portugal.
     Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) continued the Ottoman expansion into
     Europe, primarily targeting Hungary. His chief European rivals were the
     Habsburg family, who at the time ruled Hungary (along with much of the rest
     of Europe); however, he had a powerful ally in the King of France who feared
     the Habsburgs' designs on his kingdom and was happy to aid any power that
     could weaken them. In 1521 Suleiman took Belgrade, and by 1526 the Ottomans
     had conquered perhaps half of Hungary. The war continued for several years,
     and by 1529 Suleiman had advanced to Vienna, the most powerful European city
     in the area. Although unable to capture the city and ultimately forced to
     abandon the siege, Suleiman put the Europeans on the defensive and secured
     Hungary for more than 10 years.
     At sea, Suleiman responded to European pressure by creating a powerful navy
     under the command of Barbarossa, an ex-pirate turned admiral of the Ottoman
     navy. Barbarossa captured Algiers in 1529, and Suleiman assigned the entire
     province to Barbarossa to support his fleet. In the 1530s Barbarossa fought
     several naval battles against a variety of European forces, emerging
     victorious from all of them.
     Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire had expanded to about the limit possible given
     the weapons and supply systems of the day. Suleiman invaded Iran repeatedly,
     but ran out of supplies before he was able to bring the Iranian army to
     battle. Once he left, the Iranians simply moved back in and reconquered
     everything he had taken. In 1555 he agreed to permanent eastern borders,
     keeping Iraq and Eastern Anatolia but renouncing claims to Azerbaijan and
     the Caucasus.
     At its peak during this period, the Ottoman Empire was both a military and
     an economic powerhouse. The Empire's treasury was filled by tributary
     payments from its possessions in Egypt, North Africa and Eastern Europe,
     and it sat athwart the trade routes between Europe and the Far East, giving
     it a slice of the profits from the growing spice trade. This is largely
     responsible for the European Age of Exploration, as they looked for ways to
     avoid Ottoman territory and trade directly with India, China, and other
     providers of spice.
     Over the next few centuries the Ottoman Empire endured a slow, steady
     decline. Although it remained a powerful and vital state for many years, it
     never again reached the height of power it had attained under Suleiman. By
     the mid to late 16th century the Janissaries had gained almost total
     ascension in Istanbul (the new name for Constantinople), and with greater
     power came greater corruption. The position of grand vizier became more
     powerful as the sultans grew more decadent. Eventually the viziers
     overstepped their bounds and were overthrown, with power first going to the
     harem (the "Sultanate of the Women") from 1570 - 1578, and then to the
     military from 1578 - 1625.
     The basic problem facing whoever was in charge was that the empire was simply
     too large to rule effectively, and over time more and more of it began to
     slip into something approaching anarchy. Because of increasing corruption as
     well as external trade pressure the economy of the Empire all but collapsed,
     with rampant inflation occurring during the 16th and 17th centuries.
     Despite its internal weakness the Empire remained a potent international
     power, greatly feared by Europe. Although it suffered the occasional defeat,
     it was still far more powerful than any external enemy. It continued to
     expand over the years, gaining Tunis, Fez and Crete in the Mediterranean, as
     well as Azerbaijan and a portion of the Caucasus.
     However, at the end of the 17th century the Ottomans pushed their luck just a
     bit too far. In 1683 Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasa once again besieged
     Vienna. The defenders, led by Polish King Jan Sobieski, held out easily
     against the Ottoman assault.
     Emboldened by the weakness the Ottomans displayed, Sobieski was able to
     assemble a massive coalition of European forces against the common enemy. The
     Hapsburgs sought their lost territory in the Balkans, the Venetians wanted
     their lost Adriatic bases back, while the new power of Russia sought (as
     always) a warm-water port in the Mediterranean.
     This was an uneasy alliance at best, and the allies would periodically break
     off the assault to fight each other. In addition, the Ottomans were supported
     by France (still seeking to weaken the Habsburgs) as well as Britain and the
     Netherlands, who feared that whoever took over the Ottoman Empire would
     dominate Europe and threaten their growing naval ascendency.
     Still, the allies were victorious, and they gobbled up much of the Ottomans'
     European possessions over the next century. By 1792 the Ottomans had been
     driven back to the Danube, losing possessions they had held for nearly two
     centuries. Soon thereafter they lost the northern coast of the Black Sea, the
     Caucasus, southern Ukraine and the Crimea.
     In the mid-19th century, several sultans began earnest efforts to modernize
     the Ottoman state, attempting to enact huge reforms to the army, government,
     and education system. These reforms occurred slowly, not only because of
     resistance from those whose power was threatened by the new ideas, but also
     because the state was nearly bankrupt and under increasing pressure from the
     external forces who sensed its weakness and who wanted to be in on the kill.
     Still, by the 20th century thousands of primary schools were in existence, as
     were a growing number of secondary schools and universities. Advanced
     military colleges were created on the European model. The government even
     experimented with a parliamentary system, but this was abandoned after less
     than a year.
     In 1909, a group of reformers known as the "Young Turks" led a revolt to
     restore the parliament that had been abolished 30 years earlier; this in turn
     led to a wider mutiny which overthrew the existing government. A new sultan
     was put in place; he was compelled to reinstate parliament, but real power
     resided in the military that had put him in power.
     In 1914 the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central
     Powers (Germany, Austria and Bulgaria). During the war they held off a
     spirited but ill-planned assault on the Dardanelles by forces of the British
     Empire, stopping the British fleet from linking up with Russia. They fought
     against the Allies in Europe, Egypt, the Balkans, and the Middle East. They
     also perpetrated a ghastly massacre against Armenian nationals living in Asia
     Minor, killing perhaps half a million men, women and children.
     By late 1918 it was clear that the Central Powers were going to be defeated;
     the Ottomans agreed to an Armistice on October 30. The victorious Allies
     dismantled what was left of the Empire, with Britain, France and Italy
     dividing up North Africa, Egypt and the Middle East as well as portions of
     Asia Minor. Other sections that no European power especially wanted were
     carved off and made into new independent countries. The Ottomans were left
     with just Istanbul and a portion of Thrace.
     Much of the Allies' plans came to naught, however, because by 1923 a
     brilliant Ottoman general named Mustafa Kemal, later called "Ataturk" or
     "Father of Turks", had reunited much of Asia Minor in a new country called
     "Turkey." By doing so he finally brought to an end the political entity known
     as the Ottoman Empire, 600 years after it was born.
     To summarize: the Ottoman Empire lasted six centuries. It took on all of
     Europe and beat it. It conquered Persia, Egypt, and North Africa, not to
     mention a goodly chunk of the Balkans. It destroyed the Byzantine Empire.
     The Ottoman Empire was cool."
    The Ottomans have one of the worst powers in the game in my opinion, simply 
    because the barbarian pirates are just too little in the game and they appear
    early on. Furthmore, the barbarian pirates are too hard to counter effectively
    early in the game as well, they will really only move close to land to 
    bombard your ground units, but other than that, it is hard to get them.
    The Janissary is a powerful unit however, if it manages to destroy the enemy
    unit that it is attacking, it will be completely healed of all battle woulds.
    They will also get a 25% attacking bonus when they attack first, which makes
    them even more deadly on the battlefield. The Sipahi has better movement than
    the lancer, they will also not use up movement points when pillaging a tile
    and they will have better sight as well. 
     Suleiman the Magnificant
     ~ History
    "Suleiman I, known as "The Magnificent," "The Legislator" and "The Grand
     Turk," was the caliph of Islam and the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, taking
     the reins of the Turkish kingdom in 1520 and ruling until his death in 1566.
     During his rule Suleiman greatly expanded the Empire's territory, earning the
     fear (and grudging admiration) of leaders across Europe, Africa, Asia and the
     Middle East.
     Suleiman was the son and grandson of sultans. At an early age he studied
     science, literature, theology, and the military arts in Istanbul. At 17 he
     was appointed governor of Kaffa by his grandfather, and he was made governor
     of Manisa during the reign of his father, Sultan Selim I. His father died in
     1520 when Suleiman was 26, and he ascended to the throne. Although still
     quite a young man, Suleiman had nearly ten years of leadership experience
     when he came to power.
     According to some historians, Suleiman deeply admired Alexander the Great and
     hoped to emulate him and create an empire that encompassed Europe, Asia
     Minor, Africa, and the Middle East. Upon achieving power, Suleiman began
     planning a campaign against Europe and the Balkans.
     In 1521, just a year after achieving power, Suleiman captured Belgrade. In the
     following year he took the Island of Rhodes from the Knights of St. John. In
     1526 he defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohacs, killing the Hungarian
     king Louis II in combat.
     Following Louis II's death, the Hungarian throne was taken by Ferdinand I,
     the Habsburg archduke of Austria. Seeking to weaken Habsburg power in Eastern
     Europe, Suleiman supported the claim of John Zapolya, lord of Transylvania.
     In 1529 he laid siege to Vienna. The siege was unsuccessful, however, but it
     did serve to keep Hungarian power concentrated on Vienna, effectively ceding
     control of most of Hungary to Suleiman's puppet, John. When John died in 1540
     the Austrians moved back into central Hungary. The two forces would continue
     to battle inconclusively for the next twenty years, until a peace treaty was
     signed in 1562, four years before Suleiman's death.
     To support his land campaigns Suleiman also created a great navy on the
     Mediterranean, the first such in Ottoman history. He put his forces under the
     command of admiral Khayr al-Din (known in the west as "Barbarossa"), a
     sometime pirate with a natural genius for naval warfare who defeated the
     combined Spanish-Venetian fleets in 1538, effectively giving the Ottomans
     dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean for the next forty years.
     Suleiman waged three major campaigns in Persia during his reign. The first
     campaign (1534 - 1535) won the Ottomans control over a portion of eastern
     Asia Minor as well as most of Iraq. The second campaign some ten years later
     (1548 - 1549) won some additional terrain around the strategically important
     Lake Van on the border of Persia and Asia Minor. The third campaign was
     inconclusive, as the Ottomans were unable to sustain an offensive deep in
     Persian territory and thus were unable to hold onto their gains.
     As sultan, Suleiman surrounded himself with competent, often brilliant,
     statesmen and administrators. He built mosques, bridges, roads and
     fortresses across his territory, and the period is seen as a golden age of
     Ottoman architecture. He also worked to reform and codify the empire's
     legal system. "The Lawgiver's" legal system would survive almost unchanged
     for three centuries. He paid attention especially to the plight of his
     Christian subjects, who until then had been little more than serfs. Jews
     also were protected, to such an extent that many emigrated to the Ottoman
     Empire from Europe, where they were much more harshly treated.
     While his territorial accomplishments were impressive, the Sultan did not
     ignore the culture of his homeland, Suleiman himself a skilled poet and
     fervent Muslim. During his rule hundreds of artistic societies flourished
     across the country. Suleiman commissioned numerous new mosques of a
     previously unseen grandeur, many designed by master architect Sinan.
     Suleiman died in 1566 while (once more) campaigning in Hungary. At the time
     of his death he was famous across the known world. In Europe he was envied
     for his unbelievable wealth, his magnificent treasury containing more riches
     than any other leader had possessed in history. He was admired for his
     military prowess and respected for his fair treatment of non-Muslim subjects.
     Muslims respected the Sultan for his belief in the rule of law. The Sultan
     adopted Islamic sacred law to compliment the traditional law already in
     place from his predecessors, providing a model for Eastern powers for
     centuries to come.
     Almost everyone - Christian and Muslim alike - agreed that he was fully
     worthy of the title "The Magnificent."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 5/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 5/10
     City State Competitiveness - 6/10
     Boldness                   - 8/10
    Suleiman is quite bold, as you can gather, he is will more than likely tread
    on your nerves somewhat, which is interesting. Other than that, he isn't 
    more likely than any other of the leaders to compete for the city states or
    build wonders in his civilization before you. 
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 6/10
     Hostile   - 6/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 4/10
     Afraid    - 5/10
     Friendly  - 7/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Suleiman wil be friendly, but if he does not get his way, he will turn ugly
    and he will declare war on you, which is clearly not a good thing, for either
    him or you, depending on who has the upper hand. Other than that, it is nice
    to note that as long as you stack enough powerful unders on the border, he 
    will back off.
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 5/10
     Protective    - 7/10
     Conquest      - 6/10
    Another leader that is about as protective as he is bloodthirsty, Suleiman 
    will either protect or conquer, it is that simple.
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 7/10
     Defensive         - 4/10
     City Defence      - 4/10
     Military Training - 6/10
     Reconnaissance    - 5/10
     Ranged            - 5/10
     Mounted           - 6/10
    Suleiman doesn't concentrate as much on his defence than he does on his 
    offence, and that means you will be facing a fair amount of melee units, 
    in conjunction with other units when he decides to come aknockin when he
    signs a declaration of war against you. Make sure that you have the counter
    to armoured and cavalry units, Suleiman won't hesitate to use them against
    you if he needs to. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 8/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 10/10
     Naval Growth           - 6/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 6/10
    Suleiman is a big user of the Naval power that is available to him, and
    that makes him that much harder to counter, because if you can't match him
    on the land, the odds are against you that you can match him in the sea.
    He will scout out your lands and the coastal areas around it pretty quickly
    and it is only a matter of time before his warships sit outside your city 
    firing cannon broadside after broadside into what was your city. 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 6/10
    Suleiman is a user of air power, and given that he is also a big fan of
    naval power, it is a big worry when he has the ability to develop carriers
    and the aircraft to launch off them. However, that is not to say he won't
    use bombers to pulverise your cities into a nice ground pulp.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 8/10
     Growth           - 4/10
     Tile Improvement - 5/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 5/10
     Science          - 6/10
     Culture          - 6/10
    Suleiman, as you can gather from his warmongering ways, is a little bit
    trigger-happy when it comes to expansion. He will use his army and navy to
    expand aggressively, and he will destroy all that stands in his path. On
    the bright side, you will have a ready source of workers and settlers when
    you decide it is time to rain on his parade.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 4/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 5/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    No real surprises that there is another spaceship victory here, but other 
    than that, Suleiman is kind of average in terms of what type of victory he
    would like to seek. There isn't much for him to choose from really. 
    [3.13] Persia
     Leader          - Darius I
     Unique Unit 1   - Immortal, replaces Spearman
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Satrap's Court, replaces Bank
     Civilization Power
      - Golden Ages will last 50% longer, and all units receive a movement bonus
        and +10% attack power during a Golden Age. 
     ~ History
    "The term "Persia" derives from a region in southern Iran formerly known as
     "Persis;" it is commonly used to describe areas where the Persian language
     and customs predominated. There have been a series of "Persian Empires"
     throughout history; in this article we are specifically examining the
     Achaemenid dynasty, which began in 559 BC and ended some two centuries later
     under the onslaught of the Greek military genius Alexander the Great.
     The Iranian Peninsula, which formed the heart of the Persian Empire, is a
     high plateau surrounded on the east and west by mountains. To the south lie
     the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the north the Caspian Sea and more
     mountains. At its height the Persian Empire also encompassed Egypt, the
     Middle East and much of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). It's useless to
     generalize about the terrain and weather of such a huge and varied region
     spanning two continents.
     Before the Persians, the Medians were the ascendant power in the area.
     According to the ancient historian Herodotus, the first Median king was
     Deioces, who ruled from 728 to 675 BC. Deioces' son Phraortes subjugated the
     Persians; he later died in battle against the Assyrians. At some point in the
     sixth century Medes came under Scythian domination, but they withdrew or were
     assimilated by the end of the sixth century, and the kingdom was once again
     under Median control.
     By all accounts king Cyaxares (625 - 585 BC) was a brilliant ruler who
     reorganized the Median army and took it successfully into battle against the
     powerful Assyrians, capturing several important Assyrian cities. Cyaxares
     allied with the Babylonians, and the two powers destroyed Assyria. In the
     division of spoils Babylon received all of the Assyrian territory in the
     Fertile Crescent (the area between and adjacent to the Tigris and Euphrates
     rivers), while the Medes took possession of the Assyrian holdings in the
     highlands to the east and north of Babylon, including territory in Asia
     Cyaxares' son, Astyages, was evidently not as politically or militarily
     astute as his father; he would be the last king of the Medes.
     According to legend, King Cyaxares gave Persia to his vassal Cambyses I.
     Cambyses I passed the crown to his son, Cyrus II, who solidified his
     political position by marrying Medes King Astyages' daughter. Despite his
     royal connection Cyrus was not satisfied with his subordinate position, and
     after allying with nearby Babylon, he rebelled against the Medes. By 550 BC
     the Persians had emerged victorious and the Medes were no more.
     Cyrus II was the first of the "Achaemenian" kings of Persia. After conquering
     Medean territory, Cyrus expanded Persia into Asia Minor. First he
     diplomatically isolated and then conquered Lydia (whose king was the famously
     wealthy Croesus), and then he systematically besieged and took all of the
     Greek city-states on the west coast of Asia Minor. With his northern flank
     secured, Cyrus II then turned south against his previous ally Babylon.
     While a great power, Babylon was internally divided, had an unpopular king,
     and by allowing Cyrus to destroy Lydia, was fresh out of potential allies.
     In the event, it fell almost without Persia striking a blow. In 539 Cyrus
     marched triumphantly into the city, now ruling an empire that stretched all
     the way to the borders of Egypt.
     Cyrus did not get to enjoy his triumphs for very long. He died in battle in
     Central Asia in 529 BC.
     Cyrus II was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II. After allegedly securing his
     thrown by murdering his brother Bardiya, in 525 BC Cambyses led a campaign
     against Egypt, which fell after battles at Pelusium and Memphis. Cambyses
     then attempted to further extend Persian power west, but attacks against
     Carthage, Nubia and Amon were all unsuccessful. In 522 Cambyses learned of a
     revolt in Iran led by an imposter claiming to be his brother, Bardiya. He
     died while hurrying home to regain control of the rebellious region. It was
     said that he committed suicide, but some historians believe that was just
     propaganda spread by his successor.
     Upon Cambyses II's death, one of his generals, a man named "Darius," led his
     troops back to Iran to crush the rebellion, which was apparently well
     advanced by the time Darius arrived. A member of the Achaemenian house and a
     distant relative of Cambyses II, Darius had himself declared Cambyses's
     rightful heir. It took a year of hard fighting to break the back of the
     revolt and to secure his claim to the throne, but by 521 Darius I was in firm
     control of the Persian Empire.
     Darius I was by all accounts a superlative leader. After squelching the
     rebellion through a combination of harsh punishment of rebel leaders combined
     with clemency of local populations, he then worked to reorganize the empire
     and to codify its laws. He further expanded Persian power into northern India
     and he established a bridgehead across the Hellespont, giving Persia a
     permanent toehold in Europe. He successfully suppressed a revolt of the Greek
     city-states, earning Greek citizens' goodwill by removing local tyrants and
     returning democracy to the people.
     In 492 Darius's forces had retaken Thrace and Macedonia in the Balkans,
     setting the stage for an invasion of Greece. At first Darius underestimated
     the difficulties of a Greek campaign, and in 490 the allied Greeks beat him
     decisively at the Battle of Marathon. Darius was forced to retreat and
     regroup. He began preparing for another campaign, but on a far larger and
     more powerful scale.
     Darius I died in 486 BC, and he was succeeded by his son, Xerxes I. Xerxes
     immediately had to deal with a serious revolt in Egypt, which he did in one
     quick campaign in 484. Unlike his predecessors, Xerxes dealt harshly with the
     rebellious province, removing the local leaders and imposing direct Persian
     control on the citizens. He did the same to the Babylonians when they
     revolted in 482 BC.
     In 480 Xerxes led a huge army into northern Greece, supported by a powerful
     Persian navy. Northern Greece fell to the invaders fairly easily, and despite
     the heroic stand of the Spartans and the Boeotians at Thermopylae, the Greeks
     were unable to stop Xerxes' army from marching to Athens and sacking the most
     powerful city-state in Greece. However, the Athenians had evacuated their
     city before the Persians arrived, and their navy very much remained a potent
     At the battle of Salamis (480 BC) a Greek fleet of some 370 triremes soundly
     defeated 800 Persian galleys, destroying perhaps 300 Persian vessels at a
     cost of 40 Greek ships. This defeat delayed the planned Persian offensive
     further into Greece for a year, giving the Greeks time to strengthen their
     defenses against the invaders. Xerxes was forced to return to Persia, leaving
     his general Mardonius in command, and the Greeks promptly won several
     important naval and land battles against the new leader. With Mardonius's
     death in the battle of Plataea, the campaign was over and the surviving
     Persians withdrew from Greece in disorder.
     Xerxes never mounted another invasion of Greece. In 465 BC he was
     Ruling from 465-404 BC, the three Persian kings who followed Xerxes I -
     Artaxerxes I, Xerxes II, and Darius II - were weak and uninspiring. At the
     end of the 4th century the Persians regained some power in the Aegean,
     successfully playing the Greeks off against one-another during the long
     Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta; however in 405 BC Egypt revolted
     and Persia was unable to regain control of the wayward province for more than
     50 years.
     Darius II was succeeded by Artaxerxes II, who ruled for 45 years (404 -
     359 BC). During his reign Artaxerxes II fought a war against Sparta, once
     again over the Greek colonies in Asia Minor. Persia allied with the Athenians
     (who were recovering from their disastrous defeat in the Peloponnesian War)
     and Sparta was forced to come to terms.
     Despite these occasional successes, as the third century BC progressed
     Persian weakness and disorganization grew. In 373 BC a group of the Empire's
     satraps (provincial governors) revolted. They were put down, but other
     revolts followed, and with growing frequency. The position of king was
     increasingly unstable; Artaxerxes III came to the throne as a result of
     treachery in 359 BC; in an attempt to secure his position he promptly
     murdered as many of his relatives as he could find. In 338 Artaxerxes III was
     poisoned at the orders of the eunuch Bagoas, who placed Artaxerxes' youngest
     son Arses in power. Arses promptly tried to poison Bagoas, but his effort
     failed and he himself was killed. Bagoas then elevated Darius III to the
     throne. Darius III was a former satrap of Armenia; although he was but
     distantly related to the late king, pretty much everybody else with a better
     claim was already dead.
     Darius II may or may not have been an especially effective leader, it is
     difficult to tell. When he assumed the throne the Persian Empire had been in
     decline for well over a century, its many component parts in near-constant
     revolt against the increasingly inept central government. Palace intrigue
     further crippled the monarchy, and leaders who wished to survive spent as
     much time watching their backs as they did looking out for the interests of
     the Empire. Any leader who took power under those circumstances would be in
     trouble. However bad things at home were, they paled into insignificance when
     compared with the troubles headed Darius III's way from across the
     In 359 BC, King Philip ascended to the throne of Macedon, a country
     straddling the line between Greece and the Balkans. Within 20 short years
     Philip had conquered all of Greece and then began preparations to invade
     Persia. Following Philip's assassination in 336 BC a young man named
     Alexander took the Macedonian crown. After securing his throne and
     suppressing a Greek rebellion, Alexander resumed Philip's invasion into
     Alexander was a military genius and a man of great courage and even greater
     ambition. At the head of a highly-disciplined Greek army equipped with
     superior weaponry and tactics, he drove through Persia like a hot knife
     through butter. Darius repeatedly met him in battle, often with far superior
     numbers, and Alexander simply destroyed his armies one after another. The
     Persian capital Persepolis fell to Alexander's armies in 330 BC, and Darius
     was murdered the same year. The last Achaemenian ruler had fallen to the
     The Achaemenian Persian Empire survived and thrived in a dangerous
     neighborhood for some 200 years. At its height it dominated land from India
     to Egypt, from Iran to the Balkans. It was an awkward and ungainly empire,
     spanning three continents with citizens speaking dozens of different
     languages. At their best, the Achaemenian kings were lawgivers who treated
     their subject populations with clemency and fairness, interfering as little
     as possible with provincial internal policies as long as the subjects behaved
     themselves. At worst, the Achaemenian kings were incompetent bullying
     Whatever else they were, the Achaemenian kings were survivors. Two hundred
     years is a long time for a single family to remain in power. If they hadn't
     lived next to Alexander and Philip they might have remained in power another
     100 years. Alexander the Great himself was a brilliant leader and warlord,
     but his own empire barely survived his death by a year."
    The Persians are best during a Golden Age, without a Golden Age, they really
    are useless, simply because their power has no real use. Therefore, in order
    to use the power, you either need to have a very happy empire, or you will
    need to have a lot of Great People in your empire to satisfy the need for
    the Golden Age.
    The Immortals, despite being so famous thanks to 300, are just marginly 
    more powerful over the Spearmen, however, they do heal at double the normal
    rate, which does make them somewhat more useful to you. Satrap's Court will
    be replacing the bank, and whilst providing the normal gold bonus, will also
    provide 2 extra happiness as well. 
     Darius I
     ~ History
    "The son of a satrap (governor) of Parthia, Darius I forcibly took the throne
     of Persia upon the death of Cambyses II in 522 BC. An administrative genius,
     during his reign Darius reorganized the sprawling Persian empire, greatly
     increasing its wealth and power. He also implemented many great construction
     works across Persia.
     Much of our knowledge of Darius I comes from the early Greek historian
     Herodotus, as well as from Persian inscriptions commissioned by Darius
     himself. According to Herodotus, as a youth Darius was suspected by Persian
     king Cyrus the Great of plotting against him. Darius survived this suspicion,
     later becoming a general and bodyguard of Cyrus' son and heir, Cambyses II,
     after Cambyses assumed the throne. Cambyses died in 522 BC while in Egypt.
     Upon his death Darius returned to Media and killed Cambyses' brother,
     Bardiya, who Darius claimed was an imposter who had usurped the throne.
     After killing Bardiya (or the imposter, depending upon whose story you
     believe) Darius claimed the Persian throne. This did not go over well in the
     provinces, and Darius faced serious revolts in Babylon, Susiana, Media,
     Sagartia, and Margiana. Babylon revolted twice, in fact, and Susiana three
     times. The insurrections were uncoordinated, however, and Darius was able to
     suppress each separately. According to one of his inscriptions, Darius
     defeated nine rebel leaders in 19 battles. By 518 or so his throne was
     After establishing his position, Darius initiated a series of wars to expand
     and secure Persia's borders. In 519 he attacked the Scythians east of the
     Caspian Sea, and shortly after he conquered the Indus Valley. He later
     attacked northwest from Asia Minor, conquering Thrace and then Macedonia. He
     tried to expand his European bridgehead north across the Danube, but he was
     forced to withdraw by stubborn resistance of the Scythian nomads. Finally, he
     secured the Aegean islands of Lemnos and Imbros.
     Persia now held the Greek colonies in Asia Minor, the straits of Bosporus
     (which gave them control over the Black Sea), Macedonia, which bordered
     Greece to the north, as well as a number of strategic islands in the Aegean.
     This inevitably led to conflict with the powerful but divided Greek
     city-states watching Persian expansion with jealousy and alarm.
     When not battling one of his empire's neighbors, Darius took a series of
     actions to unify the empire and to improve its administration. He completed
     the organization of the empire into satrapies (provinces) and set the annual
     tribute due from each. He improved the Persian road network and standardized
     coinage, weights and measures, greatly expanding the opportunities for trade
     throughout the empire. He funded exploration expeditions from India to Egypt,
     and he completed a canal in Egypt leading from the Nile River to the Red Sea.
     Darius was the greatest builder in the Achaemenid Persian history. He
     constructed fortifications, a palace, and administrative buildings at Susa,
     his administrative capital. In his native Persepolis, Darius began
     construction of a new palace, as well as a council hall, treasury, and more
     fortifications (though these would not be completed until after his death).
     While firmly putting down any attempts at insurrection within Persia, Darius
     showed a good deal of tolerance to his subject peoples' religious beliefs. He
     constructed a number of temples in Egypt honoring the Egyptian gods, and he
     ordered his Egyptian satrap to codify the Egyptian laws in consultation with
     the Egyptian priestly class. In 519 he allowed the Jews to begin
     reconstruction of the Temple at Jerusalem. Darius himself is thought to have
     been a follower of Zoroastrianism, which was eventually made the state
     religion of Persia.
     In 499 BC the Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria supported a revolt of
     some Greek colonies in Asia Minor against Persia. Darius crushed the
     rebellion and began plotting a campaign against the meddling Greeks.
     In 492 BC Darius' son-in-law Mardonius was put in charge of an expedition
     against Greece, but his fleet was destroyed in a storm off of Mount Athos and
     he was unable to advance. In 490 another Persian force successfully invaded
     Greece, destroying Eretria and enslaving its inhabitants before being
     defeated by Athenian warriors at Marathon. Darius was in the middle of
     planning yet a third expedition when he died in 486 BC.
     History's view of Darius is generally quite favorable (if you put aside his
     questionable ascension to power, which was pretty much standard operating
     procedure throughout much of history). He constructed roads, reorganized the
     Persian provinces and government, secured the empire's borders, and generally
     treated his subjects about as well as or better than anyone in that time.
     Although not primarily known as a warlord, he fought a number of successful
     campaigns against both internal and external foes. It is quite possible that
     he could have successfully subjugated Greece if death had not intervened. His
     son, Xerxes I, certainly wasn't up to the task. All in all, Darius left his
     empire in better condition than he found it, which is a pretty good epitaph
     for any leader in any time period."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 7/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 4/10
     City State Competitiveness - 4/10
     Boldness                   - 3/10
    Darius isn't that bold, so you don't have to worry too much about him going
    to threaten you and pissing you off. However, Darius will be there to play 
    to win, so you will want to make sure that you will keep him in check, just
    to not let him win.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 4/10
     Hostile   - 3/10
     Deceptive - 5/10
     Guarded   - 6/10
     Afraid    - 6/10
     Friendly  - 7/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Darius, as you can see, isn't the war mongering type, he is there to be 
    friends, and if you start stacking units on the border, he will be rightfully
    concerned. He will be willing to defend his land though, so don't expect him
    to be a pushover. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 5/10
     Protective    - 4/10
     Conquest      - 5/10
    Darius is really must opportunistic to the city states, if they are in the
    way, he will take them over, if they serve as a buffer between him and his
    external enemies, he will protect them, but really, he isn't a threat to 
    the city states.
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 3/10
     Defensive         - 7/10
     City Defence      - 6/10
     Military Training - 4/10
     Reconnaissance    - 5/10
     Ranged            - 5/10
     Mounted           - 5/10
    Darius is again, one of the defensive leaders who rather defend his land,
    rather than aggressively take it from his enemies, or soon to be enemies. 
    Darius will concentrate on units that can defend, and he will use a mix
    of all units, rather than focus one type over another. He will have units on
    the border, and in the city, so you will need a lot of siege power in order
    to get your way.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 4/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 4/10
     Naval Growth           - 5/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 5/10
    Darius doesn't concentrate heavily on his navy, something that is lacking
    given his defensive stance. He might have a few ships here and there to have
    a look around, but that is about it. Which is a shame, I always want to sink a
    few thousand triremes with cannon fire.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 5/10
    An average user of air power, he really won't concentrate on bombing your
    lands with air units, just enough to defend his airspace, to make sure that
    your bombers don't have an easy time when they decide to take a stroll over
    his lands.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 5/10
     Growth           - 6/10
     Tile Improvement - 7/10
     Infrastructure   - 7/10
     Production       - 6/10
     Gold             - 7/10
     Science          - 5/10
     Culture          - 5/10
    In terms of empire building, Darius will concentrate a lot on tile 
    improvement, which is useful if you decide to rake and pillage all his
    lands. He will also concentrate heavily on gold production, which will make
    him a nice rich target. And with all the infrastructure that he builds, he
    will be quick to conquer, all roads load this his Capital. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 8/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 6/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    Aside from the usual spaceship victory, you would expect Darius to concentrate
    on a happy population, since that is the main way his power will be drawn 
    from, the Golden Age. As such, Darius will have pretty high growth as a 
    result, so his cities are going to be nice to capture.
    [3.14] Rome
     Leader          - Augustus Caesar
     Unique Unit 1   - Ballista, replaces Catapult
     Unique Unit 2   - Legion, replaces Swordsman
     Unique Building - None
     Civilization Power
      - +25% production bonus for buildings constructed outside the Capital that 
        has already been built in the Capital.
     ~ History
    "The Roman Empire is the most remarkable and long-lived political entity in
     the history of Western Civilization. It was founded around the 8th century
     BC, and portions of it survived until the 14th century AD. The Romans were
     great innovators in some areas, and they were not shy about appropriating
     good ideas they found in other cultures. They greatly shaped Western culture,
     law, art, architecture, religion, language, and warfare.
     The city of Rome stands near the Tibur River in central Italy. A series of
     hills and mountains run along the spine of boot-shaped Italy; the coastal
     regions are flatter and make better farmland. The central highlands can be
     cold and snowy in winter, while the coastal lowlands enjoy milder,
     stereotypical Mediterranean climate.
     At its height the Empire controlled much of Western and Central Europe along
     with a great chunk of the Middle East and most of the northern coast of
     Africa, and naturally the Empire's terrain and climate varied greatly from
     province to province.
     According to legend, Rome was founded by twin brothers named "Romulus" and
     "Remus," the sons of the god Mars and a king's daughter. The children were
     abandoned at birth, but they were rescued by a she-wolf who suckled and
     raised them. Upon reaching maturity the boys founded a new city, then
     quarreled over who would rule. Romulus won: he killed his brother and became
     the first king of Rome.
     Archaeologists date the first major settlement in the area from the eighth
     century BC (though there is some evidence suggesting that there were
     settlements in the area as far back as the 10th century BC). The city was
     founded by the Latin tribe atop the Palatine Hill, which overlooks a crossing
     of the Tibur River. The city's strategic location made it a natural trading
     post between the Etruscan civilization to the north and the Greek settlements
     to the south. Thus Rome benefitted from technological and cultural advances
     of both groups. Its location also made it greatly prized by its neighbors,
     and for two centuries the Latins fought off attacks by the Etruscans and the
     Sabines, another local tribe.
     Roman tradition states that the last Roman king was a brutal tyrant. The
     villainous king, Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown after his son raped a
     virtuous noblewoman. Modern historians believe that the truth is far more
     prosaic. According to one current theory Rome was captured by the Etruscans,
     who ejected the Roman king, but external events forced them to vacate the
     city before they could install their own monarch. Finding that they preferred
     being kingless, the Romans did not recall Tarquinius to power but instead
     implemented a Republic loosely based upon the Greek model. It is believed
     that the last Roman king fell at the end of the fifth century BC.
     The Roman political system evolved over time, but the early structure was
     something like this: Rome was ruled by two consuls. The consuls acted as the
     city's chief magistrates as well as the military commanders. The two consuls
     possessed equal power. The consuls were elected annually by the "centuriate
     assembly" - the Roman army. To ensure unity of command in times of great
     danger a "dictator" could be appointed. The dictator had supreme military
     command. However, the dictator's term lasted only for six months, at which
     time power reverted to the consuls and senate.
     The second power bloc in Roman government was the Senate. The Senate was
     composed of approximately 300 men drawn from the leading Roman families.
     According to theory the Senate was strictly an advisory body, advising both
     the Consuls and the assemblies (see below), but in fact it held enormous
     political power, and its "advice" was almost always followed by the
     assemblies (see below).
     Two assemblies met periodically in Rome, and they (theoretically) held all
     political power. The centuriate assembly met outside the city's borders in
     the Field of Mars. As stated before this assembly was composed of Roman
     soldiers; they elected consuls and magistrates and voted on peace and war.
     The "tribal" assembly met inside the city; it was comprised of all male
     Roman citizens. This assembly enacted laws and sat as a court for public
     offenses involving money.
     During much of its history, the Roman Republic was at war with one or more of
     its neighbors. It was constantly expanding its territory at the expense of
     other Italian tribes. It fought and conquered the nearby town of Fidenae in
     426 BC after an eleven-year struggle, and this was followed soon thereafter
     by a painful ten-year fight to conquer the Etruscan city of Veii. Much of
     these gains were swept away in 390 BC, when a Gaulish tribe defeated the
     Roman armies and sacked the city. It took almost half a century for Rome to
     recover from this devastating defeat.
     By the middle of the third century, however, Rome was master of most of
     central Italy, with Latin colonies extending far to the north and south.
     Further, work was progressing on the incomparable Roman road network linking
     the growing empire, and Rome was in the process of constructing its first
     As Rome's power grew, it began to come into conflict with other regional
     powers. One such power was Carthage, a one-time Phoenician colony based on
     the North African coast in Tunisia. At the time Carthage had a mighty
     trading empire which covered most of North Africa west of Egypt, coastal
     Spain and France, and much of Sicily. Rome and Carthage fought three "Punic
     Wars" (264 - 146 BC) to decide who would control the Western Mediterranean.
     While Roman historians placed the blame for the wars on Carthage, modern
     historians believe that the Romans actually provoked the conflict by
     attempting to muscle in on Carthaginian territory in Sicily.
     The First Punic War (264 - 241 BC) found the Carthaginian mercenary army no
     match for the Roman legions, who inflicted upon them a massive defeat at the
     Battle of Agrigentum in 261 BC. The elite Carthaginian navy had much better
     initial success against the untried Roman navy, but over time this advantage
     faded as the Romans constructed new vessels and gained combat experience.
     Eventually the Carthaginians admitted they were overmatched and ceded Sicily
     to Rome. Shortly thereafter the Romans took advantage of unrest in the
     Carthaginian army to take the Carthaginian islands of Corsica and Sardinia,
     as well.
     With Rome restricting Carthaginian operations in the Central Mediterranean,
     Carthage sought to recoup its losses by expanding into Spain. Rome responded
     by allying with the Spanish city of Saguntum, making it clear that they were
     going to oppose Carthage's interests pretty much anywhere on the
     Mediterranean. In 219 BC the Carthaginian general Hannibal laid siege to
     Saguntum and Rome declared war once again. The Second Punic War (219 - 201
     BC) had begun.
     A brilliant general, Hannibal realized that Carthage could not defeat Rome as
     long as Rome had unrestricted access to all of the resources of Italy. To
     win, he had to disrupt Roman cooperation with the other Italian cities. To do
     so, he had to get his army into Italy. As a Roman navy now commanded the
     seas, he had to take the long, arduous land route. This remarkable six-month
     journey included a perilous trip across the Italian alps. By 218 BC Hannibal
     arrived in Italy with 20,000 foot soldiers and some 5,000 cavalry.
     In 217 BC Hannibal defeated and largely destroyed a Roman army of some 15,000
     soldiers. He moved south, hoping to stir up unrest in the Italian subject
     cities, but few joined the Carthaginian cause. His forces roamed about the
     countryside to no great effect.
     By 216 BC the Romans had regrouped and fielded another, even stronger army of
     some 50,000-80,000 soldiers against Hannibal. The two forces met at Cannae.
     Hannibal let his center fall back in the face of the Roman attack, but he
     then wheeled his cavalry in behind the Roman army, who had neglected to
     adequately protect their flank. The Roman force was hemmed in and attacked
     from all sides, and Hannibal had destroyed yet another Roman army, this one
     much bigger than the last. This triumph totally demoralized the Romans. More
     importantly, it at last convinced the southern Italian people that Hannibal
     could win, and a large number of them deserted Rome and rallied to Carthage's
     While Hannibal's forces had greatly expanded, he now had numerous allied
     cities he had to protect. While Rome had lost a great army and much of its
     southern possessions it still had northern Italy, not to mention naval
     control of the Mediterranean. The war degenerated into stalemate.
     In 207 BC Hasdrubal, Hannibal's brother, duplicated Hannibal's storied march
     and brought yet another army across the Alps and into northern Italy. He
     sought to move south upon the east coast of Italy (the side away from Rome),
     join up with his brother, and launch a final assault on Rome. Rome managed to
     scrape up yet one more army and the two forces met at the Metaurus River.
     Stealing a page from Hannibal's book, the Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero
     outflanked Hasdrubal, cutting off his army's retreat. Most of the
     Carthaginian army was destroyed, and Hasdrubal himself was killed. His head
     was cut off and thrown into Hannibal's camp. That broke the back of the
     invasion. Although Hannibal remained in the area for some years, he was
     unable to again challenge Rome in Italy.
     In the meanwhile, the great Roman general Scipio had captured most of Spain
     from Carthage. Despite Hannibal's presence in southern Italy, he convinced
     the Roman senate to back an invasion of Africa itself. In 204 he sailed
     across the Mediterranean. He destroyed the opposing Carthaginian force and
     another in 203 BC. In 202 BC he faced Hannibal, who had been recalled from
     Italy in the face of the crisis. Although Hannibal fielded a slightly larger
     army, Scipio's troops were veterans and they had a superior cavalry wing.
     Hannibal's army was outflanked and largely destroyed. Prostrate and
     defenseless, Carthage sued for peace. Rome stripped them of all of their
     remaining Spanish and island possessions and hit them with a huge indemnity
     of 10,000 talents (a fantastically large amount of gold).
     The Third Punic War (149 - 146 BC) occurred some fifty years after the
     Second. It is generally agreed that this war was little more than a Roman
     mugging of the nearly helpless Carthage. While Carthage no longer had any
     significant military power to threaten Rome, the Empire greatly envied the
     wealth of the African city and its growing commercial empire. The Romans
     imposed a series of intolerable demands on the city, including that the
     citizens abandon Carthage and move inland so that they could no longer
     engage in commerce by sea. The Carthaginians refused, and the Romans
     besieged the city, which put up a stubborn resistance. In 146 BC Carthage
     fell. The city was destroyed, its fields sown with salt, and the few
     surviving citizens were sold into slavery. Rome was undisputed master of
     the Mediterranean.
     Although Rome continued to expand, fighting wars across the Mediterranean,
     the first century BC saw tens of thousands of demobilized soldiers return
     from foreign lands. There was not enough work for the ex-soldiers,
     especially since Rome was being flooded with slaves from overseas
     possessions. These men were angry, and they had the vote. Several men
     attempted to enact land reforms, taking property away from the extremely
     wealthy and distributing it to the soldiers, but the senate (which was
     largely comprised of wealthy men) stymied these reforms. To be elected
     consul, Roman politicians had to appease the ex-soldiers, and Roman
     politics turned increasingly populist, and political infighting became
     increasingly bitter.
     In 88 BC Sulla, an elected consul, marched his army into Rome to force the
     assembly to enact laws that would permanently weaken the opposing party.
     After his army left, the opposition retook the city and negated Sulla's laws.
     In 83 BC Sulla returned again with his army and slaughtered most of the
     members of the opposing party. He then passed a series of constitutional
     reforms and retired.
     It was now clear that control of Rome would fall to whoever commanded the
     loyalty of the army. In 62 BC three men agreed to share power between them.
     This "First Triumvirate" consisted of the generals Gnaeus Pompey the Great
     and Marcus Lucinius Crassus, and a soldier and sharp politician from a very
     wealthy family named Julius Caesar.
     These men had the same ability to cooperate and desire to share power as one
     might expect to find in your average killer shark, and following Crassus's
     death in battle, Caesar and Pompey were at each other's throats. Caesar was
     in the field at the time, and the Pompey and the senate sought to remove him
     from his army. He refused the orders and advanced on Rome. The army defending
     Rome was untrained and Pompey did not believe it would stand against Caesar's
     highly-motivated veterans, so he and the senate fled the city, and in 49 BC
     Caesar marched into Rome unopposed.
     The events surrounding Julius Caesar's last years are well known. While
     maintaining the façade that Rome was a republic, he became a de facto
     dictator. He gave himself the power to appoint all senators, and he altered
     the constitution so that the assemblies would vote only on candidates and
     bills he submitted. In 44 BC he was assassinated by members of the senate.
     Following Caesar's death, his lieutenant Mark Antony allied with Marcus
     Lepidus and Caesar's adopted son Gaius Octavian to defeat Caesar's assassins.
     Shortly thereafter members of the "Second Triumvirate" quarreled, and
     Octavian - now known as "Augustus" - became undisputed Emperor of Rome. 
     While the Roman Republic was dead, the Roman Empire had just begun, and the
     world would tremble at its power and glory.
     The mighty Roman Empire is an endlessly fascinating and complex entity.
     Although long dead, the Empire's shadow still falls across the world, and
     events in Rome 2000 years ago still affect our daily lives. One wonders if
     the same will be said about any of today's civilizations."
    If you have a powerful capital city with quick production, the Glory of Rome
    will be an exceptional power, it will really hope your newer cities as you
    build them from the ground up. With some wonders under your belt that also
    improves building speed and other buildings, you can quickly turn a small
    settling city into a flourishing metropolis. 
    The Ballista is simply more powerful than the Catapult, but really, it isn't
    much, until you get to the Cannon, I love that toy. The Legion is probably
    one of the best unique units in the game, simply because of they can build
    roads as well as having a power bonus over your enemies. Since building a 
    nice road network does use up your worker's time a fair bit, you can use
    Legions on the borders, simply because they can build and defend.
     Augustus Caesar
     ~ History
    "Born Gaius Octavius, Augustus would become the first (and possibly greatest)
     Roman Emperor. He ended a century of civil wars and initiated two hundred
     years of the Pax Romana (Roman Peace) while overseeing a golden age of Roman
     literature and culture.
     Octavius was born in 63 BC. His father (also named Gaius Octavius) was a
     respectable but undistinguished member of the equestrian order. His mother,
     however, was a niece of Julius Caesar. Octavius' father died when he was only
     four years old, and he was brought up in the house of his stepfather Lucius
     Marcus Phillippus.
     At the age of fifteen, Octavius put on the toga virilis ("manly robes"), the
     symbol that he had reached adulthood, and was elected to the College of
     Pontiffs. In 46 BC he joined Julius Caesar during Caesar's last campaign in
     Spain. In Spain he made such a fine impression on the great general that
     Julius Caesar changed his will to make Octavius his heir.
     When Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March in 44 BC, all the wealth that
     Caesar had spent a lifetime accumulating passed into the hands of the 18-year
     old Octavius. At the time of Caesar's assassination, Octavius was with some
     of his soldiers in modern-day Albania. Upon hearing the news he went to Italy
     and recruited an army from among Caesar's veterans, gaining their loyalty by
     stressing that he was Caesar's heir. Once in Rome, Octavius allied with Marc
     Antony and Marcus Lepidus to form what is known as the "Second Triumvirate,"
     directed against Caesar's killers Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius. Octavius'
     and Antony's armies tracked down Brutus and Cassius in Greece, where they
     defeated the assassins' army at Philippi (42 BC). Brutus and Cassius both
     committed suicide after their defeat.
     Antony married Octavius' sister Octavia to cement their alliance, and the two
     leaders divided Rome's territory between them. Octavius took the west, while
     Antony went to the east, where he entered into a torrid affair with
     Cleopatra, the ruler of Egypt. Octavius saw Antony's actions as an insult to
     his sister and to his family, and relations between the co-rulers soon
     soured. While Antony enjoyed the pleasures of Egypt, back in Rome Octavius
     strengthened his political position and his armies. The two eventually went
     to war, and in 31 BC Octavius defeated the forces of Antony and Cleopatra at
     the naval battle of Actium. The lovers were pursued to Egypt, where they
     both committed suicide.
     Octavius was now the undisputed master of Rome. He surrendered his
     extraordinary powers to the Senate, which was filled with his allies; in
     return the Senate named him "Augustus" (one who is marked by dignity and
     greatness) and showered him with honors. More importantly, they also gave him
     the powers of a Roman consul, tribune, and censor, which had never before
     been combined into one office. All permanent legal power within Rome
     officially remained within the Senate - but since Octavius controlled the
     Senate, this was mostly a legal fiction. Although he had all of the power of
     an Emperor, Augustus preferred to style himself "Princeps," or "first
     citizen" (probably to avoid further antagonizing the few remaining
     republicans in Rome).
     During his reign Augustus presided over four decades of peace and prosperity,
     a welcome relief to Rome after almost a century of civil strife. He carried
     out a great building program in the ancient city, constructing a new Senate
     house as well as great temples to Apollo and "Divine Julius" (his deceased
     great-uncle). Later, Augustus would boast - with justification - that he had
     found Rome a city of brick and left it marble. Under his patronage many of
     the most famous Roman authors and poets created their great works: Virgil,
     Ovid, Horace, and Livy all flourished during his reign.
     Augustus' generals also enjoyed great success and were quite relieved to be
     once again turning their military strength against external enemies instead
     of one another. Rome's borders were extended to the Danube, northern Spain
     was finally conquered, and Armenia was pacified in the east.
     Augustus did suffer two significant military defeats during his rule. In 15
     BC Gaul's Roman governor, Marcus Lollius was defeated by an alliance of the
     Sicambri, Tencteri and Usipetes tribes who had crossed the Rhine into Gaul;
     little permanent damage was done to the Roman position in Gaul, and Suetonius
     calls this defeat "more humiliating than serious."
     The second defeat, however, was of an entirely different magnitude. In 9 AD
     Publius Quintilius Varus, Governor of Germania, led three legions across the
     Danube and deep into barbarian territory where they were surprised by German
     Cherusci tribesmen and, after a three-day battle, captured or killed to the
     last man. Varus himself committed suicide and the victors sent his head as a
     present to King Marbod of the Marcomanni in Bohemia.
     Hearing of the catastrophe, Augustus sent troops into the city to watch for
     uprisings. He also prolonged the terms of the governors of the provinces to
     ensure that experienced men would be in charge if the subject people
     revolted. In addition he dedicated great games to Jupiter if he would improve
     the Empire's lot. It is clear that Augustus was badly shaken by the defeat.
     Suetonius says that "for several months in succession he cut neither his
     beard nor his hair, and sometimes he would dash his head against a door,
     crying, 'Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!'"
     Fortunately, the natives did not revolt and the Empire survived the
     catastrophe without long-lasting consequences.
     By Augustus' death in 14 AD, a return to the old system of the Republic was
     unthinkable, and he was peacefully succeeded by the Emperor Tiberius.
     During Augustus' long rule Rome flourished and the Empire came to dominate the
     Mediterranean basin. The policies he put in place kept the Empire running
     smoothly, so much so that Rome would continue to rule the entire known world
     for almost two centuries without any major wars or other significant threats
     to its survival. Few if any leaders in world history could make the same
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 7/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 6/10
     City State Competitiveness - 8/10
     Boldness                   - 6/10
    Augustus is very competitive as a leader, he will go for the victory 
    conditions, and if you are getting close, he will come down on you like a ton
    of bricks. He will take on the City States pretty damn aggressive as well, so
    if you want to woo the city states over, you might want to take note. 
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 5/10
     Hostile   - 5/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 6/10
     Afraid    - 5/10
     Friendly  - 4/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Augustus is more likely to play dirty, he will form pacts of secrecy and
    cooperation with your enemies, research agreements to drain your gold, all
    this to ensure that you are nice and alone when he decides to declare war. No
    one is safe, especially his allies, who he is prone to backstab at the last
    minute. Out of all the leaders, it is probably Augustus that has given me the
    most research pacts. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 7/10
     Protective    - 6/10
     Conquest      - 6/10
    Again, Augustus is one of those who is about as likely to protect a city state
    as to conquer it. Like other leaders, those tend to act as a buffer between
    him and enemies he will protect, whilst those who are away from the action 
    will see their cities burnt down to the ground. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 5/10
     Defensive         - 6/10
     City Defence      - 6/10
     Military Training - 7/10
     Reconnaissance    - 3/10
     Ranged            - 6/10
     Mounted           - 4/10
    What is interesting with Augustus is that he will rarely send out scouts, and
    that is quite an problem for him, a good thing for you, as long as he doesn't 
    know where you are, he can't attack you. He will focus a lot on training, so 
    he will be spending his time building Barracks and Stables, which will make
    his troops slightly harder to crush. And when he does attack, you can expect
    a fair few archers to rain arrows on your land as well.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 5/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 5/10
     Naval Growth           - 4/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 4/10
    Surprisingly, Augustus doesn't seem to worry about building a naval power
    base that much, given that one of his most famous conquests was the Battle
    of Actium, although to be fair, he wasn't one of the generals in that, it was
    really up to Agrippa during that battle. Still, it doesn't mean he won't have
    naval units around, just don't expect them in force.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 4/10
    Augustus isn't a fan of air power, which is a shame, I love my air units a 
    lot, however, what you must be wary of is that although the AI might not like
    air units, it doesn't mean it won't build appropriate counters to shoot your
    planes out of the sky.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 8/10
     Growth           - 5/10
     Tile Improvement - 7/10
     Infrastructure   - 8/10
     Production       - 6/10
     Gold             - 6/10
     Science          - 5/10
     Culture          - 5/10
    Augustus is really heavy on expansion, which is expected given that he does
    tend to pursue the path of war more often than not. Also note that 
    infrastrucutre is high up there, mainly because his Legion units can build
    roads, and well, roads is pretty much infrastructure until you get access to
    railroads. Also high on the list is tile improvements, so make sure your 
    pillage axes are ready, you will want to make some money when you attack.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 8/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 6/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    Augustus is clearly a leader that will want to keep his people rather 
    happy, and that means he will expand for luxury resources quickly, and that
    means you will either settle at them before he can, or just blow up his cities
    with some cannon fire. Augustus is a strong leader, he won't be easy to beat,
    but he isn't impossible either. 
    [3.15] Russia
     Leader          - Catherine the Great
     Unique Unit 1   - Cossack, replaces Cavalry
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Krepost, replaces Barracks
     Civilization Power
      - All resources will provide +1 production values, and all Horse, Iron and
        Uranium deposits will be doubled. 
     ~ History
    "As Winston Churchill once said, Russia is a riddle, wrapped in a mystery,
     inside an enigma. It is a part of Europe and a part of Asia, yet separate
     from both. It is rich with natural resources, yet its people have
     historically been grindingly poor. It has been invaded and overrun by Goths,
     Huns, Mongols, French and Germans, yet remained uniquely Russian. It has been
     a superpower and a nearly failed state, a monarchy, communist dictatorship
     and democracy - all within a span of 100 years. Indeed, Russia is one of the
     most fascinating civilizations in all of human history.
     Russia is a huge country. At 6,500,000 square miles in area, it's nearly
     twice the size of the United States of America, but with only half its
     population. It's a country of great mountains, enormous steppes, and raging
     rivers. On the east, Russia borders the Pacific Ocean, and on the west the
     Baltic Sea. The southernmost portions of Russia can be broiling hot in the
     summer and Russian winters are famously brutal - long, cold and dark.
     Archaeological evidence states that portions of Russia have been occupied
     for some four thousand years, but not much is known about the earliest
     settlers in this vast land. Greeks and Persians settled in the Ukraine at
     some early date, and they seem to have hunted and harvested resources from
     the vast Russian forests to the north. Various nomadic tribes crossed the
     country between the fourth and 10th century AD before settling further west
     in Europe; these included the Huns, Goths, and Magyars. During the same
     period the East Slavs began migrating east into the area, followed by
     Germanic commercial explorers looking for trade goods as well as new routes
     to the east. They encountered Finnic tribes moving south.
     The eighth century saw the first written record of "Kievan Rus." The Rus are
     believed to have been Scandinavian Vikings who migrated south from the Baltic
     coast (although this is disputed by some Russian scholars, who believe that
     the original founders of Kievan Rus were Slavs). By 860 the Rus were sending
     raiding parties as far south as Constantinople, and by 1000 AD Kievan Rus
     controlled a trade route from the Baltic to the Black Sea; this would form
     the economic backbone of the growing regional power.
     By the 12th century, the Kiev Empire covered much of what would become
     eastern Russia, extending from Poland in the west to the Volga in the east,
     and from Finland in the north to the Ukraine in the south. It was a vast
     territory to manage from one centralized location, especially as component
     parts of the Empire began developing individual identities and national
     aspirations. Economically, the Empire also became divided, with northern
     provinces aligning themselves with the Baltic powers while the western areas
     were drawn to Poland and Hungary, and the southern regions to Asia Minor and
     the Mediterranean. By the closing of the 12th century Rus Kiev was dissolved
     in all but name, replaced by a number of smaller quasi-feudal states.
     The first Mongol incursion into Kievan territory occurred in 1223, when a
     Mongol reconnaissance unit met the combined warriors of several Rus states
     under the command of the wonderfully-named "Mstislav the Bold" and "Mstislav
     Romanovich the Old" at the Battle of the Kalka River. The Rus forces enjoyed
     early success, but they became disorganized in the pursuit of the retreating
     foe. The Mongol horsemen rallied and defeated the pursuers in detail before
     they could reorganize. A large portion of the Rus forces surrendered to the
     Mongols on the condition that they would be spared; the Mongols accepted the
     conditions then slaughtered them anyway. The Mongols then left Rus for
     several years before returning in much greater force.
     In 1237 a vast Mongol army of some 30,000 or more horse archers once again
     crossed the Volga River. In a few short years the Mongols captured, looted
     and destroyed dozens of Russian cities and towns, including Ryazan, Kolomna,
     Moscow, Rostov, Kashin, Dmitrov, Kozelsk, Halych and Kiev. They soundly
     thrashed every force raised to oppose them. By 1240 most of Rus was a smoking
     ruin, firmly under the control of the Mongols, who then turned their sight
     further west, towards Hungary and Poland.
     The Western Mongol Empire, which included much of Russia, was called (though
     probably not by the Mongols themselves) the "Golden Horde." Its capital was
     at "Sari," a new city they constructed on the Volga River. Although the
     Mongols (also known as "Tatars") were ruthless invaders and conquerors, they
     were relatively benign rulers. Generally they had little direct dealings with
     the subject people, much preferring to keep the existing power structure
     intact, ruling through the current rulers. Originally Shamanists, the Mongols
     were late converts to Islam, and they were extremely tolerant towards other
     religions. Generally, as long as they got their tribute, they left the people
     The Golden Horde survived until the end of the 13th century, when it fell
     prey to attacks from Timur (Tamerlane) from the south. Seeking to capture
     their commercial trade, Timur overran and destroyed the Mongol cities of
     Sarai, Azov, and Kaffa, fatally weakening the Mongol rulers. Local Rus
     leaders, particularly those ruling the Principality of Muscovy, were quick to
     fill the growing power vacuum.
     Under the rule of Ivan III (1462 - 1505), Muscovy began the process of
     "gathering of the Russian lands", in which Moscovy sought to annex all East
     Slavic lands, including the traditional Russian territories as well as the
     Belarusian and Ukrainian principalities, neither of which had any traditional
     link with Muscovy. In 1478 Novogorod was annexed, and in 1485 Tver was
     similarly absorbed. This work was nearly undone in 1497, however, by a deadly
     struggle among Ivan's relatives over the succession to the throne. Ivan had
     originally picked his grandson from his first marriage, but he was eventually
     forced to name as heir his second wife's son, Vasily.
     Ivan's reign also saw Muscovy's first entry into the maelstrom of European
     diplomacy. Ivan sought to engage more closely with Byzantium in order to put
     pressure on the growing Polish-Lithuanian state to Muscovy's west (the powers
     were competing to gobble up the smaller principalities left after the
     collapse of the Golden Horde).
     After Ivan's death his son, Vasily III, strengthened the monarchy and further
     expanded Muscovy's territory. However Vasily failed to produce an heir until
     late in his reign and he was forced to create a regency to rule after his
     death until his son Ivan was able to take the throne. As Ivan was three and
     sickly at the time of his father's death (1533), the regency was prolonged
     and subject to a great deal of political intrigue, and the kingdom suffered
     accordingly. Once Ivan achieved maturity, things went from bad to
     exceptionally bad - one might even say "terrible."
     At the age of 16, Ivan the Terrible (1530 - 1584) was crowned "tsar" of
     Muscovy, the first to bear that title. (The word is related to the Roman
     title "Caesar.") Very little is actually known of Ivan the man, except that
     he was sickly and he married six times. Many believe that in his early reign
     he was a figurehead - a puppet ruler fronting for one of the factions
     striving for dominance in that unsettled land. During that period he enacted
     a series of reforms rebuilding the military and the legal system, and laws to
     severely limit the power of hereditary landowners (i.e., the nobility). These
     reforms appear designed to improve the Russian military in preparation for
     major campaigns to expand Russian territory. These adventures were less than
     totally successful.
     In his mid-twenties, Ivan began a program to dramatically increase his power
     at the expense of virtually anybody else in the vicinity. The Imperial Court
     was swept of independent-minded nobility and stocked with sycophantic
     bullies. The upper echelons of the military were similarly purged. Ivan
     declared millions of acres of the best land to be "oprichnina" - or crowned
     land - subject to his direct control only.
     Ivan was about as good a military leader as he was a humanitarian: he
     virtually destroyed the army and bankrupted the country in the disastrous
     Livonian War, which dragged on for some twenty-five years (1558 - 1583). He
     died in 1584, and not a moment too soon.
     Things improved for a time after Ivan's death, when one of his cronies named
     Boris Godunov assumed the throne, but when Boris died in 1605, everything
     once again went straight to hell, so much so that this period (1606 - 1613)
     is known as the "Time of Troubles." Central authority was gone; foreign and
     domestic armies marched and fought their way across the countryside, as one
     pretender after another took the crown only to be overthrown by the next in
     line. Eventually the merchants of northern Russia financed an insurgent army
     (largely staffed with Swedish troops) who swept the foreigners out of Moscovy
     and brought the Cossacks back in line. In control of the government apparatus
     (what was left of it), the insurgents called for the election of another
     Michael Fyodorovich was just 16 when he was elected Tsar. He faced
     innumerable problems. Decades of insurrection and neglect had left much of
     the country in ruins, its citizens fled and its croplands fallow. Portions of
     the country were occupied by foreign troops, and those that weren't often had
     their own local military forces which were not answerable to any central
     authority. It took the first Romanov Tsar nearly twenty years to regain
     control of the country.
     The Tsars following Michael continued the expansion of Russia, fighting or
     allying variously with Sweden, Poland, and/or the Ottoman Empire, depending
     upon where the territory they were trying at that moment to nab lay.
     Territory under contention included the eastern Ukraine, the Baltic
     territories, and Belarus.
     Peter (1672 - 1725) jointly ruled Russia with his half brother Ivan V for the
     period 1682 - 1696, and he ruled singly following Ivan's death from 1696 -
     1725. During the early part of his reign Peter was all but exiled to the
     village of Preobrazhenskoye while his half-sister Sophia ruled as regent. He
     thus missed much of a young Tsar's standard education, concentrating instead
     on sports, mathematics, and military training.
     While a growing land power, at the start of Peter's reign, Russia lacked
     direct access to the Black Sea, the Caspian, or to the Baltic Sea. Peter
     believed that Russia could never be a great state unless it possessed a navy.
     Much of his foreign policy was turned to that end. In 1695 Peter attacked
     southward, capturing Azov from the Crimean Tatars and moving that much closer
     to the Black Sea.
     In 1697 Peter formed the "Grand Embassy," a group of some 250 people who were
     to travel across western Europe to gather information on European culture and
     economy. Peter traveled with the group incognito. For four months Peter
     worked as a ship's carpenter in the Dutch East India Company's shipyards, and
     this was followed by a similar period in the British Royal Navy's dockyard.
     As he progressed around Europe Peter hired hundreds of European workers to
     help improve the Russian cities, economy and infrastructure.
     Peter was looking for allies to assist him in his campaign against Turkey,
     but was unsuccessful. Believing that Russia could not move alone on that
     front, the pragmatic Tsar signed a peace treaty with Turkey and turned his
     attention to the Baltic.
     At the end of the 16th century the Swedes occupied the Baltic coast including
     Karelia, Ingria, Estonia and Livonia. Peter formed an alliance with Saxony
     and Denmark-Norway, and in 1700 the alliance attacked. The "Northern War"
     dragged on for some 21 years. Peter took an extremely active role in
     prosecuting the war, and he could often be found on the front lines, under
     enemy fire.
     Meanwhile, in 1703 Peter began construction of the city of St. Petersburg in
     the far north of Russia, near the Gulf of Finland. By 1712 it was named the
     new capital of Russia. By 1721 Russia had driven Sweden from the eastern and
     southern Baltic. In 1724 Peter helped rescue some sailors whose ship was
     aground in the frigid waters of the Gulf of Finland. He caught a chill during
     the adventure and died shortly thereafter.
     Peter died without declaring a successor, and the forty years following his
     death saw a series of more or less weak regencies and short-lived rulers, the
     best of whom was probably his daughter, Elizabeth, who ruled from 1741 to
     1760. Under her reign the Moscow State University was founded in 1755 and
     Russia extended its control over western Ukraine.
     Elizabeth was followed by her nephew, the hugely unpopular Peter III. Peter's
     reign lasted only two years - when he was overthrown and (eventually
     murdered) by his wife, the remarkable Catherine II.
     Catherine was the daughter of a German prince. She came to Russia at the age
     of 15 to marry Peter III, the heir to the Russian throne. She educated
     herself by reading European literature. Beautiful, intelligent, and witty,
     she captured the hearts of the Russian nobility, who greatly preferred her to
     her husband, who was said to be feebleminded. She received their enthusiastic
     support when she engineered a palace coupe and assumed power at the age of
     Catherine reigned for thirty years. During that time she expanded the Russian
     Empire's borders, gaining important territory along the Black Sea and the
     Caspian Sea, as well as expansion east, beyond the Ural mountains. Catherine
     also added large chunks of Poland to the Empire when that country was
     partitioned between Austria, Prussia and Russia in 1772, though these would
     in the long run be far more of a liability than a benefit.
     During her reign Catherine also implemented many important reforms in Russia,
     attempting to improve the organization of and battle corruption in local
     governments. Despite her liberal reputation she was no especial friend to the
     Russian peasantry, however; in fact the odious practice of serfdom (slave
     labor) increased significantly during her reign, and the lot of the average
     peasant grew even harder.
     Catherine died in 1796. 
     The first two decades of the 19th century saw the rise and fall of one of
     Europe's greatest military figures, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France.
     Following the French Revolution, Bonaparte took a divided and weakened France
     and turned it into the most powerful nation in Europe. Russia and its allies
     were defeated at Austerlitz in 1805; the Russians and French fought again in
     1806 and 1807. There were five years of peace, followed by Napoleon's
     catastrophic invasion of Russia in 1812. Russian armies fought the French for
     two more years and were greatly responsible for Napoleon's final defeat and
     expulsion from Europe. Russia emerged from the wars as the preeminent
     military power on the continent.
     Russian military prestige suffered a major blow mid-century, when it was
     unable to defeat a small, incompetently-led French-English force during the
     Crimean War (1853-1856). This led the new Tsar, Alexander II, to attempt
     sweeping modernizations in the Empire, including the abolishment of serfdom
     in 1861. However the emancipation terms were highly onerous, requiring that
     the peasants pay annual "redemption payments" to buy their own freedom, and
     in many cases the newly-freed men were worse off than they had been as
     slaves. At this time Russia also instituted a series of legal reforms based
     upon European models, but although these were an improvement over the older
     system, the new laws still treated the peasantry as less than full citizens.
     The 1870s saw an increase in revolutionary activity, especially among
     university students. In 1873 students attempted to rouse the peasantry to
     revolution, but the peasants were mostly unimpressed, and many students were
     imprisoned or sent off to Siberia. The surviving revolutionaries then turned
     to covert action, including assassination attempts against high officials. In
     1881 a terrorist group successfully assassinated Alexander II. The main
     leaders of the group were captured and hanged.
     Alexander III, the new Tsar, implemented a series of repressive laws that
     restricted education and further restricted the citizens' already-limited
     In 1894 Alexander III died and his ill-fated son, Nicholas II, took the
     The Russo-Japanese War (1904 - 1905) saw a series of crushing Russian defeats
     at the hands of the Japanese. This significantly weakened the central
     government's prestige, and Russia underwent a series of damaging strikes and
     protests as various groups demanded a variety of reforms. In 1905 a group of
     St. Petersburg workers marched on the Winter Palace to give the Tsar a list
     of demands; they were met by troops who opened fire, killing 130. News of
     "Bloody Sunday" spread quickly throughout Russia, and riots broke out across
     the country. Later in the year the Tsar reluctantly agreed to implement an
     elected assembly. This did not satisfy the revolutionaries however, and
     unrest continued for two hard years.
     The creation of a new assembly, the "Duma," did succeed in splitting the
     opposition, as some chose to attempt reform from within the assembly, while
     the more radicalized opposition remained outside the system, throwing bombs.
     The country limped along, bleeding, until the cataclysmic Great War brought
     the entire system to the ground.
     World War I was an epic failure of diplomacy and rational thinking. In the
     pre-war years the nations of Europe had allied themselves to or against
     one-another in a series of defensive/offensive pacts that virtually
     guaranteed that any small conflict would drag the entire continent into a
     giant conflagration. In the event, in 1914 an Austro-Hungarian land-grab of
     Serbia brought Russia into the war on Serbia's side, Germany into the war on
     Austria's side, and France and Great Britain in on Russia's side, and so
     Tsar Nicholas II mobilized his forces as rapidly as possible, then marched
     them west to meet the German foe, who promptly encircled and captured most of
     the Russian armies. Then in 1915 a German/Austrian offensive marched
     virtually unopposed into Poland and from there into Russia's western
     provinces. This, plus the entry of Russia's traditional enemy Turkey into
     the war on the side of Germany placed incredible strain on the tottering
     Russian government.
     Tsar Nicholas II did not acquit himself well in the crisis. He moved his
     court to Belarusia, to be in "personal command of the army," which left
     day-to-day governing of the Empire to his wife and her hated advisor,
     Rasputin. In 1916 Rasputin was murdered by a conspiracy that included many of
     the Royal Family's most loyal allies.
     In 1916 the military situation improved, but the situation at home grew even
     worse. Food was short everywhere, as more peasants were called into the army
     and imports were cut off by the enemy. That plus rampant inflation led to
     increasing worker unrest. In 1917 the March Revolution called for the
     abolishment of the aristocracy. The government summoned Cossacks to disburse
     the crowd, but the Cossacks mutinied and went over to the insurgents. Soon
     thereafter the Duma joined the insurgency and on March 15, the Tsar was
     forced to abdicate. Later he and his family were executed.
     Imperial Russia was dead. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics had
     The USSR survived for fifty years. Its greatest triumph was its victory over
     Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War (World War II). It also served as a
     counterbalance to the United States, which in post WWII had nearly unlimited
     power. (Whether that was a good or a bad thing depends upon one's point of
     view.) Its greatest failure was its inability to improve its citizens'
     standard of living to match the other countries of Europe and the West. The
     Soviet Union ended in 1991, brought down to some extent by external pressure
     from the United States and its allies, but mainly by massive internal
     economic problems.
     The New Russian Federation is still a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an
     enigma. It has abandoned communism for what might be called oligarchic
     capitalism. It has created many multi-millionaires but many of its citizens
     are still poor. It has freed many of its client states - East Germany, the
     Ukraine, the Baltic States - but it still casts a heavy shadow on its
     neighbors (witness its recent invasion of ex-Soviet state Georgia). It's a
     democracy, but power seems more and more concentrated in one man. It's
     uncertain what will become of this long-lived country in the 21st century,
     but it surely will remain one of the most powerful and important nations on
    Russia has one of the best powers in the game, hands down. Resources will
    give an extra 1 production value, which is invaluable early on in the game, 
    and when it comes down to it, extra horses, iron and uranium will lead to more
    units that you can field on the battlefield, which is important, when it is
    later in the game, and technology advantages will be nullified somewhat.
    The Cossack is will get a powerful bonus when attacking, which is nice when
    you are on the attack, and they are probably the mainstay of your forces 
    during the Medieval Era. The Krepost is an early building, which replaces the
    barracks, it will reduce the culture cost of acquiring new tiles by 50%, which
    is very useful early on in the game. 
     Catherine the Great
     ~ History
    "Catherine the Great ruled Russia during the latter half of the 18th century.
     She oversaw a great expansion of the Russian empire, adding tens of thousands
     of square miles of territory through conquest and shrewd diplomacy. A
     beautiful and intelligent woman, she beguiled and seduced the best minds of
     Europe, making her court one of the centers of Enlightenment thinking on the
     Continent. Although born in Germany, Catherine is one of the greatest rulers
     in Russian history.
     Sophie Friederike Auguste Von Anhalt-Zerbst was born in Szczecin in 1729, a
     princess of Pomerania, a small kingdom in Prussia. At 16 she was married to
     Carl Peter Ulrich, the heir to the Russian throne, becoming Grand Duchess
     Catherine Alekseyevna. Catherine quickly learned Russian and joined the
     Russian Orthodox Church. Largely self-educated, Catherine immersed herself
     in the literature of the time. Endowed with both beauty and intelligence, she
     became strong friends (if not more) with the great thinkers of the day,
     including the brilliant French philosophers Rousseau and Diderot.
     Catherine's marriage was extremely unhappy. Her husband, the Tsar Peter III,
     was by all accounts a shabby and neurotic person. He was described as mean,
     cruel, hideous (from smallpox scars) and a drunkard. He was said to detest
     Russians and loved Prussians, which didn't endear him to the Russian court.
     Although born a foreigner, Catherine was far more popular with the nobility
     and, most importantly, with the Russian military.
     At the age of 33, with the support of the Imperial guard, she overthrew her
     husband, who was soon killed "in a hunting accident," leaving Catherine the
     sole ruler of Russia.
     As Empress, Catherine pursued an expansionist policy backed by military
     muscle. The "First Russo-Turkish War" (1768-1774) - declared by Sultan
     Mustafa III after a border incident in which a Cossack entered Ottoman
     territory and allegedly slaughtered the residents of Balta - was a resounding
     Russian success, gaining for Catherine the Southern Ukraine, Northern
     Caucasus and the Crimea, expanding Russian access to the Black Sea.
     The Ottomans tried to take their territory back in the Second
     Russo-Turkish war, but they failed miserably.
     In the years following the French Revolution, Catherine became afraid that
     Enlightenment movements throughout Europe would threaten the monarchies of
     Europe. Toward the end of the century Poland, a Russian puppet, began to show
     disturbing signs of edging toward democracy. In 1792 Russian forces defeated
     Polish loyalists in the Polish "War in Defense of the Constitution,"
     following which Poland was partitioned between Russia, Austria and Prussia.
     Throughout her reign Catherine maintained cordial relations with the great
     powers of Europe, Prussia, France and Austria, who in return did not stand in
     the way of Russian expansion.
     During her reign Catherine undertook a wide range of political reforms,
     attempting to shape up the notoriously corrupt and incompetent Russian
     bureaucracy. She tried to model her government and court on Versailles,
     France. She paid for her reforms by seizing property from the clergy, who
     owned almost one-third of the land and serfs in Russia. She curried favor
     with the aristocracy, expanding their already-great power over the Russian
     In 1773 a plague broke out in Russia, which was already suffering from
     ill-effects of the long war with Turkey. Taking advantage of growing public
     disaffection, Pugachov, a Cossack officer, pretended to be Catherine's dead
     husband, Tsar Peter III, and attempted to raise a peasant army to overthrow
     the Empress while the Russian military was locked in battle with the Turks.
     Fortunately for Catherine, the First Russo-Turkish War ended at just the
     right time, and a Russian army was able to return from the Front and crush
     the rebellion before it could reach Moscow. This made Catherine suspicious of
     the Russian peasants and she implemented even more repressive laws against
     A patron of the arts, Catherine commissioned many statues and paintings.
     Under her rule St. Petersburg was transformed from a primitive and forbidding
     city into one of the most beautiful and impressive European capitals. Her
     private art collection formed the basis of the famous Hermitage Museum, one
     of the world's great art museums.
     Despite her many public successes, Catherine is best known for her private
     excesses. Her affairs are legendary; it has been suggested that she slept
     with a fairly large fraction of the Russian officers corps, not to mention
     her many well-publicized dalliances with a horde of well-known European
     politicians and artists. It is said that once she tired of a lover Catherine
     would "pension him off," giving him a large gift of cash, peasants, and land
     somewhere far away from Moscow.
     Catherine's reign was notable for imperial expansion. Most important were the
     securing of the northern shore of the Black Sea, the annexation of the
     Crimea, and the expansion into the steppes beyond the Urals. This permitted
     the protection of Russian agricultural settlements in the south and the
     establishment of trade routes through the Black Sea. Catherine's partitioning
     of Poland also helped bring Russia closer to the rest of Europe, at least
     Catherine implemented many public work projects throughout Russia and its
     possessions. She also increased internal and foreign trade. On the other
     hand, she did little to improve the lot of the Russian peasant; in fact,
     their lives grew distinctly harder during her reign.
     Catherine died at the age of 67, having lived longer than any other Romanov
     monarch. Like Queen Elizabeth I of England, she proved that a woman could be
     smart enough and tough enough to lead a great country."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 6/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 7/10
     City State Competitiveness - 7/10
     Boldness                   - 3/10
    After playing Catherine, seeing she was the most powerful neighbour I had, I
    can say that although she is very competitive in all aspects, she is one of
    the least likely to piss me off with annoying messages saying how puny and
    weak I was, mainly because I had a few riflemen on the border. She is hard
    to fight though.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 4/10
     Hostile   - 6/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 5/10
     Afraid    - 5/10
     Friendly  - 7/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Yes, Catherine is more likely to be friendly rather than warlike, however,
    she is rather hostile if you get on her bad side, such as denying her a 
    treaty that she wants, or parking a few units near her border. Given the low
    war bias, it doesn't mean she won't declare war, she will, after making sure
    that you are all alone. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 4/10
     Friendly      - 6/10
     Protective    - 6/10
     Conquest      - 7/10
    Catherine is more likely to take over city states, but just. She is also quite
    likely to protect them, which is annoying if you don't want to go to war with
    her, but hey, nothing much you can do about it, if you want Belgrade, you will
    get it. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 6/10
     Defensive         - 6/10
     City Defence      - 6/10
     Military Training - 5/10
     Reconnaissance    - 5/10
     Ranged            - 5/10
     Mounted           - 6/10
    Catherine is quite average in terms of what units she will use, it is normally
    a balanced mixed. From being her neighbour on a massive map, invariably, she 
    will use more infantry, simply because it is cheaper to build, but she will 
    use mounted units. However, these scales are just bias towards one over the
    other, it isn't the same throughout.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 3/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 3/10
     Naval Growth           - 3/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 3/10
    Another leader that doesn't really care about the Navy, given that Russia, 
    during Catherine's reign, wasn't about the sea, it is will deserved. At 
    most, I've seen her use the sea to transport her land units, so as long as you
    can intercept them, that's about all you need to counter her in the sea.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 3/10
    Again, what tends to happen is that if you don't care about the sea, you 
    won't care about their air war either. She doesn't use air power, hardly if
    ever, but again, that doesn't mean that your air units will get free reign,
    most likely, lack of air power means a lot more AA units on the ground. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 8/10
     Growth           - 3/10
     Tile Improvement - 5/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 6/10
     Gold             - 5/10
     Science          - 8/10
     Culture          - 6/10
    Catherine will expand very quickly. She will have tons of cities, by the time
    I had 16 cities, she had about 30, which was odd. If you are close to her at
    the start, you might as well declare war on her and sit outside her borders to
    capture her settlers. She will tech up relatively quickly, which isn't good as
    her aggressive expansion will lead to a larger military response, so you will
    want to take her cities quickly if you want to wear her out. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 3/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 5/10
     Diplomacy     - 6/10
     Spaceship     - 9/10
    Besides the massive bias to go for the spaceship victory, Catherine will,
    interestingly enough, not care about happiness. This is very strange, with a
    unhappy empire, she will have very little growth, and that will drop her 
    science research abilities. 
    [3.16] Siam
     Leader          - Ramkhamhaeng
     Unique Unit 1   - Naresuan's Elephant, replaces Knight
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Wat, replaces University
     Civilization Power
      - The food and culture gifts from City-States are increased by 50%, the 
        amount depends on your relationship. 
     ~ History
    "Located in Southeast Asia between Burma (a.k.a. Myanmar), Laos, Cambodia and
     Malaysia, Siam - now Thailand - has a long and storied history. A beautiful
     and mysterious land of dark forests and ancient mountains, Siam has seen
     occupation and revolution, flood and famine, and the rise and fall of
     Siam is a semi-tropical country located in a monsoon zone. From May to
     October warm northwestern winds bring huge amounts of rainfall to the
     country, the west coast receiving an astonishing 160 inches of rain annually
     (the hilly north much less so). The wind reverses course from November to
     February, bringing cooler, drier weather to the country. The countryside is
     covered with forests, swamps and wetlands. The Siamese people have
     traditionally used water buffalo, horses, and even elephants as draft animals
     (though the late 20th century has seen the introduction of farm machinery
     across much of the country).
     The earliest known settlers of Siam spoke Mon-Khmer languages. There were
     several different groups on the southeast Asia peninsula. One, the Mon, were
     known to have accepted Buddhism as far back as the sixth century AD. Another
     group, the Khmer, were primarily located in Cambodia, their capital at Angkor
     (home of Angkor Wat); in the 12th century they possessed an empire stretching
     over half of modern Thailand. The Khmer tended to follow Hinduism rather than
     Around 1,000 AD the area saw an influx of Tai-speaking people called the
     "Tai." Modern historians generally believe that the Tai originated in
     northern Vietnam. In a few centuries the Tai had spread across much of
     Southeast Asia, as far west as northeastern India and as far south as the
     Malay Peninsula. By the 13th century the Tai were numerous enough to threaten
     the Mon and Khmer primacy in Siam.
     In the mid-thirteenth century a Tai ruler successfully revolted against the
     Khmer Empire, founding the Sukhothai kingdom. It remained a small,
     unimportant power until the ascension of its third ruler, Ramkhamhaeng, in
     1279. In twenty short years this extraordinary leader would transform the
     small kingdom of Sukhothai into a major regional power.
     During his reign Ramkhamhaeng expanded his kingdom's dominance west into
     Burma, east into Laos, and south down the Malay Peninsula. The king was a
     shrewd diplomat as well as a warlord; many territories joined his
     confederation voluntarily. Towards the end of his rule Ramkhamhaeng had a
     stone inscribed detailing his triumphs. It portrays a wealthy, contented
     kingdom ruled by a loving and benevolent monarch. Ramkhamhaeng died in 1298.
     For more on Ramkhamhaeng, see his Civilopedia entry.
     Sukhothai would last a century past its greatest leader's death before being
     consumed by Ayutthaya, a new Tai power rising in the south.
     The kingdom of Ayutthaya was founded by Ramathibodi I in 1351 on the Chao
     Phraya River Basin, a fertile plain just north of modern Bangkok. The kingdom
     was formed on the remains of an earlier kingdom, Lavo. In 1352 King
     Ramathibodi attacked the Khmer, driving them east out of Siam. By 1387
     Ayutthaya was strong enough to attack north, conquering Sukhothai. And in
     1431 the kingdom attacked the Khmer once more, this time capturing and
     sacking the capital city of Angkor after a seven-month siege.
     By all accounts the city of Ayutthaya was beautiful and wealthy. It was
     traversed by a series of north-south canals which brought water to all
     sections of the city. The remains of magnificent palaces and temples can be
     seen in the city today. The Tai of Ayutthaya were the first people in the
     area to be called "Siamese," and this of course eventually became the name of
     the entire country.
     From the Khmer, the Ayutthayans adopted the belief in the divinity of the
     king. The king was above all people. None could gaze upon his face, except
     for members of the royal family. In addition to the king's increased
     religious/ceremonial power, King Trailok (1448-1488) reorganized the state to
     concentrate political power in the hands of the monarchy as well.
     Socially, the Ayutthayans lived under a rigid caste system that assigned a
     numerical value to each person according to his or her rank. A slave was
     worth five units (called "sakdi na"), a freeman 25 or so, and the heir to the
     throne perhaps 100,000 units. (The king himself was probably worth a
     gazillion - or even more!) Both Buddhism and Hinduism were followed in the
     Having dealt with Sukhothai to the north and Khmer to the southeast, the
     greatest threat to Ayutthaya lay in Burma, to the west. In 1569 Ayutthaya was
     overrun and conquered by Burma. It regained its independence at the end of
     the 15th century. Burmese troops once again sacked the city in 1767. This
     time they deported the royal family, burned the city to the ground, and
     destroyed all of the Ayutthayan works of art and historical records. The
     Kingdom never recovered from this attack. However a new Siamese kingdom would
     rapidly rise to power in Ayutthaya's ashes.
     In 1767 (the same year that saw the final destruction of Ayutthaya), a Tai
     leader named "Taksin" founded a new capital city at Thon Buri, some forty
     miles downstream from Ayutthaya (near present-day Bangkok). Built on the
     eastern side of the Chao Phraya River, the city was easier to defend from
     Burmese forces; located closer to the open sea, the city was ideally suited
     to accommodate international trade as well. In fact Taksin encouraged Chinese
     merchants to establish businesses in Thon Buri, and tax revenue from this
     trade was used to rebuild the Siamese economy, devastated from the recent
     Burmese attack.
     Taking advantage of his country's wealth, Taksin constructed a powerful army
     and began expanding its territory. After retaking the territory that had
     belonged to Sukhothai and Ayutthaya, Taksin's troops conquered additional
     territory in Laos, and pushed the Burmese forces out of traditional Tai lands
     to the north. In 1782 Taksin began showing signs of serious mental illness
     and was overthrown and killed. He was succeeded by a general named "Chao
     Phraya Chakri" (he later changed his name to Rama I). The Chakri dynasty has
     remained in power in Thailand until today.
     Shortly after assuming the throne, the new king moved his capital to Bangkok,
     a small village across the Chao Phraya River. Bangkok quickly grew into a
     bustling trading city, largely due to the many Chinese who immigrated to the
     King Rama I and his successors continued to expand Siamese power into Laos
     and south down the Malay Peninsula. They also continued to clash with Burma,
     who remained a perennial menace until that country in turn was menaced by
     Great Britain (approaching from India).
     King Rama I was also a great patron of Siamese culture, religion and the law.
     He rebuilt Siamese temples and palaces, and he greatly updated the Siamese
     legal system. His successor, Rama III (ruled 1809-24) was a patron of the
     arts, and no mean poet himself.
     Perhaps the greatest triumph of Siamese diplomacy was that it avoided
     occupation by Western powers, unlike every other country in Southeast Asia.
     In 1826 Siam signed a treaty with Great Britain, and in 1855 this was
     expanded to allow the British unrestricted - and untaxed! - trade in Siamese
     ports. The British also secured the right to set up separate law courts to
     try cases involving British subjects. This was a humiliating loss of
     sovereignty and income for Siam, but it kept Britain from invading and
     occupying the country, and Siam soon signed similar treaties with other
     European powers and the United States.
     King Rama IV (ruled 1851 - 1868) was a keen student of the West. He
     appointed to his court several Western advisors. He also hired the
     Englishwoman Anna Harriette Leonowens to tutor his children. Mrs. Leonowens
     later wrote a book about her adventures, and that book became the basis for
     the musical "The King and I." Both the book and the musical are highly
     entertaining and (according to historians) highly inaccurate.
     In some ways King Rama IV was rather enlightened for that place and time. A
     former Buddhist monk before assuming the throne, he sought to reform Buddhism
     in the country, which he believed had become corrupt and filled with
     superstition. He also began to remake the Siamese monarchy, removing from it
     the more onerous trappings of godhood. Although he remained largely an
     absolute ruler, at least his subjects were allowed to look directly at him.
     King Rama IV's son, Rama V, reigned from 1868 to 1910. He continued his
     father's practice of granting concessions to the West to maintain Siam's
     independence, losing large chunks of Laotian and Cambodian territory to the
     French and various bits of Malaysia to the British. He further reformed the
     monarchy and the government in general, including abolishing slavery,
     introducing a modern school system, constructing railways and telegraph
     systems, and establishing a new law court and judiciary.
     King Rama V's two successors, the aptly-named Rama VI (ruled 1910-1925) and
     Rama VII (ruled 1925-1935), continued the modernization of Siam. In 1917 Rama
     VI opened the first university in Thailand. In that year he also entered
     World War I on the side of the Allies. He was able after the war to convince
     the victors to give up their special concessions in Siam, regaining for the
     first time in seventy-five years full independence for his country. However,
     Rama VI's reforms and wars were extremely expensive and necessitated
     reductions in government spending which caused deep resentment from the
     people. The discontent continued into his successor's reign, and it was
     exacerbated by the Great Depression.
     In 1932 a group of students under a lawyer named "Pridi Phanomyong" and
     supported by the Siamese military staged a bloodless coup, compelling the
     king to agree to rule under a constitution and to accept the formation of a
     National Assembly. In 1933 members of the royal family attempted
     unsuccessfully to stage a counter-coup, and King Rama VII was forced to
     leave the country, abdicating in 1935. A regency council was appointed to act
     until the very young Prince Ananda Mahidol came of age.
     In truth, however, the military was now running the country. In 1938 a field
     marshal (and one of the co-conspirators of the '32 coup that toppled Rama
     VII) became military dictator. Dictator Phibun Songkhram changed the name of
     the country to Thailand, encouraged Thai nationalism as well as anti-Chinese
     and pro-Japanese sentiment. In 1940, following the conquest of France by
     Germany, he invaded and captured French territory in Laos and Cambodia.
     Late in 1941, following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese troops marched
     into Thailand and requested right of passage through the country to
     facilitate their attack on Singapore, which was held by Great Britain. The
     Thai forces put up minimal symbolic resistance and then were ordered to lay
     down their arms. In 1942 Thailand signed an Alliance with Japan and declared
     war on Britain and the US. Resistance groups formed in the country and
     overseas, attacking the Japanese and the collaborating Thai government. In
     July 1944 Phibun was forced to resign, and the dictatorship collapsed
     following Japan's surrender in 1945.
     Thailand got off relatively lightly following World War II. It had to return
     the territories it had snarfed up from the French, but generally it suffered
     no other penalties. It did suffer from a great deal of internal strife,
     however. In 1946 the king was found dead of a gunshot wound. The current
     leader of the government was blamed for the king's death and forced into
     exile, the proto-fascist Dictator Phibun Songkhram returning to power.
     In the Cold War years the United States funneled huge sums of money into
     Thailand, most of which was taken by the military and the dictatorship. A
     majority of the country's industry was owned by the dictator and his cronies,
     and in 1957 the military staged another coup, placing yet another field
     marshal, Sarit Thanarat, in charge.
     Thanarat ruled for five years. While maintaining total control over the
     government and military, he implemented economic reforms that spread the
     wealth among the growing Thai middle class, earning a good deal of popular
     support for doing so. The US gave him even more money, which he used to
     support the military, but also to improve the Thai infrastructure. Thanarat
     also gave support to the monarchy, which by then had no political power, but
     which once again became a powerful symbol of Thai nationalism. A popular
     leader during his life, after his death Thanarat's popularity waned a good
     deal when it was discovered how much of Thailand's money he had stolen and
     hidden away.
     Thanarat's successors continued to receive huge amounts of American money,
     and in return they supported the American adventure in Vietnam. By the end of
     the 1960s more than 10,000 Thai troops were serving in Vietnam, and thousands
     of American soldiers were stationed in Thailand, which provided an important
     base for the US Air Force. Popular discontent for the war and the government
     grew, and in 1973 a student-led revolt drove the current leaders into exile.
     Thailand enjoyed a brief period of parliamentary democracy, but in 1976 the
     military staged yet another coup, this time with the support of the monarchy.
     This in turn drove many disaffected Thais into the jungles, swelling the
     ranks of the insurgent Communist Party of Thailand. In 1980 the military
     ousted the right-wing government they had just installed and replaced it with
     a dictator with more democratic leanings. For the next eight years the
     military shared power with parliament, mediated by the king, and in 1988 an
     elected Prime Minister was put in power...for three years, when he was
     toppled by the military.
     In 1992 the military "junta" held elections, which one of its own members
     won, much to nobody's surprise. The public were dissatisfied with this
     outcome, staging massive protests, which were put down with bloody force.
     Eventually the king intervened, the current dictator resigned and a more
     democratic government was put into place. This lasted for eight glorious
     years, until in 2006 increasing public dissatisfaction and government
     excesses led to... another military coup.
     With the elderly king's backing, another caretaker government was formed
     with a retired general put in charge. Another new constitution was drafted
     and ratified by popular vote in August of 2007. In September 2008 another
     prime minister was found guilty of a conflict of interest by the
     Constitutional Court. In October his replacement was unable to enter his
     office, which was occupied by protestors, so he was forced out of office.
     The latest prime minister (as of this writing) took office in December of
     Who can tell? Thailand is a great country with a great history, beset by a
     seemingly never-ending series of political troubles. Things are especially
     uncertain because the current King, Bhumibol Adulyadej, arguably the only
     man capable of holding the country together, is over 80 years old. It is
     greatly to be hoped that the country can survive his passing without
     further chaos. Given the battered country's recent history, the odds do not
     seem to be in its favor."
    The power of Siam is pretty weak, City States generally don't give too much
    of a benefit overall, well, I don't tend to use their powers much at all, I
    capture them, they often are in good strategic positions. This is why Siam 
    is harder to play, simply because the Civilization power is so critical in
    the game, and with such a weak one like this compared to ones like Russia, 
    it is a shame. 
    Now, Naresuan's Elephant is useful as it doesn't require Horses as a 
    strategic resource to build, but it is slower than your average Knight that
    it replaces. However, it does have a 50% bonus against enemy mounted units,
    so you probably won't be needing Pikemen to do that job. The Wat replaces
    the university, and removes the science bonus from working Jungle tiles, and
    replaces that with an extra 3 culture points per turn. 
     ~ History
    "In 1278, a prince named "Ramkhamhaeng" inherited the small and unimportant
     kingdom of Sukhothai. In twenty years, employing a brilliant combination of
     military genius and shrewd diplomacy, he expanded his country's borders and
     influence to cover much of Southeast Asia.
     Not much is known about Ramkhamhaeng's early life. His parents were King Sri
     Indraditya and Queen Sueang. He had two sisters and two older brothers, one
     of whom died early and the other, Ban Mueang, became king on their father's
     death. Ramkhamhaeng was said to have studied under the poet wise-man
     At 19 he served under his father during the latter's attack on the city of
     Sukhothai, which was held by the Khmer. The success of this attack greatly
     expanded the king's power, essentially establishing Sukhothai as an
     independent kingdom. Because of his heroic actions during the battle the
     prince was given the title "Phra Ram Khamhaeng," or Rama the Bold.
     Upon the death of his father in 1257, his brother, the new king Ban Mueang,
     put Ramkhamhaeng in charge of the city of Si Sat Chanalai. Ban Mueang died
     twenty years later, and Ramkhamhaeng ascended to the throne.
     During his reign Ramkhamhaeng expanded his kingdom's dominance west into
     Burma, east into Laos, and south down the Malay Peninsula. The king was a
     shrewd diplomat as well as a warlord; many territories joined his
     confederation voluntarily. Ramkhamhaeng did not seek to dominate Southeast
     Asia, rather he promoted trade and diplomatic alliances with surrounding
     Most of what we know of Ramkhamhaeng's rule comes from a stone inscription
     he created in 1292 towards the end of his rule. This is the earliest
     surviving example of Thai language, and it portrays him as a wise and
     benevolent leader.
     Ramkhamhaeng was an ardent patron of Buddhism. He also supported the arts
     and Thai artistic expression achieved an especially high level during his
     reign, especially in bronze sculpture and ceramics.
     Ramkhamhaeng died in 1298. His extended empire, held together by his
     personal magnetism and brilliant international diplomacy, did not long
     survive his death, and the furthest provinces soon broke away. Sukhothai
     itself survived another century before it fell.
     Ramkhamhaeng is viewed today as a great leader and the first to rule over a
     united Siam (later Thailand). It should be remembered however that almost all
     that we know about him comes from the stone inscription that he himself
     created. If he did have any major flaws, would he have carved them into the
     living rock for all of history to see? (Would any of today's world leaders
     do so?)
     Still, there is plenty of independent evidence to show that he successfully
     created a great empire and his people prospered during his reign. And that's
     a record that any leader could be proud of."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 3/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 4/10
     City State Competitiveness - 4/10
     Boldness                   - 5/10
    Ramkhamhaeng is a relatively tame leader. In all my matches that I have seen
    him, he doesn't last very long, he gets conquered pretty quickly. In this 
    game, if you aren't aggressive half the time, you will lose quicksmart. He is
    relatively benign, just don't take him for a total pushover though, you might
    be surprised. 
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 6/10
     Hostile   - 3/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 7/10
     Afraid    - 5/10
     Friendly  - 7/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Again, he is a friendly leader, he isn't there to blow you up completely. 
    However, if he does hate you, he will declare war, really, up to what the AI
    perceives of you and your current situation that will decide between war and
    peace. He will be rather deceptive, everyone loves those pacts, and he will
    be very defensive, so as long as you can crush the defence, no dramas. 
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 3/10
     Friendly      - 7/10
     Protective    - 7/10
     Conquest      - 5/10
    Again, his peacefulness will extend to the city states, he won't conquer 
    them too much, he will most likely go ahead and protect them from any real
    predators, such as you, and help them out. Given that his power does rely
    heavily on city states, they are a good target if you want to soften him up
    a little before the attack. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 5/10
     Defensive         - 8/10
     City Defence      - 6/10
     Military Training - 5/10
     Reconnaissance    - 4/10
     Ranged            - 5/10
     Mounted           - 4/10
    As you can guess, his peacefulness will impact how many offensive ground
    units he will use on you, which means he won't be having warriors all over 
    your borders. He will defend his lands pretty well, and that means a lot of
    garrisoned units as well as walls around his cities. He isn't that hard to
    beat, just fire a few cannons into his cities and watch him turn around and
    run away.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 3/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 3/10
     Naval Growth           - 3/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 3/10
    Ramkhamhaeng won't pay attention to the navy or to the seas as much as some
    leaders would, like Elizabeth. He will pretty much only use the seas to
    improve fish tiles or to send his units across, but other than that, you 
    don't have to worry about him sending frigates after you. 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 5/10
    Ramkhamhaeng will use air power a fair bit, he isn't afraid to take to the
    skies unlike other leaders, although he will use mainly interceptors to take
    out enemy fighters and bombers over his lands, he isn't there to fly stealth
    bombers on your cities or the like. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 6/10
     Growth           - 6/10
     Tile Improvement - 6/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 5/10
     Science          - 5/10
     Culture          - 8/10
    Ramkhamhaeng is mainly focussed on culture, and that's about it. All the
    rest, he will do as a normal AI player would do, slowly expand, build up his
    empire, and the like, but culture, he will go crazy over, so be careful when
    you face him in a cultural victory battle, he might just win. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 6/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 5/10
     Diplomacy     - 8/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    Despite the usual spaceship bias, Ramkhamhaeng will try to win via the United
    Nations as well. As a peaceful leader, he won't be using military force, just
    pure diplomacy. Just take down a few of his protected city states to quash
    that dream before it becomes a reality. 
    [3.17] Songhai
     Leader          - Askia
     Unique Unit 1   - Mandekalu Cavalry, replaces Knight
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Mud Pyramid Mosque, replaces Temple
     Civilization Power
      - Embarked ground units can defend themselves. All pillaged cities and
        destroyed barbarian encampments will provide double gold. 
     ~ History
    "The Songhai Empire was a civilization that flourished in West Africa during
     the 15th and 16th centuries. The Songhai first appeared near the city of Gao,
     which was a vassal of the Malinese Empire. In the early 14th century the
     Songhai gained independence from the Mali, and over the next two centuries
     it expanded, eventually becoming the largest empire in African history.
     The terrain of western Africa that was occupied by the Songhai is largely
     flat and arid, dominated by two major river systems, the Niger and Senegal,
     which provide cheap and rapid east-west transport as well as rich farmland
     along their banks. The climate is hot and tropical with two main seasons,
     dry and wet. From March until June a hot, dry wind blows out of the Sahara,
     and daytime temperatures are often above 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
     Before the rise of the Songhai, much of central Western Africa was controlled
     by the Mali Empire. This empire is believed to have been founded sometime
     before 1,000 AD. It was largely a trading empire and literally the crossroads
     of Africa, controlling the important north-south Saharan commercial routes as
     well as the east-west river routes. Under the great leader Mansa Musa (1307
     - 1331?), the Malinese Empire conquered the wealthy cities of Timbuktu and
     Gao and gained control of the valuable salt deposits to the north.
     Mali was a Muslim empire, and under Musa the city of Timbuktu became an
     important center of learning in the Muslim world. However, by the turn of the
     14th century the empire had grown too large for sustainable centralized rule,
     and major territories began to assert their independence and calve off. This
     included Gao, the home of the Songhai.
     The Songhai are believed to have first appeared in Gao around 800 AD. Little
     is known about their early history, but it is known that in the 11th century,
     King Kossoi converted to Islam, and he also made Gao the capital of the
     growing Songhai kingdom. Under Songhai rule Gao grew wealthy and prosperous,
     and in the early 13th century the Mali conquered the Songhai, making the
     kingdom a vassal state. Songhai remained under Mali control for perhaps fifty
     years, before regaining its independence under King Sulaiman-Mar.
     Songhai maintained a precarious freedom for the next century, until a great
     new leader, Sunni Ali Ber, propelled it into greatness.
     >Sunni Ali Ber ruled the Songhai for thirty years (1464-1493). He was a
     brilliant military leader and strategist. Taking advantage of Mali's growing
     feebleness, Sunni led Songhai armies to conquer the wealthy city of Timbuktu,
     driving out the marauding Taureg people who had taken over the city as
     Malinese power declined. He expanded his empire further west, gobbling up all
     Malinese land north of Jenne (a.k.a., Djenne). He was not unopposed in his
     expansion. Over the course of his reign he repelled assaults from the Mossi,
     Dogon, and Fulani.
     In 1473 Ali Ber sought the greatest prize, the wealthy trading city of Jenne.
     Jenne was still a part of the Malinese Empire, and its people put up a stout
     defense. Unable to take the city by storm Ali Ber laid siege to it. The city
     held out stubbornly for seven years before capitulating.
     The records of the day generally regard Ali Ber as an unstable tyrant, who
     was by turns generous and brutal, who ruled with an iron fist and who
     slaughtered and oppressed those he captured. There may be some exaggeration,
     as the Muslim scholars who recorded the histories disliked Ali Ber for the
     unorthodox form of Islam he practiced, apparently a kind of fusion between
     Islam and traditional Songhai religious observances.
     Muhammad I Askia ruled Songhai from 1493 until 1528. The word "Askia" means
     "usurper," which is how he came to power, overthrowing Ali Ber's son and heir
     less than a year after Ber's death. That he chose "usurper" for his title and
     dynastic name suggests that this extraordinary man had an extraordinary sense
     of humor.
     Although he fought a war to gain the crown of Songhai, Askia was more than a
     warlord. He fought several battles during his reign, with mixed success, but
     he is primarily known as a reformer, organizer, and man of god. During his
     reign he created a bureaucracy to help rule the empire and to bring coherency
     to its tax, military, and agricultural policies. He opened many religious
     schools across Songhai, and in 1495 he made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca.
     Askia ruled until 1528, when he was deposed by his son.
     In the years following Askia's removal, no other leader was able to take and
     hold power for any significant length of time. Askia's son, Musa reigned for
     three years; he was followed by Muhammad II, who lasted for six years; and
     the next two leaders lasted for two and ten years respectively. In 1549 Askia
     Dawud came to power; he ruled for some thirty-three years, until 1582. This
     relative stability was shattered when the Sultan of Morocco raided the
     Songhai's valuable salt deposits at Taghaza.
     The end came in 1591. Seeing that the Songhai were weak and divided, and most
     of all, lacked modern weaponry, a Moroccan army armed with muskets launched a
     major attack. The Songhai warriors were completely routed, the leaders driven
     into the hills and the Moroccans captured the major cities of Timbuktu and
     Gao. In one shocking campaign, an entire empire was virtually wiped from the
     The fall of Songhai was brutal and rapid. In many ways it resembled the
     conquest of the Aztec Empire some seventy years earlier in 1521. In their day
     both of these empires were mighty, rich and powerful and thought themselves
     invulnerable. Both were brought down by a small force armed with markedly
     superior technology. It reminds us of the famous rule, "Never bring a knife
     to a gunfight. Bring a gun. Preferably, bring at least two guns." This is as
     true in empires as it is in gunfights."
    The Songhai empire is best early on in the game, where barbarians roam freely
    and you will have a lot of encampments to pillage. Later on in the game, you 
    will be able to pillage enemy cities, and this is a very rich source of gold
    later in the game.
    Mandekalu Cavalry is significantly more powerful than the knight, which is a 
    good advantage to have during the Medieval Era, and they will also have a good
    bonus when they are attacking against enemy cities. The Mud Pyramid is the 
    same as the temple, but instead of providing 3 culture, it will provide 5 
    culture instead. 
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 5/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 8/10
     City State Competitiveness - 4/10
     Boldness                   - 7/10
    Askia will compete heavily for Wonders, and that does make him annoying if 
    you are like me, wanting to build every single Wonder known to man in my 
    cities. He will also be quite in your face, and given how he is displayed in
    the portrait, warlike and all, not a surprise. 
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 7/10
     Hostile   - 6/10
     Deceptive - 4/10
     Guarded   - 6/10
     Afraid    - 3/10
     Friendly  - 6/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Askia is more likely to declare war on you than anything else, which is rather
    annoying, or useful if you are planning on annexing some of his fine cities 
    for your empire. He is also friendly at times, but this is normally when he
    can't declare war on you, basically, when you outnumber the hell out of him 
    and he can't defeat you.
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 5/10
     Protective    - 4/10
     Conquest      - 8/10
    Like Montezuma, this guy is more likely to see a city state as a weak empire,
    and kill it quickly. There will be no talk, there will be no diplomacy, there
    will just be pillaging. Well, on the bright side, when he kills off the city
    state, you can take it back, and keep it under your control, as most City 
    States are placed in nice locations, close to resources.
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 8/10
     Defensive         - 4/10
     City Defence      - 5/10
     Military Training - 6/10
     Reconnaissance    - 5/10
     Ranged            - 5/10
     Mounted           - 7/10
    Askia will pack a lot of offensive units, basically, a hell of lot of melee 
    units will be on your border. There will also be a hell of a lot of mounted
    units, so you want to pack a few pikemen or counters to such units to ensure 
    that your infantry won't be decimated. Otherwise, once the offensive push is
    crushed, Askia will be pretty easy to conquer.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 6/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 6/10
     Naval Growth           - 6/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 6/10
    Askia will often use a navy to his advantage, mainly to ensure that you don't
    have an easy time on the seas. This isn't that bad, compared to other leaders
    such as Elizabeth, his idea of a navy isn't that bad, just a few leaky boats
    that you can sink.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 4/10
    Askia isn't that big on air power, he won't tend to use it as often as he 
    could, and this, combined with his ground assaults, is good for you. Since he
    will be on the offensive, in your land as much as possible, your air units 
    will pretty much have an easy time to eliminate him since the ground units
    won't be that well protected. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 5/10
     Growth           - 6/10
     Tile Improvement - 5/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 8/10
     Science          - 4/10
     Culture          - 6/10
    Askia is very slow to tech up, which is one of the best things, you can 
    easily defeat his big army with smaller amounts of highly advanced units. 
    He will tend to concentrate to settle and attack areas with lots of luxury
    resources, things like gold and gem mines, silk and spice plantations. He
    is pretty much average in other respects. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 4/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 3/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    Again, the spaceship bias, other than that, Askia won't concentrate much on 
    anything else. At least you don't have to worry about the issue of the 
    United Nations with Askia. He'll just kill everyone who doesn't vote for him,
    that's all. 
    [3.18] United States
     Leader          - George Washington
     Unique Unit 1   - B17, replaces Bomber
     Unique Unit 2   - Minuteman, replaces Musketman
     Unique Building - None
     Civilization Power
      - Sight increased for all land units and all tile costs are discounted.
     ~ History
    "The United States of America is a world "super-power" (which more or less
     means that it possesses weapons capable of destroying everything on the
     planet). A relatively young civilization, the United States formed in the
     18th century, nearly self-destructed in the 19th century, and became the most
     powerful and dominant military, technological, cultural and economical
     civilization in the 20th. One can hardly guess what will happen to it in the
     The United States spans the continent of North America and includes Alaska in
     the far north and several islands in the Pacific Ocean. Conditions vary
     widely across the country, from near-Arctic in Alaska to near-tropic
     conditions in Florida, to arid desert in Arizona. The continent is bisected
     by two mountain ranges, the older and lower Appalachians in the east, and
     the much younger and bigger Rockies in the west. The central plains between
     the two ranges drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Missouri/Mississippi
     River system. The country borders on the Great Lakes, some of the largest
     freshwater bodies of water on the planet.
     Despite several centuries of enthusiastic harvesting, the United States
     still has plentiful forests, coal supplies and other natural resources.
     Some historians hypothesize that North America was originally settled by
     Eurasian people who migrated onto the continent via the "Beringia"
     land-bridge that once connected Alaska and Russia. This theory is under
     debate, and even more so is the question of how many waves of settlers there
     were and when the first settlers arrived. There appears to be some agreement
     that the natives migrated between 9,000 and 50,000 years ago (which is quite
     a spread). It's also quite possible that the natives arrived in a series of
     waves over many years, with some groups migrating south along the western
     coastline, while later groups moved inland, into the heart of Canada and the
     United States.
     Over time these groups spread across the continents, developing language,
     hunting skills, arts and crafts, and so forth. They did not domesticate
     horses, however (having consumed all of the horse's ancestors before figuring
     out that they might be good for something else).
     Estimates on how many natives lived in the portion of North America that
     would eventually become the United States also vary, ranging from five to
     twenty-five million. In any event, the first European visitors brought with
     them a number of extremely unpleasant diseases (like measles and smallpox)
     that the natives' immune systems were totally unaccustomed to, and 90 percent
     or even more of the North American native population died from disease within
     a century of the first white man's arrival.
     Having lost 90% of their population, lacking guns or any significant
     industrial technology, the natives were relatively helpless in the face of
     massive European assault.
     Four European groups set up colonies in North America, beginning in the 16th
     century: the French in Canada, the British (with a small settlement of Dutch
     right in the center), and the Spanish in Florida and points south. Over time
     the English would conquer the French colonies to the north and the Dutch
     colony at Manhattan, and with the exception of Florida, the entire eastern
     seaboard would be English. As discussed above, the native population was
     ravaged by disease and badly outgunned, unable to resist the European
     As the 18th century progressed, the British colonies in North America grew
     and prospered. Immigrants from Great Britain and elsewhere arrived in the
     country in great numbers, drawn by the promise of land, wealth, and often to
     escape religious persecution in the mother country. The slave trade provided
     plenty of cheap labor, and British North America began to establish
     agriculture and light industry.
     Tensions grew between the colonies and the British government as the century
     progressed. The colonies were controlled by Crown-appointed governors and
     they did not have direct representation in the British Parliament. Further,
     the colonials chafed under what they considered to be unfair trade
     restrictions from Great Britain. Meanwhile, the government thought that the
     colonials were in large ungrateful rabble who had no idea how much money the
     Crown was spending on their protection.
     By the late 1770's the American colonies were in open revolt, and on July 4,
     1776 the United States declared their independence. As the war opened the
     Colonists were grossly outgunned and outmanned by the highly-trained British
     Army, particularly since the British Navy had absolute control of the seas
     and thus could move large numbers of troops up and down the coast with
     impunity. The Continental Army, untrained and untested, was no match for the
     The commander of the Continental Army was George Washington, a wealthy
     Virginia landowner with some military experience (he was a colonel in the
     British army in the French and Indian War). His first major battles were
     nearly catastrophes - his overly-complex battle-plans collapsed in the face
     of enemy action and his troops' inexperience. Washington had several
     important qualities: his personal heroism and calm in the face of disaster
     allowed him to extract his army from almost certain destruction, and he also
     learned quickly from his mistakes.
     The Redcoats having failed to crush the Continental Army when it had the
     chance, the American Revolutionary War became a long, drawn-out, grinding war
     of wills. The British Army couldn't pin down the American forces long enough
     to defeat them, and as the years passed British war-weariness grew.
     In 1778 the French entered the war on the side of the United States, and in
     1779 so did Spain. While unable to match the British Navy ship for ship the
     French were occasionally able to gain local superiority, and this proved
     decisive. In 1781 the Continental Army besieged the British Army at Yorktown,
     Virginia. With the French Navy off-shore the British were unable to escape,
     and British General Cornwallis surrendered to Washington on October 19,
     In 1787 the states convened a Constitutional Convention, and the new
     Constitution was ratified the next year. In 1789 George Washington was
     elected president.
     In 1803 the United States purchased 828,800 square miles of North American
     territory from France. This territory included most of the terrain in the
     Mississippi Valley, from the Rocky Mountains in the west to Ohio in the east.
     This deal, which doubled the size of the United States, cost around
     $15,000,000, a shockingly good deal for the US. It was also a good deal for
     France: France was at war with Great Britain (see below), and as the British
     controlled the seas, the French had no way to profit from or to protect this
     territory from the British. The French also saw it as a poke in Britain's
     eye. French leader Napoleon Bonaparte said of the deal, "This accession of
     territory affirms forever the power of the United States. I have given
     England a maritime rival who will sooner or later humble her pride."
     President Thomas Jefferson received a good deal of criticism for the purchase
     at the time, but historians tend to agree that he got one hell of a bargain.
     As the eighteenth century opened, France was convulsed in its own revolution.
     Many Americans believed that France would become a democracy, but instead
     Napoleon Bonaparte emerged as ruler and within a few years had himself
     declared emperor. As Napoleon extended his power across continental Europe,
     Great Britain countered with its unmatchable navy, imposing an embargo on
     trade with France and at times most of the rest of Europe. This hurt American
     commerce deeply. Further, British warships routinely stopped and searched
     American vessels looking for deserted British sailors. This was considered
     an intolerable breach of American sovereignty, and in 1812 the United States
     declared war on Great Britain. (Some historians believe that the US declared
     war primarily to justify a land-grab of British possession Canada.)
     The primary American weapon in this war was the commerce raiding vessel.
     Small to mid-sized American ships plied the oceans, snatching up British
     merchant ships, strangling British trade. On land the Americans launched an
     invasion of Canada, which the British and Canadian forces repelled without
     great difficulty. The British navy, stretched thin by the decade-old conflict
     with France, found it almost impossible to blockade the American coast or
     track down its commerce raiders. It was far more successful on land, and in
     fact a British army fought its way to Washington, DC, the American capital,
     and burned much of it to the ground.
     Despite this stinging blow to American pride, the British and American
     governments both realized that neither had much of a chance of winning the
     war, and that further conflict would merely expend valuable treasure and
     lives to no purpose. In December of 1814 the two countries signed the "Treaty
     of Ghent," which simply called for the cessation of hostilities: neither side
     gained or lost territory, and none of the root causes of the war were
     addressed. The war was a tie.
     In 1835, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna abolished the Mexican
     constitution, replacing it with a new constitution that concentrated power in
     the Mexican central government. Several Mexican states revolted at that time,
     including the state of Coahuila y Tejas (which included the territory that
     would become Texas). Despite early successes (including the capture of the
     Alamo fort), eventually Santa Anna was defeated and captured. Bargaining from
     this position of extreme weakness, Santa Anna grudgingly agreed to Texan
     The Mexican government deposed Santa Anna while he was captive and disavowed
     the treaty. Low-level fighting continued between the new "Republic of Texas"
     and Mexico, while parties in Texas and the United States schemed for ways to
     get Texas into the Union. In 1845 the American Congress passed a bill that
     would allow the US to annex Texas, and then president John Tyler signed it
     into law. At the same time, Mexico saw an influx of other American citizens
     into its northern territories (including California), some of whom openly
     avowed that they were going to take those into the US as well. Late in 1845
     Texas was made into a state, and in 1846 American troops were occupying the
     disputed territory. When Mexican cavalry clashed with an American patrol,
     killing 11 soldiers, the US government used that as an excuse to declare war.
     The war was short and decisive. After a few opening skirmishes in Texas and
     northern Mexico, an American army of some 12,000 soldiers landed at Veracruz,
     Mexico, and marched west. The Mexican army was defeated at every turn, and in
     short order United States troops occupied Mexico City. Defeated, the Mexican
     government signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ceding to the United
     States the land that would become the states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona,
     California, Nevada, and parts of Wyoming, Oklahoma and Colorado. In return
     the US paid Mexico $18,250,000, or roughly half a billion in today's dollars.
     In addition to stealing large chunks of valuable land from Mexico, the war
     had one other benefit: it taught a number of American soldiers their craft.
     These men would use these skills to great effect fifteen years later in the
     American Civil War.
     As the eighteenth century progressed, the United States was divided roughly
     in half between slave states in the south and free states in the north. The
     South, which had an agrarian economy, needed cheap labor to work the fields.
     Slaves were far less useful in the North, which had a growing industrial base
     and access to plenty of cheap labor from Europe. Further, slavery had woven
     itself into the fiber of Southern life to the extent that many found the
     concept of "abolition" abhorrent, inconceivable, and (by an extremely twisted
     interpretation of the Bible) a grave sin. By the same token, a lot of people
     in the North hated slavery, considering it totally evil - the country's
     original sin. (It should be noted that many in the South saw the issue in
     terms of "states rights" - the Federal government had no constitutional right
     to meddle in internal conditions in states, but it was the slavery issue that
     made this question so explosive.)
     By the 1850s the situation had become intolerable. Tensions between the North
     and South were at an extremely high point, and the 1860 election of the
     moderately anti-slavery candidate Abraham Lincoln started a sequence of
     events which led inexorably to Southern succession and civil war.
     The war started very badly for the Union (the North). The Rebels (South) had
     a stronger military tradition than the North, and most of the country's best
     officers came from southern states and felt bound to protect their homes from
     Northern invasion, no matter how they felt personally about the cause of the
     war. Further, the South was entirely on the defensive, and it's far more
     difficult for an untrained army to attack than it is to defend - and both
     sides began the fight with untrained armies.
     Many people believed that the war would be over after one big battle but they
     were shockingly wrong. The first big battle (Bull Run) was a Union defeat,
     but the Southern army was unable to follow up its victory. What ensured was
     four years of grinding warfare across the length and breadth of the country.
     Despite its victories the South was unable to break the North's morale
     (especially that of President Abraham Lincoln), and as the war continued the
     Northern generals became better at their craft, and the Northern advantage in
     numbers and industry began to dominate the battlefield. In 1865 the Southern
     capital fell, and shortly thereafter the remaining Southern armies laid down
     their arms. President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in April of 1865,
     shortly after the capture of the Southern capital and the surrender of the
     South's main army.
     The war had a number of major effects on the United States, the most
     important of which was the abolition of slavery across the country.
     Unfortunately, many of the gains made by blacks were steadily whittled away
     during the Reconstruction period following the war. As the 19th century
     progressed blacks could in no way be considered equal to whites anywhere in
     the country, but at least they were no longer subject to being bought and
     sold like cattle.
     The rest of the 19th century saw a steady migration of American citizens
     west, filling in the vast plains of the mid-west and along the Pacific coast.
     American engineers built train tracks across the steppes and through the
     mountains, and cities and towns sprang up in their wake. The surviving
     Native American populations were forced into smaller and smaller pockets of
     the least desirable land, but showing a remarkably stubborn refusal to die
     under the most extraordinarily desperate circumstances. Immigrants continued
     to pour into the country from all corners of the world, all looking for their
     piece of the American dream (and many finding it).
     In the late 19th century the United States fought another unfortunate war for
     territory, this time against the moribund Spanish "empire." Spurred on by the
     jingoistic cries of so-called "yellow journalists" like William Randolph
     Hearst, the US rapidly defeated the Spanish armed forces, gaining for its
     trouble the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Spain further lost the island
     of Cuba, which after a short period as a US protectorate, quickly gained its
     While American industrial and economic power continued to grow, American
     military power did not. The United States possessed a large enough army and
     navy to beat up Spain (and to keep Canada and Mexico in line), but it was
     hardly a world military power in any sense of the word. Primarily it relied
     on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, which were the domain of the
     incomparable British Navy, for protection.
     As Europe stumbled its way into World War I, most Americans wanted nothing to
     do with the conflict. (In fact, many had immigrated to the United States
     to avoid Europe's endless wars.) Americans came from all parts of Europe,
     including Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Russia and the UK - so no matter
     which side the US came in on, they'd be fighting somebody's cousin. Whatever
     American politicians felt privately, the American government declared
     In actuality American neutrality greatly favored the British and French,
     since Britain's dominance of the sea meant that the US could only trade with
     the UK and her allies. This was bad for the Germans, since they needed to cut
     Great Britain's supply lines to achieve victory. In 1917 a German "U-boat"
     (submarine) sank the ocean liner Lusitania, then Germany declared
     unrestricted submarine warfare against neutral shipping. The American
     declaration of war against Germany and her allies followed shortly
     At the start of the war the United States had just a small professional army,
     but by 1918 the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) had over 1,000,000 men in
     Europe. This huge influx of fresh soldiers made a substantial difference on
     the battlefield, and also on enemy morale. The war was over by year's end.
     During its brief stint in France the AEF saw significant combat, suffering
     some 50,000 deaths and 300,000 injuries.
     After the war US President Woodrow Wilson attempted to mediate what he
     considered a "just peace" and create a League of Nations, but the victorious
     European nations were more interested in imposing heavy penalties on the
     losers, understandable given the amount of damage they had suffered, but not
     conductive to future comity between nations. As a result American public
     opinion turned against Europe and especially against any further military
     adventures there. This would have grave consequences some two decades later.
     The aptly-named "Great Depression" is indeed depressing, and so will be
     covered quickly. The Depression was triggered by the US stock market crash of
     1929, and rapidly spread across the country and the world. Banks collapsed,
     American unemployment rose to 25%, crop prices fell by some 60%. There were
     bread lines in all major cities. The Depression dragged on for years. The US
     economy began to revive in the mid-thirties, but did not fully recover until
     World War II.
     During the Great Depression the political doctrine of fascism gained
     popularity around the world, particularly in Europe. Mussolini came to power
     in Italy, Francisco Franco in Spain, and Adolf Hitler in Germany. Crippled
     and exhausted by the twin blows of World War I and the Depression and
     distracted by an excessive fear of Communism, the democracies watched as
     Germany rebuilt its army, navy and air force and gobbled up the smaller
     countries around it. It wasn't until Germany (and the Soviet Union) invaded
     Poland in 1939 that France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany.
     Meanwhile, Japanese forces were carving up China and menacing European
     interests in the Pacific.
     Isolationist sentiment kept the United States officially "neutral" through
     1940 and 1941, as France was conquered and German troops ground through the
     Soviet Union. However, as in World War I, American neutrality heavily favored
     the British, whose navy still controlled the Atlantic. At home President
     Franklin Roosevelt built up the American armed forces as quickly as possible,
     while trying to turn public sentiment towards active military intervention
     and war with Germany. In the Pacific an American oil embargo on Japan was a
     crushing military and economic burden and a deep insult to Japanese pride. In
     response to the growing American pressure, the Empire of the Rising Sun made
     one of the most catastrophic military and political blunders in modern
     On December 7, 1941, the Japanese bombed the American Pacific fleet in Pearl
     Harbor, in the American territory of Hawaii. While many of the nation's
     battleships were destroyed, its aircraft carriers were not in port at the
     time of the attack. This would prove to be of decisive importance in the war
     in the Pacific.
     Shortly after Pearl Harbor, Germany also declared war on the United States.
     This too was a colossal error, as it allowed the United States to intervene
     heavily in Europe, which President Roosevelt might not have been able to do
     in the face of "Japan First" sentiment in the US.
     World War II was an astonishingly complex military, industrial and political
     challenge for the United States. Although the US had been building up its
     military forces for some years, it was still woefully underprepared in all
     areas: manpower, arms, ships, planes, tanks and so forth. The government had
     to balance the need for manpower with the need for workers to construct arms
     and vehicles for itself and its increasingly desperate allies.
     Further, it had to maintain an extremely difficult alliance with the United
     Kingdom, its possessions and the Soviet Union, each of which had differing
     political and military objectives. This was especially tough because before
     the war the US and UK had been implacable enemies of Communism and the USSR.
     And finally, its largely untested military had to face two superb opponents
     in battle: the triumphant Japanese Navy and the deadly German Army.
     As the US entered the war it found itself on the defensive in all theatres.
     The Japanese Navy captured Allied bases across the Pacific, drawing ever
     closer to Australia and New Zealand.
     The German U-boats destroyed hundreds of thousands of tons of Allied shipping
     in the Atlantic, nearly starving Great Britain right out of the war. But the
     incomparable American industrial base roared into action, building warships,
     planes, and tanks at an astonishing rate. As it fought the US military
     learned from its early mistakes and with its allies stopped the enemies'
     advances on all fronts. By 1942 the US was on the offensive in North Africa
     and the Pacific.
     By 1944 American and British troops were in France, and, caught between this
     new peril and the Russian juggernaut grinding from the East, Germany
     collapsed in May of 1945. Japan held on for several months longer, fighting
     bitter rearguard actions on islands across the Pacific until the United
     States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
     The US had learned two important lessons from World Wars I and II: first,
     that it ignored the world at its peril. It was clear that while the Atlantic
     and Pacific Oceans provided enormous security for the American mainland,
     American security was inexorably bound up in events across the world, if for
     no other reason than that it needed foreign markets in which to sell its
     goods. The second lesson it learned was that it was a bad idea to harshly
     punish a defeated enemy. It was better to help rebuild the enemy so that it
     would become an ally and buy your industrial output. Thus at the end of the
     war the United States spent billions rebuilding Europe and Japan, former
     allies and enemies alike (with one important exception, the USSR).
     At the end of World War II the United States found itself the most powerful
     country in the world. The US mainland had not been invaded or bombed during
     the war, and its industrial base was bigger and better than ever. Its
     military was battle-tested and equipped with the best weapons in the world,
     and it had sole possession of the Atom bomb. On the other hand, the Soviet
     Union's army was the strongest military force in Europe. In the US there was
     little appetite for further conflict with the Soviet Union; people just
     wanted the troops to come home.
     As World War II ended, the latent hostilities between the US and UK and the
     Soviet Union became a lot less latent. There were plenty of good reasons for
     this. The US feared that International Communism backed by the Soviet Union
     (and later, China) would if unchecked overrun Europe and the world. The
     Soviet Union, on the other hand, wanted to make it absolutely clear to
     everyone that it was sick and tired of being overrun by foreign troops every
     twenty years or so, and it would be as tough and ruthless as necessary to
     make sure it didn't happen again. (It also despised American-style capitalism
     and wanted to spread International Communism across the world as well.)
     Over the next fifty years the US and the Soviet Union and later China spent
     huge amounts of energy and treasure building weapons, subverting foreign
     governments, and engaging in proxy wars around the world. The US fought
     International Communism in Korea (a tie), and later on in Vietnam (a loss).
     The Soviet Union took over much of Eastern Europe (a win), and later on
     invaded Afghanistan (a huge loss).
     By the late 1980s its many internal flaws (corruption, greed, incompetence
     and so forth) and excessive military expenditures had virtually bankrupted
     the USSR. By the 1990s the Soviet Union was no more and the US was trading
     freely with China. The Cold War was ended.
     By any reasonable measurement the Cold War was a colossal, expensive blunder
     for everyone concerned. If the US had convinced the USSR that it wasn't its
     implacable foe, the USSR might have been able to relax its massive
     overwhelming paranoia and perhaps stop oppressing and killing huge numbers
     of its own people. The US might have been able to devote its wealth to
     something other than building more and more dangerous and exotic weapons and
     supporting foreign despots around the world.
     On the other hand, the Cold War drove both sides into outer space for both
     military reasons and for national prestige. This has led to many critical
     technological innovations such as communications satellites and Tang™, as
     well as a moon landing, perhaps the most important and coolest accomplishment
     in all history.
     The end of the Cold War brought a new era of peace and happiness to the
     United States. For maybe a couple of years.
     On September 11, 2001, a group of terrorists hijacked four jet planes and
     drove them into the World Trade Towers in New York City and the Pentagon in
     Washington, DC. A fourth attack was spoiled by the heroic actions of a group
     of passengers aboard another jet plane. The attacks were traced to an
     organization named "al-Qaeda," a Muslim extremist group based in Afghanistan
     dedicated to driving foreigners out of the Middle East and to destroying the
     United States, which they saw as the "Great Satan."
     The United States responded by invading Afghanistan and driving its
     fundamentalist leaders who supported al-Qaeda out of power. Then, in an
     extremely controversial move, it invaded Iraq, home of its long-time enemy
     Saddam Hussein.
     At present the US is attempting to repair its international image, recruit
     allies in its war against terrorism, and extricate itself from Iraq.
     Afghanistan remains an incredibly difficult challenge, and it is by no means
     certain that the US will emerge victorious in either of its current
     The United States is no longer the sole superpower in the world. It shares
     that dubious title with China, at least. Internally it's struggling to
     recover from economic excesses of the late 20th century, as well as trying to
     finally banish the ghost of slavery and racism that still haunts it. The US
     is somewhat battered but is by no means broken. It still possesses the
     resources, drive and human capitol to be a vital and important civilization
     in the coming century."
    The United States, probably the biggest influence any nation has on modern
    society today, deserves the biggest history section. Anyway, the US have on
    of the best powers, the Manifest Destiny allows them to increase sight, which
    is invaluable early on for scouting new lands, and purchasing tiles at a 
    discount, reflective of the Louisana Purchase and annexing of lands belonging
    to Mexico, is a nice boost as well, especially useful when fighting proxy wars
    with other nations.
    The B17 is the unit that replaces the bomber, talking only half the normal
    amount of damage that is dished out by enemy interceptors and fighters, as 
    well as getting a nice boost against enemy cities. There is also the iconic
    Minuteman, which replaces the Musketman, where all terrain types will only
    cost 1 movement point, so no penalties moving up hills or through forest
     George Washington
     ~ History
    "George Washington was one of a group of remarkable men who lived in the
     American Colonies in the late eighteenth century. Although not as pugnacious
     as John Adams, as imaginative as Benjamin Franklin or as brilliant as Thomas
     Jefferson, Washington had the capacity to lead, in war and in peace. He led
     the Continental Army to victory against extraordinary odds, and by so doing
     he led his country to independence.
     The descendent of English colonists who migrated to Virginia in 1657, George
     Washington was born into a family of wealth and privilege - or as much wealth
     and privilege as could be found in the Colonies in the early eighteenth
     century. As a young man Washington studied mathematics, writing, geography,
     and probably Latin, but he never attended college. Instead he concentrated
     upon learning how to raise stock, farm, and manage his family's growing
     estates. Washington was also trained as a surveyor and spent several years
     scouting and mapping the lands in and around the colony of Virginia.
     In 1754 war broke out between England (and her colonies) and the French and
     their allies the Indians. Washington fought in several engagements during
     this war, showing a great deal of courage and coolness under fire, but of no
     especial strategic or tactical brilliance. Eventually the war ended with the
     English victorious, and Washington resigned from the Colonial forces with the
     honorary rank of Brigadier General.
     After the war Washington married and devoted himself to his growing estates.
     He apparently greatly enjoyed managing his farms and plantations and was not
     above shedding his coat and helping with manual labor. He also sat in the
     House of Burgesses in Williamsburg, the mostly-impotent local governing body
     of Virginia (real power definitely resided with the Royal Governor of the
     colony and with King and Parliament back in England).
     Although a loyalist, Washington too chafed under the growing burden of
     taxation placed on the Colonies by Parliament (largely imposed to help pay
     off debts from the recent French and Indian War). As tensions grew and
     England ratcheted up the pressure on the Colonies, Washington's position grew
     more radical, and by 1768 he declared himself ready to take up arms against
     England whenever his country called him. By 1774 Washington was a member of
     the Continental Congress, the first truly national organization of the
     nascent country. When actual fighting broke out in and around Boston in 1775,
     Washington was named as commander of the military forces of all of the
     Colonies, a post he maintained once actual independence was declared in 1776.
     As military commander of the Revolutionary forces, Washington displayed the
     same strengths and weaknesses he had years before when fighting for England
     against France. He was personally courageous, almost to the point of
     foolhardiness. Early in the war he tended to favor overly-complex military
     actions beyond the capabilities of his volunteer soldiers, resulting in a
     series of near-catastrophic defeats at the hands of the professional British
     forces. But almost by force of will alone - through long, discouraging years
     of privation and defeat - he kept his army alive and in the field, and by so
     doing kept the revolution alive in the Colonies. Eventually, the sheer
     tenacity and growing skill of the Colonial Army and its general would win it
     the grudging admiration of even its fiercest enemies.
     The entrance of France into the war on the side of the Colonies and
     increasing Colonial power and success on the battlefield led to growing
     anti-war sentiment of the British people. In 1781 Washington led his troops
     on a daring forced march into Virginia, where he (with the aid of a large
     contingent of French soldiers) besieged an entire British army on the
     peninsula of Yorktown. The French naval maneuvers having given them
     temporary command of the sea, the British general was unable to escape his
     predicament and surrendered his command. Although sporadic fighting
     continued for some months, the war was essentially over: America had won her
     After the war, Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention, which
     determined the form of the new nation's government, and later served as its
     first President. As President, Washington sought to keep the country free
     from foreign entanglements, resisting close alliances or wars with any. He
     attempted (with little success) to keep the country free from political party
     rivalry and strife. Washington served two four-year terms as President, and
     then retired back to his home in Mount Vernon, Virginia, where he died two
     years later in 1797.
     George Washington is known for good reason as the "Father of the United
     States of America." While not the greatest general in world history, nor the
     greatest statesman, Washington had a great steadiness and courage in the face
     of adversity, and he was able to get men to willingly die for him. Without
     Washington, it's unlikely that the United States would have been born."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 4/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 3/10
     City State Competitiveness - 5/10
     Boldness                   - 7/10
    Washington is a nice powerful leader, he won't be too in your way in terms
    of competing with your directly, but he is rather daring when it comes to
    attacking, and he will make threats when you are weak, so just make sure
    your forces are ready.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 5/10
     Hostile   - 3/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 6/10
     Afraid    - 4/10
     Friendly  - 7/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    Washington is a friendly chap, he won't straight out declare war, but if you
    are weak, then that is something he won't hesitate doing. Like all leaders,
    they always have their hidden agendas, so just make sure that you defend 
    yourself, less you want US forces inside your borders.
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 6/10
     Friendly      - 7/10
     Protective    - 5/10
     Conquest      - 4/10
    Washington is there to protect his empire, and he will generally not be 
    busy talking to city states. He will be generally friendly to get the good
    benefits, but he will ignore what others are doing. So if Siam is protecting
    a city state, good old George won't care if they are in his way. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 6/10
     Defensive         - 8/10
     City Defence      - 5/10
     Military Training - 5/10
     Reconnaissance    - 8/10
     Ranged            - 5/10
     Mounted           - 5/10
    Washington will focus heavily on recon, sending out scouts to know exactly
    what is going on. He will then focus on playing defensive, he won't normally
    go on the attack, he will keep his forces to defend his land. And that does
    make most pushes harder, you will be sending unit after unit against counter
    after counter. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 5/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 4/10
     Naval Growth           - 5/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 5/10
    Washington won't concentrate on his navy too much, he may have a few ships 
    here and there, just to make sure no one will blockage him, but other than 
    that, he will not be that much of a threat on the seven seas. It could be 
    worse, he could have a flotilla of aircraft carriers outside your capital.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 6/10
    Washington will tend to use air units more often than not, given that one
    of their best units is the B17, and that is a powerful force in the air. 
    So don't think that your helicopters will have an easy time, they will be
    shot down. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 7/10
     Growth           - 3/10
     Tile Improvement - 5/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 6/10
     Science          - 6/10
     Culture          - 6/10
    Although Washington isn't warlike at all, but he will expand pretty damn
    quickly. He will settle and probably end up with a lot of land, and a lot
    of well defended land. That does make things easy for you though, most of
    the time, his front will be large, and defences thin, so a breach somewhere
    along the line, will pretty much seal his fate.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 7/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 5/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 8/10
    Again, the bias for the space victory, however, Washington is all about
    keeping his people happy, and that means relatively good growth in his
    cities, which then leads to higher production, gold, etc. Just keep a little
    eye on him, he is dangerous if he advances quickly. 
    [3.19] Babylon
     Leader          - Nebuchadnezzar II
     Unique Unit 1   - Babylonian Bowman, replaces Archer
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Walls of Babylon, replaces Walls
     Civilization Power
      - Receive free Great Scientist when you discover Writing. Earn Great
        Scientists at double the usual rate.
     ~ History
    "The Babylonian Empire was, rather than a new idea, a reinvigoration of the
     old Sumerian Empire of the city of Ur, which had also occupied the Fertile
     Crescent in what is today Southern Iraq. Babylonia was formed from a
     collection of roughly a dozen city-states and was named for its capital city
     of Babylon. (Pre-empire, the city of Babylon itself was in existence since at
     least the 24th century BC.)
     Babylon was located in the Fertile Crescent, the incredibly fecund region
     around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, extending west to the Mediterranean
     and down through modern Israel. The Fertile Crescent not only benefits from
     the rich soil and irrigation provided by the two ancient rivers, but it also
     lies at the crossroads of three major landmasses: Africa, Asia, and Europe,
     meaning it has insects, plants and animals from all three sources. This gives
     the region a biodiversity unmatched anywhere in the world. This also means
     that its human inhabitants had a huge variety of plants and animals to
     experiment with when learning how to farm and herd animals, thus explaining
     why humans advanced so rapidly in this area.
     Originally a disorganized region, Babylon and Babylonia began to grow as a
     center for culture, trade, and religion under the rule of Hammurabi in 1728
     BC. Hammurabi was the first known ruler of united Babylonia as well as its
     greatest lawgiver. Hammurabi's Code of Laws specifically listed the acts that
     were criminal as well as the punishment for each act. Citizens were no longer
     at the mercy of capricious judges or nobility who could on a whim decide what
     was and wasn't illegal. So comprehensive was the Babylonian Code that little
     about its laws or governmental system changed in the entirety of the empire's
     1,200 years of existence. 
     Much like the Sumerian Empire from which they were descended, Babylonia was a
     nation of fanatical record-keepers. Starting with Hammurabi and continuing
     down until the empire's dissolution at the hands of Cyrus and the great
     Persian emperors, every financial transaction, every court verdict, every
     contract, and just about anything that could be written down, was - on clay
     tablets. With laws pertaining to almost every aspect of daily living, a
     significant amount of data was recorded, and much of this has been uncovered
     and excavated during the modern era. Researchers have even found several
     optical devices, similar to magnifying glasses, which were used to allow
     record keepers to write in smaller cuneiform, in order to fit more
     information on each clay tablet.
     Despite numerous regime changes, education reached exceptional heights among
     the Babylonians. Technical achievements such as the creation of a base 60,
     "sexigesimal," system of mathematics, are still used to this day. Sixty
     seconds per minute, sixty minutes per hour: modern time, is in fact,
     Babylonian time.
     After the death of Hammurabi (1750 BC), the empire slowly declined in power
     and influence. Following a Hittite raid which weakened the city, in
     approximately 1600 BC it was conquered by the Kassites who had emerged from
     what are now the mountains of Iran. The Kassites controlled Babylonia for 500
     years, renaming the city Karanduniash.
     In 1234 the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I temporarily conquered the city
     but the Kassites eventually reasserted independence, just in time for the
     Elamites to sack the city in 1158. Then the Babylonians regained control of
     their city (possibly because the Elamites had stolen everything that any
     invader might want). By 1124 the Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar I sacked the
     Elamite city of Susa in revenge for their earlier attack on Babylon. But by
     1000 BC, Babylon was once again under pressure from a resurgent Assyria.
     Babylon remained more or less under Assyrian domination until 627 BC.
     In 627 BC, Babylonia successfully revolted once again from Assyrian control.
     The revolt was led by a new leader, Nabopolassar, who would reign for some
     twenty years before passing the thrown to his more famous son.
     Nabopolassar's son, Nebuchadnezzar II, ruled Babylonia from 605 to 561 BC. He
     established himself early as a military leader, leading an army under his
     father in Assyria, and then later an independent command against Egypt,
     destroying the Egyptian army at Carchemish and gaining Babylonian control
     of all of Syria.
     Nebuchadnezzar was deeply invested in the city of Babylon. During his reign
     it enjoyed something of a renaissance. Nebuchadnezzar engaged in a variety
     of city revitalization projects, rebuilding ancient temples and buildings,
     constructing extensive fortifications, and so forth. He also created the
     Hanging Gardens of Babylon. He employed foreign workers for much of the hard
     labor, which as an additional benefit dramatically increased the city's
     population. Nebuchadnezzar died in 561 BC. For more on Nebuchadnezzar II,
     see his Civilopedia entry.
     The leaders following Nebuchadnezzar were lesser men, and within thirty years
     Babylonian power and prestige were greatly weakened. It is said that when
     Cyrus II of Persia attacked in 539 BC, the city fell almost without
     resistance. It remained under Persian control until 331 BC, when it was
     captured by Alexander the Great, and then to the Seleucid dynasty after
     Alexander's death. In the period since, Babylon has all but vanished, reduced
     to mysterious mounds and piles of rubble, waiting for archaeologists to
     uncover their secrets. Much has been damaged or destroyed following the
     United States attack and occupation of Iraq in 2003 to the present. 
     Babylonia played an important role in the development of law throughout the
     world. The creation of Hammurabi's Code of Laws, and the zeal with which his
     successors, both blood-related and not, upheld those laws, demonstrated for
     all of history how successful and wealthy a nation could become by following
     an organized system of government.
     The rest of Babylon's history reminds us that nothing lasts forever, and that
     even the greatest of empires will someday be nothing more than dust beneath
     the next empire's chariot wheels. Or tank treads."
    To be honest, Babylon isn't all that powerful, the only real advantage is 
    that science is gained much faster with this civilisation. Basically, with the
    ability to double the rate great scientists are gained, that means you can 
    send them off to the slaughter tech boosts faster. 
    Other than that, their only real advantage is early on in the game, where 
    their archers can do a bit more damage and their walls are a bit more, well,
    sturdier. Later on in the game, they will be completely outclassed unless 
    they use their tech advantage to boost their military.
     Nebuchadnezzar II
     ~ History
    "Nebuchadnezzar II was king of Babylon for some 43 years (605-562 BC). He is
     best known for his military conquests and his restoration of the city of
     Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar II also figures prominently in the Bible for the
     conquest of Judah and the forced relocation of many Israelites to Babylon.
     Nebuchadnezzar (which is sometimes spelled "Nebuchadrezzar") was the oldest
     son of Nabopolassar, the founder of the Chaldean empire, who had done much to
     make Babylon into an imperial power. He served under his father in several
     military campaigns, and in 606 BC he commanded an army which destroyed an
     Egyptian army at Carchemish, securing for Babylon the control of Syria.
     Upon his father's death in 605, Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon and
     assumed the throne. He resumed campaigning shortly thereafter, when he
     conquered a number of smaller states including Judah. He continued his
     conquests until 600, when, possibly over-extended, he lost badly to an
     Egyptian army. Taking advantage of Babylon's disarray, Judah and several
     other subject states revolted.
     It took Nebuchadnezzar some two years to regroup and rebuild his armies, but
     by 598 he was on the march again, and in 597 he occupied Jerusalem, deposing
     the Judaian king Jehoiachin and transporting him and other prominent citizens
     to captivity in Babylon (most likely as hostages against further Jewish
     rebellions). He continued his expansionist military campaigns for the rest of
     his reign, clashing more or less successfully with the other powers in the
     Eastern Mediterranean, Asia Minor and the Middle East. 
     Not just a warlord, Nebuchadnezzar was also active diplomatically, sending
     and receiving ambassadors from nearby kingdoms. He is known to have sent an
     ambassador to mediate in a conflict between the Medes and the Lydians in Asia
     When not campaigning, Nebuchadnezzar spent much of his energy in rebuilding
     Babylon and improving its fortifications. He is known to have rebuilt many
     temples, paved roads, cut canals, and constructed a moat and wall around the
     city. He is also credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of
     Babylon, which according to legend he built to please his wife who was pining
     for the hills of her home in Media. 
     Despite his capture of Judah and relocation of the Israelites, Nebuchadnezzar
     appears in a mostly favorable light in the Bible. He is credited for
     protecting Jewish prophets and citizens from persecution; the prophet
     Jeremiah apparently believed that Nebuchadnezzar was God's appointed
     instrument of vengeance against evil-doers.
     Nebuchadnezzar II died in Babylon in 562 BC. He is remembered as a successful
     military leader who increased the size of his empire and who strengthened and
     improved the capital city of Babylon, and who treated his subject people
     well. By all measures he earned his title of "Nebuchadnezzar the Great.""
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 6/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 8/10
     City State Competitiveness - 4/10
     Boldness                   - 5/10
    Nebuchadnezzar is very iffy when it comes to war, he will go to war if need 
    be, but he wouldn't use that to win, he will use his little wonders to boost
    him to victory. His competitiveness when it comes to building wonders will
    make it very hard for you to build whilst he has resource, very up there with
    only Ramses probably able to best him.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 6/10
     Hostile   - 5/10
     Deceptive - 4/10
     Guarded   - 5/10
     Afraid    - 5/10
     Friendly  - 5/10
     Neutral   - 6/10
    Nebuchadnezzar is very, well, neutral. He won't attempt to rub people the 
    wrong way, but he will be more likely to adopt a war stance rather than being
    a sneaky little git. He is your average leader in terms of diplomacy, and he
    needs to be, since he is building all those Wonders to take him into space.
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 3/10
     Friendly      - 7/10
     Protective    - 4/10
     Conquest      - 6/10
    In terms of the city states, it is a coin toss when it comes to dealing with
    them. He can either be friendly and protect them from the plague that is your
    army, or he will decide to send in his armies to take out a little city state
    that he wants. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 5/10
     Defensive         - 6/10
     City Defence      - 8/10
     Military Training - 4/10
     Reconnaissance    - 5/10
     Ranged            - 8/10
     Mounted           - 5/10
    In terms of ground combat, Nechadnezzar will opt to hide in his cities and
    defend from there, or he will use his ranged units to annoy the hell out of
    you. This makes it harder for you, the best counter for ranged units are your
    mounted units, and when there are a lot of archers, you will need a lot of 
    horsemen to make mince of them.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 3/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 5/10
     Naval Growth           - 5/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 5/10
    Nechadnezzar doesn't really focus on his navy that much, he really won't be
    taking to the seas in this case. He will tend to scout out the seas, but
    don't expect him to put a navy to fight you. That allows for greater 
    opportunities with the seas.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 5/10
    Nechadnezzar, like many other leaders, don't tend to play with their air
    force all that much, and that means that although you will have to fight a 
    few interceptors and bombers, a large air force will easily destroy his little
    air force.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 4/10
     Growth           - 6/10
     Tile Improvement - 7/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 5/10
     Science          - 8/10
     Culture          - 5/10
    As you can gather from his special power, Nechadnezzar will focus quite 
    heavily on science, he will move rapidly up the tech tree. This makes him
    quite vulnerable early on since he will be sending his resources to tech 
    rather than military, but that compliments his hiding in the city strategy.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 5/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 7/10
     Diplomacy     - 6/10
     Spaceship     - 5/10
    Nechadnezzar has a slight bias to go towards Wonders, since that is one of
    his key driving factors. Other than that, his choice of victory will be 
    a coin toss, all of them seem well, up to him. 
    [3.20] Mongolia
     Leader          - Genghis Khan
     Unique Unit 1   - Mongolian Keshik, replaces Knight
     Unique Unit 2   - Mongolian Khan, replaces Great General
     Unique Building - None
     Civilization Power
      - Combat Strength +30% when fighting City-State units or attacking a 
        City-State itself. All mounted units have +1 Movement. 
     ~ History 
    "The Mongolian Empire formed the largest contiguous empire in the history of
     the world, stretching from the Danube to the Sea of Japan and from Siberia to
     Cambodia - roughly 22% of the Earth's land area.  From humble beginnings as a
     mish-mash of unaligned nomadic tribes, the Mongols changed the face of the
     ancient world and became one of the most feared and effective military forces
     ever to walk the land. 
     Spreading across eastern Asia, Mongolia's geography is rugged and varied,
     with steep mountain ranges in the north and west, verdant steppes throughout
     the central part of the country, and the Gobi Desert bordering on the south.
     While the steppes could serve as bountiful pasture land, Mongolia's harsh
     climate dictates otherwise. Summers are short and hot, while the long, frigid
     winters cover the country in devastating blizzards (known as zud), making
     grazing all but impossible for large parts of the year. Temperatures as low
     as -22F during the winter are not uncommon.
     From at least Paleolithic times, nomadic tribes have dominated the Mongolian
     landscape. These tribes were adept farmers as well as huntsmen, only staying
     on the move to keep ahead of the harsh winters and dry summers. They were
     skilled horsemen and archers, particularly accomplished in mounted combat.
     Occasionally, some individual tribes formed confederations, such as the
     Xiongnu alliance in 209 BC. While threatening enough en masse to force the
     Qin Dynasty to construct the Great Wall of China, these loose bandings of
     tribes did not have any lasting power. For the next several centuries many
     tribes would attempt to join together, but these short-lived alliances would
     usually fall apart through internal strife and bickering over yurts, horses,
     women, and grazing rights. 
     During one particularly chaotic episode, the young son of a Mongol chieftain
     by the name of Temujin defeated a particularly nasty tribe of Merkits.
     Impressed with the victory and his control over the army (he forbade looting
     and raping, pretty much unheard of at the time), a gathering of chieftains
     gave him the title "Khan" and the control of the tribe.
     His uncles and cousins however weren't exactly pleased with the throne
     passing to the young man, and attempted to wrest control of the tribe from
     him by force. However, in a brilliant military campaign lasting from 1203 -
     1205 AD, Temujin not only destroyed his family rivals but also brought all
     the remaining tribes under his sway. Never before had one man managed to gain
     allegiance from all the tribes of Mongols. In 1206, he assumed the title
     "Genghis Khan", the Universal Ruler. With this monumental event, the
     Mongolian Empire was officially born.
     Genghis is primarily well-known for his military prowess and conquests, but
     he only maintained hold of his empire through strict civil discipline and
     order. He created a code of laws called the Yassa, which governed everyone
     in the Empire, nobleman and commoner alike. The Yassa imposed harsh
     penalties on anyone caught not obeying the law (usually death), religious
     freedom was guaranteed to any and all, all forms of vandalizing was
     forbidden, and government officials were selected based on merit - not blood.
     Despite its huge size and disparate groupings of people, the Mongolian
     Empire was incredibly well-run and one of the safest places on earth, if
     you followed the rules. Cities caught not following the Khan's decrees were
     systematically and completely destroyed.
     Extensive trade routes were set up stretching the length of the empire,
     allowing safe passage from Europe to China. An efficient mail system called
     the Yam was also instituted - its structure would later be copied by the US's
     Pony Express. Roads were built, fair taxes levied, and written language was
     taught to the Empire's citizens. Life was surprisingly good, provided you
     obeyed the Khanate.
     With such an efficient system of government in place, combined with the
     powerful Mongolian horse archers, country after country fell under the Mongol
     banner. At the time of Genghis' death in 1227, the Mongolian Empire already
     stretched from the Pacific to the Caspian Sea - twice the size of even the
     Roman Empire at its height. His successors continued to subjugate neighboring
     nations for the next four decades.
     By 1258 the Mongolian armies had captured Baghdad, killing the caliph after
     refusal to submit peacefully, thereby opening the door to Syria and the rest
     of Europe. Some small expeditions were sent as far west as Ukraine and
     Poland, but the bulk of the army did not pass through Syria. Treaties and
     letters were sent to the Khan by many of the European nations, hoping for
     peaceful alliances rather than subjugation.
     The Mongol's unstoppable expansions may have continued all the way to the
     Atlantic, but a death in the reigning Khan's family forced the western
     general and Kublai Khan's son, Hulegu, to withdraw back to Iran. Syria and
     the new western territories were quickly lost.
     Hulegu and his cousin Berke (an eastern general) then began fighting in
     earnest over suspicious deaths in each other's retainers, dividing the
     internal armies and territories over the dispute. Kublai quickly quashed the
     internal uprisings and sent the armies back to outward expansion and
     conquest. However, the solidarity of the Mongolian army and government was
     weakened, and the foundation for the fall of the Empire was laid.
     Many internal struggles and squabbles between the Khan's family and its
     generals ensued for the next hundred years, weakening the empire even
     further. With the death of the current Khan in 1335, Persia quickly fell to
     anarchy. The onset of the Black Death at this time also killed most of the
     government officials, cut off commercial ties with the empire's allies, and
     killed millions of the populace. Needless to say, chaos erupted.
     Quickly, the western provinces fell, followed by the loss of China in 1368.
     The remaining Mongols quickly fled back to their original homeland of
     Mongolia, breaking into smaller tribes and hordes once again. In thirty
     short years, the empire that once ruled the world was reduced to rubble.
     For the next three centuries the Mongols slowly dwindled in power and mostly
     returned to their tribal ways, with the last Khan dying in 1634. In 1691 the
     area which encompasses Mongolia today was brought under Chinese rule, where
     it remained until 1911. Over this time, the nobility's irresponsibility
     towards their subjects combined with China's unscrupulous taxation practices
     resulted in rampant poverty throughout the region.
     With the fall of the Chinese Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared its
     independence, but to little lasting avail. In 1919 it was recaptured by Xu
     Shuzheng. However, the Russians came to Mongolia's aid and defeated the
     occupying Chinese three years later.  In 1924 and guided by the USSR, the
     Mongolian People's Republic was born.
     Life under communist rule was rough. All livestock became owned by the
     government, Buddhist monasteries were destroyed and their monks slaughtered.
     Constant wars fought along and inside the country's borders led to much
     strife for the populace. Poverty became an even worse problem.
     In 1992, influenced by Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika campaign in the USSR,
     Mongolia saw a peaceful democratic revolution, introducing a multi-party
     system and capitalistic economy in the process. A new constitution was
     approved and the country was renamed to "Mongolia".  The first few years
     were rocky, but the country has since become an important industrial economy,
     thanks to its rich mining resources.  While still young, Mongolia has formed
     many positive alliances with world leaders, including Japan, the United
     States, and China, and is working towards a brighter and more affluent way of
     life for its people."
    The Mongols are a pretty fun lot to play with, their civilisation power is 
    rather nice if you use a lot of mounted units, and one would hope to have a 
    lot of horses, and the boost to city state attacks are also quite nice, but 
    you do need to keep in mind that by mindlessly attacking these states, their
    protectors will get pissed off at you, and that will lead to war.
    The Mongol Keshik is a nice powerful unit to replace the knight, and more
    importantly, a Great Person is replaced, as a Khan will replace a Great
    General. This general will be more effective when put near attacking units,
    so they will have a use besides building citadels that you can hide behind
    all day.
     Genghis Khan
     ~ History
    "Genghis Khan is one of the most recognized and worst feared leaders in all of
     human history. Hundreds of statues, buildings, and commercial products bear
     his image, and numerous entertainment works have been created honoring his
     life. He became the first to unite the warring, nomadic tribes of northeast
     Asia and founded the largest contiguous empire known to man.  Perhaps less
     known are the improvements and advancements he made in infrastructure, trade,
     and religious tolerance.  More than just a warrior, he was also a capable and
     shrewd civil leader.
     Born Borjigin Temujin in 1162 AD, Temujin was raised in a Mongol tribe that
     inhabited the lands near modern day Ulaanbaatar. The third oldest son of a
     tribal chieftain, he is said to be named after a captured Tatar chieftain.
     Much of Temujin's early life is shrouded in mystery, and the few sources
     which do exist often conflict and disagree. No accurate portraits or
     pictures of him exist today, but many sources describe Temujin as a
     "glittering" man, sporting long red hair and blue-green eyes.
     Like many of the tribesmen in the region Temujin's early life was pretty
     difficult, despite being born into nobility. At the age of nine he was
     betrothed to a neighboring tribe-chieftain's daughter and sent to live with
     her family. His father was killed on the way back home, and Temujin's tribe
     subsequently abandoned him and the remainder of his family. The family lived
     destitute until he married his betrothed at the age of 16.
     Temujin began his bid for power by offering himself as a vassal to his late
     father's blood brother, Toghrul, the Khan of the Kerait tribe. During this
     time, Temujin's wife was captured by the Merkit tribe, and Toghrul lent the
     young warlord 20,000 men to face them in battle. Not only did Temujin
     recapture his wife, but he also completely defeated the Merkits, bringing
     them under this control. He became a Khan in his own right and began
     conquering more of the neighboring tribes.
     During his conquests the young Khan fundamentally broke with Mongol
     tradition - he created a new set of laws and incorporated his captured
     holdings into his growing empire, rather than destroying and pillaging
     them. His law, the Yassa, promised soldiers fair pay and wealth, outlawed
     thievery and pillaging of any kind, and promised protection and religious
     freedom for all conquered tribes. Temujin's political innovations brought him
     much loyalty and strongly united his growing nation.
     The rest of his outward expansion and unification of the Mongol tribes is
     filled with tales of betrayal, intrigue, dashing victories, conspiracies,
     familial disputes, and more betrayal, including rifts between his former ally
     Toghrul and eldest son Jochi. However, despite these setbacks he managed to
     subdue or unite all the nomadic tribes in the Mongolia area by 1206, the
     first man to ever do so. At a joint council of chiefs he was given the name
     “Genghis Khan”, the eternal and universal ruler of the Mongol peoples.
     After the unification of Mongolia, Genghis soon began a series of successful
     military campaigns to conquer the surrounding and outlying areas, creating a
     massive empire under his rule. In 1209, he forced the surrender of the Xia
     provinces, and shortly thereafter in 1211, he finished the conquest of the
     Jin Dynasty.
     Next he turned his attention west toward Persia. In a deft maneuver
     containing only two armies of 20,000 men each, Genghis launched a successful
     attack against the Kara-Khitan Khanate, putting his reach of control right
     on Persia's doorstep.
     Rather than conquer the neighboring empire of Khwarezmia, Genghis instead
     offered a political alliance, sending a 500-man trade caravan to the capital
     - he hoped to create a powerful trading partner using the Silk Road. However,
     the Khwarezmian Shah distrusted the young leader and slaughtered the caravan.
     Trying once more, Genghis sent a group of ambassadors to the Shah directly,
     who answered the gesture by beheading one of them. Outraged, Genghis
     assembled some 200,000 men and personally oversaw the bloody fall and abject
     subjugation of the Khwarezmian Empire in 1220. Immediately following his
     success he captured many other regions on his way back to Mongolia,
     including Georgia, Afghanistan, and the remaining Western Xia holdings.
     His victorious journey complete, Genghis's empire now stretched from the
     Caspian Sea in the west all the way to the Sea of Japan in the east, twice
     the size of the Roman Empire.
     Now an aged man, the topic of Genghis's succession was heated and highly
     contested. His eldest son, Jochi, was suspected of being born of a different
     man (as a result of his wife's capture), and many refused outright to follow
     him. The clash ended however in 1226 when Jochi died mysteriously, some
     claiming that Genghis himself ordered the boy poisoned. His middle son Ogedei
     was named heir, as Genghis thought him the most level headed and stable of
     his remaining children.
     Shortly after in 1227 Genghis died, the reason for which is still debated.
     Some claim he fell from his horse during a battle against the Tangut people,
     others hold that he was struck down by a long illness. Some even claim that a
     captured Tangut princess killed him with a pair of pliers. Regardless of the
     means or reason, Genghis Khan was buried in an unmarked grave as he wished,
     its location a closely guarded family secret. Some folklore claims that a
     river was diverted over the site to protect it; other stories describe a
     grove of trees planted atop the grave to hide it. In 2004, an archaeological
     dig uncovered what is believed to be the ruins of Genghis' palace. Hope
     remains that his grave may yet be found.
     Depending on whom you ask, Genghis Khan is regarded as a worthy leader and
     excellent ruler or, conversely as a bloodthirsty killer. In present-day
     Mongolia, he is thought of favorably as the father of the nation, and his
     many political innovations are upheld and heralded. In formerly conquered
     lands, such as Iraq and Iran, he is seen almost universally as a genocidal,
     maniacal tyrant who caused untold destruction and damage.  Whether his tales
     of greatness or brutality are contested or exaggerated, he is undoubtedly
     one of the most important and influential leaders in the ancient world, his
     legacy still remaining strong and visible even today."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 8/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 4/10
     City State Competitiveness - 3/10
     Boldness                   - 8/10
    As you can gather, Genghis isn't going to be one to shy from a fight. He 
    will fight tooth and nail in order to win, and you can guarantee that he will
    not be shy to stand up to you. If you dare threaten him, don't be surprised
    if he declares war on you and attacks, or worse still, send off a few nukes.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 7/10
     Hostile   - 6/10
     Deceptive - 3/10
     Guarded   - 4/10
     Afraid    - 2/10
     Friendly  - 6/10
     Neutral   - 6/10
    This man is funny, although he will be friendly, or neutral towards you if
    he is in a good mood, if he is angry at you, such as expanding into his 
    lands, then you can expect war. He won't be deceptive on you though, stealing
    your gold before declaring war, he will declare war, and send his archers to
    do his work.
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 3/10
     Friendly      - 3/10
     Protective    - 5/10
     Conquest      - 7/10
    As you can guess with his special trait, Genghis Khan will be conquering the
    city states rather than protecting them. He doesn't want them for their 
    benefits, he wants them for the land that they are sitting on, nothing else.
    That said, you can get into a few wars if you protect the city states that are
    around the Mongols, 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 8/10
     Defensive         - 3/10
     City Defence      - 5/10
     Military Training - 6/10
     Reconnaissance    - 6/10
     Ranged            - 7/10
     Mounted           - 8/10
    Genghis is one fo the leaders that you really don't want to fight head on. He
    will be overwhelming offensive, he will not use a unit to defend when he can 
    send them to the front. That said, he will concentrate most with mounted units
    first, which will have deplete most of his horse resources, and then move onto
    ranged units. That tactic of fast moving units and ranged archers allows you 
    to exploit by having lancers counter the horses, and then using ground units 
    to mop up the archers.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 5/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 5/10
     Naval Growth           - 5/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 5/10
    The Khan will have no real preference when it comes to navies, and that is 
    validated by his own history, he was strictly focussed on land, rather than 
    the seas, like some of the other leaders. With this, you can fight him with 
    your own navy bombarding his ground units, and naval invasions are a real 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 5/10
    What is a shame is that Genghis will tend to ignore his air force later in the
    game, and that will hinder his mounted and ranged offensive. With that in 
    mind, having a few bombers and interceptors will halt his ground advances 
    later in the game, which will allow you to fight him on more fair terms.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 8/10
     Growth           - 5/10
     Tile Improvement - 5/10
     Infrastructure   - 3/10
     Production       - 6/10
     Gold             - 6/10
     Science          - 4/10
     Culture          - 5/10
    As you can guess, Genghis will tend to focus more on expansion, so his 
    settlers are easy prey. However, what is interesting is the lack of 
    infrastructure development, such as roads. with this, you can easily block
    off his army with natural terrain, and underdeveloping roads near your 
    own borders with him, that way, he might take some land, but you will be 
    able to mobilise your army from the rear to counteract his advances.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 5/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 3/10
     Diplomacy     - 3/10
     Spaceship     - 5/10
    Genghis is focused more on war, rather than diplomacy or building wonders,
    so he won't compete with you there. Then again, if you are in a tight
    spot and facing certain defeat, don't expect him to be nice to you now, he
    won't be nice until he sees your head at the end of a spear.
    [3.21] Spain
     Leader          - Isabella
     Unique Unit 1   - Tercio, replaces Musketman
     Unique Unit 2   - Conquistador, replaces Knight
     Unique Building - None
     Civilization Power
      - Gold bonus for discovering a natural wonder (bonus enhanced if first to 
        discover it). Culture, Happiness, and tile yields from Natural Wonders
     ~ History 
    "Spain's location on the Iberian Peninsula between North Africa and Europe has
     made it an important territory from prehistoric times to the present. At one
     time the first world Imperial power, Spain later had to survive devastating
     wars and centuries of political unrest. From its discovery and colonization
     of the New World to its involvement in countless wars of independence, Spain
     is one of the few countries which can claim such a lasting and encompassing
     global influence.
     The Kingdom of Spain is the 51st largest country in the world, only some
     31,000 square miles bigger than the state of California. The majority of the
     country is dominated by high plateaus and mountain ranges, including the
     Sierra Nevada in the south and the Pyrenees to the west. Spain's highest peak
     is located on one of its island holdings, the volcano Teide on Tenerife, a
     member of the Canary Islands.
     Spain's climate is incredibly diverse, even if only considering the mainland
     and none of the colonies. The southern areas bordering the Mediterranean Sea
     enjoy a mild Mediterranean and semi-arid climate, the central plain is
     Continental in nature, and the northern areas vary between Oceanic and
     Mountainous temperatures. Also, contrary to popular belief, the rain in Spain
     does not fall mainly in the plain - it's usually found in the mountains.
     Archeological evidence suggests that humans first arrived on the Iberian
     Peninsula about 32,000 years ago, the Altamira cave paintings providing a
     famous artifact of their travels. The peninsula was settled between two main
     groups, the Iberians and the Celts, the former populating the southern and
     eastern areas with the latter inhabiting the northern and western stretches.
     The peninsula placed the Celts and Iberians in a prime position for commerce,
     and many Phoenician and Greek merchants set up a thriving gold and silver
     trade, predominately within the city of Tartessos, located at present-day
     Seville. A few Phoenician, Greek, and Carthaginian trading colonies were
     founded along the Mediterranean coast of the peninsula, though the local
     populace retained control over most of their area, despite this influx of
     foreign gold and power.
     This continued until roughly 210 BC, when the Romans captured the
     Carthaginian colonies during the Second Punic War.  At this point, the
     Romans launched a campaign into the heart of the Iberian Peninsula, where
     they conquered nearly all of the landmass. Over the course of the next 500
     years, the Celts and Iberians were steadily "Romanized" - local
     aristocratic families were inducted into the Roman nobility, Roman roads
     and trading posts dotted the land, and new systems of irrigation techniques
     were established, including the famous aqueducts.  Christianity was also
     introduced during this time and was quickly adopted by the local people.
     Rome, however, began to lose hold of the peninsula (now being referred to
     as "Hispania" or "Iberia") when a Germanic invasion of Gaul pushed Suevi
     and Vandal peoples into Iberia in 409 AD. The displaced tribes set up a
     new kingdom in modern day Galicia and Portugal, and Rome lacked the
     resources to stop them. The Vandals quickly spread across Iberia, leaving
     the Romans with a small southern holding along the coast, Spania. The
     Byzantine Romans hoped to retake Iberia from this vantage point, but soon
     the entire peninsula fell under Visigoth rule.
     The Visigoths continued their control of Iberia for the next three centuries,
     until a sudden invasion by the Umayyad Islamic Empire swept across the
     peninsula. The large, Moorish armies crossed from North Africa into Gibraltar
     and conquered nearly the whole of Iberia in seven short years, from 711-718
     AD.  The new Islamic powers allowed the Christians and the Jews to continue
     their religious practices, but did require them to pay special taxes and
     submit to a few discriminatory practices. Despite these minor (for the given
     time) prejudices, many of the locals began to convert to Islam.
     The invaders themselves were hardly unified despite their shared religion
     and purpose, and soon groups of Moors were splitting off and forming
     settlements of their own, primarily in the Valencia and Granada regions. In
     the 11th century the Muslim territories fractured again, allowing some of
     the remaining Christian kingdoms to expand their boundaries.  Christians and
     Muslims continued to wrest for control of Iberia for centuries, resulting
     in the creation of the Reconquista.
     Officially starting with the Battle of Covadonga in 722 (but not gaining
     momentum until much later), the Reconquista was the name given to the
     Christians' attempt to reclaim Iberia from Muslim rule. Many important
     Christian kingdoms were founded by the Reconquista, such as Asturias and
     Aragon, but most of the Muslim kingdoms stubbornly held onto their land.
     For the next 700 years, a battle for the Iberian Peninsula raged between
     the Christians and the Muslims: strongholds were built and fell, power
     bases and balances shifted, and borders were redrawn on nearly a yearly
     basis.  Despite the slow encroachment of the Christian-led kingdoms across
     Iberia, no clear victor presented itself.
     However, this all changed with the fateful union of the kingdoms of Castile
     and Aragon, joined by the marriage of Isabella I and Ferdinand II in 1469.
     The two monarchs led a pointed attack against the Islamic stronghold of
     Granada, and in 1492 they finally ended the 781-year rule of the Muslims
     in Iberia.
     1492 was an important year for the monarchs; Christopher Columbus, with the
     patronage of Isabella, arrived in America (leading to the colonization of
     the New World), and the Iberian Jews were ordered to convert to Christianity
     or face expulsion or even death under the Inquisition.
     The new, unified kingdom of Isabella and Ferdinand became known as España
     (or Spain) and with her wealthy colonies in the New World became the first
     "world power" of the time.
     At its height, the Spanish Empire counted holdings across the entirety of
     the world - from large chunks of North and South America and small pieces
     of Europe, to various cities in North Africa and the entirety of the East
     Indies. The Spanish led the world in this age of discovery, accumulating
     vast amounts of wealth and trade from their numerous colonies and
     principalities. It was said, and rightfully so, that the sun always shone
     somewhere in the Spanish Empire.
     Spain's new trade routes with the New World not only provided new knowledge
     and culture, but also new resources in the form of precious metals
     (i.e., gold), spices, and plants. Spain's Golden Age also saw the creation
     of intellectual and spiritual reforms as well, starting with the escalation
     of humanism, beginnings of the Protestant Reformation, and the founding of
     the School of Salamanca.
     With great power comes great responsibility, at least if you don't want
     Barbary pirates to conduct slave raids along your empire's coastal holdings.
     Besides the growing pirate and Ottoman threat, Spain found itself routinely
     at war with France.  Religious unrest and wars shook the Catholic empire, as
     the Protestant Reformation dragged the empire into ever-increasing military
     engagements across Europe.  What unrest and religion didn't touch, plague
     did, and in the 1650's, the empire was rocked by the Great Plague of Seville.
     From this point forward, Spain's power and influence went into a gradual, and
     then not-so-gradual decline. She began to lose her European holdings,
     primarily from the separation of Portugal and the Netherlands, and then
     suffered military setbacks from the highly destructive Thirty Years War.
     Wars and more wars threatened and decimated the once proud empire for the
     next two centuries.  In the 18th century, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the
     country by trickery, claiming he was on his way to Portugal.  Then in the
     early 19th century, a nationalist revolt to overthrow their
     French-occupationalist government led to the Spanish War of Independence, or
     the Peninsular War.  Despite their eventual victory over the French (mostly
     due to Napoleon's disastrous Russian campaign) the country was thrown into
     political turmoil.
     Spain soon saw itself in turn facing multiple wars of independence from its
     own foreign colonies, cumulating in the Spanish-American War. The 20th
     century didn't bring much change for the fallen empire - The Spanish Civil
     War of the 1930s brought Fascism and an authoritarian government to the
     country, claiming over half a million lives in the process.  This war is
     also commonly credited as the first battle of World War II.
     It wasn't until the death of General Francisco Franco, in 1975, that the
     monarchy was restored and things began to look up for Spain for the first
     time in the past 300 years.
     In 1978, Democracy was introduced to Spain with the approval of the Spanish
     Constitution; King Juan Carlos finally put a stop to rebel and radical
     Nationalist movements that had been rampaging across the country side,
     primarily led by a group of Basque terrorists.  In 1982, Spain became a
     member of NATO, and then in 1986, a member of the European Community, which
     later became the European Union.
     From its glorious days as an Imperial power to its centuries of internal and
     international strife, Spain has rebuilt itself and re-emerged as a new world
     player, boasting the ninth largest economy and tenth highest quality of life
     in the world.  A huge percentage of the world can trace back some part of its
     national identity or culture to Spain, from the architectural iron workings
     in New Orleans to the Catholic faith of the Philippines. Few current nations
     can claim to have such a far-reaching and lasting influence as Imperial
     Spain, both at the height of her power and today."
    First off, two unique units are a nice touch, especially during the medieval
    periods, which are really, the main focus of the game. Unless you are rushing,
    medieval periods is where you will really need to focus on your military. 
    The bonus of the Seven Cities of Gold is nice. If you find a hidden wonder, it
    does more for your happiness than other civilizations, however, this does tend
    to become more obsolete later in the game. However, should you place a city
    next to these wonders, which I suggest you do since they do provide a pretty
    strong boost to your city, they will provide so much more for your civ than 
    other civilizations. It is even worth fighting a war over. 
     ~ History
    "Isabella I was the Queen of Castile and Leon for 30 years, and with her
     husband Ferdinand, laid the groundwork for the consolidation of Spain. For
     her role in the Spanish unification, patronage of Columbus' voyages to
     America, and ending of the Reconquista (Recapturing) of the Iberian
     Peninsula, Isabella is regarded as one of the most beloved and important
     monarchs in the Spanish crown.
     Isabella was born on April 22, 1451 in Ávila to John II of Castile and
     Isabella of Portugal.  She had an older brother, Henry (her elder by 26
     years), and later a younger brother Alfonso, who displaced her in the line of
     succession. When her father died in 1454, Henry took the throne of Castile
     as King Henry IV, and Isabella and her family moved to Arévalo and lived in a
     destitute castle, where her mother slowly started to lose her sanity. It
     wasn't until years later, when Henry's wife gave birth, that Henry allowed
     his siblings to move back to the main court in Segovia.
     Here Isabella was educated in all manners of queenly disciplines and her life
     improved considerably, but Henry did put one limiting condition on her - she
     was forbidden to leave Segovia without his permission. Henry claimed this
     was to keep Isabella from the political turmoil brewing in the kingdom over
     his choice of heir (his new daughter Joanna), but it could have also been to
     restrict her access to the rebelling noblemen.
     The nobles, however, had no problem speaking with her younger brother
     Alfonso, and he instigated the Second Battle of Olmedo in 1467, demanding
     that he be made Henry's heir. As a compromise, Henry named Alfonso the Prince
     of Asturias, a title that would be given to the heir apparent of both Castile
     and Leon, and thought about marrying his daughter Joanna to Alfonso. But
     Alfonso didn't have long to enjoy his new role; he soon died, probably a
     casualty of the plague. Alfonso had named Isabella his successor in his will,
     and the title passed to her.
     Rather than continue the rebellion against her older brother, Isabella met
     with Henry at Toros de Guisando and negotiated a permanent peace settlement.
     Henry would officially name Isabella as his heir, but she would not be
     allowed to marry without his consent. However, Henry could also not force her
     to marry against her will. Both parties pleased with their settlement, Henry
     began his search for a fitting husband for his younger sister.
     At this time, Isabella was betrothed to Ferdinand, son of John II of Aragon
     (and had been since the age of three), but Henry off broke this agreement.
     Instead, he attempted to wed Isabella to Charles IV of Navarre, another of
     John's sons, but John refused the offer.
     Soon after in 1464, Henry attempted to marry Isabella off to King Edward IV
     of England, but Edward also refused. Many attempts were then made to wed the
     girl to Alfonso V of Portugal, but she refused him at the altar due to his
     old age.
     The Castilian's personal soap opera continued with Isabella's betrothal to
     Pedro Giron, the brother of Henry's favorite Don. Isabella prayed feverishly
     that the marriage be called off, as Don Pedro was 27years older than she.
     Isabella fervently believed that God had answered her plea, as the Don died
     from a burst appendix on the way to greet his fiancée.
     Next up in Henry's shrinking line of suitors was Louis XI's brother Charles,
     Duke of Berry. At this point Isabella had had enough of Henry's thinly veiled
     attempts to remove her from the line of succession with a poor political
     marriage, and she began to negotiate with John II of Aragorn in secret to
     once again secure a marriage to his son Ferdinand.
     Although all parties were in favor of the marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand
     (except of course for Henry, who was still trying to woo France and
     Portugal), there was one small problem - the young couple were second
     cousins. By church law, a Papal Bull was required for a wedding of closely
     related cousins, but the Pope was loathe to grant one from fear of
     retribution from Castile, Portugal, and France.
     However, Isabella refused to marry without the dispensation, as she was by
     this point a very devout woman. Ferdinand sought the help of Rodrigo Borgia
     in Rome (later Pope Alexander VI) and presented Isabella with a "Papal Bull"
     from Pius II. The probable forgery was good enough for her and she quickly
     agreed to the marriage. With the excuse of visiting her brother's tomb in
     Avila, Isabella managed to escape Henry's sight and Ferdinand slipped into
     Castile disguised as a merchant. Isabella's rather Shakespearian journey
     ended on October 19, 1469 when she wedded Ferdinand in Valladolid.
     Henry found out about the marriage rather quickly after this, and pleaded
     with the Pope to dissolve the marriage. The new Pope, Sixtus IV, didn't have
     any of his predecessor's qualms about Castilian hostilities and instead
     gifted the wedded couple a real Papal Bull, thwarting Henry.
     A few years later in 1474, Henry died and a succession war broke out across
     Castile. Portugal supported Henry's daughter, Joanna, to take the throne, but
     Isabella had the support of Aragon (through Ferdinand) and later France. The
     war dragged on for four years, but ultimately Sixtus IV again came to
     Isabella's rescue. The Pope annulled Joanna's marriage to Alfonso V of
     Portugal, ironically on the grounds of their close familial relationship.
     Joanna was forced to renounce her titles of Princess and Queen of Castile,
     and the throne passed to Isabella on January 20, 1479.
     The early years of Isabella's reign mostly involved solidifying her power
     base and continuing the Reconquista (Recapturing) of the Iberian Peninsula.
     However, her reign became memorable, in the momentous year of 1492. 
     Almost everything Isabella is known for in history took place in this year:
     the end of the Reconquista, the patronage of Christopher Columbus, and the
     intensification of the Inquisition.
     Spanning seven centuries, a lengthy war known as the Reconquista was fought
     by the Iberian monarchs, who were attempting to regain control of the region
     and force the Muslims out. For the last 200 of these years, the Emirate of
     Granada remained the final stronghold of the Muslim dynasties on the Iberian
     Peninsula. Isabella and Ferdinand continued the war and led a determined raid
     into the kingdom starting in 1482. Isabella often took it upon herself to
     rally her soldiers by praying in the middle of the battlefield, and even
     built her stronghold outside the city of Granada in the shape of a cross,
     believing she was doing God's will. Eventually Isabella's forces were
     victorious and she signed the Treaty of Granada, ending the Reconquista after
     700 years of fighting.
     Earlier in her reign, Isabella had been approached by a young explorer by the
     name of Christopher Columbus, who sought funding for a new expedition to
     reach the Indies by sailing west. Her advisors judged his plan impractical
     and believed that his proposed distance to Asia was much too short to be
     possible. However, instead of turning him out as Portugal had done, Isabella
     gave him a small annual allowance and free lodging in all her cities. He
     continued to try and sell his plan to the monarchs, and they continued to
     Upon returning from Granada, Isabella was again approached by Christopher
     Columbus. On the advice of her confessor, Isabella this time firmly turned
     him down. As Columbus was leaving Córdoba in despair, Ferdinand quickly
     convinced Isabella to change her mind. She sent a royal guard to fetch him
     and began to draw up plans for funding. Columbus left on his fateful voyage
     on August 3, 1492, and landed in America on October 12. Isabella and
     Ferdinand's patronage of the intrepid explorer began Spain's Golden Age of
     exploration and colonization.
     The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Spain (or more
     succinctly, the Spanish Inquisition) was established in 1478 by Isabella to
     maintain Catholic orthodoxy in Castile and Aragon, and to replace the
     Medieval Inquisition currently under Papal control. However, in 1492, it
     took a turn for the worse.
     A Dominican friar, Tomás de Torquemada became the first Inquisitor General
     and pushed the two monarchs to pursue a more active policy of religious
     unity. While Isabella was loathe to take harsh measures against the Jews in
     her kingdom (for purely economic reasons), Torquemada was able to convince
     Ferdinand and through him, Isabella. The Alhambra Decree was signed on March
     31, 1492, calling for the forced expulsion of the Jews. About 200,000 Jews
     immediately left Spain while some others converted, but this latter group
     fell under strict scrutiny of the Inquisition.
     The Muslims in the Granada region, who had originally been granted
     religious freedoms, were pressured to convert. After many Muslims revolted,
     a policy was enacted to force conversion or expulsion, much like with the
     Isabella continued to stabilize her growing empire throughout her reign,
     and worked to link her children with other European nations, hoping to avoid
     another succession war similar to her own. She strived to finally unite the
     Iberian Peninsula under one crown. She married her eldest son to an Austrian
     Archduchess, establishing a link to the Habsburgs, and her eldest daughter
     to Manual I of Portugal. However, Isabella's plans were laid to waste when
     both children died soon after and the crown passed to her third daughter,
     Joanna the Mad. Joanna married Philip of Burgundy and became the last
     Trastámaran monarch.  After her, the crown passed to the Habsburgs.
     Isabella died in 1504 and was entombed in the Royal Chapel of Granada.
     Under Isabella, Spain was united, the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula
     concluded, and the power of the region centralized. She also laid the
     groundwork for the most dominant military machine in the next century (The
     Armada), reformed the Spanish church, and led the Spanish expansions into
     the new American colonies. Although many criticize her role in the
     Inquisition and in the persecution of Jews and Muslims, others are currently
     campaigning to have the late Queen canonized as a Saint in the Catholic
     Church. Regardless of her questionable acts persecuting others' religious
     beliefs, Isabella remains one of the most influential and significant
     monarchs of Spain."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 6/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 4/10
     City State Competitiveness - 4/10
     Boldness                   - 5/10
    Isabella is one who isn't one to back down from a fight, however, she is one 
    of the more balanced leaders. She will concentrate on fighting, wars on the
    ground, sea or air, and with this, expect stiff resistance from her. She won't
    aim to build wonders or play with the city states, but she will be one to send
    her little units into your lands.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 7/10
     Hostile   - 6/10
     Deceptive - 6/10
     Guarded   - 5/10
     Afraid    - 5/10
     Friendly  - 4/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    As you can see, her primary response will be to fight you. If you annoy her,
    don't expect any mercy when she sends her army a knockin. However, she will
    go and play sneaky on you, like getting you to sign up to expensive research
    agreements before she sends her troops to invade your lands, whilst you have 
    a little more than a penny to spare. 
    She is less likely to be nice to you, so if here is a rule. If she decides to
    be nice to you, expect her to backstab you the next minute. It helps.
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 6/10
     Friendly      - 3/10
     Protective    - 3/10
     Conquest      - 5/10
    With the combination of conquest and ignoring others, this would put her in a 
    lot of war situations over the city states. She will be ignoring that others
    have protected them, and when she conquers the city-state, she will end up
    with a fight on her hands. This helps you, when both empires are slugging it
    out, you can just sit, watch, and send in your army to kick off both of them
    from your new lands.
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 6/10
     Defensive         - 4/10
     City Defence      - 5/10
     Military Training - 5/10
     Reconnaissance    - 6/10
     Ranged            - 5/10
     Mounted           - 5/10
    Don't expect Isabella to hide in her cities, she will actively go out and hunt
    you down. This puts her on the offensive, and whilst she will send out some
    scouts, don't expect too many, her ranged units and mounted units aren't far
    behind. Since she is always on the offensive, you can easily set up some
    killzones, use the terrain to your advantage and wear down her units as much
    as possible, and then slaughter them when you have the decisive upperhand.
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 7/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 8/10
     Naval Growth           - 7/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 7/10
    What is surprising is that Isabella doesn't get her own unique ship, which
    would suit her. Still, she is a rival to Elizabeth in terms of command of the
    seas, she will use her ships to play. Basically, if you want to fight a war 
    with Isabella, expect some artillery from the sea, she will hunt you down 
    from there. This is where you get to play sneaky, submarines are very nice to
    fight with.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 5/10
    Isabella is average in terms of air usage, and this is to your advantage. If
    you base your aircraft out of your coastal cities, they can bomb her ships 
    into submission. Aircraft carriers are also useful, they are aviation units, 
    and they can bomb her defenseless ships out of the seas. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 7/10
     Growth           - 5/10
     Tile Improvement - 4/10
     Infrastructure   - 5/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 7/10
     Science          - 3/10
     Culture          - 5/10
    The funny thing about Isabella is that she doesn't care too much about 
    science, which is an advantage to you since you can tech up, and build 
    suitable counters to her offensive units. That also gives you an advantage
    when it comes to naval superiority. Also, her rate of expansion is pretty 
    much there, so expect her to expand fast, strong, but with low tech units.
    And with a unique trait that details the Seven Cities of Gold, expect her 
    offers to buy her way out of trouble.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 5/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 5/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 5/10
    Overall, she doesn't really care about the other forms of victories, she 
    cares about crushing you with her powerful military. Other than that, you
    will have a free go with diplomatic, cultural victories and the like, since
    she isn't going to contest it. 
    [3.22] Inca
     Leader          - Pachacuti
     Unique Unit 1   - Slinger, replaces Archer
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Terrace Farm, Improvement Tile
     Civilization Power
      - Units ignore terrain costs when moving on any tile with Hills. No
        maintenance costs for improvement in Hills; half cost elsewhere. 
     ~ History 
    "The largest Pre-Columbian empire in the Americas, the Incan Empire stretched
     from Peru to Chile along the Andes Mountains. This grand empire had humble
     beginnings in one small kingdom, but grew to dominate the whole of
     "civilized" South America. While the empire only lasted for one brief
     century, it did much to unify the people and culture of the different tribes
     living on the mountain tops. Despite the Inca's near and complete
     annihilation, many artifacts and physical structures still stand, such as the
     famed Machu Picchu, a testament of the power once wielded by the Incan kings.
     The empire was centered along the Andean mountain ranges, and encompassed
     areas which include parts of present-day Argentina, Ecuador, Peru, Chile,
     Bolivia, and Columbia.  The climate and geography was mountainous, but early
     on the Incas perfected the art of terrace farming and easily lived among the
     ridges. Fertile valleys nestled between the mountain peaks gave the Incas
     plenty of spaces to live and grow.
     Before it was a mighty empire, the Incas hailed from the small Kingdom of
     Cusco, situated in western Peru. Under the leadership of Pachacuti, the ninth
     Sapa Inca, Cusco embarked upon a campaign to subjugate the surrounding tribes
     under one banner. Using both military conquests and peaceful assimilations,
     Pachacuti and his son Tupac laid the foundation for the Tahuantinsuyu Empire.
     The appellation was a literal naming of the empire, signifying its creation
     from four separate provinces - Chinchasuyu in the northwest, Antisuyu in the
     northeast, Contisuyu to the southwest, and Collasuyu to the southeast.
     Pachacuti set up a new system of government in order to keep his acquisitions
     in order. Children of the ruling families were made to relocate to Cusco
     (the capital) and learn from the Incas directly, becoming indoctrinated into
     their culture and way of life. Once they were older, the children were
     returned to their original provinces in the empire, helping to spread the
     Incan culture.
     After Pachacuti's death in 1471, his son Tupac Inca Yupanqui began new
     conquests in the north. At this point in time, the Incas only had one main
     rival left along the western shores, the Chimor tribe. Tupac quickly
     dispatched them and added their holdings to the growing empire.
     Tupac's son Huayna Capac later added a few additional pieces of present-day
     Ecuador to the empire, but his southern expansion was halted at the Battle of
     the Maule. There the Mapuche tribes stopped the Incas in their tracks. This
     wasn't a complete loss for the Incas since most of the land in this area of
     the empire was predominately desert wasteland, and the majority of the
     population remained in the Andes.
     In 1526, the Inca's domination of the land began its downward spiral. Spanish
     conquistador Francisco Pizarro reached the Incan territory as he explored
     south from Panama, and immediately petitioned the crown for permission to
     invade - he believed fervently that the land was ripe with treasure.
     He returned with a small force in 1532 to find the empire ready for the
     taking. Huayna's two sons, Huascar and Atahualpa, were engaged in a civil war
     over control of the territories, and the introduction of smallpox had wreaked
     considerable havoc among its populace. Pizarro's force (168 men, 1 cannon,
     and 27 horses) were no match for the Inca in numbers, but their superior
     technology and military tactics saw them through in the end.
     Pizarro's first battle, the Battle of Puná, occurred later that year near
     present-day Guayaquil, Ecuador, which he handily won. One of his men,
     Hernando de Soto, was sent further inland to explore as Pizarro founded a new
     city in the area, Piura. De Soto encountered the triumphant Atahualpa and
     returned to Pizarro with an invitation to meet. The Spaniards demanded that
     the Incas accept Charles I of Spain as their emperor and convert immediately
     to Christianity. Perhaps due to a language barrier or poor communication
     skills in general, Atahualpa didn't fully grasp the exact message of the
     meeting and sent further communications demanding more explanation.
     Frustrated and annoyed, instead of finding a better translator the Spanish
     attacked Atahualpa's camp and took the leader as hostage.
     The Incan King offered Pizarro a massive amount of gold and silver for his
     release, which he promptly accepted. Pizarro however didn't keep his end of
     the bargain and refused to release Atahualpa to the Incas. During this time,
     Huascar was assassinated and Pizarro used this to his advantage - claiming
     that Atahualpa was behind the dirty deed. At a shady trial run by the
     Spanish, Atahualpa was sentenced to death in August 1533.
     With both Atahualpa and Huascar out of the picture, the Spanish placed their
     younger brother Manco in charge, who dutifully cooperated with them for the
     time being. Manco, once secure in his own power base, attempted to take back
     his empire with the capture of Cusco in 1536, but he was no match for the
     Spanish invaders. He and his court fled to the mountains of Peru, where they
     continued to rule for the next 36 years. However, in 1572 the last Incan
     stronghold fell, and Manco's son and current king, Tupac Amaru was executed.
     All the Incan royalty dead, the new Spanish rulers brutally oppressed the
     native people and attempted to strip them of their culture, religion, and
     traditions. Each Incan family was required to send a family member to work in
     the Spanish gold and silver mines, and replace them immediately upon the
     worker's death, which happened roughly every one to two years due to poor
     working conditions. Smallpox continued to spread rapidly through the remains
     of the empire, claiming somewhere between 60% and 90% of the population.
     Typhus, influenza, diphtheria, and measles did the rest - by 1618 almost all
     traces of the Incan culture were lost. All that is left now of their once
     glorious civilization is a smattering of scattered tribes and stone
     outcroppings, relics of a distant past."
    The Inca are a pretty nice civilization to play with, since if you expand and
    develop your tiles, you will pay less, due to their special power. This will
    make it that much cheaper to maintain your farms, and overall, build up all
    the tiles in your lands. This will help your city growth as a result, a plain
    tile can be turned into a farm, bringing in more food, and so forth.
    And since maintenance is halved, this is cheaper for you, and as a result,
    it will cost less gold, which you can spend on other things. Also, with no
    movement penalty on hills, that gives you double the striking range of most
    of your units that will suffer a penalty, and that lets you move from outside
    the defensive range on the city, right down to their gates if protected by a
     ~ History
    "Pachacuti was the ninth ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco, who during his reign
     expanded the tiny kingdom into an expansive empire - Tawantinsuyu.
     Pachacuti's Incan Empire stretched from modern-day Chile to Ecuador,
     including most of Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina, and laid the
     foundation for an even larger Incan Empire to come.
     Pachacuti was the son of the Inca Virococha, second in line for the throne
     after his older brother Urco. The Kingdom of Cusco, at this point, was rather
     small and continuously threatened by the neighboring Chancas tribe. Not much
     is known of Pachacuti's early life, that is until he got a chance to impress
     his father during one of the Chancas' invasions. While his father and brother
     fled the battlefield, Pachacuti rallied the remaining army and not only won
     the day, but squashed the Chancas so thoroughly that stories were told of how
     the very earth itself rose up to fight for him. Pachacuti, "The Earth
     Shaker", was named the new crown prince and even joint ruler of Cusco.
     In 1438, Pachacuti became the sole ruler of the kingdom when his father died,
     and he launched an almost immediate series of successful invasions into the
     neighboring kingdoms. His new empire stretched from Ecuador to Chile and
     became one of the most formidable kingdoms in South America.
     While many kingdoms were gained through conquest, Pachacuti also employed a
     more devious tactic to acquire new regions. First he would send spies out to
     areas which interested him, gaining intelligence on wealth and military
     might. If intrigued, he would invite the leaders of these lands to submit
     peacefully, extolling the virtues of living under Incan rule. Many accepted
     (not wanting to repeat the fate of the Chancas) and sent their children to
     live in Cusco, where they were educated under Incan law. They were then
     indoctrinated and married into the Incan nobility before being sent back to
     rule their original lands, ensuring the expansion of and continued peace in
     the empire.
     To keep his new land in order, he established four provinces, each
     controlled by a local governor who ran the day to day affairs. He also
     created a separate branch of power for both the priesthood and army, forming
     one of the first systems of checks and balances. Cuzco itself was rebuilt to
     serve as an Imperial Capital City, and each province had its own sector
     dedicated in the city. During this time he also constructed the famed Machu
     Picchu, believed now to be a mountain estate built for his personal use.
     After his death in 1471, Pachacuti's younger son Tupac became the next
     emperor of the Incan Empire, the elder Amaru passed over for not being a
     warrior like his father.
     Pachacuti is viewed in Peru as a national hero, and many of the monuments he
     constructed around the empire still stand. While he was well known for his
     political and military abilities, he wasn't the most benevolent ruler. To
     ensure the continuation of his empire, he displaced hundreds of thousands of
     people, relocating them about the empire as he saw fit. Despite any faults,
     Pachacuti began the Incan's largest era of conquest, expanding their empire
     until it dominated nearly all of the known, inhabited South America."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 5/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 7/10
     City State Competitiveness - 3/10
     Boldness                   - 4/10
    Pachacuti is a very competitive player in the world of Wonders, and I would 
    expect nothing more from the man who cast the first stone of building Machu
    Picchu. He is a feverish Wonder building, and is similar to that dude from
    Babylon, I can't be bothered spelling his name, and Ramses. These guys are
    the ones to watch out for.
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 7/10
     Hostile   - 5/10
     Deceptive - 7/10
     Guarded   - 6/10
     Afraid    - 6/10
     Friendly  - 5/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    War and deception, one of the worst combinations you want to see in an 
    enemy. Basically, it is the whole I will trade with you, play with you on
    research agreements, and BAM, knife in the back when his armies come down on
    you. Basically, do not accept candy from this man, he will make sure that you
    will pay for this candy in full. With your empire. If he can get it.
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 5/10
     Friendly      - 6/10
     Protective    - 6/10
     Conquest      - 3/10
    Given that he would rather peacefully conquer, rather than to do so with brute
    force, his protective and friendly stance towards the city states is rather in
    line with his personality. That does make it hard not to fight him however, if
    you want that city state, you're going to have to go through him, and you 
    really don't want to be fighting him early on.
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 6/10
     Defensive         - 5/10
     City Defence      - 5/10
     Military Training - 6/10
     Reconnaissance    - 6/10
     Ranged            - 8/10
     Mounted           - 3/10
    Pachacuti has a heavy reliance on ranged units, which is rather interesting 
    since he won't defend them that well, he expects his ranged units to do all
    the heavy lifting. That does allow you the luxury of using your mounted and
    mobile units to move quickly and attack his units from a range, and eliminate
    them. Also, it does make it harder for him to assault enemy cities, since 
    ranged units aren't exactly the type of units you want to attack a city. A
    guy with a sword is a bit more threatening to a civilian than a dude with a 
    rock in his hand. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 4/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 4/10
     Naval Growth           - 4/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 4/10
    Given that the Inca empire was situation well into the mountains, they can be
    forgiven for not exactly having the strongest armada to sail the seven seas.
    They really won't focus all that much on their navy, which does give you an
    added option to eliminate their ranged units, with a battleship. 
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 5/10
    Given that the Incans weren't exactly the pioneers of flight, you won't
    expect a strong air force from them, but that doesn't mean that they won't
    protect their lands. So either shoot down their air power, or just crush it
    with overwhelming air superiority. 
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 6/10
     Growth           - 5/10
     Tile Improvement - 6/10
     Infrastructure   - 8/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 8/10
     Science          - 5/10
     Culture          - 6/10
    As you can expect from their power, you can see that there is a heavy
    emphasis on infrastructure building, and although this is focussed more on
    the road building and railway building later on in the game, there is still
    a bias towards building more tile improvements, which is a benefit. Also,
    there is a nice desire to accumulate more gold, which is nice of you want a
    fat hog to target. 
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 4/10
     Great People  - 5/10
     Wonder        - 7/10
     Diplomacy     - 5/10
     Spaceship     - 5/10
    As seen above earlier on, there is a strong bias towards the building of 
    wonders. This is a nasty little trait if you are focussed on building Wonders
    like myself. This forces you to push more of your cities to build Wonders
    rather than other city improvements. An interesting thing is that he doesn't
    care all that much about his own civilization happiness, and that is something
    that you can exploit. 
    [3.23] Polynesia
     Leader          - Kamehameha
     Unique Unit 1   - Maori Warrior, replaces Warrior
     Unique Unit 2   - None
     Unique Building - Moai, Tile Improvement
     Civilization Power
      - Can embark and move over Oceans immediately. +1 Sight when embarked. +10%
        Combat Strength bonus if within 2 tiles of a Moai. 
     ~ History 
    "More of a loose collection of islands rather than a unified civilization,
     Polynesia boasts a rich culture and fascinating history. When most Europeans
     were mired in the Dark Ages, the Polynesians were perfecting the art of
     travelling across the mighty Pacific in small wooden canoes, navigating by
     the stars, weather, and wildlife. Eventually most of the islands were
     colonized by European powers, but much of the native culture and languages
     are still fiercely preserved for future generations.
     Polynesia is the general name given to the grouping of islands in the central
     and southern Pacific Ocean, also known as the Polynesian Triangle. Bordered
     by New Zealand to the west, Hawai'i to the north and Easter Island to the
     east, the region includes over 1,000 inhabited islands. The name was
     originally introduced by French writer Charles de Brosses in 1756 to describe
     all the Pacific islands, but it was later limited to its current definition.
     The islands as a whole are volcanic in nature, many with idyllic white
     beaches, palm trees, and clear lagoons - quintessential island paradises. 
     Polynesia's climate is tropical and warm, but strong trade winds tend to keep
     many of the islands from reaching scorching temperatures. The islands are
     sometimes plagued by typhoons, which are active in the region from January to
     The ancient history of the Polynesian peoples is still shrouded in mystery,
     but archeologists and anthropologists currently agree that one of three
     theories explains how the islands were originally settled.
     The first theory, the Express Train model, suggests that some 3,000 years ago
     settlers expanded westward out of Taiwan over the course of roughly 1,000
     years. They mixed little with any other natives they encountered, explaining
     current Polynesian's genetic and linguistic characteristics. The other two
     theories, the Entangled Bank and Slow Boat models, describe a longer
     migration pattern, one which includes mixing and interactions with all the
     native populaces, specifically the Melanesians.
     Regardless of how long it took the first settlers to reach western Polynesia,
     the path they took has been charted with a fair degree of confidence. The
     northernmost point, Hawai'i, was settled around 500 AD, followed by New
     Zealand in 1000 AD. The exact date for when the Polynesians discovered Easter
     Island is still debated. Some archaeological evidence suggests that the
     island was first inhabited between 300 and 500 AD, but more recently the date
     800 has come into favor. Other scientists believe that the island wasn't
     inhabited until as late as 1200.
     The Polynesian triangle is a vast one, with each side measuring roughly 4,000
     miles long. To cover this amount of distance over the open ocean required an
     astonishing degree of naval technology, navigational aptitude, and bravery. 
     Using the technique of wayfinding, navigators memorized the motion of
     specific stars, weather, local wildlife patterns, and the direction of waves
     on the ocean. They passed this information down orally to new generations of
     navigators, the secrets closely guarded by these elite families. To aid in
     the dangerous crossings, they also developed outrigger supports for their
     canoes, allowing them to safely cross the vast ocean. Many of these
     techniques and navigational aids are still passed down and used by modern
     Polynesian sailors.
     Polynesian settlers arrived on the banks of present day Hawai'i sometime
     around 500 AD, although some evidence does suggest it may have been as early
     as 300 AD. These early inhabitants were probably from the Marquesas Islands,
     over 4,000 miles south of Hawai'i. A second wave of immigrants may have
     arrived from Raiatea and Bora Bora in the 11th century, or even from Tahiti. 
     Some archaeologists favor the Tahitian theory, as an ancient Hawaiian
     folktale speaks of a man called Pa'ao, conclusively of Tahitian decent.
     These historians believe that the wave of Tahitian settlers brought with them
     the line of high chiefs, the Kapu system of laws, and the religious practice
     of human sacrifice.
     Evidence also exists that the Polynesians sailed back across the Pacific once
     encountering these new lands, spreading American fauna and flora throughout
     the islands. For example, the sweet potato - a Native American plant - was
     found widespread through the Polynesian islands when European travelers first
     encountered the Polynesian settlements.  
     The Polynesians lived in relative seclusion until the arrival of European
     powers, searching for new lands and trade routes. Many of the islands began
     to establish contact with the Europeans in the mid 1500s - some came as
     explorers and others as religious missionaries. However, in the 1800s many
     colonial powers, such as France, Britain, and the United States, began to
     forcefully colonize the inhabited islands, declaring them protectorates and
     territories of their respective empires. Only a few islands, such as
     Hawai'i, remained independent during this time.
     Despite the vast ocean separating the different islands, the native
     Polynesians still share many similar cultural traits, religious beliefs, and
     common languages. Sadly, many of the original indigenous people, such as the
     Maori, are now minorities on the islands, with peoples of European descent
     composing the main populace. However, most of the native populations on the
     islands strive to keep their culture and languages alive, and an active and
     effective process of revitalization and immersion is being pursued in most
     major areas."
    I do not want to hear any Dragonball Z jokes here, the King got here first. 
    Anyway, the Polynesia is rather useful early in the game, the fact that they
    can embark straight away gives them a massive advantage where there is ocean,
    especially if it is a map type with lots of islands. This gives them the 
    ability to protect themselves for a good deal of time by settling on small
    islands that are hard to capture. 
    The fact that embarking is instant cannot be underestimated, but neither is 
    their combat bonus when fighting near a Moai. This makes them, in their own
    lands, at lot more dangerous when they are near the coast, making a coastal
    invasion a very dangerous thing, and if they are on those small islands, you
    can be prepared for a very tough fight. 
     ~ History
    "One of the most respected leaders in Hawaiian history, Kamehameha I was the
     first man to unify all the Hawaiian Islands, establishing the independent
     Kingdom of Hawai'i. His birth and early actions in life fulfilled many
     ancient Hawaiian prophecies, and he became one of the greatest warriors in
     recorded Hawaiian history. Beyond his military prowess, Kamehameha was also a
     great statesman, and established important wartime edicts which have become
     the basis for many humanitarian laws around the world.
     Ancient legend held that one day a great king would be born who would unite
     the whole of the Hawaiian Islands, and a flame across the heavens would
     herald his coming. In 1758, Hailey's comet streaked across the sky of Hawai'i
     - many accounts state that Kamehameha was born shortly thereafter. Known
     originally as Pai'ea (the "hard-shelled crab"), Kamehameha was born to Chief
     Keoua Nui of the Big Island. Keoua was but one of many lesser chiefs on the
     island, which had been split into multiple districts during a succession war
     in the previous generation. Alapa'inuiakauaua, a rival chief in the area, had
     reclaimed much of the island for himself, and was the defacto ruler.
     At news of Pai'ea's birth Alapa'i became alarmed, for the great king of
     legend was also known in other records as the "killer of chiefs" - a unified
     Hawai'i wouldn't need tribal chiefs any longer. Alapa'i ordered the child
     slain. Keoua, however, was well aware of his child's ominous birth and hid
     him away with another noble family.
     For five years Pai'ea lived in secret, until Alapa'i (for reasons unknown)
     invited the child to return to the court under his protection. During this
     time at the court, Pai'ea learned the kingly disciplines of diplomacy and war
     and earned his more famous name, Kamehameha, meaning "the lonely one".
     After Alapa'i's death, Kamehameha became an aide in the new chief's court.
     This lasted until 1782, when the kingship moved on to a new ruler and
     Kamehameha was promoted to an important religious position.  With this new
     found power, Kamehameha began to build himself a support base among the
     lesser chiefs of the Kona district of the Big Island. Eventually garnering
     the support of five chiefs, Kamehameha challenged the local court. At the
     battle of Moku'ohai, Kamehameha's forces defeated the ruling chief and
     Kamehameha became the new ruler of the Kohala, Kona, and Hamakua districts.
     From here, Kamehameha successfully conquered the neighboring district of Puna
     in 1790, but soon had to face an uprising in Ka'u led by rival Keoua
     Kuahu'ula. Ever a religious man, Kamehameha constructed a large temple in a
     bid to gain the favor of his gods and the divine blessing to quash the
     rebellion. In 1791 the temple was finished, and Kamehamea invited Keoua to
     meet with him. Accounts differ on exactly what happened at that fateful
     meeting on the beach, but in the end Keoua was killed by musket fire and
     Kamehameha became the King of all the Big Island. 
     Kamehameha was driven to unite more than just the Big Island - he had his
     sights on ruling all of the Hawaiian Islands under one banner. Adding fuel to
     his wish was another ancient legend, one which he was purported to have
     fulfilled. On the Big Island a massive boulder was placed by the gods - the
     3,000 pound Naha Stone. Legend stated that a mighty warrior would emerge one
     day who could lift it, and he would be known as the great king and unifier of
     all the islands. At age 14, Kamehameha was recorded as the only person to
     accomplish this feat. Confident from his round of victories and multiple
     fulfilled prophecies, he began to lay the plans for the rest of the islands.
     In a happy coincidence for Kamehameha, British and American traders began to
     arrive on the island and gladly sold him guns and ammunition. With his
     technologically superior weapons, he quickly moved to take Maui and O'ahu in
     1795. With only 10,000 soldiers he quickly decimated Maui's forces and moved
     onto O'ahu. He met with fierce resistance at the cliffs of Pali (mostly from
     a defected commander), but in the end he defeated the enemy soldiers, driving
     many over the deadly cliff's edge.
     Only two islands remained now - the western islands of Kaua'i and Ni'ihau. 
     From his capital at Honolulu, he constructed a massive warship and attempted
     his first invasion of Kaua'i in 1796. A rebellion on the Big Island, led by
     his brother, forced him to return and reassign his forces. Not easily foiled,
     he tried again to take Kaua'i in 1803, but this time a deadly disease broke
     out among his men. Tired of his setbacks, Kamehameha then constructed the
     largest armada in Hawaiian history, filled with European schooners, massive
     war canoes, and deadly cannon. The chief of Kaua'i, Kaumuali'i, viewed the
     approaching armada with perhaps a twinge of trepidation, and decided he'd
     have better luck of survival with negotiation. In 1810 Kuamuali'i became a
     vassal of Kamehameha, who then became the sole ruling power in all of
     Not just a conquering war hero, Kamehameha immediately went to work on
     improving life on the islands and solidifying the unification. He created a
     single legal system, established taxes, and opened official trade with Europe
     and the United States. Kamehameha also created the basis for Hawai'i's
     eventual state constitution, the Law of the Splintered Paddle (the Mamalahoe
     Kanawai). This law had its humble beginnings during one of Kamehameha's early
     military engagements. During a raid, Kamehameha caught his foot under a rock
     and was ambushed by two local fishermen, who were quite fearful of the
     legendary warrior. Scared that he would kill them, they smacked him in the
     head with their canoe paddle, cracking it in half. While he was stunned, they
     ran and left him for dead. Twelve years later, the two fishermen were found
     and brought to justice; at least, they thought they were. Instead,
     Kamehameha apologized for attacking innocents and gave the two men gifts of
     land, proclaiming that all noncombatants would be protected during war from
     here out. His Splintered Paddle law has since influenced many later
     humanitarian laws of war around the world.
     During his reign, he also managed to keep Hawai'i an independent nation while
     all other Polynesian islands were swallowed by hungry colonial powers. This
     legacy of independence earned him the nickname, the "Napoleon of the
     On May 8, 1819 Kamehameha died a respected king, legendary warrior, and
     father of seven children. In the sacred custom of the Hawaiian religion, his
     body was hidden by his closest friends so that none may know of its location
     and steal his power, or mana, for personal use. The site of his burial still
     remains a mystery to this day.
     Kamehameha remains one of the most important people in Hawaiian history and
     one of its most respected leaders. He abolished the practice of human
     sacrifice, protected the innocents during war, and established one of the few
     independent nations in all of Polynesia. Whether his birth was divinely
     inspired or not, none can argue that he fulfilled the role of the great king
     foretold by ancient prophecy centuries ago."
     Leader Scales
     Victory Competitiveness    - 3/10
     Wonder Competitiveness     - 3/10
     City State Competitiveness - 5/10
     Boldness                   - 5/10
    Kamehameha is a man who isn't that competitive in terms of Wonders or city 
    states, he is rather average in that respects, which is something that you 
    should feel happy about, after all, we don't want to be facing enemies that
    solely consist of Montezuma, now do we?
     Diplomacy Scales
     War       - 6/10
     Hostile   - 4/10
     Deceptive - 4/10
     Guarded   - 6/10
     Afraid    - 4/10
     Friendly  - 7/10
     Neutral   - 5/10
    A nice mix, he is a very guarded person, so he will tend to keep to himself
    a fair bit, but he is more friendly towards you than not. So he will have 
    some good intentions when he talks to you. However, test his goodwill enough
    and you will have to face him in combat, and that probably isn't the most
    pleasant of things.
     City State Scales
     Ignore Others - 6/10
     Friendly      - 7/10
     Protective    - 5/10
     Conquest      - 4/10
    Again, when he deals with others, it is, for the better part, positive 
    rather than negative, and that makes it hard to fight someone like him. If
    he has alliances with other nations, that makes it harder to attack him 
    without attacking someone else. The last thing you want to do is to fight
    a battle on multiple fronts, because that isn't the most effective way to
    use your forces. 
     Ground Military Scales
     Offensive         - 4/10
     Defensive         - 7/10
     City Defence      - 5/10
     Military Training - 5/10
     Reconnaissance    - 8/10
     Ranged            - 6/10
     Mounted           - 3/10
    There is a heavy emphasis from Kamehameha on scouts, he will really want to
    know as much as he can about an enemy before he will even dare make his move,
    and that makes his scouts very annoying early in the game. Other than that,
    he will tend to focus more on the defensive side of things, using ranged units
    to bog you down before finishing you off. 
     Naval Scales
     Naval                  - 8/10
     Naval Reconnaissance   - 8/10
     Naval Growth           - 8/10
     Naval Tile Improvement - 8/10
    Another master of the sea, alongside Isabella and Elizabeth, and given that
    he commands an empire that consists of islands, you need all the control of 
    the seas that you can get. So when he attacks, expect his ships to provide a
    lot of supporting firepower, as well as a route for invasion forces.
     Air Scale
     Air Power - 5/10
    With a superior navy, there really is no air superiority to mess you up. That
    does mean that you will have a lot of wiggle room when you fight his navy, a 
    nice air force with bombers and interceptors will be able to hold the navy 
    off, and with the naval forces out of the way, you can bomb the attacking 
    ground units.
     Growth Scales
     Expansion        - 7/10
     Growth           - 5/10
     Tile Improvement - 5/10
     Infrastructure   - 3/10
     Production       - 5/10
     Gold             - 5/10
     Science          - 4/10
     Culture          - 8/10
    Growth focuses mostly on culture, so you can guess which victory condition
    he will be going for most, and also, culture will allow him to get several
    powerful perks from his decisions. And with a rapid expansion, largely 
    thanks to his naval powers, if you really want to fight him on in a diety
    difficulty, best to do it on land.
     Civilisation Scales
     Happiness     - 8/10
     Great People  - 6/10
     Wonder        - 3/10
     Diplomacy     - 6/10
     Spaceship     - 5/10
    He is a man of the people, with an emphasis on the happiness of his people,
    and that ties in well with culture, because buildings that provide culture 
    also provide happiness for the population at large. Focus heavily on getting
    rid of his naval superiority, and you are in with a real chance. 
    [4.01] City States Intro
    City States are just small civilizations out there, that will only have a 
    single city, unless they somehow go on a massive rampage, or ally with someone
    who is at war, and it is possible that they will have more than one city. 
    Basically, they are there, and you really have 3 options towards them. 
    The first, you can either ignore them, which is really pointless. The second
    is that you can become friends with them, and this, depending on the type of
    city, will provide you with various benefits. The third is that you can just
    conquer them, but this will have diplomatic consequences, although you get a
    tad more land. 
    The relationship with a city-state is always measured by influence, the more
    influence you have, the better the relationship. There are ways to gain 
    influence, donating gold and units. There are ways to piss them off, such as
    trepassing on their lands. There are really 2 extreme states that you can be
    with on a city state, allied or at permanent war. 
    Being allied with a city state will provide you with benefits. They will often
    help you out in wars (which really aren't that helpful, their units will tend
    to protect their city), and more importantly, they will give you luxury 
    resources that they have improved near their city. So if a city state has 
    access to pearls and you are allied with them, then you will get access to 
    those pearls.
    You can also pledge to protect a city state as well once you are allied with
    them. Basically, this means that any nation that declares war on the city 
    state that you have pledged to protect will automatically drag you into the
    war as well on behalf of the city-state. This is a useful tool to dissuade
    other nations from attacking allied city states, especially if you have a 
    strong army. 
    Another benefit for being allied with a city state is that they will often
    vote for you in the United Nations, which is very important in the diplomatic
    victory, given other civilizations vote for themselves. Therefore, by 
    protecting the city states from your enemies, you will get their vote in the
    UN, and achieve a diplomatic victory.
    Now, the state of permanent war is well, permanent. This is done by conquering
    a few city states around you, and the rest of the city states, getting scared
    and worried, band up against you and will permanent be at war with you. If you
    are a big empire, that is really no big deal, but what can be a big deal are
    the other players donating high-tech units to these city states and them 
    using it on your army. Permanent war is permanent, and you will not be able
    to reason with them, so you are left with no choice but to conquer them.
    Now, the friends route. This way is where you become friends with them. There
    are really two main ways to become friends with them, either through the 
    donation of gold, or the donation of units. The donation of gold is done such
    that the more you donate at once, the more influence you will get with them.
    With units, you can just donate them, and they will be quite pleased. Or you 
    can help them out doing their various missions that they will require. As I
    have said before, once you are allied, you will be able to get more benefits
    than if you were just friends. 
    To get to the annoyed route, basically, it is quite easy to just walk up to a
    city state and declare war on them. I do that half the time, although I 
    normally have a highly advanced military on their doorstep. You can also 
    gradually piss them off by having units on their lands without their 
    To make a final point, city state influence will be effected by various 
    things. Several social policies can influence the rate of decrease/increase in
    influence, as well as some special powers, Wonders and such. However, over
    time, a positive relationship will degrade back to nothing and a negative
    relationship will repair itself to neutral over time, and you might want to
    pay attention to this, although the game does inform you when you are losing a
    friendship with a city-state. 
    As for the specific benefits, I will go to them in their own little section
    [4.02] Cultural City States
    Cultural City States are states known for their well, culture. Basically,
    a friendship with these city states will lead to more culture. They will 
    provide a set amount of culture towards a social policy per turn for your 
    empire, however, they will not influence the border growth rate in your
    cities. Basically, they provide culture towards social policies, the stronger
    the relationship, the more culture you get. 
    In my opinion, these are the least beneficial of the city states, because 
    later on in the game, culture is a lot easier to generate, and since I have
    built all the wonders and cultural buildings in my cities, I have at least
    1000 culture per turn. Which is a fair chunk when you think about it. I have
    gotten the City of Lights Achievement as well, thanks to my Wonder building.
    Each city state, when friends, will provide 3 culture per turn, and this will
    increase to 6 once you are allied. This does not take into account the 
    various benefits from policies and civilization specific powers. Below are
    the 10 cultural city states, as well as a little description of each. 
     - Brussels - 
     Founded    - 979 AD
     Location   - North-Central Belgium
     Population - 1,830,000
    "Brussels was officially founded along the banks of the Senne River in 979 AD,
     when Charles of Lorraine, a descendent of Charlemagne, constructed the first
     permanent fortification around a small Catholic chapel and township. The
     early city lay low along the river and was often at risk of floods, giving it
     its Dutch name Broeksel, or, “home in the marsh”. City walls, constructed and
     expanded during the 11th to 14th centuries, allowed for a period of growth,
     expansion, and for a general peaceful existence, uncommon for the times.
     The peace ended violently in 1695, when King Louis XIV of France sent troops
     to Brussels and bombarded the city with artillery, destroying the Grand
     Palace and nearly a third of the city in one attack, the most destructive
     event in the entire history of the city. This invasion brought a
     “Frenchification” to the region, in both culture and language. In 1830 the
     southern French-speaking provinces of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
     seceded from the Dutch-speaking provinces in the Belgian Revolution, the
     conflict taking place for the most part in Brussels. Following Belgian
     independence, the new king Leopold I began the massive undertaking of
     destroying the old city walls to make way for new construction and more
     modern buildings. It also helped his cause that by this point the Senne, the
     previous life-blood of the city, had become a serious health hazard and its
     entire urban area was buried over and rebuilt.
     Brussels escaped the World Wars with little damage (even though it was
     invaded by Germany on both occasions) largely in part to its adamant policy
     of remaining neutral. It is this neutrality which has made the city a
     modern-day center for international politics and the de facto capital city of
     the European Union (the EU) and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty
     Organization (NATO). The only major controversy in the otherwise peaceful
     city revolves around the laws governing the language borders between the
     French and Dutch speaking municipalities, a tension mirrored in the rest of
     Belgium as a whole."
     - Bucharest - 
     Founded    - 1459 AD
     Location   - South-Eastern Romania
     Population - 2,151,880
    "Lying along the banks of the Dâmbovita River, Bucharest is the capital and
     largest city of Romania. Archeological excavations have shown that people
     have lived in the Bucharest area from as early as 9,000 BC, but the city of
     Bucharest was not first mentioned until 1459 AD in a document signed by Vlad
     III, the Impaler. Vlad III built the first fortress and his summer residence
     at Bucharest at this time in an attempt to hold back the encroaching Ottoman
     forces, but to little avail. In the early 17th century the city was burned
     down by the Ottomans, who then captured and rebuilt it.
     Bucharest developed rapidly under the Ottomans and became the main economic
     center and capital of the seized Walachia region in 1659. For the next two
     hundred years, Bucharest was almost destroyed by natural disasters many
     times, (stubbornly rebuilt after every occurrence), ravaged by the Bubonic
     plague, and was occupied repeatedly by both the Habsburg Monarchy and
     Imperial Russia, ultimately residing under the Russians.
     Walachia remained under Russian rule until a series of civic unrests in
     Bucharest helped to unify the Walachia and Moldavia regions, forming the
     state of Romania in 1859; Bucharest was named its capital in 1862. As the
     capital of the new kingdom, the city's population increased dramatically and
     large-scale architectural projects were begun. The extravagance shown by
     Bucharest's residences at this time earned it the nickname "The Paris of the
     While escaping relatively unscathed during the First World War, Bucharest
     suffered substantial damage during World War II, primarily from heavy Allied
     bombings. After the wars, much of the old historic district of the city was
     torn down to make way for high-rise apartment buildings commissioned by the
     Communist government, and a massive earthquake in 1977 destroyed many of the
     remaining historic neighborhoods. 
     The Romanian Revolution of 1989 ended Communist rule in Romania when many
     disillusioned and dissatisfied protesters gathered in Bucharest. While at a
     speech being delivered by President Nicolae Ceausescu, the protesters turned
     to rioting and fighting, overrunning the ineffective and desperate attempt by
     the police to contain them. Since the fall of communism, Bucharest has
     enjoyed a newfound economic boom and period of modernization, as well as new
     attempts by the local government to restore its nearly demolished historic
     - Florence -
     Founded    - 59 BC
     Location   - North-Central Italy
     Population - 132,800
    "Florence (in Italian, "Firenze") is one of the most interesting and beautiful
     cities in Europe. It lies on the River Arno in northern Italy, in the heart
     of the beautiful Tuscany region. Florence was founded in 59 BC by Julius
     Caesar as a settlement for former Roman soldiers, at the strategic location
     where the Via Cassia (the main route north from Rome) crosses the Arno. It
     was laid out in a checkerboard pattern, in the style of a military
     encampment. Its position allowed Florence to greatly prosper from the trade
     between Rome and the north, and by 300 AD the city was made the capital of
     the province of Tuscia (Tuscany). For the next several hundred years the city
     was under attack from both Ostrogoths and Byzantines, and ownership changed
     hands repeatedly until 774 AD, when Charlemagne took and held the city,
     fending off further foreign attack.
     Florence regained its wealth and prominence during the subsequent centuries,
     growing to become one of the wealthiest and most powerful city-states
     anywhere in Europe. In 1252 the Republic of Florence introduced its own
     currency, the gold florin. Florins were accepted across much of the
     Mediterranean and into Europe, and Florentine merchants and bankers rapidly
     spread across the known world.
     During the Renaissance Florence was controlled by several extremely wealthy
     and ruthless families, including the Medici. When not engaged in deadly power
     struggles with each other the Florentine nobility were great patrons of the
     arts, Lorenzo de Medici alone commissioning works by Michelangelo,
     Botticelli, and Leonardo da Vinci, to name just three of the brilliant men he
     supported. By the mid fifteenth century the Medici's were made the hereditary
     Grand Dukes of Tuscany, ruling the province and Florence for several
     centuries. In 1737 Florence became part of the territories of Austria, in
     1859 it was transferred to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, and in 1861 it
     became part of the newly-united Kingdom of Italy.
     Modern Florence is a thriving tourist center of some 500,000 citizens, a city
     that relishes its Roman, Medieval and Renaissance histories. It remains one
     of the most beautiful and evocative places in Europe, and indeed in the
     entire world."
    Side Note: Funny Florence should be mentioned, along with the Medici, cause 
               that is one of the plotlines of Assassin's Creed 2, another game
               I have a guide for. I get used to calling Florence Firenze, after
               Ezio Auditore de Firenze, the main character in AC2. 
     - Geneva - 
     Founded    - 500 BC
     Location   - South-Western Switzerland
     Population - 186,825
    "The original site of the city lay upon a hill overlooking a lake, settled
     sometime during the Paleolithic Period and later by a tribe of Ligurian and
     pre-Celtic peoples. Around 500 BC Geneva became a fortified town inhabited by
     the Celts before it was taken by the Romans in 121 BC. Ownership of the city
     continued to flip between the warring neighboring states, before landing in
     the hands of the German Emperor in 1033 AD. By this time Geneva had become an
     important ecclesiastical seat, with the bishop of the city a direct vassal of
     the Holy Roman Emperor as a territorially vested prince.
     Power of Geneva was contested between the nearby Savoy dukes and the Catholic
     bishop for the next five centuries. When the last ruling bishop fled the city
     in 1533, the citizens of Geneva made a risky move in an attempt to rid
     themselves of both the Catholic rule and the Savoyards - the city allied
     itself with the Protestant state of Bern and declared themselves a Protestant
     sovereignty in 1536. While this did give power back to the people of Geneva,
     it also alienated the city from the surrounding Catholic Swiss population for
     generations. The Protestant reformationist John Calvin came to reside in the
     city shortly thereafter in 1536 and stayed for the next thirty years until
     his death, becoming a new spiritual leader in the absence of the bishop. The
     city remained a stronghold of the Protestant faith for many years to come,
     although a large section of the historic section reverted back to Catholicism
     by the early 17th century.
     Geneva was briefly annexed by France during the French Revolution, but in
     1814 it was admitted into the Swiss Confederation at the Congress of Vienna,
     its jurisdiction expanded to cover the fifteen neighboring Savoyard parishes.
     The Congress expressly provided that these Catholic Savoyard parishes would
     be protected from religious persecution, and in return, guaranteed the city's
     own neutrality. Tensions continued to run high between the Catholics and
     Protestants until in 1907 Geneva passed a law mandating the official
     separation of Church and State - no religious body has received aid from a
     state or municipal power since.
     After World War I Geneva became the seat of the League of Nations in 1919,
     giving it the status of "the international city". Its new reputation
     continued after World War II when the European headquarters of the United
     Nations was seated in the city, bringing along with it numerous other
     international bodies and organizations. Tourism and business have thrived in
     the city since."
     - Kuala Lumpur - 
     Founded    - 1857
     Location   - West Malaysia
     Population - 1,809,699
    "Kuala Lumpur had its start as a tin mining town when the Malay Chief ordered
     a new mine opened at its location in 1857. The original name, Pengkalan
     Lumpur, literally translated to "bundle of mud", a testament to the site's
     low laying position between two equally muddy rivers. Later the town's name
     was changed to Kuala Lumpur or, "muddy confluence" - apparently the
     environment still hadn't changed much for the better.
     The small mining town eventually developed into a more lucrative trading
     post, but it was constantly plagued by disease, fires, and floods, slowing
     its progress some. The state's capital was moved to the city in 1880
     regardless of this, taking advantage of the strategic rivers and mines.
     However, a year later a fire engulfed the town, quickly followed by a massive
     flood. The two natural disasters destroyed virtually every building in the
     city, mostly because they were made of wood and thatch - both of which either
     quickly burn or can easily be mildewed or swept away by raging waters.
     Leaders of the city mandated that all new constructions be fashioned of brick
     and tile. After the city rebuilt itself, Kuala Lumpur was chosen as the
     capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States in 1896.
     The 1900's brought more problems to Kuala Lumpur - it was occupied by the
     Japanese during World War II, tin collapsed as a commodity, and it had to
     deal with a guerrilla war fought between the British rulers and communist
     nationals. However, in 1963 Malaysia gained its independence from Britain,
     and made Kuala Lumpur its new capital.
     The city is now the largest in Malaysia and has one of the most iconographic
     modern skylines. At one point it also boasted the world's tallest
     skyscrapers, the Petronas Twin Towers, before they were overtaken by Taipei
     101 in 2004. Today the city is an economic and cultural hub of the country,
     with a booming industrial and tourist sector."
     - Lhasa - 
     Founded    - 7th Century AD
     Location   - South-Central Tibet
     Population - 1,000,098
    "Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world, located almost 12,000 ft
     above sea level. Lhasa literally translates to "place of the gods", a name
     change from Rasa in the early 7th century (which meant "goat's place"). The
     recorded history of the city starts around this time when Songstan Gampo
     became the leader of the Tibetan Empire and moved the capital to Lhasa in
     637 AD. Gampo soon converted to Buddhism (which he learned of from his
     wives), and began the construction of Buddhist statues and temples. While
     the political power of the city slowly waned over the centuries (the
     monarchy eventually dissolved in the 9th century), Lhasa continued to rise
     in prominence as a religious center. During this time the first Dalai Lama,
     the spiritual leader of the Tibetan Buddhists, rose to power in 1391.
     In 1642 the fifth Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso, began to wield real political
     power, in addition to his spiritual authority, and unified the loosely
     assembled Tibetan tribes into one country. Lhasa was named both the spiritual
     and political capital of the new country. By the time the West began sending
     explorers to the city in the early 20th century, nearly half of Lhasa's
     population were practicing Buddhist monks.
     In 1950 China invaded Tibet and many people fled the city, including the
     14th Dalai Lama, and sought refuge in exile in India. The attack is
     classified as a "peaceful liberation" by the Chinese, but the Tibetans, US
     Congress, and other prominent military and political figures consider it an
     unprovoked invasion. Many of the remaining monks and nuns in the city
     revolted and held peaceful demonstrations against the Chinese oppressors,
     which led to an imposed restriction upon the monasteries. Re-education
     programs were instituted in an attempt to realign the Buddhists with
     Communist views, while also requiring the protesters to denounce both the
     Dalai Lama and Tibet's independence. Many monks and nuns refused to cooperate
     and were sent to prison; those who escaped fled to India.
     The question of Tibet independence is still a major source of controversy in
     Lhasa and in the rest of the world, with many world leaders continuing to
     condemn the Chinese' treatment of the Tibetan people. Talks between the
     reigning Dalai Lama in exile and the Chinese government began in May 2008
     discussing Tibet's independence and autonomous rule, but little has changed
     as a result."
     - Monaco - 
     Founded    - 1228 AD
     Location   - South-Western Europe (South of France)
     Population - 32,965
    "The Principality of Monaco is the world's smallest monarchy and the second
     smallest country, larger only than Vatican City. While being populated by
     Ligurian people (Monoikos in Greek) from the 6th century AD, the city of
     Monaco was founded in 1228 as a colony of Genoa. In 1297 Francesco Grimaldi
     captured the fortress protecting the small city state, and his family has
     ruled the country since.
     French Revolutionary forces captured the principality in 1793, and it
     remained under French control until 1814 when it was designated a
     protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna. It
     remained under Sardinia until Sardinia was also annexed to France, then
     gaining its independence in 1861. France, however, was (and still is)
     required to provide any military defenses for the small country. Not a bad
     deal for a country less than a mile square in area. Monaco was briefly
     occupied during World War II, but the attempt to set up a Fascist
     administration and replace the Grimaldis failed, leaving the country
     little changed.
     Monaco's current claim to fame comes primarily from three sources - the late
     Princess Grace, its status as a tax haven, and its world renowned casino. For
     the first, Prince Rainier III married the American actress Grace Kelly in
     1956, focusing the world's attention on the small country for the first time
     in centuries. Besides the constant attention she brought to the country, she
     also avidly worked to improve arts and education support in the US and Monaco.
     For a second point of fame, or rather infamy, Monaco has never levied a
     personal income tax on its inhabitants, thereby attracting numerous wealthy
     residents from around the world. The country is currently being investigated
     by the International Monetary Fund and the Council of Europe for possible
     infringements and felonies involving money laundering. Finally, the Monte
     Carlo Casino is one of the greatest tourist attractions in the country.
     Opened since 1856, the casino is visited by many of the world's wealthiest
     gamblers, but is forbidden to the country's own citizens. The casino serves
     as a landmark in the annual Monaco Grand Prix and as a location for three
     James Bond films. A class of computational algorithms and methods for
     sampling random data also take their name from the casino."
     - Seoul - 
     Founded    - 18 BC
     Location   - North-Western South Korea
     Population - 10,421,782
    "Records show that while the area around Seoul has been settled from the
     Paleolithic Age, the city wasn't officially founded until 18 BC when the
     kingdom of Baekje built its capital city Wiryeseong at the site. In time,
     Baekje developed from a small minor state into one of the major Three
     Kingdoms of Korea, a group of countries which dominated the peninsula for
     most of the first millennium. Over time, Seoul grew into a formidable city
     and held great political significance.
     Eventually the Three Kingdoms were consolidated under one rule, and in 1394
     AD the capital of this new country was moved to Seoul. Large walls were built
     around the city, as much to keep out thieves as well as tigers and other
     unwanted large, scary animals. Each day the gates were opened at dawn and
     closed at dusk, keeping the city isolated and protected. Eventually, Seoul
     opened its gates to the influx of westerners arriving in the east during the
     late 1800's, and the city began to modernize. In fact, Seoul was the first
     eastern city to have electricity, running water, and the telephone.
     Things continued well for Seoul until World War I when the Japanese occupied
     Korea in 1910; the country remained under Japanese rule until 1945. After
     Korea's liberation, the Republic of Korea was founded (modern day South
     Korea), and Seoul was named as its capital. During the Korean War, starting
     in 1950, Seoul changed hands between North and South Korea many times, it
     being less than 100 miles from the border. The city endured heavy damage
     during this time, with over two hundred thousand buildings in ruins.
     After the war, the city was the focus of a huge reconstruction effort and an
     attempt to improve the standard of living for the population, which had
     swelled with millions of refugees. The city continued its population and
     economic boom into the 21st century, becoming the third largest metropolitan
     area in the world and housing a full quarter of South Korea's population.
     Seoul has been voted the 2010 Design Capital of the World, boasts one of the
     world's most technologically advanced infrastructures, and is home to some of
     the world's largest electronic companies."
     - Vienna - 
     Founded    - 500 BC
     Location   - Eastern Austria
     Population - 1,680,266
    "Vienna is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Austria. Founded
     sometime around 500 BC, Vienna was originally a Celtic settlement. In 15 BC
     it became a Roman frontier town, fortified to guard the empire against raids
     from the Germanic tribes to the north. The Romans remained in the city until
     the 5th century AD, when they mysteriously abandoned the city, perhaps
     vacating because of a catastrophic fire occurring at that time.
     The city became the home of the Babenberg Dynasty during the early Middle
     Ages, and in 1440 it also came to be the resident city of the Habsburg
     Dynasties. During the next few centuries it grew into a center for the arts,
     science, and fine cuisine, and eventually became the capital of the Holy
     Roman Empire. The city remained a formidable fortress during its cultural
     growth, and stopped the Ottoman armies twice at the Siege of Vienna in 1529
     and in the Battle of Vienna in 1683.
     After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, Vienna continued its collection
     of capital titles when it became the capital of the Austrian Empire in 1804.
     The city continued to grow dramatically and many suburbs and surrounding
     towns were incorporated into its boundaries.
     The city played little part in World War I, but did become the capital of the
     First Austrian Republic after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It
     was a bastion of socialism in Austria (earning it the nickname "Red Vienna")
     until Adolf Hitler occupied the city in 1939. For the first time in
     centuries, Vienna lost its capital status to Berlin, but quickly regained it
     after the Second World War when it was once again named the capital of
     Austria. During this period, Vienna became a hotbed for international
     espionage between the West and the Soviets.
     In the 1970s the Austrian Chancellor created a new area in the city to host
     its growing international institutions, aptly named the Vienna International
     Center. Vienna now hosts an office of the United Nations, the International
     Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
     (much to the dismay of the spies), and many other international agencies.
     While Vienna is famous for its elaborate balls, museums, and operatic
     tradition, one of the most well known 'exports' of the city is the culinary
     dish Wiener Schnitzel, a breaded and fried cutlet of veal. The canned product
     "Vienna Sausages", however, is a purely North American invention."
     - Warsaw - 
     Founded    - 9th Century AD
     Location   - Central Poland
     Population - 1,709,781
    "Located along the banks of the Vistula River, the area covered by present
     day Warsaw has been inhabited for roughly 14,000 years. The first fortified
     settlement at the site was the town of Bródno, built in the 9th century AD,
     followed by the town of Jazdów in the 12th century. Both of these towns were
     raided and razed, allowing Prince Boleslaw II of Masovia to establish a small
     fishing village by the name of Warszowa on the site in 1300. The early years
     of the city were mostly quiet and calm, the majority of the population
     working as small craftsman or dealing in local trade.
     However the 16th and 17th centuries brought drastic changes to the little
     city. Civil unrest began to develop in Warsaw, as the economic discrepancies
     between the tradesman and nobility grew to even greater heights, and the
     occasional peasant revolt broke out in the city. On a happier note, Warsaw
     became the capital of the Polish Commonwealth in 1596 with the crowning of
     the new King Sigismund III Vasa. The city grew to over 14,000 people and
     expanded well past its old, fortified walls. A Swedish invasion ravaged the
     city in 1655, but this only left more room for the wealthy and nobility to
     rebuild, establishing new private districts in the wake of the old; many of
     these magnificent Baroque residences survived until World War II.
     In 1700 the city once again took a turn for the worse when the Great Northern
     War broke out across the countryside. Two years into the war the city was
     captured by Swedish forces and suffered heavily under their occupation. In
     1705 Saxon-Russian troops laid siege to the city for two years, up through
     the end of the war. Much of Warsaw's economy was destroyed as it was obliged
     to pay heavy contributions to the war effort, and the city fell under the
     shadow of the Russians.
     Much of Warsaw began to change after this, as it developed into a
     capitalistic and enlightened city. Museums, libraries, and factories were
     built, and the middle class of merchants, industrialists, and financers
     greatly expanded; by 1750 Warsaw had over 115,000 people living within its
     borders. These large changes in the makeup of the population also brought
     about new unrest. In 1794 the Warsaw Uprising broke out, an insurrection
     supported by the local army to overthrow the Russian control of the city.
     Russian soldiers reached the capital a few months later and completely
     squashed the Polish forces in a matter of hours. The exact death toll of the
     Uprising is unknown, but it is estimated that the Russian troops slaughtered
     at least 20,000 civilians that day.
     Warsaw remained under Russian control for the next 120 years, its citizens
     revolting two more times in the November and January Uprisings. After World
     War I, the independent nation of Poland was created and Warsaw was named as
     its capital. Russian forces however returned for the city in 1920 and the
     massive Battle of Warsaw was fought along the eastern outskirts of the city.
     The Polish troops managed to defeat the Red Army and are credited not only
     with saving the country from the Soviets, but also with saving all of Central
     Europe from the brunt of Communism (for the time being).
     Unfortunately during World War II, the city fell to the Nazis and its Jewish
     inhabitants - almost 30% of the population - were herded out of the city and
     exterminated. Faced with various uprisings from the Polish people and the
     encroaching Red Army, the Nazis sought to completely demolish Warsaw, razing
     85% of the buildings to the ground (including the historic old mansions and
     the royal palace). The ruins of the once grand city were liberated on January
     17, 1945. It is here that the city earned its nickname "The Phoenix City" as
     a grand effort was made to rebuild the city. Many of the old historic
     streets, buildings and churches were successfully restored and in 1980 the
     reclaimed historic center 'Old Town' was inscribed onto UNESCO's World
     Heritage list. In 2004 Poland joined the European Union, and Warsaw has begun
     to see its biggest economic boom of its history."
    [4.03] Militaristic City States
    Militaristic City States concentrate heavily on a military, through a navy
    or a ground army. What they do is that they will provide you with free
    military units occasionally, the unit depends heavily on what resources they
    have, so chariots and the like if they have horses, or melee units, and their
    technology level, so high tect units such as infantry or low tech units such
    as warriors. If you are allied with them, the units will roll out more
    When you are allied with them, they can have the ability to stop their units
    from spawning. What this controls for is whether or not they give you free
    units. If you disable it, you will get no units, whereas if you enable it,
    which is the default, you will get units. Simple as pie. 
    Militaristic City States, for me personally, sit in the middle. They are more
    useful than the cultural city states, but less useful than the maritime 
    city states. They will not really need looking after, more often than not, all
    their tiles will have a military unit on it, and their free units can come at
    rather opportune times, such as when someone declares war on you. However, I
    am normally of the notion that you should always be ready for an attack on 
    your cities, so for me, it is really just protect them until I can conquer 
    Like I have said before, militiaristic city states will provide you with free
    units. The stronger the friendship, the more frequently you will get units, if
    you want them. If you are aiming at something other than domination, then they
    aren't that useful.
     - Almaty - 
     Founded    - 1854 AD
     Location   - South-Eastern Kazakhstan
     Population - 1,348,500
    "Located near the south eastern border of modern-day Kazakhstan, Almaty has
     hosted human settlements from as early as 1000 BC. Its early history was one
     of farms and tribal herdsman, and it wasn't until the Middle Ages that Almaty
     began to prosper and flourish as a city, when it became an integral part of
     the Silk Road trade route. For three centuries Almaty thrived as a center for
     agriculture and crafts, but in the 13th century much of the city was
     destroyed by Mongol raids. By the 15th century, Almaty and the surrounding
     region found itself in a state of decline.
     It wasn't later until 1854 that Almaty began to recover and build anew into
     the modern city it is today. Imperial Russia constructed Fort Zailiyskoye on
     the ancient site, later renaming it Fort Verniy. A year later the soldiers
     started accepting peasants and tradesmen to the area and formed the town of
     Verniy, which housed the administrative center of the newly created
     Semirechye province of Turkistan. For a brief thirty years this version of
     Almaty prospered again, only to be destroyed in less than twelve minutes by
     a catastrophic earthquake in 1887.
     In the early 20th century, the town's name was changed to Alma-Ata. With the
     construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railroad the city regained some of its
     former importance as a trade depot. The capital of Kazakhstan was moved to
     Alma-Ata in 1936, with the idea of remaking the city into a kind of cultural
     Mecca. In 1993 Alma-Ata's name was changed yet again to Almaty, (referencing
     the area's ample apple orchards).
     In 1997 the government moved the country's capital to Astana - a city with
     far fewer threats of natural disasters. Despite this setback to its political
     importance and the constant threat of destruction from catastrophic mudflows,
     Almaty once again prospers as a cultural, financial, and industrial center."
     - Belgrade - 
     Founded    - 279 BC
     Location   - North-Central Serbia
     Population - 1,630,000
    "The present capital of Serbia, Belgrade lies at the juncture of two of
     Europe's most important waterways, the Danube and Sava rivers, and has served
     as a major crossroad between Europe and Asia for centuries. Belgrade is one
     of the oldest cities in Europe, with settlements dating as far back as 6,000
     BC, and may have been the home of the largest known prehistoric European
     culture, the Vincas. The first recorded fort and permanent settlement on this
     location was built by the Celts in the 3rd century BC, who named it Singidun,
     or Singidunum, "White Fortress".
     Singidunum was ravaged and occupied by a large succession of peoples over the
     next couple of hundred years, including the Romans, Huns, Sarmatians,
     Ostrogoths, and Avars, before falling under Byzantium rule in the 9th century
     AD. This is when the city was given its Slavic name, Beligrad, which means
     "White Fortress." In the following centuries the city hosted the armies of
     both the First and Second Crusade and remained a contested battleground
     between Bulgaria, Hungary, and Byzantium.
     In 1456, the Ottomans launched the famous Siege of Belgrade in an attempt to
     subjugate Hungary - the fall of the fortress at Belgrade would have opened a
     clear path for Sultan Mehmed II to take the heart of Central Europe. However,
     an army led by Hungarian John Hunyadi destroyed the Ottoman's forces and is
     credited not only with saving the city but also with preserving Christianity
     in Europe. To this day, Catholic churches still ring the church bells at noon
     in commemoration of the victory. Unfortunately, plague killed many of the
     victorious soldiers - including Hunyadi - in the weeks following their
     triumph. In 1521, nearly 70 years later, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
     finally captured the city, and it was made the seat of the Ottomans' Sanjak
     district and quickly became the second largest city in the Empire, eclipsed
     only by Constantinople.
     The Second Serbian Uprising of 1815 (following a brief failed attempt in
     1807) granted the Serbian region semi-independence, with full independence
     not achieved until 1878; the capital of this new kingdom was moved to
     Belgrade and the city once again prospered and grew rapidly. The city's
     growth was halted however with the advent of World War I in 1914, when
     Belgrade was decimated from repeated attacks. After the war, Belgrade became
     the capital of newly-formed Yugoslavia and experienced a period of unforeseen
     growth and modernization.
     Despite the Serbian government's attempt to stay out of World War II,
     Belgrade was heavily bombed and its people massacred by the Luftwaffe in
     1941, and was quickly occupied by the Germans. In 1944, the Allies bombed the
     city and finally liberated it a few months later. At war's end Serbia was
     under the Soviet Union's control, and a year later the People's Republic of
     Yugoslavia was created, with Belgrade again housing the government's seat.
     Communist Belgrade rapidly developed into a major industrial center.
     In 1996, massive demonstrations were held in Belgrade against the
     Communist-led government, and in 1997 the first mayor of Belgrade was elected
     who did not belong to the Communist or Socialist party. Unrest continued
     however, with major bombings during the Kosovo War of 1999 causing
     substantial damage and leading to hundreds of thousands of protesters taking
     to the streets. However, in spite of these military and economic troubles of
     the 1990s, Belgrade has been growing strongly ever since as a center for
     history, culture, and tourism."
     - Budapest - 
     Founded    - c.106 AD
     Location   - North-Central Hungary
     Population - 2,503,205
    "Budapest is the capital of Hungary. Known historically as "the Queen of the
     Danube," Budapest is the political and cultural center of the country and an
     important economic and industrial hub in Central Europe. While inhabited from
     the Neolithic Period (c.9500 BC), the first recorded settlement in the region
     of modern-day Budapest was the Celtic city of Ak-Ink, later occupied by the
     Romans and renamed to Aquincum in the 2nd century AD. Its strategic position
     along the Danube River made Aquincum a desirable holding for both Rome and
     its enemies alike.
     At the end of the 9th century AD, a group of Hungarians led by Árpád (the
     second Grand Prince of the Magyars) settled in the area around Aquincum and
     officially founded the Kingdom of Hungary a hundred years later. While the
     city grew and prospered, little was done to reinforce or extend the early
     Roman fortifications, and a Tatar invasion in the 13th century showed the
     Hungarians that it can be very difficult indeed to hold a city on the open
     plains. After the defeat, King Béla IV of Hungary constructed reinforced
     stone walls around the city and even moved his own palace to the protected,
     hilled town of Buda, located on the outskirts of Aquincum. In 1361
     Aquincum/Buda became the capital of Hungary.
     The Italian Renaissance greatly influenced the cultural role of Buda, when
     King Matthias Corvinus built his library there in the 15th century, housing
     one of Europe's greatest collections of historical, philosophical, and
     scientific works. Only the Vatican's library rivaled it for holdings and
     size. This explosive period of cultural growth slammed to a halt when the
     Turks pillaged the city in 1526, besieged and captured it in 1541, and
     occupied it for the next 140 years. In 1686 the city was successfully retaken
     by Charles V and incorporated into the Habsburg Empire. Unfortunately, the
     city was largely destroyed during the consequential battle.
     The eighteen hundreds were dominated by the Hungarian's struggle for
     independence from the Habsburgs until the Reconciliation of 1867, which
     created the new dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary and placed Buda as the
     capital for both these monarchies. In 1873 Buda, Pest, and Obuda (Ancient
     Buda) were officially merged into the modern city of Budapest, starting a
     golden age of economic and cultural growth.
     Budapest's happy times ended with World War I and the collapse of the
     Austria-Hungarian Empire. During World War II the city sustained heavy damage
     from British and American air raids and was besieged during the Battle of
     Budapest in 1945. Major damage was afflicted upon the city from the attacking
     Soviet troops, and tens of thousands of civilians were killed. The communist
     government of the country did little to rebuild the city after the war's end,
     and systematically gutted and destroyed many of the surviving historic
     buildings in the city.
     In 1956 a peaceful student demonstration in Budapest led to the start of the
     Hungarian Revolution when State Security Police fired upon the crowd. The
     government was overthrown, but the USSR sent a regiment of tanks to Budapest
     and crushed the revolt and restored the Communist Party to power. The last
     Soviet troops left Budapest in 1991, as Hungary began the transition to a
     free society. For the rest of the century, work was done to repair much of
     the wartime damage and to preserve and rebuild the remaining historic
     locations. Despite these beginnings of growth and construction, the city has
     begun recently experiencing a sharp decrease in population as its inhabitants
     flee to the neighboring Pest county."
     - Dublin - 
     Founded    - c.841 AD
     Location   - Eastern Ireland
     Population - 1,045,769
    "The largest city and capital of Ireland, Dublin is commonly known to the
     Irish as Baile Átha Cliath, or "town of the hurdled ford"; this is a bit more
     romantic than its original Irish name of Dubh Linn, meaning "black pool".
     While the Greek astronomer Ptolemy provided some evidence suggesting that the
     Dublin area was settled by as early as 140 AD, it wasn't until the Norse
     built a town at the foot of the river Liffey that the city received its more
     official founding date of 841. The Norse continued to rule the area despite a
     growing Celtic influence.
     Dublin became a center for military and judicial power as the country flipped
     between control from the Norman lords and the King of England. English
     control was weakened for a time by the onslaught of the bubonic plague in
     1348, but conquest of the island was begun anew under the banner of the Tudor
     State and Dublin was again firmly under British rule by 1603. The city
     expanded rapidly under the British and for a short time was the second
     largest city in the Empire. At this time the small harbor and river tributary
     giving the city its name was buried and built over, and for the most part was
     forgotten by the city's inhabitants.
     In 1759 a small brewery was founded at St. James Gate, Dublin, which would
     form the economic backbone of the city for centuries to come. Arthur Guinness
     signed a 9,000-year lease for the brewery with an annual rent of 45 pounds
     for the four acre complex, using the money bequeathed to him in his
     godfather's will. His intelligence and business sense were questioned at the
     time, but the Guinness brewery soon became the largest employer in the city
     and substantially bolstered the growing city's economy.
     After 1800 the city entered a period of decline when the seat of government
     was moved to Westminster. Dublin, and the rest of Ireland for that matter,
     had no natural source of coal and played no major part in the Industrial
     Revolution gripping Europe in the 19th century, and this greatly contributed
     to its steady decline.
     Dublin's fortunes changed with the Easter Rising of 1916 when Irish
     republicans hoped to end British rule of the country and gain their
     independence. While the city sustained heavy damage from the ensuing battles,
     when the Irish Free State was finally recognized by the British in 1920 it
     started to rebuild the city center and moved the seat of government back to
     Dublin. Although painfully slow at times, the rebuilding of the city has
     gradually made Dublin the historical and contemporary cultural nexus of
     Ireland. More recently, the large-scale influx of euros into the city has
     helped it become a leading center for the sciences, education, and industry."
     - Edinburgh - 
     Founded    - Late 6th Century
     Location   - South-Eastern Scotland
     Population - 772,400
    "Situated upon a towering crag of rock in Scotland, Edinburgh and the
     surrounding areas have been settled from as early as 3300 BC. The city is
     most likely Celtic in origin, contradicting a popular folk myth stating that
     it was named for a King Edwin of Northumbria. The first recorded mentions of
     the city date back to the late 6th century AD in the heroic poems of the
     Gododdin, a sect of Brittonic people. The massive outcropping of volcanic
     rock protected the early city from most invaders, and it wasn't until 950 AD
     that the last vestiges of the Gododdin were overtaken and the city fell to
     the Scots. The city would remain under Scottish jurisdiction from this time
     In 1492, King James IV moved the royal court to Edinburgh and made it the
     official capital of Scotland. Edinburgh flourished economically and
     culturally from this time and throughout the Renaissance. In 1639 religious
     disputes between a sect of Presbyterians and the Anglican Church and a later
     occupation of the city by Oliver Cromwell led to fundamental changes for both
     Edinburgh and Scotland. In 1707 the Act of Union was passed, combining
     Scotland and England into the larger Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolving
     the Scottish Parliament in the process. The people of Edinburgh rioted at the
     Following the controversial joining of the two states, the people of
     Edinburgh worked to preserve their national identity and culture, their
     efforts blossoming into the period known as the Scottish Enlightenment later
     in the century. Easily the most influential and successful time in the city,
     Edinburgh became a beacon for the multitude of famous Scots gracing Europe,
     great men and women such as Walter Scott, Robert Burns, and Adam Smith.
     Edinburgh also earned its nickname the "Athens of the North" during the
     Edinburgh began to fall behind during the Industrial Revolution; while it did
     begin to modernize, it was soon eclipsed by the faster growing Scottish city
     of Glasgow. It wasn't until much later in 1992 when Edinburgh hosted the
     European Union Treaty Summit that it once again moved to the forefront of
     importance in the country. In 1999 the Scottish Parliament was finally
     reinstated, and in more recent years there are signs that the Scots are
     considering giving full sovereignty to the Parliament as well. Regardless of
     whether Scotland will achieve independence in the coming years or not, the
     recreation of the governing body in Edinburgh has revitalized the city and
     given power and importance to the capital for the first time in nearly 300
     - Hanoi - 
     Founded    - 1010 AD
     Location   - Northern Vietnam
     Population - 6,232,940
    "Located on the banks of the Red River in Vietnam, the area surrounding Hanoi
     has been inhabited from at least the third millennium BC. One of the first
     recorded permanent structures at the site was the Co Loa citadel, built
     sometime around 200 BC. However, it is not until 1010 AD that the official
     founding of Hanoi is recorded - the current ruler of the land, Ly Thai To,
     moved the capital to the site and renamed it Thang Long, or "ascending
     dragon". Thang Long remained the capital of Vietnam until 1397.
     The city continued to grow quietly for the next few centuries, even while
     briefly occupied by the Chinese in the early 1400's. In 1831 Emperor Minh
     Mang renamed the city, giving it the more literal name of "Between Rivers".
     Shortly thereafter, the French occupied the city and surrounding area in
     1873, later making Hanoi the capital of their new colony - French Indochina -
     in 1887.
     After World War II the city was the scene of deadly fighting as the country
     was contested between the independent nationalists and the French government.
     North Vietnam finally won its independence in 1954 and made Hanoi the capital
     of the country. The city remained the capital once North and South Vietnam
     were reunited and unified in 1976.
     Since then, Hanoi has boomed into a vibrant metropolitan area, exponentially
     increasing in size with every passing generation. The city is now the most
     developed and modern in Vietnam, boasting the latest advancements in
     infrastructure and agriculture technologies."
     - Sidon - 
     Founded    - 1250 AD
     Location   - South-Western Lebanon
     Population - 200,000
    "Sidon is an ancient city located on the coast of Lebanon. Originally a
     fishing and trade center, in modern times Sidon serves as the Mediterranean
     terminus for the Trans-Arabian Pipeline from Saudia Arabia.
     Sidon was founded by Phoenicia in the 3rd millennium BC.
     Sidon became wealthy and prosperous in the 2nd millennium BC, famous for the
     quality of its glass and its purple dyes. In approximately 2700 BC, Sidon
     colonists founded the city of Tyre some 25 miles down the coast, and for many
     years the two cities competed for the seat of Phoenician wealth and power.
     As Phoenicia's power waned, Sidon's wealth and strategic location made it a
     tempting target for conquest. During its history Sidon has been ruled by
     Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Alexander of Macedonia, the Seleucids, the
     Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, the Romans, the Ottomans, the French, and
     finally, Lebanon. During the Crusades the city changed hands several times,
     getting destroyed and rebuilt in the process. The area is littered with the
     remains of fortifications from throughout history. Today, Sidon is home to
     Sunni and Shiite Muslims as well as Christian Greek Catholics and Maronites.
     The city is mentioned numerous times in the Bible. Perhaps its most famous
     citizen is the wicked Queen Jezebel, wife of King Ahab of Northern Israel and
     great aunt of Queen Dido of Carthage. According to the Bible, Jezebel was an
     evil and corrupt ruler, and she encouraged the worship of foreign
     (Phoenician) gods in Israel. For these crimes she was killed by her own
     eunuchs and thrown into the street to be eaten by dogs.
     There are two great lessons from this story for all rulers: first, don't mess
     with the people's religion, and second, never trust the royal eunuchs."
     - Tyre - 
     Founded    - 2750 BC
     Location   - South-Western Lebanon
     Population - 135,204
    "Tyre is an ancient Phoenician city located in the southern portion of
     Lebanon, approximately 12 miles north of the Lebanese border with Israel.
     Tyre was built on the mainland and a nearby offshore island. Founded in
     approximately 2700 BC by colonists from the city of Sidon, the city soon grew
     to rival and eventually surpass its sister city as a fishing and mercantile
     center for Phoenicia. In the 9th century BC settlers from Tyre founded the
     city of Carthage in North Africa.
     Like Sidon, Tyre is frequently mentioned in the Bible. Relations between
     Israel and Tyre were generally cordial; in fact, Hiram, king of Tyre
     furnished building materials for Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.
     Because of its wealth and strategic location, Tyre was subjected to repeated
     attacks by whatever power happened to be rampaging in the area. In the 8th
     and 7th centuries it was under Assyrian dominance. In the 6th century it
     withstood a long siege by King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, though it was
     captured shortly thereafter by the Persians. Then, in the third century,
     Alexander of Macedon happened by at the head of his army.
     Alexander's siege of Tyre lasted some seven months. To defeat the stubborn
     defenders, Alexander completely destroyed the mainland city and used the
     rubble to construct a causeway out to the island. After capturing the city,
     the Great Alexander showed his appreciation for the citizens' valor and
     courage by putting 10,000 of them to death and selling 30,000 others into
     slavery. Though it revived somewhat under later Egyptian and Roman rule, Tyre
     never fully recovered from Alexander's exuberence.
     Today Tyre is a city of approximately 120,000 residents. Because of its
     proximity to Israel, it tends to suffer whenever violence occurs along the
     Lebanese-Israeli border, which seems to happen with depressing frequency, as
     bombs, bullets and missiles from all sides make the ancient ruins even more
     ruined. Still, Tyre has survived worse than this - much worse - and it will
     hopefully live to see peace and prosperity once again."
    [4.04] Maritime City States
    The last of the city states, the Maritime city states are those that will
    provide food for your capital city and your other cities, which make them
    very useful on the map. As you can guess by the word maritime, all these 
    nations will be found on the coast, which also make them lovely targets for
    a conquest, but hey, free food.
    Personally, I think maritime city states are the best. Simply because when
    your city food generation is low, an extra 2 food can mean all the difference
    and don't forget, you still need food to maintain your city's population,
    which is all the more important.
    For Maritime nations, they normally provide 2 food for your capital city, and
    1 food for your other cities, although this will be increased to about 5 food
    for your capital and 3 food for all other cities when you have all your
    policies there. Note that they will only provide food for your other cities
    when you develop an alliance with them. 
     - Cape Town - 
     Founded    - 1652 AD
     Location   - South-Western South Africa
     Population - 2,984,100
    "Located on the southern edge of Africa, Cape Town is the first European
     settlement in South Africa. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company established
     a refreshment station for its ships on the shores of Table Bay, a harbor just
     to the northwest of the Cape of Good Hope with convenient access to fresh
     water. Within a few years Dutch colonists ventured outside of the forts and
     set up farmsteads, working the fields with African slaves imported from other
     locations. The local native inhabitants (the Khoekhoe, whom the Dutch called
     "Hottentots") were not enslaved, and in fact many lived side by side with and
     in some cases intermarried with the colonists. By the turn of the century the
     town had some 200 houses and a thriving port.
     During the seventeenth century the port continued to grow in size and in
     strategic importance, its position allowing the Dutch to dominate the Cape of
     Good Hope, the primary water passage between Europe and the Far East. The
     British sought to occupy the port in 1781, during the American Revolution,
     but a French fleet beat them to it, establishing a garrison to help the Dutch
     keep it out of British control.
     As the century progressed the British dominance of the high seas gave them
     increasing leverage over African colonies. Ownership of Cape Town passed back
     and forth between England and the Netherlands, and by 1814 title of the
     colony passed to Britain permanently. The British freed the slaves in 1834,
     and within a few years the young city's population reached some 20,000
     citizens. In 1870 diamonds were discovered inland from the city, and roughly
     16 years later gold was found as well. This brought a massive influx of
     prospectors and those who supported/preyed upon them to the city and the land
     At the turn of the 20th century the Boer War (1899-1902) broke out between
     the British and the Boer Republics, which, depending upon which historians
     you read, was a fight to end growing British tyranny over the people of
     Dutch ancestry, a rebellion by Afrikaans seeking to continue to enslave and
     oppress non-Whites, or a war between greedy politicians over the growing
     profits from the gold and diamond mines. The war was long and bitter, and
     though fighting took place miles inland, the city was an important military
     base for the British, and it gained an industrial base constructing war
     materials and other supplies.
     In 1910 the British colonies of Cape Colony, Transvaal, Natal and Orange
     River were unified into the Union of South Africa, and Cape Town was its
     capital. The 20th century saw increased efforts by the European inhabitants
     to protect themselves from what they saw as a growing threat of being
     overwhelmed by the African natives. Increasingly odious Apartheid laws
     relegated non-white citizens to subservient status, with limited access to
     employment and education, and almost no say in government or control over
     their own affairs. The struggle for equality intensified over the course of
     the century and, along with internal resistance, the white government faced
     growing sanctions from the rest of the world. By 1990 the Apartheid system
     was in collapse, and Cape Town and South Africa saw the appointment of
     Nelson Mandela as president, the first black man to ever hold that title.
     Modern Cape Town is a vibrant, growing city. It still faces the after-effects
     of years of inter-racial struggle and the poverty and lack of education of a
     large portion of its native inhabitants. But it survived the transition from
     Apartheid to near universal democracy with remarkably little violence (thanks
     largely to the genius of Nelson Mandela). Though the city is troubled by the
     ailments that face all modern cities (and some unique to itself), Cape
     Town's future remains bright."
     - Copenhagen - 
     Founded    - 1167 AD
     Location   - Eastern Denmark
     Population - 1,167,569
    "Once a small fishing village known as Havn, Copenhagen is now the largest
     city and capital of the Kingdom of Denmark. While some archeological finds
     date the town back to the late Viking age, the founding of Copenhagen is
     traditionally set in 1167, when the Danish Bishop Absalon fortified the
     harbor town. The well-protected harbor established Copenhagen's importance
     as a center of trade and commerce for centuries to come, and it was made
     the capital of Denmark early in the 15th century. Unfortunately, other
     civilizations also noticed the natural riches of Copenhagen's harbor, and
     the city was attacked numerous times, especially by the Hanseatic League
     (a trade organization running a monopoly along the coast of Northern Europe).
     In 1658 the Swedes unsuccessfully tried to take the city, but in the 1807
     the British succeeded where they could not; a preemptive attack on the
     civilians and failing old defenses caused massive damage to the city and
     left hundreds dead. The city began to rebuild and expand over the now useless
     defensive line, improving sanitation and incorporating nearby towns in the
     process. Copenhagen was occupied by the Germans in World War II, but did not
     sustain any substantial damage and continued to expand greatly after the
     war's end.
     Copenhagen is now recognized as one of the up-and-coming cities in Europe
     and is ranked the "most liveable city in the world" for its wonderful
     quality of life. The city is also renowned for its extensive public
     infrastructure and environmentally-friendly policies. Copenhagen is now one
     of the most visited cities in Europe and has become a veritable Mecca for the
     world's new architects, chefs, and designers."
     - Genoa - 
     Founded    - c.6th Century BC
     Location   - Northern Italy
     Population - 610,741
    "While no exact date is known for the founding of Genoa, the city's history
     goes back to ancient times as a settlement founded by the Ligurian people.
     An excavated cemetery from the 6th century BC shows that the city was once
     occupied by the Greeks, but it was almost certain to have been established
     long before this. Under the Romans it was a flourishing trade junction,
     military port, and market town but it was quickly invaded and pillaged by
     the Ostrogoths after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. For the next
     several centuries, Genoa remained a small, obscure fishing center, but it
     used this time to build up a fleet of merchant ships which would come to
     dominate the trade routes of the Mediterranean Sea.
     In the 10th century AD Genoa gained independence from the local feudatories
     as one of the city-state "Maritime Republics", having its own lord who
     reported directly to the Holy Roman Emperor. Most of the actual power in the
     city was wielded not by this Bishop-President, but by consuls elected by the
     popular assembly. Genoa's shipbuilding and banking industries helped the
     young republic to flourish, and Genoa began to expand its borders and
     establish colonies throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa.
     Genoa's prosperity was brought to an end when a Genoese trading post at Caffa
     imported the Black Death into Europe in 1347. Genoa's economy collapsed and
     its population fell as the plague took its toll. Drastically weakened, the
     city fought a series of unsuccessful wars over the next seventy years, losing
     all of its colony states in the process and falling under the rule of the
     Visconti of Milan.
     The city had a lucky break when its famous son, Christopher Columbus,
     returned from his discovery of the Americas and donated one-tenth of his
     income to the local banking institutions. This helped create the alliance
     which made Genoa a satellite of the wealthy Spanish Empire, a move which led
     to its economic recovery. Soon the noble families of the city-state had
     re-amassed their fortunes and the growing city began to attract famed artists
     and architects. This golden age for Genoa lasted through the 1500's and into
     the early 1600's, when a return of the plague wiped out half of the citizens
     of the city in 1656. Genoa's further and steady decline was assured once the
     world economy began to shift away from the Mediterranean over to the New
     World when new trade routes were established in the 1700's. Modernization and
     the World Wars of the early 20th century did little to help the city recover.
     While Genoa now has the fifth highest economy in Italy and is part of the
     nation's "industrial triangle", it has never recovered the importance and
     fame which once gave it the title La Superba, the glorious one of Italy."
     - Helsinki - 
     Founded    - 1550
     Location   - Southern Finland
     Population - 579,016
    "The city of Helsinki was founded in 1550 by King Gustav I of Sweden, who
     hoped to create a rival port city to the nearby Reval (or Tallinn, Estonia
     today). However, fate decided that Helsinki would remain a small,
     unimportant town - plagued by poverty and war - for the next two centuries.
     Helsinki's outlook was not improved when the plague hit the city in 1710,
     killing off a full two-thirds of the inhabitants. It wasn't until The Grand
     Duchy of Finland was created by Russia's defeat of Sweden during the Finnish
     War of 1809 that the city began to improve and grow - slowly.
     The capital of the new country was moved to Helsinki in a bid to improve its
     stunted development, but to little avail. Later the country's only
     university, the Royal Academy of Turku, was moved to the Helsinki in 1827 in
     a further attempt to drive people to the city. This turned out to the best
     thing to happen to Helsinki since its founding. With the influx of students
     and teachers (not to mention money) provided by the university, the city
     began to develop and rapidly grow, quickly modernizing and installing the
     new advances in transportation and industrialization.
     Helsinki suffered a setback in 1918 when it fell to the Red Guards on the
     first day of the Finish Civil War. The city only sustained very minor damage
     from its quick capture, and was liberated by the allied German and White
     forces later in the year. The quality of life in the city began to slowly
     improve after the civil war's end, but growth was stunted once again when the
     city was repeatedly bombed during the Winter and Continuation Wars of the
     The second best thing since the city's founding occurred in 1952, when it
     hosted the Summer Olympics (the city was supposed to have hosted the 1940
     Summer Olympics, but these were cancelled due to World War II - such is
     Helsinki's bad luck). The influx of tourism and money helped push the
     late-blooming city into a period of rapid urbanization, tripling the
     population in a short twenty years. While the city is still the second most
     sparsely populated EU capital (after Brussels), it is now one of the fastest
     growing urban centers in Europe."
     - Oslo - 
     Founded    - c.1000 AD
     Location   - Southern Norway
     Population - 584,292
    "According to legend, Oslo was founded by King Harald Hadrade of Norway in
     1048, but archeological excavations show that some urban settlement at the
     site preceded that date. The first King of Norway did not reside in the city
     until much later, sometime in the early 14th century AD, when it became
     officially regarded as the capital city of the country.
     Unfortunately (as medieval cities were wont to do), Oslo was destroyed
     several times by fire in the coming centuries, and in 1624 King Christian IV
     ordered the city rebuilt at a new site across the bay; the city was also
     renamed Christiania in honor of its new founding. Christiana was a local
     center of commerce, but its importance declined while Norway was a part of
     Denmark, during which its growth slowed to a halt. After the two countries
     separated in 1814, Christiana grew into the largest city in Norway
     (overtaking Bergen), as the newly founded University of Oslo helped to fuel
     the population and economy. The city's name was restored to "Oslo" in 1925.
     Growth in the city has remained a source of contention, as the citizens
     fight both growing up (with skyscrapers) and out (destroying the local
     faming and fishing communities). The last century has seen a grand increase
     in the economy and industry of the city, and Oslo now is home to some of the
     world's largest maritime shipping companies. Oslo has also recently gained
     the dubious honor of being the most expensive city in the world to live in,
     as space for apartments grows to an even higher premium."
     - Ragusa - 
     Founded    - 18th Century AD
     Location   - Southern Sicily
     Population - 72,483
    "Located on the island of Sicily, Ragusa is an Italian city of some 75,000
     inhabitants. A port city situated almost directly in the center of the
     Mediterranean, Ragusa is some 3,500 years old. Originally settled by the
     native Sicels (ancient Sicilians), over its long history it has been
     conquered by the Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans, Arabs, Normans, French, and
     Spanish. Ragusa was the seat of the Kingdom of Sicily, created in the
     mid-12th century, and then part of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies under the
     Bourbons. In 1860 it became part of unified Italy.
     Ragusa is constructed on a wide hill. A huge earthquake in 1693 devastated
     the city, and few of the original buildings survived. The city was largely
     rebuilt in the 18th century, in the process making it a marvel of Baroque
     Ragusa's economy is based upon agriculture - especially olives - light
     manufacturing, and tourism. Ragusa is a beautiful city, with numerous museums
     and churches (including the wonderfully-named "Church of Purgatory"). The
     Marina di Ragusa is a famous seaside resort, and the area boasts some of the
     least crowded beaches in Sicily.
     Although not the biggest or most popular city in Sicily, Ragusa is beautiful
     and rich with culture and history - certainly worth conquering if one has an
     army or fleet in the area."
     - Rio de Janeiro - 
     Founded    - 1565 AD
     Location   - South-East Brazil
     Population - 6,093,472
    "Portuguese explorers first came across the Rio de Janeiro area in 1502 AD,
     which was at the time inhabited by four different groups of indigenous
     peoples. A small fortified settlement was erected at the site, both to deal
     with the natives and to fend off encroaching attacks from French pirates. On
     March 1, 1565 the city center was officially founded. The fertile land
     surrounding the settlement was planted with sugarcane and provided all of the
     city's early income. The small city grew to about 8,000 people by 1700, but
     two thirds of these were most probably slaves.
     About this time scouts found gold and diamonds in the neighboring hills,
     generating a huge influx of both wealth and immigrants. The city tripled in
     size and the colonial capital was transferred here in 1763. Rio continued to
     wildly grow and the city spilled beyond its fortified walls. Many large
     romanesque aqueducts were also built at this time, the ruins of which still
     stand in the city. However, towards the end of the century the mines began to
     dry up and Central America entered the world economy with a strong sugar
     market of its own, both of which put Rio in a precarious position. Exports
     had fallen by more than half of what they were by 1796.
     Coffee saved the day for Rio. In 1808 the Portuguese royal family ordered the
     growing of the bean and resettled themselves in Brazil, bringing a new found
     prosperity to the colony. Expansion of the coffee plantations gave birth to a
     new wave of improvements in the city, and large manor homes were built,
     streets were paved, and fine academic instructions were founded.
     In 1822 Prince Pedro I proclaimed Brazil's independence, and named Rio as the
     capital of the new empire. When the country replaced the monarchy with a
     republic in 1889, it kept Rio as the capital city. Rio was further
     transformed into a modern city through the early 1900's as streets were
     widened, health conditions of its populace were improved, and the surrounding
     swamps were drained and reclaimed for future building sites. In 1960 the
     capital was moved to the newly constructed city of Brasilia, and the growth
     of Rio finally began to slow.
     Rio de Janeiro is famous worldwide for its carnival celebrations, the
     invention of samba music, the Cristo Redentor (a modern Wonder of the World),
     and its landmark beaches. Unfortunately the city is also famous for its
     crime, and holds the dubious honor of being one of the most violent cities in
     the world. Despite this, it continues to attract millions of tourists every
     year who come to sample its charm, beauty, and relaxed spirit."
     - Singapore - 
     Founded    - 1819 AD
     Location   - South Malay Peninsula
     Population - 4,987,600
    "Records and archeological excavations show that the island of modern-day
     Singapore has been occupied from about the second century AD - the small
     island was originally part of the Sumatran Empire and went by the name of
     Temasek, or "sea town". For unknown reasons the area slid into a decline in
     the 14th century, and for the next few centuries the island's population
     consisted mostly of small villages of fishermen.
     This all changed on January 29, 1819, when the British statesman Sir Thomas
     Stamford Raffles landed on the island and signed a treaty to develop the
     southern portion into a British trading post. Singapore officially became a
     British colony in 1824 when the British East India Company gained control of
     the entire island. The island city grew steadily as it became an important
     hub for trade and commerce in the Pacific.
     In 1941, the Japanese invaded Singapore and in six short days gained control
     of the city and its military base. The Battle of Singapore, as it came to be
     known, was the worst recorded military disaster in British history and the
     city became an important base for the Japanese for the rest of World War II.
     The British only regained control of the island a month after Japan's
     surrender in 1945.
     After the war, Singapore started on the road to independence. In 1955 the
     city was allowed to hold its first ever general election, but delegations
     sent to England demanding self-rule were met with resistance until 1959. Four
     years later the small city-state nation declared formal independence from the
     British Empire and quickly joined the Federation of Malaysia. However, major
     ideological conflicts between Singapore and the Federation soured the
     relationship and two years later Singapore officially declared complete
     Since its independence, fortunes for the city-state have increased, with
     massive improvements in standards of living, the economy, and education.
     Singapore is now the fifth wealthiest country in the world (in terms of GDP
     per capita) with booming tourism and medical industries."
     - Stockhelm - 
     Founded    - c.1250 AD
     Location   - South-East Sweden
     Population - 825,057
    "The earliest written documentation of Stockholm dates back to 1252 AD and
     describes the city as an iron trading town, but in some Norse sagas it is
     claimed to be the lost city of Agnafit (where legendary King Ange was hanged
     by his captive bride Skjalf). Another tale states that the city was founded
     by the Swedesman Birger Jarl to protect the fledgling country from invading
     navies. Regardless of whichever is actually correct, the city quickly grew
     into a center for commerce, mining, and fishing. Stockholm over time grew
     into an important Danish mercantile city, as trade in the Baltic boomed with
     the advent of the Hanseatic League (a guild of merchants).
     In the 15th century a national independence movement began to form in
     Stockholm as the people of Sweden yearned to overthrow their Danish rulers.
     The Revolution did not go well, unfortunately, and in 1520 the Danish King
     Christian II entered the city and incited the Stockholm Bloodbath, a gruesome
     massacre of many of the Swedish opposition forces. Further uprising across
     the country in the coming years were more successful and broke up the Kalmar
     Union (the pleasant name for the Danish control of Scandinavia), and Sweden
     gained its independence from the Danes. The first king of Sweden, Gustav
     Vasa, was crowned in 1523, and the population of Stockholm began to rapidly
     grow. Within a hundred years, the population of the city increased over six
     times in size.
     In 1634, Stockholm was named the capital of the Swedish Empire and a bevy of
     new trading laws gave it complete control over trade between foreign
     merchants and its own Swedish territories. This "golden age" ended
     emphatically some forty years later, as the Black Death reached the city and
     war broke out between Sweden and its allies. Under the twin catastrophes
     Stockholm stagnated economically for some time, but it did continue to
     develop culturally. It took nearly two hundred years for the city to regain
     its leading economic role.
     During the last half of the 20th century Stockholm became the technological
     and economic hub of the country. To make way for booming industry and
     population growth, many historic buildings (a great majority of which had
     been around since the middle ages) were torn down and replaced with shiny new
     architectural structures. The city has continued to move away from its roots
     of fishing, mining, and other labor-intensive industries and move towards
     high-tech electronics, architecture, and modern services."
     - Venice - 
     Founded    - Unknown
     Location   - Northern Italy
     Population - 270,660
    "The city of Venice stretches across 118 small islands in the saltwater
     Venetian Lagoon, between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers. No exact
     date is known for the founding of Venice, but some archeological evidence
     shows that the city's original citizens may have been Roman refugees fleeing
     the Germanic invasions and the Huns. As the centuries passed, the originally
     small settlement began to spread across the islands, its inhabitants using
     the small rivulets and canals as their roads. The city fell under Byzantine
     rule early in its life. In the late 700's AD the ducal seat was moved to
     Venice and a basilica dedicated to St. Mark the Evangelist was built,
     heralding the birth of the "Queen of the Adriatic". The city eventually
     gained its independence from the Byzantines and became an autonomous
     The city flourished as a trade center between Western Europe and the rest of
     the world, its strategic location making its commercial and naval power
     unmatched in the Adriatic. Venice began to expand outside of the islands as
     it seized cities along the eastern shores of the sea, later extending its
     holdings as far west as the Adda River in mainland Italy. It soon came to
     control most of the islands in the Aegean Sea, including Cyprus and Crete,
     and became a major power in the Near East. While it did take most of these
     cities and regions by force, the people of its empire quickly rallied to
     Venice's aid whenever she was threatened by invaders, as the city-state
     actively improved the standards of living in all these territories.
     Venice's dominance was further secured in 1204 when it sacked the city of
     Constantinople, securing the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Considerable
     wealth was brought back to the city, and combined with its already formidable
     riches from trade, made Venice the wealthiest city in all of Europe. The city
     also became known as a hub for culture, music, and the arts, and was
     especially famous for its operatic composers. Venice can also lay claim to
     the invention of the paperback book, and by 1492 was the printing capital of
     the world.
     The glory days for Venice couldn't last, and a war with the Ottoman Empire
     cost the city most of its eastern Mediterranean holdings, including
     Constantinople. Shortly thereafter Christopher Columbus discovered the New
     World and Portugal found a sea route to India, peacefully destroying Venice's
     trade route monopoly where all others had failed. In the late 1500's the city
     was ravaged by the Black Death, which killed over 50,000 people in three
     short years, a third of its total population.
     On May 12, 1797, Napoleon conquered Venice and ended over 1,000 years of the
     Republic's independence. Venice then became the property of Austria when
     Napoleon signed it over later that year. A revolt in the 1800's attempted to
     restore independence to the Republic of Venice, but in 1866 it became a part
     of the newly created Kingdom of Italy.
     The current threat to the city comes not from war or encroachment upon its
     trade economy, but rather from the very environment around it - the city has
     slowly been sinking into the sea since artesian wells were dug into the
     lagoon bed in the early 20th century. The sinking has slowed dramatically as
     measures are being taken to preserve the city, but new plans are being put in
     place to either build an inflatable bulkhead (to stop rising tidal waters) or
     to physically raise the city itself by restoring the seabed damaged by the
    [4.05] City State Missions
    There are various city state missions that you can perform for city-states 
    in order to increase your influence with them. They normally have a time limit
    so you best complete them as quickly as possible. Other civilizations will
    also have access to these missions, so make note of it.
     - Generate Great Person - 
    The City State will want a great person to be generated by one of your cities,
    either through normal production, battle experience or from Wonders, it 
    doesn't matter, as long as they are generated. 
     - Construct Wonder - 
    The City State will request that you build a wonder to appease them, so you
    have to build it in order to satisfy this mission.
     - Construct Trade Route - 
    Basically, build a road connecting your cities to their city in order to 
    complete this quest. Quite simply really, the only downside is the building
    speed of the road.
     - Exterminate Barbarian Camp - 
    There is a barbarian camp close to the city state, and this is making them 
    mighty uncomfortable, so you will be required to eliminate the barbarians and
    take over their encampment in order to please them. 
     - Eliminate Rival City State - 
    This city state has a rival, and they will want to see that rival dead, so you
    will need to conquer this other city state in order to appease them. Watch out
    for this one though, because they may have powerful friends who don't want to
    see them dead. 
    [5.01] Terrain Tiles and Features
    Terrain is something you will need to be acutely aware of whilst you are 
    playing, since it will influence the amount of food in your cities, production
    as well as things like science. 
    There are two things to be aware of, terrain, which is the base tile on the
    map, and the features, things that can be found on the terrain tiles. Look at
    it this way, all features are on terrain tiles, but not all terrain tiles have
    Now, to start with the base terrain tiles.
     - Terrain Tiles
     ~  Coast
     Food       - 1
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 1
     Combat Bonus  - 0%
     Movement Cost - 1
     Possible Features  - Atoll, Ice
     Possible Resources - Fish, Pearls, Whale
    This is normally right off the coast of land, and normally coast will extend
    to about 2 tiles from the shore. If you going to build near the coast, you 
    will need to make sure you have some resources. 
    Also, as for ice, it is found on the southern or northern most part of the 
    map, making like blockades. 
    The Coast tile is well, coastal variant of the lake tile. The lake tile is the
    same as a coast tile, except it is surrounded by land, whereas the coast tile 
    is surrounded by the ocean and the land. 
     ~ Desert
     Food       - 0
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - -33%
     Movement Cost - 1
     Possible Features  - Flood Plains, Oasis
     Possible Resources - Aluminium, Cotton, Gems, Gold, Incense, Iron, Marble,
                          Oil, Silver, Uranium
    Deserts are hard to play with. They only start to be good later in the game
    where oil, aluminium and uranium are discovered. Earlier on, you will need
    to look for flood plains and oasis tiles, because it will help with food
    production. Otherwise, deserts are mainly production based cities.
    They are however, good cities to play with, mainly because there is a combat
    debuff when fighting on it, giving a significant advantage to those who 
    defend desert cities.
     ~ Grassland
     Food       - 2
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - -33%
     Movement Cost - 1
     Possible Features  - Jungle, Marsh
     Possible Resources - Cattle, Coal, Cotton, Gems, Gold, Horses, Iron, Marble,
                          Uranium, Wine
    Grasslands, as well as plains, are the most common of tiles, bar the ocean
    tiles. Grasslands are what you really want to surround your city with, mainly
    because they have the highest base food production, without the effects of
    A sprawling mix of grassland and plains, with some resources spread 
    throughout, is a perfect place to have a city. 
     ~ Hill
     Food       - 0
     Production - 2
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - +25%
     Movement Cost - 2
     Possible Features  - Forest, Jungle
     Possible Resources - Aluminium, Coal, Deer, Gems, Gold, Iron, Marble, Sheep, 
                          Silver, Uranium
    A city surrounded by hills is one of the best places to hide a city, mainly
    due to the movement cost to attack your city. However, note that hills, 
    because of their elevation, will disrupt the maximum range of your cities and
    their attack. 
    Hills are part of the mix that you want in an ideal city. Hills are used to 
    boost production, since they have a nice bonus to production. 
     ~ Mountain
     Food       - 0
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - +25%
     Movement Cost - Impassable
     Possible Features  - None
     Possible Resources - None
    Although there is really no use for it normally, mountains are actually a good
    place for combat. Mainly because mountains serve as natural chokepoints, if 
    there is only one tile between two mountains, that serves that only one unit
    can move through, and that allows you to establish a natural killzone. 
    But from a strictly production standpoint, mountains aren't that useful. So as
    to serve as an outer frontier, it is useful, but for the cities based in the
    sprawling plains, not so much. 
     ~ Ocean
     Food       - 0
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - 0%
     Movement Cost - 1
     Possible Features  - Atoll, Ice
     Possible Resources - Oil
    Ocean tiles are probably, on maps with water tiles, the most plentiful type of
    tile on the map. Ocean tiles are, starting off, unable to be traversed upon,
    you will need sufficient technology for it. 
    For oil tiles, they will generally be within 2-3 tiles of the shore, so you 
    should be able to control it. Other than that, oceans will be a place to fight
    your battles on with destroyer against battleships, but no real value.
     ~ Plains
     Food       - 1
     Production - 1
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - -33%
     Movement Cost - 1
     Possible Features  - Forest
     Possible Resources - Aluminium, Coal, Cotton, Gems, Gold, Horses, Incense, 
                          Iron, Ivory, Marble, Uranium, Wheat, Wine
    Plains, along with grasslands, like I have said before, is what you want to 
    base your cities on. The majority of the resources that you need to build a 
    powerful empire will be found on these two tiles, and the features that are
    found on it. 
    Plains don't bring as much in terms of food, but they do add in a production
    value. So when building a city, start off with grasslands first, to build up
    the cities, then to plains when you have enough food security. 
     ~ Snow
     Food       - 0
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - -33%
     Movement Cost - 1
     Possible Features  - None
     Possible Resources - Iron, Oil, Uranium
    Snow is one of the tiles found near the northern and southern parts of the
    map. Along with ice and tundra, you can use these identify where you are on
    the map. 
    Building on snow really isn't advised, you will need to find food somewhere,
    be that off tundra tiles near it, or off coast tiles near the sea. But on the
    bright side, at least no one would look there...
     ~ Tundra
     Food       - 1
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - -33%
     Movement Cost - 1
     Possible Features  - Forest
     Possible Resources - Aluminium, Deer, Furs, Gems, Horses, Iron, Marble, Oil,
                          Silver, Uranium
    The last of the tiles, this is the sole source of food on the northern and
    southern parts of the map, because you cannot expect tiles full of snow to
    provide nought but water.
     - Features
     ~ Ancient Runs
    Basically, if you have these enabled, you will have these little goody huts
    on the map. Once you send a unit here, a variety of things can be given to 
    you, or to your enemies.
     - Bonus Warrior
     - +1 Population to nearest city
     - +30 Culture
     - Reveal nearby Barbarian Camp (Up to 10 tiles away)
     - +50 Gold (+/- 11)
     - Reveal nearby map (Between 4-8 tile radius)
     - Free Tech
     - Reveal Resource
     - Upgrade Unit
     - Encounter Barbarian
     - Encounter Multiple Barbarians
     - +100 Gold (+/- 11)
     - Free Settler
     - Free Scout
     - +9 Experience to Unit
     - Heal to full health
     ~ Atoll
     Food       - 1
     Production - 1
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - 0%
     Movement Cost - 1
     Possible Resources - None
    This is actually a new tile, it was added in a patch, or so it seems, that or
    one of the DLC has it, since I have all of them. Either way, atolls are found
    on both coasts and ocean tiles, and they are useful as they do provide some
    sort of food, and production. Even better since these can be improved.
     ~ Fallout
     Food       - -3
     Production - -3
     Gold       - -3
     Combat Bonus  - -33%
     Movement Cost - 2
     Possible Resources - None
    The result of a nuclear weapon being used, fallout is one thing that you do
    not want on your lands. You will need to have your workers clean this up
    quicksmart, because the debuff to your cities with this, is something that
    you really do not want.
    Generally, no game would result in nuclear weapons, a game version of 
    mutually assured destruction will apply, but if you are the first to have
    nuclear weapons, or you are backed into a corner, someone is going to have
    to clean this mess up.
     ~ Flood Plains
     Food       - 2
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - -33%
     Movement Cost - 1
     Possible Resources - Sugar, Wheat
    This is one of the few reasons to even thing about a desert city. The problem
    with desert cities is that there are no sources of food, and only with flood
    plains and oasis features, there would be a reason to start a city. 
    Although, on the bright side, since there are no floods in the game, you 
    should be set. Back in Civ 4, building on flood plains resulted in there being
    a health disadvantage, but in this game, where there isn't, well, that makes 
    it all the better.
     ~ Forest
     Food       - 1
     Production - 1
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - +25%
     Movement Cost - 2
     Possible Resources - Deer, Dyes, Furs, Silk, Uranium
    Forest tiles are rather useful, but it depends whether you want to cut them
    down, or leave them be. By leaving them, you can build a lumbermill later in
    the game, or take advantage of the resources, but by cutting them down, you
    get a boost in production hammers, and this is vital early on in the game. 
    Besides, forests make for a good barrier against enemies, after all, 2 
    movement cost means that most land units will be stopped by a tile. Again,
    back in Civ 4, there was a reason to keep a forest tile, they provided a 
    health benefit, and those were notoriously difficult to control until you
    got Future Tech.
     ~ Ice
     Food       - 0
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - 0%
     Movement Cost - Impassable
     Possible Resources - None
    Ice is a tile you cannot pass, cannot do anything about it, it is just
    there. Even when you clearly reach the technology level to build something
    like icebreakers, or even blowtorch all the ice, you can't do a thing. But
    then again, we don't want rising water levels...
     ~ Jungle
     Food       - 1
     Production - -1
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - +25%
     Movement Cost - 2
     Possible Resources - Bananas, Dyes, Gems, Oil, Spices, Uranium
    A jungle tile, without the health disadvantage from Civ 4, is debuffed by 
    having a production debuff. However, on the bright side, later on in the 
    game, you do get a science bonus in the game. 
    To be honest, jungle tiles aren't all that useful, a debuff in production is
    painful early on in the game, but later in the game, it isn't all that
    much. Up to you whether you want to take a production hit and science boost,
    or back to a level playing field.
     ~ Marsh
     Food       - -1
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 0
     Combat Bonus  - -33%
     Movement Cost - 2
     Possible Resources - Oil, Sugar, Uranium
    Being one of the only land based oil sources, there is a reason to keep the
    marsh tiles around, but otherwise, you really don't want the food debuff,
    because you need food to grow your cities. Given that when you remove it, 
    you get some lovely grasslands, unless there is oil or uranium on it, 
    cut it down.
     ~ Oasis
     Food       - 3
     Production - 0
     Gold       - 1
     Combat Bonus  - -33%
     Movement Cost - 1
     Possible Resources - None
    An oasis is already a resource, technically, because it gives out a nice food
    boost, and again, this is a reason to build a desert cities, mainly because 
    you need food to grow. This, with a few resources, is enough to justify a 
    desert city.
    [5.02] Natural Wonders
    New to the game, or to my memory at best, are natural wonders. These are
    based off real world wonders, and they are worth finding, and more
    importantly, building a city next to.
    Each natural wonder will take up one tile, and it is completely random where
    it is. All of these are on land, with the exception of the Great Barrier 
    Reef. The Reef is special, it takes 2 tiles, and it is on water, which makes
    the benefit of controlling it all the better.
    You will find a natural wonder just by exploring the map, there is really
    no other way to find them. You get a happiness boost as well, so it is worth
    your while.
    Each natural wonder will provide a different boost, and that really does
    depend on you actually controlling the tile. You need to own the tile, and
    you will get these POWERFUL boosts. 
     ~ Cerro de Potosi
     Benefits    - +1 Food
                   +1 Production
     Impassable? - No, 1 Movement
     Real Life Location - Potosi, Bolivia
     ~ El Dorado
     Benefits    - +5 Culture
                   +500 Gold to first player to discover it
     Impassable? - Yes
     Real Life Location - A MYTHICAL city of gold
     ~ Fountain of Youth
     Benefits    - +10 Happiness
                   Free Heal Rate Promotion to units next to it (+50% Heal Rate)
     Impassable? - Yes
     Real Life Location - My House
     ~ Mount Fuji
     Benefits    - +1 Gold
                   +5 Culture
     Impassable? - Yes
     Real Life Location - Honshu Island, Japan
     ~ Krakatoa
     Benefits    - +5 Science
     Impassable? - Yes
     Real Life Location - Sunda Strait, Indonesia
     ~ Old Faithful
     Benefits    - +2 Science
                   +3 Happiness
     Impassable? - Yes
     Real Life Location - Wyoming, United States of America
     ~ Rock of Gibraltar
     Benefits    - +2 Food
                   +5 Gold
     Impassable? - Yes
     Real Life Location - Gibraltar, Iberian Peninsula (south of Spain), owned by 
                          the United Kingdom
     ~ The Barringer Crater
     Benefits    - +2 Gold
                   +3 Science
     Impassable? - Yes
     Real Life Location - Arizona, United States of America
     ~ The Grand Mesa
     Benefits    - +2 Production
                   +3 Gold
     Impassable? - Yes
     Real Life Location - Colorado, United States of America
     ~  The Great Barrier Reef
     Benefits    - +2 Food
                   +1 Production
                   +1 Gold
                   +2 Science
     Impassable? - Yes
     Real Life Location - Queensland, Australia
    [5.03] Resources
    Resources are broken up in the game into three different categories:
     - Strategic
     - Bonus
     - Luxury
    Strategic resources are resources vital for map domination. Resources include
    coal, iron, horses, aluminium, uranium and oil. These are vital for a very
    powerful economy, and needed for powerful, or more powerful than normal,
    units. For example, a swordsman using iron will do much more than a lancer
    using a stick.
    Bonus resources are something you want to control for your cities. These
    are mainly for food production, and include bananas, cattle, deer, fish, 
    sheep and wheat. With these, your tiles will yield extra food, which is
    vital for growing a city quicker.
    Luxury resources are just that, they are luxuries. They are useful in that
    each unique luxury will provide 1 point of happiness, and that they will
    provide extra gold if the tile is worked on. Sometimes, a city may demand
    a luxury that you do not have, in order to get a production boost. These
    luxuries include cotton, dyes, furs, gems, gold, incense, ivory, marble,
    pearls, silk, silver, spices, sugar, whales and wine. 
                                                           --Strategic Resources--
    Vital to your empire, these are necessary to winning the game. 
     ~ Aluminium
     Technology to Reveal - Electricity
     Improvement Needed   - Mine
     Found On             - Plains, Desert, Tundra, Hills
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Production
     ~ Coal
     Technology to Reveal - Scientific Theory
     Improvement Needed   - Mine
     Found On             - Hills, Grassland, Plains
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Production
     ~ Horses
     Technology to Reveal - Animal Husbandry
     Improvement Needed   - Pasture
     Found On             - Grasslands, Plains, Tundra
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Production
     ~ Iron
     Technology to Reveal - Iron Working
     Improvement Needed   - Mine
     Found On             - Deserts, Plains, Hills, Grassland, Tundra, Snow
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Production
     ~ Oil
     Technology to Reveal - Biology
     Improvement Needed   - Offshore Platform (Ocean) or Well (Land)
     Found On             - Jungle, Marsh, Desert, Tundra, Snow (Land)
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Production
     ~ Uranium
     Technology to Reveal - Atomic Theory
     Improvement Needed   - Mine
     Found On             - Forest, Jungle, Marsh, Grassland, Tundra, Desert,
                            Snow, Hills, Plains
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Production
                                                               --Bonus Resources--
    A boon for city growth, these are resources you want near your cities. 
     ~ Bananas
     Improvement Needed   - Plantation
     Found On             - Jungle
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Food
     ~ Cattle
     Improvement Needed   - Pasture
     Found On             - Grassland
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Food
     ~ Deer
     Improvement Needed   - Camp
     Found On             - Tundra, Forest, Hills
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Food
     ~ Fish
     Improvement Needed   - Fishing Boats
     Found On             - Coast
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Food (as of patch)
     ~ Sheep
     Improvement Needed   - Pasture
     Found On             - Grassland, Hills
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Food
     ~ Wheat
     Improvement Needed   - Farm
     Found On             - Plains
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Food
                                                              --Luxury Resources--
    These resources are something you want, happiness ensues when you get it.
     ~ Cotton
     Improvement Needed   - Plantation
     Found On             - Desert, Plains, Grassland
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
     ~ Dyes
     Improvement Needed   - Plantation
     Found On             - Forest, Jungle
     Bonus Provided       - +2 gold
     ~ Furs
     Improvement Needed   - Camp
     Found On             - Tundra, Forest
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
     ~ Gems
     Improvement Needed   - Mine
     Found On             - Jungle, Desert, Grassland, Plains, Hills, Tundra
     Bonus Provided       - +3 Gold
     ~ Gold
     Improvement Needed   - Mine
     Found On             - Desert, Hills, Plains, Grassland
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
     ~ Incense
     Improvement Needed   - Plantation
     Found On             - Desert, Plains
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
     ~ Ivory
     Improvement Needed   - Camp
     Found On             - Plains
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
     ~ Marble
     Improvement Needed   - Quarry
     Found On             - Grassland, Plains, Tundra, Hills, Desert
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
                            -25% Wonder Build Time for City Nearby
     ~ Pearls
     Improvement Needed   - Fishing Boats
     Found On             - Coast
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
     ~ Silk
     Improvement Needed   - Plantation
     Found On             - Forest
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
     ~ Silver
     Improvement Needed   - Mine
     Found On             - Desert, Hills, Tundra
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
     ~ Spices
     Improvement Needed   - Plantation
     Found On             - Jungle
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
     ~ Sugar
     Improvement Needed   - Plantation
     Found On             - Flood Plains, Marsh
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
     ~ Whales
     Improvement Needed   - Fishing Boats
     Found On             - Coast
     Bonus Provided       - +1 Food
                            +1 Gold
     ~ Wine
     Improvement Needed   - Plantation
     Found On             - Plains, Grassland
     Bonus Provided       - +2 Gold
    [6.01] Ancient Era
    Technology is the bread and butter of Civilization. Without technology, you
    will be forced to fight advanced inventry with cavemen. You should know what
    it does, so it'll put down stuff below, as well as a nice little diagram.
                                                                   ~ Agriculture ~
     Science Cost - 20
     Prerequisite Techs - None
     Leads to           - Pottery
                          Animal Husbandry
     Unlocks            - Farm (Tile Improvement)
                                                              ~ Animal Husbandry ~
     Science Cost - 35
     Prerequisite Techs - Agriculture
     Leads to           - Trapping
                          The Wheel
     Unlocks            - Horses   (Resource)
                          Pastures (Tile Improvement)
                                                                      ~ Archery ~ 
     Science Cost - 35
     Prerequisite Techs - Agriculture
     Leads to           - Mathematics
     Unlocks            - Archer (Unit)
                                                                ~ Bronze Working ~
     Science Cost - 55
     Prerequisite Techs - Mining
     Leads to           - Iron Working
     Unlocks            - Spearman, Hoplite, Immortal (Units)
                          Barracks, Krepost           (Building)
                          The Colossus                (Wonder)
                          Remove Jungle               (Ability)
                                                                      ~ Calendar ~
     Science Cost - 70
     Prerequisite Techs - Pottery
     Leads to           - Theology
     Unlocks            - Stonehenge (Wonder)
                          Plantation (Tile Improvement)
                                                                       ~ Masonry ~
     Science Cost - 55
     Prerequisite Techs - Mining
     Leads to           - Construction
     Unlocks            - Walls             (Building)
                          The Great Pyramid (Wonder)
                          Quarry            (Tile Improvement)
                          Clear a Marsh     (Ability)
                                                                        ~ Mining ~
     Science Cost - 35
     Prerequisite Techs - Agriculture
     Leads to           - Masonry
                          Bronze Working
     Unlocks            - Mines         (Tile Improvement)
                          Remove Forest (Ability)
                                                                       ~ Pottery ~
     Science Cost - 35
     Prerequisite Techs - Agriculture
     Leads to           - Sailing
     Unlocks            - Granary (Building)
                                                                       ~ Sailing ~
     Science Cost - 55
     Prerequisite Techs - Pottery
     Leads to           - Optics
     Unlocks            - Work Boat, Trireme   (Unit)
                          The Great Lighthouse (Wonder)
                          Fishing Boats        (Tile Improvement)
                                                                     ~ The Wheel ~
     Science Cost - 55
     Prerequisite Techs - Animal Husbandry
     Leads to           - Horseback Riding
     Unlocks            - Chariot Archer, War Chariot, War Elephant (Unit)
                          Floating Gardens, Water Mill              (Building)
                          Building Roads                        (Tile Improvement)
                                                                      ~ Trapping ~
     Science Cost - 55
     Prerequisite Techs - Animal Husbandry
     Leads to           - Civil Service
     Unlocks            - Trading Post, Camp (Tile Improvement)
                                                                       ~ Writing ~
     Science Cost - 55
     Prerequisite Techs - Pottery
     Leads to           - Philosophy
     Unlocks            - Paper Maker, Library                (Building)
                          National College, The Great Library (Wonder)
                          Open Borders                        (Diplomacy)
    [6.02] Classical Era
                                                                  ~ Construction ~
     Science Cost - 100
     Prerequisite Techs - Masonry
     Leads to           - Engineering
     Unlocks            - Colosseum      (Building)
                          The Great Wall (Wonder)
                          Build Bridges  (Ability)
                                                              ~ Horseback Riding ~
     Science Cost - 100
     Prerequisite Techs - The Wheel
     Leads to           - Chivalry
     Unlocks            - Horseman, Companion Cavalry (Unit)
                          Stable, Circus              (Building)
                                                                 ~ Iron Working ~ 
     Science Cost - 150
     Prerequisite Techs - Bronze Working
     Leads to           - Metal Casting
     Unlocks            - Swordsman, Mohawk Warrior, Legion (Unit)
                          Armoury                           (Building)
                          Heroic Epic                       (Wonder)
                          Iron                              (Resource)
                                                                   ~ Mathematics ~
     Science Cost - 100
     Prerequisite Techs - The Wheel
     Leads to           - Currency
     Unlocks            - Catapult, Ballista  (Unit)
                          Courthouse          (Building)
                          The Hanging Gardens (Wonder)
                                                                       ~ Optics ~ 
     Science Cost - 80
     Prerequisite Techs - Sailing
     Leads to           - Compass
     Unlocks            - Lighthouse (Building)
                          Embarking  (Ability)
                                                                    ~ Philosophy ~
     Science Cost - 100
     Prerequisite Techs - Writing
     Leads to           - Theology
                          Civil Service
     Unlocks            - Mud Pyramid, Burial Tomb, Temple (Building)
                          National Epic, The Oracle        (Wonder)
                          Research Agreement               (Diplomacy)
    [6.03] Medieval Era
                                                                      ~ Chivalry ~
     Science Cost - 440
     Prerequisite Techs - Civil Service
                          Horseback Riding
     Leads to           - Banking
     Unlocks            - Knight, Camel Archer, Naresuan's Elephant
                          Mandekalu Cavalry                           (Unit)
                          Mughal Fort, Castle                         (Building)
                          Himeji Castle                               (Wonder)
                          Defensive Pact Treaty                       (Diplomacy)
                                                                 ~ Civil Service ~
     Science Cost - 400
     Prerequisite Techs - Philosophy
     Leads to           - Currency
     Unlocks            - Pikeman, Landsknecht                     (Unit)
                          Chichen Itza                             (Wonder)
                          +1 Food for Farms next to Coast or River (Ability)
                                                                       ~ Compass ~
     Science Cost - 340
     Prerequisite Techs - Optics
     Leads to           - Astronomy
     Unlocks            - Harbor (Building)
                                                                      ~ Currency ~
     Science Cost - 250
     Prerequisite Techs - Mathematics
     Leads to           - Chivalry
     Unlocks            - Market, Mint, Bazaar (Building)
                          Machu Picchu         (Wonder)
                                                                     ~ Education ~
     Science Cost - 440
     Prerequisite Techs - Theology
     Leads to           - Astronomy, Acoustics, Banking
     Unlocks            - Wall, University               (Building)
                          Oxford University, Notre Dome, 
                          The Porcelain Tower            (Wonder)
                                                                   ~ Engineering ~
     Science Cost - 250
     Prerequisite Techs - Mathematics, Construction
     Leads to           - Machinery, Physics
     Unlocks            - Lumbermill, Fort (Tile Improvement)
                          Aqueduct !NEW!   (Building)
                                                                     ~ Machinery ~
     Science Cost - 440
     Prerequisite Techs - Engineering
     Leads to           - Printing Press
     Unlocks            - Crossbowman, Chu-Ko-Nu, Longbowman (Unit)
                          Faster movement on roads           (Ability)
                                                                 ~ Metal Casting ~
     Science Cost - 250
     Prerequisite Techs - Iron Working
     Leads to           - Physics, Steel
     Unlocks            - Longhouse, Forge, Workshop (Building)
                                                                       ~ Physics ~
     Science Cost - 440
     Prerequisite Techs - Engineering
                          Metal Casting
     Leads to           - Printing Press
     Unlocks            - Trebuchet (Unit)
                                                                         ~ Steel ~
     Science Cost - 440
     Prerequisite Techs - Metal Casting
     Leads to           - Gunpowder
     Unlocks            - Longswordsman, Samurai (Unit)
                                                                      ~ Theology ~
     Science Cost - 250
     Prerequisite Techs - Calendar
     Leads to           - Education
     Unlocks            - Monastery, Garden            (Building)
                          Angkor Wat, The Hagia Sophia (Wonder)
    [6.04] Renaissance Era
                                                                     ~ Acoustics ~
     Science Cost - 650
     Prerequisite Techs - Education
     Leads to           - Scientific Theory
     Unlocks            - Opera House                     (Building)
                          The Sistine Chapel, The Kremlin (Wonder)
                                                                   ~ Archaeology ~
     Science Cost - 1300
     Prerequisite Techs - Navigation
     Leads to           - Biology
     Unlocks            - Museum                (Building)
                          Hermitage, The Louvre (Wonder)
                                                                     ~ Astronomy ~
     Science Cost - 650
     Prerequisite Techs - Compass, Education
     Leads to           - Navigation
     Unlocks            - Caravel                  (Unit)
                          Observatory              (Building)
                          Faster Embarked Movement (Ability)
                          Embarking Across Ocean   (Ability)
                                                                       ~ Banking ~
     Science Cost - 650
     Prerequisite Techs - Education, Chivalry
     Leads to           - Economics
     Unlocks            - Sultan's Court, Bank (Building)
                          The Forbidden Palace (Wonder)
                                                                     ~ Chemistry ~
     Science Cost - 900
     Prerequisite Techs - Gunpowder
     Leads to           - Fertilizer, Military Science
     Unlocks            - Cannon    (Unit)
                          Ironworks (Wonder)
                                                                     ~ Economics ~
     Science Cost - 900
     Prerequisite Techs - Banking, Printing Press
     Leads to           - Military Science
     Unlocks            - Windmill (Building)
                          Big Ben  (Wonder)
                                                                    ~ Fertilizer ~
     Science Cost - 1300
     Prerequisite Techs - Chemistry
     Leads to           - Dynamite
     Unlocks            - Farms not next to a River or Coast gets +1 Food
                                                                     ~ Gunpowder ~
     Science Cost - 680
     Prerequisite Techs - Physics, Steel
     Leads to           - Chemistry, Metallurgy
     Unlocks            - Janissary, Musketman, Minuteman, Musketeer (Unit)
                                                                    ~ Metallurgy ~
     Science Cost - 900
     Prerequisite Techs - Gunpowder
     Leads to           - Rifling
     Unlocks            - Sipahi, Lancer (Unit)
                                                              ~ Military Science ~
     Science Cost - 1300
     Prerequisite Techs - Chemistry, Economics
     Leads to           - Steam Powder
     Unlocks            - Cossack, Cavalry (Unit)
                          Military Academy (Building)
                          Brandenburg Gate (Wonder)
                                                                    ~ Navigation ~
     Science Cost - 900
     Prerequisite Techs - Astronomy
     Leads to           - Archaeology, Scientific Theory
     Unlocks            - Ship of the Line, Frigate (Unit)
                          Seaport                   (Building)
                                                                ~ Printing Press ~
     Science Cost - 650
     Prerequisite Techs - Machinery, Physics
     Leads to           - Economics
     Unlocks            - Theatre   (Building)
                          Taj Mahal (Wonder)
                                                                       ~ Rifling ~
     Science Cost - 1425
     Prerequisite Techs - Metallurgy
     Leads to           - Dynamite
     Unlocks            - Rifleman (Unit)
                                                             ~ Scientific Theory ~
     Science Cost - 1300
     Prerequisite Techs - Acoustics, Navigation
     Leads to           - Biology, Steam Power
     Unlocks            - Reveals Coal  (Resource)
                          Public School (Building)
    [6.05] Industrial Era
                                                                       ~ Biology ~
     Science Cost - 1680
     Prerequisite Techs - Archaeology, Scientific Theory
     Leads to           - Electricity
     Unlocks            - Hospital (Building)
                          Oil Well (Tile Improvement)
                                                                    ~ Combustion ~
     Science Cost - 2200
     Prerequisite Techs - Dynamite, Railroad, Replaceable Parts
     Leads to           - Atomic Theory, Lasers
     Unlocks            - Panzer, Tank (Unit)
                                                                      ~ Dynamite ~
     Science Cost - 1900
     Prerequisite Techs - Fertilizer, Rifling
     Leads to           - Combustion
     Unlocks            - Artillery (Unit)
                                                                   ~ Electricity ~
     Science Cost - 1900
     Prerequisite Techs - Biology, Steam Power
     Leads to           - Radio, Refrigeration, Steam Power
     Unlocks            - Reveals Aluminium (Resource)
                          Stock Exchange    (Building)
                          Destroyer         (Unit)
                                                                        ~ Flight ~
     Science Cost - 2200
     Prerequisite Techs - Replaceable Parts
     Leads to           - Radar
     Unlocks            - Fighter, Zero, Carrier (Unit)
                                                                         ~ Radio ~
     Science Cost - 2200
     Prerequisite Techs - Electricity
     Leads to           - Mass Media, Radar
     Unlocks            - Anti-Aircraft Gun (Unit)
                          Broadcast Tower   (Building)
                          The Eiffel Tower  (Wonder)
                                                                      ~ Railroad ~
     Science Cost - 1900
     Prerequisite Techs - Steam Power
     Leads to           - Combustion
     Unlocks            - Arsenal  (Building)
                          Railroad (Tile Improvement)
                                                                 ~ Refrigeration ~
     Science Cost - 2200
     Prerequisite Techs - Electricity
     Leads to           - Penicillin, Plastics
     Unlocks            - Submarine         (Unit)
                          Offshore Platform (Tile Improvement)
                                                             ~ Replaceable Parts ~
     Science Cost - 1900
     Prerequisite Techs - Steam Power
     Leads to           - Combustion, Flight
     Unlocks            - Anti-Tank Gun, Infantry, Foreign Legion (Unit)
                          Statue of Liberty                       (Wonder)
                                                                   ~ Steam Power ~
     Science Cost - 1680
     Prerequisite Techs - Military Science, Scientific Theory
     Leads to           - Electricity, Railroad, Replaceable Parts
     Unlocks            - Ironclad                     (Unit)
                          Factory                      (Building)
                          +1 Production in Lumbermills (Ability)
                          Faster Embarked Movement     (Ability)
                                                                     ~ Telegraph ~
     Science Cost - 2200
     Prerequisite Techs - Electricity
     Leads to           - Electronics
     Unlocks            - Battleship      (Unit)
                          Military Base   (Building)
                          Cristo Redeemer (Wonder)
    [6.06] Modern Era
                                                           ~ Advanced Ballistics ~
     Science Cost - 3350
     Prerequisite Techs - Lasers, Nuclear Fission
     Leads to           - Nuclear Fusion
     Unlocks            - Nuclear Missile (Unit)
                                                                 ~ Atomic Theory ~
     Science Cost - 2600
     Prerequisite Techs - Combustion
     Leads to           - Nuclear Fission
     Unlocks            - Manhattan Project (Project)
                          Reveals Uranium   (Resource)
                                                                     ~ Computers ~
     Science Cost - 3000
     Prerequisite Techs - Electronics, Mass Media
     Leads to           - Robotics
     Unlocks            - Mobile SAM, Nuclear Submarine (Unit)
                                                                       ~ Ecology ~
     Science Cost - 3000
     Prerequisite Techs - Penicillin, Plastics
     Leads to           - Globalization
     Unlocks            - Solar Power Plant (Building)
                                                                   ~ Electronics ~
     Science Cost - 2600
     Prerequisite Techs - Telegraph
     Leads to           - Computers
     Unlocks            - Mechanized Infantry (Unit)
                                                                 ~ Globalization ~
     Science Cost - 3350
     Prerequisite Techs - Ecology
     Leads to           - Particle Physics
     Unlocks            - United Nations, Sydney Opera House (Wonders)
                                                                        ~ Lasers ~
     Science Cost - 3000
     Prerequisite Techs - Combustion, Radar
     Leads to           - Advanced Ballistics, Stealth
     Unlocks            - Jet Fighter, Modern Armour (Unit)
                                                                    ~ Mass Media ~
     Science Cost - 2600
     Prerequisite Techs - Radio
     Leads to           - Computers
     Unlocks            - Stadium (Building)
                                                               ~ Nuclear Fission ~
     Science Cost - 3000
     Prerequisite Techs - Atomic Theory
     Leads to           - Advanced Ballistics
     Unlocks            - Atomic Bomb   (Unit)
                          Nuclear Plant (Building)
                                                                    ~ Penicillin ~
     Science Cost - 2600
     Prerequisite Techs - Refrigeration
     Leads to           - Ecology
     Unlocks            - Medical Lab (Building)
                                                                      ~ Plastics ~
     Science Cost - 2600
     Prerequisite Techs - Refrigeration
     Leads to           - Ecology
     Unlocks            - Hydro Plant, Research Lab (Building)
                                                                         ~ Radar ~
     Science Cost - 2600
     Prerequisite Techs - Flight, Radio
     Leads to           - Lasers, Rocketry
     Unlocks            - B17 Bomber, Bomber, Paratrooper (Unit)
                          The Pentagon                    (Wonder)
                                                                      ~ Robotics ~
     Science Cost - 3350
     Prerequisite Techs - Computers
     Leads to           - Particle Physics
     Unlocks            - Spaceship Factory (Building)
                          Missile Cruiser   (Unit)
                          SS Booster        (Project)
                                                                      ~ Rocketry ~
     Science Cost - 3000
     Prerequisite Techs - Radar
     Leads to           - Satellites
     Unlocks            - Rocket Artillery, Helicopter Gunship (Unit)
                          Apollo Program                       (Project)
                                                                    ~ Satellites ~
     Science Cost - 3350
     Prerequisite Techs - Rocketry
     Leads to           - Nuclear Fusion, Particle Physics
     Unlocks            - Guided Missile (Unit)
                          SS Cockpit     (Project)
                                                                       ~ Stealth ~
     Science Cost - 3350
     Prerequisite Techs - Lasers
     Leads to           - Nuclear Fusion
     Unlocks            - Stealth Bomber (Unit)
    [6.07] Future Era
                                                                   ~ Future Tech ~
     Science Cost - 4000
     Prerequisite Techs - Nanotechnology, Nuclear Fusion
     Leads to           - MORE Future Tech
     Unlocks            - Increases Score after completion, can be researched 
                                                                ~ Nanotechnology ~
     Science Cost - 3300
     Prerequisite Techs - Particle Physics
     Leads to           - Future Tech
     Unlocks            - SS Statis Chamber (Project)
                                                                ~ Nuclear Fusion ~
     Science Cost - 3600
     Prerequisite Techs - Satellites, Stealth, Advanced Ballistics
     Leads to           - Future Tech
     Unlocks            - Giant Death Robot (Unit)
                                                              ~ Particle Physics ~
     Science Cost - 3350
     Prerequisite Techs - Globalization, Satellites, Robotics
     Leads to           - Nanotechnology
     Unlocks            - SS Engine (Project)
    [6.08] Tech Map
     ~ Ancient Era
                                                   CLASSICAL ERA      MEDIEVAL ERA
                                   --- Sailing --> Optics
                   --- Pottery ---+--- Calendar -> -----------------> Theology
                  |               |
                  |               |
                  |                --- Writing --> Philosophy
                  |                --- Trapping -> -----------------> Civil Service
                  |               | 
                  |               |
                  |--- Animal    ----- The   ----> Horseback Riding
                  |    Husbandry       Wheel    |
                  |                             |
                  |                             |
                  |                             |
     Agriculture -+--- Archery ------------------> Mathematics
                  |                --- Masonry --> Construction
                  |               |
                  |               |
                   --- Mining -------- Bronze  --> Iron Working
     ~ Classical Era
     ANCIENT ERA            CLASSICAL ERA                        MEDIEVAL ERA
     Sailing -------------> Optics ----------------------------> Compass
     Calendar -------------------------------------------------> Theology
     Writing -------------> Philosophy --------------------|
     Trapping -------------------------------------------------> Civil 
                         -> Horseback Riding ------------------> Chivalry
     The Wheel -----------> Mathematics -----------------------> Currency
     Masonry -------------> Construction ----------------------> Engineering
     Bronze  -------------> Iron Working ----------------------> Metal Casting
     ~ Medieval Era
     PRIOR ERAS         MEDIEVAL ERA                               RENAISSANCE ERA
     Optics ----------> Compass ---------------------------------> Astronomy
     Calendar --------> Theology --------> Education ----------+-> Acoustics
                     |                                         |
                     |                                         |
     Philosophy -----|                                         |
                     |                                         |
                     |                                         |
     Trapping --------> Civil Service --                       |
                                        |                      |
                                        |                      |
     Horseback Riding ------------------+> Chivalry -------------> Banking
     Mathematics -----> Currency -------
     Construction ----> Engineering ------> Machinery ------------> Printing Press
                                        |                      |
                                        |                      |
                                        |-> Physics -----------|
                                        |                      |
                                        |                      |
     Iron Working ----> Metal Casting ----> Steel ----------------> Gunpowder
     ~ Renaissance Era
     MEDIEVAL ERA         RENAISSANCE ERA                           INDUSTRIAL ERA
     Compass ---------
                      |-> Astronomy -----> Navigation -> Archaeology-
                      |                               |              |
                      |                               |              |
     Education -------|-> Acoustics -------------------> Scientific ---> Biology
                      |                                  Theory     |
                      |                                             |
                      |-> Banking -----                             |
                      |                |                            |
                      |                |                            |
     Chivalry --------                 |-> Economics --> Military -----> Steam 
                                       |             |   Science         Power
                                       |             |
                                       |             |
     Machinery ---------> Printing  ---              |
                      |   Press                      |
                      |                              |
                      |                              |
     Physics ---------|                              |
                      |                --> Chemistry --> Fertilizer-
                      |               |                             |
                      |               |                             |
     Steel -------------> Gunpowder -----> Metallurgy -> Rifling  -----> Dynamite
     ~ Industrial Era
     RENAISSANCE ERA      INDUSTRIAL ERA                                MODERN ERA
                                                                    -> Plastics
     Archaeology ------                            -> Refrigeration--> Penicillin
                       |                          |
                       |                          |
     Scientific --------> Biology --> Electricity +-> Telegraph -----> Electronics
     Theory            |                          |
                       |                          |
                       |                           -> Radio ---------> Mass Media
                       |                                           |
     Military          |                                           |
     Science  ----------> Steam ----> Replaceable --> Flight --------> Radar
                          Power   |   Parts       |
                                  |               |
                                  |               |
                                   -> Railroad -----> Combustion ----> Laser
                                                  |                |
                                                  |                |
     Fertilizer -------                           |                |
                       |                          |                 -> Atomic
                       |                          |                    Theory
     Rifling -----------> Dynamite ---------------
     ~ Modern Era
     INDUSTRIAL ERA     MODERN ERA                                      FUTURE ERA
     Refrigeration ---> Plastics -----
                    |                 |
                    |                 |
                     -> Penicillin -----> Ecology --> Globalization -
     Telegraph -------> Electronics ----> Computers-> Robotics ------+> Particle
                                      |                              |  Physics
                                      |                              |
     Radio -----------> Mass Media ---                               |
                    |                                                |
                    |                                                |
     Flight ----------> Radar ----------> Rocketry -> Satellites ----|
                                      |                              |
                                      |                              |
     Combustion ------------------------> Lasers ---> Stealth -------+> Nuclear
                    |                              |                 |  Fusion
                    |                              |                 |
                    |                              |                 |
                     -> Atomic ---------> Nuclear --> Advanced ------
                        Theory            Fusion      Ballistics
     ~ Future Era
     MODERN ERA                  FUTURE ERA
     Globalization ----------
     Robotics -----------------> Particle Physics -> Nanotechnology -
                             |                                       |
                             |                                       |
     Satellites -------------|                                       |-> Future
                             |                                       |   Tech
                             |                                       |
     Stealth ------------------> Nuclear Fusion ---------------------
     Advanced Ballistics ----
    [7.01] Improvements
    Improvements are basically things that you build on tiles. There are two 
    types of improvements, there are ones that workers building that are 
    essentially to improve harvesting of resources, or just to obtain more from
    the land, like more food from farms, etc. 
    The second way to get tile improvements are the creation of Great People. 
    All 5 types of great people, Scientist, General, Merchant, Artist and 
    Worker Improvements are those that are built by workers, once you have the
    necessary technology. For those in the water, you will need worker boats 
    for it. For the Great People Improvements, you need to sacrifice a Great
    Person to build that improvement.
    For the Worker Improvements, if it yields no tile bonus, then it can only
    be used to improve resources, nothing else.
     ~ Worker Improvements
     - Camp
     Required Tech - Trapping
     Tile Bonus    - None
     Improves      - Deer, Furs, Ivory
     Built On      - Forests, Hills, Plains, Tundra
     - Farm
     Required Tech - Agriculture
     Tile Bonus    - +1 Food
     Improves      - Wheat
     Built On      - Desert, Grasslands, Plains
     - Fishing Boats
     Required Tech - Sailing
     Tile Bonus    - None
     Improves      - Fish, Pearls, Whales
     Built On      - Coast
     - Fort
     Required Tech - Engineering
     Tile Bonus    - Defensive Bonus for Combat
     Improves      - None
     Built On      - Desert, Grasslands, Plains, Snow, Tundra
     - Lumber Mill
     Required Tech - Engineering
     Tile Bonus    - +1 Production
     Improves      - None
     Built On      - Forest
     - Mine
     Required Tech - Mining
     Tile Bonus    - +1 Production
     Improves      - Aluminium, Coal, Gems, Gold, Iron, Silver, Uranium
     Built On      - Deserts, Grassland, Hills, Jungle, Plains, Snow, Tundra
     - Moai / POLYNESIA ONLY
     Required Tech - Construction
     Tile Bonus    - +1 Culture
                     +1 Gold after discovering Flight
     Improves      - None
     Built on      - Coast
     - Offshore Platform
     Required Tech - Refrigeration
     Tile Bonus    - None
     Improves      - Oil
     Built On      - Ocean
     - Oil Well
     Required Tech - Biology
     Tile Bonus    - None
     Improves      - Oil
     Built On      - Desert, Jungle, Marsh, Snow, Tundra
     - Pasture
     Required Tech - Animal Husbandry
     Tile Bonus    - None
     Improves      - Cattle, Horses, Sheep
     Built On      - Grasslands, Plains, Tundra
     - Plantation
     Required Tech - Calendar
     Tile Bonus    - None
     Improves      - Bananas, Cotton, Dyes, Incense, Silk, Spices, Sugar, Wine
     Built On      - Desert, Flood Plains, Forest, Grasslands, Jungle, Marsh,
     - Quarry
     Required Tech - Masonry
     Tile Bonus    - None
     Improves      - Marble
     Built On      - Deserts, Grasslands, Hills, Plains, Tundra
     - Terrace Farm / INCA ONLY
     Required Tech - Construction
     Tile Bonus    - +1 Food 
                     +1 Food if tile is surrounded by mountains (STACK)
     Improves      - None
     Built on      - Hills
     - Trading Post
     Required Tech - Trapping
     Tile Bonus    - +2 Gold
     Improves      - None
     Built On      - Desert, Grasslands, Plains, Tundra
     ~ Great People Improvements
     - Academy
     Great Person - Scientist
     Tile Bonus   - +5 Science
     Built On     - Desert, Grasslands, Plains, Snow, Tundra
     - Citadel
     Great Person - General
     Tile Bonus   - Defensive Bonus, Damage nearby enemy units
     Built On     - Desert, Grasslands, Plains, Snow, Tundra
     - Customs House
     Great Person - Merchant
     Tile Bonus   - +4 Gold
     Built On     - Desert, Grasslands, Plains, Snow, Tundra
     - Landmark
     Great Person - Artist
     Tile Bonus   - +5 Culture
     Built On     - Desert, Grasslands, Plains, Snow, Tundra
     - Manufactory
     Great Person - Engineer
     Tile Bonus   - +3 Production
     Built On     - Desert, Grasslands, Plains, Snow, Tundra
    [7.02] Buildings
    Buildings are what you stick in your cities, so that can produce a large
    variety of things, be them culture or gold, or bonuses that help the city
    become the crowning jewel in your empire. 
    The buildings will be broken down by the eras, with what they do, what they
    cost, and other things. This information is based off the most recent patch,
    which for me is the Mar 11 patch release for PC. 
    What is new is the flavor section. This is basically linking up to the AI
    parts of my guide. Flavor represents what type of building it is, and that
    flavor also is the same flavor used for AI calculation. Basically, that means
    that flavor is the building category. The higher the category is ranked for
    the AI, the most likely the building will be built by the AI in their
    For example, if the AI has a Military Training rating of 8/10, then they are
    more likely to build a building with a Military Training flavor (like the
    Barracks or Arsenal), then an AI with a Military Training rating of 4/10. 
    In summary, flavor is the category, the AI rating scale is how likely they
    are to build from that category/flavor. 
    The second new category is conquest probability. That means that if a city
    already has such a building, this is the probablity of that building 
    surviving your attack and ends up surviving. 
                                                                   ~ Ancient Era ~
     - Barracks
     Cost        - 70 Hammers
     Maintenance - 1 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +15XP to Land Units produced in the City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Bronze Working
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Military Training
     - Floating Gardens
     Cost        - 70 Hammers
     Maintenance - 1 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Replaces    - Watermill for Aztecs
     Benefits    - +15% Food
                   +2 Food from each worked Lake tile (inland coast tile)
                   +1 Production
     Terrain Requirement    - Built next to lake or river
     Technology Requirement - The Wheel
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth
              Naval Growth
     - Granary
     Cost        - 70 Hammers
     Maintenance - 1 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +2 Food
                   +1 Food for each tile of Wheat
                   +1 Food for each tile of Bananas
                   +1 Food for each tile of Deer
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Pottery
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth
     - Krepost
     Cost        - 70 Hammers
     Maintenance - 1 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Replaces    - Barracks for Russia
     Benefits    - -25% Culture Cost for new Tiles
                   -25% Gold Purchase Cost for new Tiles
                   +15XP to Land Units produced in the City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Bronze Working
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Military Training
     - Library
     Cost        - 70 Hammers
     Maintenance - 1 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +1 Science for every 2 Citizens
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Writing
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Science
     - Monument 
     Cost        - 40 Hammers
     Maintenance - 1 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +2 Culture
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - None (The only building with no tech required)
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Culture
     - Paper Maker
     Cost        - 70 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Replaces    - Library for China
     Benefits    - +2 Gold
                   +1 Science for every 2 Citizens
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Writing
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Science
              Military Training
     - Walls
     Cost        - 80 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +9 Combat Strength
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Masonry
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - City Defence
     - Walls of Babylon
     Cost        - 65 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Replaces    - Walls for Babylon
     Benefits    - +7.5 Combat Strength
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Masonry
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - City Defence
     - Water Mill
     Cost        - 70 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +2 Food
                   +1 Production
     Terrain Requirement    - Next to River
     Technology Requirement - The Wheel
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth 
                                                                 ~ Classical Era ~
     - Armoury
     Cost        - 100 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +15XP to Land Units produced in the City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Iron Working
     Required Buildings     - Barracks/Krepost
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Military Training
     - Burial Tomb
     Cost        - 100 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Replaces    - Temple for Egypt
     Benefits    - Extra gold if captured by enemy
                   +2 Culture
                   +2 Happiness
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Philosophy
     Required Buildings     - Monument
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Culture
     - Circus
     Cost        - 80 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +2 Happiness
     Terrain Requirement    - Nearby source of Horses or Ivory near City
     Technology Requirement - Horseback Riding
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Expansion
     - Colosseum
     Cost        - 120 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +3 Happiness
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Construction
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 100%
     Flavor - Happiness
     - Courthouse
     Cost        - 100 Hammers
     Maintenance - 4 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - No unhappiness from occupied cities
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Mathematics
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Happiness
     - Lighthouse
     Cost        - 70 Hammers
     Maintenance - 1 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +1 Food from Sea Tiles
                   +1 Food from each tile of Fish
     Terrain Requirement    - Coastal City
     Technology Requirement - Optics
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Naval Growth
              Tile Improvement
     - Mud Pyramid Mosque
     Cost        - 100 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - Artist
     Replaces    - Temple for Songhai
     Benefits    - +5 Culture
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Philosophy
     Required Buildings     - Monument
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Culture
     - Stable
     Cost        - 100 Hammers
     Maintenance - 1 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +1 Production from each tile of Sheep
                   +1 Production from each tile of Horses
                   +1 Production from each tile of Cow
                   +15% Production for Mounted Units
     Terrain Requirement    - Improved Horse, Sheep or Cow Resource in City
     Technology Requirement - Horseback Riding
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Military Training
              Mounted Units
     - Temple
     Cost        - 120 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - Artist
     Benefits    - +3 Culture
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Philosophy
     Required Buildings     - Monument
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Culture
                                                                  ~ Medieval Era ~
     - Aqueduct
     Cost        - 120 Hammers
     Maintenance - 1 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - 40% of Food Kept after a New Citizen
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Engineering
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth
     - Bazaar
     Cost        - 120 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - Merchant
     Replaces    - Market for Arabs
     Benefits    - +1 Extra Resource for Resource tiles near City
                   +2 Gold
                   +25% Gold for City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Currency
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 75%
     Flavor - Gold
     - Castle
     Cost        - 200 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +7.5 Combat Strength
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Chivalry
     Required Buildings     - Walls
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - City Defence
     - Forge
     Cost        - 100 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +15% Production for Land Units
                   +1 Production for each tile of Iron
     Terrain Requirement    - Nearby source of Iron
     Technology Requirement - Metal Casting
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Military Training
     - Garden
     Cost        - 100 Hammers
     Maintenance - 1 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +25% Great Person Points
     Terrain Requirement    - Next to Fresh Water (Lake/River)
     Technology Requirement - Theology
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Great People
     - Harbour
     Cost        - 120 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - Allows trade routes over water (connects trade routes over sea)
                   +25% Production of Naval Units
     Terrain Requirement    - Coastal City
     Technology Requirement - Compass
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Naval
              Water Connection
     - Longhouse
     Cost        - 100 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - Engineer
     Replaces    - Forge for Iroquois
     Benefits    - +15% Production of Land Units
                   +1 Production for each tile of Forest
                   +2 Production
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Metal Casting
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Production
     - Market
     Cost        - 120 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - Merchant
     Benefits    - +2 Gold
                   +25% Gold for City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Currency
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 75%
     Flavor - Gold
     - Mint
     Cost        - 120 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +3 Gold for each tile of Gold or Silver
     Terrain Requirement    - Nearby tile of Gold or Silver near city
     Technology Requirement - Currency
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Gold
     - Monastary
     Cost        - 100 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +3 Culture
                   +2 Culture for each tile of Incense or Wine
     Terrain Requirement    - Nearby source of Incense or Wine near city
     Technology Requirement - Theology
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Culture
     - Mughal Fort
     Cost        - 180 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Replaces    - Castle for India
     Benefits    - +9 Combat Strength
                   +2 Culture
                   +3 Gold after learning Flight
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Chivalry
     Required Buildings     - Walls
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - City Defence
     - University
     Cost        - 200 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - 2 Scientists
     Benefits    - +2 Science for each tile of Jungle
                   +50% Science for City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Education
     Required Buildings     - Library
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Science
     - Wat
     Cost        - 200 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - 2 Scientists
     Replaces    - University for Siam
     Benefits    - +3 Culture
                   +2 Science for each tile of Jungle
                   +50% Science for city
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Education
     Required Buildings     - Library
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Science
     - Workshop
     Cost        - 120 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - Engineer
     Benefits    - +2 Production
                   +15% Production of Buildings
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Metal Casting
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Production
                                                               ~ Renaissance Era ~
     - Bank
     Cost        - 250 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - Merchant
     Benefits    - +25% Gold for City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Banking
     Required Buildings     - Market/Bazaar
     Conquest Probability   - 75%
     Flavor - Gold
     - Military Academy
     Cost        - 350 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +15XP to Land Units produced in the City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Military Training
     Required Buildings     - Barracks/Krepost
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Military Training
     - Museum
     Cost        - 350 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - 2 Artists
     Benefits    - +5 Culture
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Archaeology
     Required Buildings     - Opera House
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Culture
     - Observatory
     Cost        - 200 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +50% Science for City
     Terrain Requirement    - City built next to mountain tile
     Technology Requirement - Astronomy
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Science
     - Opera House
     Cost        - 250 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - Artist
     Benefits    - +4 Culture
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Acoustics
     Required Buildings     - Temple/Burial Tomb/Mud Pyramid Mosque
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Culture
     - Public School
     Cost        - 350 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - Scientist
     Benefits    - +1 Culture
                   +1 Science per Citizen
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Scientific Theory
     Required Buildings     - University/Wat
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Science
              Military Training
     - Satrap's Court
     Cost        - 250 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - Merchant
     Replaces    - Bank for Persia
     Benefits    - +2 Happiness
                   +2 Gold
                   +25% Gold for City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Banking
     Required Buildings     - Market
     Conquest Probability   - 75%
     Flavor - Gold
     - Seaport
     Cost        - 180 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +2 Production for each Sea Tile with Resource
     Terrain Requirement    - Coastal City, Nearby tile of Whale, Pearls or Fish
     Technology Requirement - Navigation
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Production
     - Theatre
     Cost        - 250 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +4 Happiness
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Printing Press
     Required Buildings     - Colosseum
     Conquest Probability   - 100%
     Flavor - Expansion
     - Windmill
     Cost        - 250 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - Engineer
     Benefits    - +15% Production for City
                   +2 Production
     Terrain Requirement    - City not built on Hills
     Technology Requirement - Economics
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth
                                                                ~ Industrial Era ~
     - Arsenal
     Cost        - 450 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +20% Production for Land Units
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Railroad
     Required Buildings     - Military Academy
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Offensive Units
              Defensive Units
     - Broadcast Tower
     Cost        - 600 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +100% Culture Generation
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Radio
     Required Buildings     - Museum
     Conquest Probability   - 0%
     Flavor - Culture
     - Factory
     Cost        - 400 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
                   1 Coal
     Specialists - 2 Engineers
     Benefits    - +3 Production
                   +25% Production for City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Steam Power
     Required Buildings     - Workshop
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth
     - Hospital
     Cost        - 350 Hammers
     Maintenance - 2 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +5 Food
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Biology
     Required Buildings     - Aqueduct
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth
     - Military Base
     Cost        - 500 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - Nuke Immune
                   +12 Combat Strength
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Telegraph
     Required Buildings     - Castle/Mughal Fort
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - City Defence
     - Stock Exchange
     Cost        - 600 Hammers
     Maintenance - 0 Gold
     Specialists - 2 Merchants
     Benefits    - +33% Gold for City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Electricity
     Required Buildings     - Bank/Satrap's Court
     Conquest Probability   - 75%
     Flavor - Gold
                                                                    ~ Modern Era ~
     - Hydro Plant
     Cost        - 600 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
                   1 Aluminium
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +1 Production from River Tiles
     Terrain Requirement    - Built next to River
     Technology Requirement - Plastic
     Required Buildings     - None
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth
     - Medical Lab
     Cost        - 600 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - Keeps 25% Food after new Citizen
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Penicillin
     Required Buildings     - Hospital
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth
     - Nuclear Plant
     Cost        - 800 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
                   1 Uranium
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +4 Production
                   +35% Production for City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Nuclear Fission
     Required Buildings     - Factory
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth
     - Research Laboratory
     Cost        - 350 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - Scientist
     Benefits    - +100% Science for City
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Plastic
     Required Buildings     - Public School
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Science
     - Solar Plant
     Cost        - 800 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +4 Production
                   +35% Production for City
     Terrain Requirement    - City contains a Desert tile
     Technology Requirement - Ecology
     Required Buildings     - Factory
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Growth
     - Spaceship Factory
     Cost        - 800 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
                   1 Aluminium
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - Spaceship Parts produced 50% faster
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Robotics
     Required Buildings     - Factory
     Conquest Probability   - 66%
     Flavor - Production
     - Stadium
     Cost        - 600 Hammers
     Maintenance - 3 Gold
     Specialists - None
     Benefits    - +5 Happiness
     Terrain Requirement    - None
     Technology Requirement - Mass Media
     Required Buildings     - Theatre
     Conquest Probability   - 100%
     Flavor - Expansion
    [7.03] Wonders
    There are two types of Wonders, National Wonders, which each civilization can
    build without other Civilizations racing you to them, and there are the normal
    Wonders, which can only be built by a single Civilization. That is a race, 
    only one can be built, and although they can change hands, it is still there.
    Wonders, when they are in a city that is conquered, will always be captured.
    National Wonders, on the other hand, will never be captured. Both wonders are
    immune to the effects of nuclear weapons.
    Wonders, by themselves, take a long period of time to build, but that is well
    worth the price, since their powers are quite, well, powerful. But since one
    of them can be in play as once, you will want to race to get the Wonders 
     - National Wonders
    National Wonders are those can be built only when all cities, in your Empire,
    have a certain building. So for the Oxford University building, all cities in
    your empire need a University in them. The thing is, if you suddenly establish
    a new city, without a University, the city building Oxford University will
    stop, since the conditions are no longer fulfilled. 
     - Palace
     Cost          - 0 Hammers
     Specialists   - None
     Tech Required - None
     Benefits      - +1 Culture
                     +2.5 Combat Strength
                     +3 Gold
                     +3 Production
     Flavor - Gold
     Built in your Capital City only
     - Heroic Epic
     Cost          - 100 Hammers
     Specialists   - None
     Tech Required - Iron Working
     Benefits      - All units get Morale Promotion if created in the City
                     +1 Culture
     Flavor - Offensive Units
              Defensive Units
              Military Training
     Requires all cities with Barracks
     - National College
     Cost          - 100 Hammers
     Specialists   - None
     Tech Required - Writing
     Benefits      - +1 Culture
                     +5 Science
                     +50% Science for the City
     Flavor - Science
     Requires all cities with Library
     - National Epic
     Cost          - 100 Hammers
     Specialists   - None
     Tech Required - Philosophy
     Benefits      - +1 Culture
                     +25% Great Person Points in the City
     Flavor - Great People
     Requires all cities with Monument
     - Circus Maximus
     Cost          - 100 Hammers
     Specialists   - None
     Tech Required - Construction
     Benefits      - +5 Happiness
                     +1 Culture
     Flavor - Happiness
     Requires all cities with Colosseum
     - National Treasury
     Cost          - 120 Hammers
     Specialists   - None
     Tech Required - Currency
     Benefits      - +1 Culture
                     +8 Gold
     Flavor - Gold
     Requires all cities with Market
     - Ironworks
     Cost          - 120 Hammers
     Specialists   - None
     Tech Required - Machinery
     Benefits      - +1 Culture
                     +8 Production
     Flavor - Production
     Requires all cities with Workshops
     - Oxford University
     Cost          - 200 Hammers
     Specialists   - None
     Tech Required - Education
     Benefits      - +1 Culture
                     1 Free Technology
     Flavor - Science
     Requires all cities with University
     - Hermitage
     Cost          - 300 Hammers
     Specialists   - None
     Tech Required - Archaeology
     Benefits      - +5 Culture
                     +100% Culture Rate
     Flavor - Culture
     Require all cities with Museums
                                                                       ~ Wonders ~
     - Angkor Wat
     Location - Angkor, Cambodia
     Cost                - 350 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Theology
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Engineer
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - -25% Culture Cost for new Tiles
                           -25% Gold Cost for purchasing New Tiles
                           +1 Culture
     Flavor - Expansion
     - Big Ben
     Location - London, England
     Cost                - 700 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Economics
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Merchant
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           -25% Hurry Production Gold Cost
     Flavor - Gold
     - Brandenburg Gate
     Location - Berlin, Germany
     Cost                - 650 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Military Science
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Scientist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           2 Great Generals appear near the City
     Flavor - Offensive Units
     - Chichen Itza
     Location - Yucatan, Mexico
     Cost                - 350 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Civil Service
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Engineer
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           Golden Ages last 50% Longer
     Flavor - Production
     - Cristo Redentor
     Location - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
     Cost                - 1200 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Telegraph
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Artist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           -25% Culture Cost for Social Policies
     Flavor - Wonder
     - Eiffel Tower
     Location - Paris, France
     Cost                - 1000 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Radio
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Merchant
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           +8 Happiness
     Flavor - Happiness
     - Himeji Castle
     Location - Hyogo Prefecture, Japan
     Cost                - 600 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Chivalry
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Engineer
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - Himeji Castle Promotion for Units
                           +4 Culture
     Flavor - City Defence
     - Machu Picchu
     Location - Urubamba Valley, Peru
     Cost                - 420 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Currency
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Engineer
     Terrain Requirement - Nearby Mountain Tile
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           +20% Gold from Trade Routes
     Flavor - Gold
     - Notre Dome
     Location - Paris, France
     Cost                - 600 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Education
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Merchant
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           +5 Happiness
     Flavor - Happiness
     - Pentagon
     Location - Arlington County, Virginia, United States of America
     Cost                - 1200 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Radar
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Merchant
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           -50% Upgrade Cost for Units
     Flavor - Military Training
     - Sistine Chapel
     Location - Rome, Italy (Vatican City)
     Cost                - 600 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Acoustics
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Artist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +33% Culture Generation
                           +1 Culture
     Flavor - Culture
     - Statue of Liberty
     Location - Ellis Island, New York City, United States of America
     Cost                - 1000 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Replaceable Parts
     Great Person Points - +3 Great Engineer
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           +1 Production for all Specialists
     Flavor - Production
     - Stonehenge
     Location - Wiltshire County, England
     Cost                - 220 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Calendar
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Engineer
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +8 Culture Empire-wide
     Flavor - Wonder
     - Sydney Opera House
     Location - Sydney, Australia
     Cost                - 1200 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Globalization
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Artist
     Terrain Requirement - Coastal City
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           1 Free Social Policy
     Flavor - Culture
     - Taj Mahal
     Location - Agra, India
     Cost                - 600 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Printing Press
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Artist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           Starts a new Golden Age
     Flavor - Gold
     - The Colossus
     Location - Rhodes, Rhodes
     Cost                - 220 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Bronze Working
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Merchant
     Terrain Requirement - Coastal City
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           +1 Gold for all sea tiles worked in the City
     Flavor - Gold
     - The Forbidden Palace
     Location - Beijing, China
     Cost                - 600 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Banking
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Artist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           -25% Unhappiness generated by Cities
     Flavor - Happiness
     - The Great Library
     Location - Alexandria, Egypt
     Cost                - 250 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Writing
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Scientist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           1 Free Tech
     Flavor - Science
     - The Great Lighthouse
     Location - Alexandria, Egypt
     Cost                - 220 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Sailing
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Merchant
     Terrain Requirement - Coastal City
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           All new naval units get Great Lighthouse Promotion
     Flavor - Naval
     - The Great Wall
     Location - China
     Cost                - 280 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Construction
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Engineer
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           Enemies spend an extra movement point within your land
     Flavor - City Defence
     - The Hagia Sophia
     Location - Istanbul, Turkey
     Cost                - 350 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Theology
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Artist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           +33% Great People Point Generation
     Flavor - Great People
     - The Hanging Gardens
     Location - Babil, Iraq (Hanging Gardens of Babylon)
     Cost                - 250 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Mathematics
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Artist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           +1 Population for all of your Cities
                           +3 Happiness
     Flavor - Growth 
     - The Kremlin
     Location - Moscow, Russia
     Cost                - 600 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Acoustics
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Scientist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - Defensive Buildings +50% Effective
                           +4 Culture
     Flavor - City Defence
     - The Louvre
     Location - Paris, France
     Cost                - 850 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Archaeology
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Artist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           2 Great Artists spawn near the City
     Flavor - Culture
              Great People
     - The Oracle
     Location - Various, Ancient Greece
     Cost                - 250 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Philosophy
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Scientist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           1 Free Social Policy
     Flavor - Wonder
     - The Porcelain Tower
     Location - Nanjing, China
     Cost                - 600 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Education
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Scientist
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           1 Great Scientist appears near the City
     Flavor - Science
              Great People
     - The Pyramids
     Location - Giza, Egypt
     Cost                - 220 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Masonry
     Great Person Points - +1 Great Engineer
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           Workers build Improvements in half the time
     Flavor - Tile Improvement
     - United Nations
     Location - New York City, United States of America
     Cost                - 1200 Hammers
     Tech Required       - Globalization
     Great Person Points - +2 Great Merchant
     Terrain Requirement - None
     Benefits            - +1 Culture
                           Unlocks Diplomatic Victory
     Flavor - Diplomacy
    [7.04] Projects
    There are two types of projects, one for the Spaceship Victory, which is 
    known as the Apollo Program, and there is the Manhattan Project, which is
    obviously the invention of the Nuclear Bomb. 
     - Apollo Program
     Cost          - 800 Hammers
     Tech Required - Rocketry
     Notes - Allows Spaceship Production
     - SS Booster
     Cost          - 800 Hammers
     Tech Required - Robotics
     Notes - 3 Required for Spaceship Production
     - SS Cockpit
     Cost          - 800 Hammers
     Tech Required - Satellites
     Notes - 1 Required for Spaceship Production
     - SS Engine
     Cost          - 800 Hammers
     Tech Required - Particle Physics
     Notes - 1 Required for Spaceship Production
     - SS Statis Chamber
     Cost          - 800 Hammers
     Tech Required - Nanotechnology
     Notes - 1 Required for Spaceship Production
     - The Manhattan Project
     Cost          - 800 Hammers
     Tech Required - Atomic Theory
     Notes - Allows construction of Atomic Bombs and Nuclear Missiles
     - Utopia Project
     Cost          - 800 Hammers
     Tech Required - None
     Notes - Unlocks after 5 completed Social Policy branches. Allows the 
             Cultural Victory. 
    [8.01] Ancient Era
    Units are what allows you to dominate the enemy. However, before we look at 
    the units, I'll put some explanations on units as a whole. 
     - No Stacking
    One unit, one hex tile, it is as simple as that. You can't put more than one
    on a unit.
     - Difference between Combat and Ranged Combat Strength
    Combat strength is the strength of units when they fight each other when they
    are right next to each other. So combat strength is used for neighbouring
    hex tile combat. Ranged Combat Strength is the strength of units when 
    attacking from more than 1 hex tile away. This is the same as indirect combat.
     - Air Combat
    There are two real stats here, evasion and interception. Interception is with
    anti-air units, basically, it is the ability to intercept enemy air units,
    some do this better than others. Evasion is the opposite, it is the ability
    to evade interception.
    Air Sweeps is an ability some units have to use up the interception points,
    so if you perform an air sweep, enemies will engage, and they won't be able to
    stop your other units. Of course, this doesn't bode well if an enemy fighter
    does this, since there will be a dogfight. 
     - City Combat
    Mounted and Armoured units have a penalty attacking a city. Think of it this
    way, an armoured tank isn't exactly very easy to use in the middle of a highly
    urbanised city, compared to infantry on foot. 
    Anyway, time to start the units. Note that when I write down upgrades to, it
    is the next step as per the Ancient Ruins. Doesn't get reflected in game most
    of the time though. 
     - Archer
     Hammer Cost    - 75
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Archer / Indirect
     Tech Required  - Archery
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot Melee Attack
     Combat Strength        - 4
     Ranged Combat Strength - 6
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Machinery
     Upgrades To - Crossbowman
     Notes - This will be your first ranged unit, the archers are nice, but only
             if you protect them from the baddies, since they cannot fend for
             themselves. If they face a warrior melee unit, they will be killed. 
     - Babylonian Bowman
     Hammer Cost    - 75
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Archer / Indirect
     Tech Required  - Archery
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot Melee Attack
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - 8
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Machinery
     Upgrades To - Crossbowman
     Notes - Unique to the Babylon DLC empire, this unit is the same as a normal
             archer, but they have better combat strength, on par with your normal
             warriors, so they are better in melee, hold their own, and although 
             you still want to protect them, you don't need to protect them as 
     - Brute
     Hammer Cost    - 20
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Melee / Direct
     Tech Required  - None
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - These guys are barbarians, and it explains why they are so cheap,
             look at their hammer cost! They are Barbarian only though. 
     - Chariot Archer
     Hammer Cost    - 70
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Archer-Indirect
     Tech Required  - The Wheel
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - No Defensive Bonus, Rough Terrain Penalty, Cannot Melee 
     Combat Strength        - 3
     Ranged Combat Strength - 6
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - Chivalry
     Upgrades To - Knight
     Notes - This is your first mounted unit, it is a mounted archer basically,
             they are not as strong, but they have better mobility. This helps
             them attack quickly, but you use up 1 horse resource for this.
     - Galley
     Hammer Cost    - 50
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Naval
     Tech Required  - None
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot Melee, Cannot enter Ocean Tiles
     Combat Strength        - 5
     Ranged Combat Strength - 3
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 3
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The Barbarian ship, this is for them only, and it explains why they
             are annoying so early, since they are ship. The fact that they can
             bombard from the sea on your units is exceptionally annoying. 
     - Hoplite
     Hammer Cost    - 70
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Pike / Direct
     Tech Required  - Bronze Working
     Bonuses        - Strong against Mounted
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 9
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Civil Service
     Upgrades To - Pikeman
     Notes - The Greek unique unit, they do not have any added benefit over a 
             normal spearman, but they will have 2 extra combat strength, from 7 
             to 9. 
     - Incan Slinger
     Hammer Cost    - 70
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Archer / Indirect
     Tech Required  - Archery
     Bonuses        - Withdraw Before Melee Promotion
     Penalties      - Cannot Melee Attack
     Combat Strength        - 2
     Ranged Combat Strength - 6
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Machinery
     Upgrades To - Crossbowman
     Notes - The Incan unique unit is slightly cheaper, but they are a lot weaker
             in terms of combat strength. To be honest, it isn't all that unique,
             but the 5 less hammers does make a difference, since it is hard to 
             get hammers early on in the game. However, their promotion allows 
             them to withdraw from the melee before combat starts sometimes, which
             is sometimes lucky. 
     - Immortal
     Hammer Cost    - 60
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Pike / Direct
     Tech Required  - Bronze Working
     Bonuses        - Strong against Mounted, Heals at Double Rate
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 8
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Civil Service
     Upgrades To - Pikeman
     Notes - The Persian unique unit, it is not as strong as the Hoplite, they 
             have 8 combat strength, compared to the Hoplite's 9, but better than
             the warrior's 7. But they heal at double the normal rate, which is
             invaluable in the early parts of the game. 
     - Jaguar
     Hammer Cost    - 40
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Melee / Direct
     Tech Required  - None
     Bonuses        - Bonus in Jungle Tiles, Heals 2 Damage if it kills a unit
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Metal Casting
     Upgrades To - Spearman
     Notes - The Aztec unique unit, they are the same stat-wise as your normal 
             Warrior, but they will have a combat bonus in a jungle tile, and they
             will get healed 2 points of health when they kill a unit. 
     - Maori Warrior
     Hammer Cost    - 40
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Melee / Direct
     Tech Required  - None
     Bonuses        - Haka War Dance
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Metal Casting
     Upgrades To - Spearman
     Notes - The Maori Warrior is the same as a normal warrior, however, it does 
             have the Haka War Dance, which is a -10% combat debuff to all nearby
             units when they attack, which is better for them. Nothing intimidates
             people more than a hellishly scary dance. These are unique to the
             Polynesia DLC pack. 
     - Scout
     Hammer Cost    - 25
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Melee / Direct
     Tech Required  - None
     Bonuses        - Ignores Terrain Cost
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 4
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - Scientific Theory
     Upgrades To - Archer
     Notes - The scout is your basic recon unit, it is one of the first units to 
             be built, they can just be set to auto-explore, and they can have a 
             look at good deal of the map before they get killed, most often by
     - Settler
     Hammer Cost    - Determined by Food
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - None
     Tech Required  - None
     Bonuses        - Can build a City
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - Basically, a settler, who forms a city. Note that these will be 
             high priority targets for the enemy. 
     - Spearman
     Hammer Cost    - 60
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Pike / Direct
     Tech Required  - Bronze Working
     Bonuses        - Strong against Mounted
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 7
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Civil Service
     Upgrades To - Pikeman
     Notes - Spearman, at it's basest level, are there to make the live of 
             cavalry hell. Their combat strength is doubled against mounted
             units, so a mix of a spearmen and warriors is the staple for
             any starting army. 
     - Trireme
     Hammer Cost    - 70
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Naval
     Tech Required  - Sailing
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot Melee Attack, Cannot enter Ocean Tiles
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - 4
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - Navigation
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The Trireme is the basic naval unit, they, although they don't 
             ram their enemies as they would in real life, fires arrows, which
             is used to remove enemies near the coastline. 
     - War Chariot
     Hammer Cost    - 70
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Archer-Indirect
     Tech Required  - The Wheel
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot Melee Attack, Rough Terrain Penalty, No Defensive
     Combat Strength        - 3
     Ranged Combat Strength - 6
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 5
     Obsolete By - Chivalry
     Upgrades To - Knight
     Notes - The War Chariot is an Egyptian unique unit, the only difference 
             between this and the chariot archer that they replace, is the 
             movement, 5 is higher than 4.
     - War Elephant
     Hammer Cost    - 85
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Archer-Indirect
     Tech Required  - The Wheel
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot Melee Attack, No Defensive Bonuses
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - 8
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 3
     Obsolete By - Chivalry
     Upgrades To - Knight
     Notes - The War Elephant is the Indian unique unit, their movement is lower
             than the chariot archer, from 4 to 3, however, their combat strength
             is higher, which allows them to melee better when engaged, and their
             ranged combat strength is higher, so they can volley more arrows. 
     - Warrior
     Hammer Cost    - 40
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Melee / Direct
     Tech Required  - None
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Metal Casting
     Upgrades To - Spearman
     Notes - Your basic unit, the warrior is the starting unit, they need to be
             used to defend most of the time, they aren't a fighting unit, they 
             aren't strong. 
     - Work Boat
     Hammer Cost    - 50
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - None
     Tech Required  - None
     Bonuses        - Builds naval improvements
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The worker of the seas, they are limited in that they can only build
             offshore platforms or fishing boats, but they are invaluable for your
             coastal cities. 
     - Worker
     Hammer Cost    - 70
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - None
     Tech Required  - None
     Bonuses        - Builds land improvements
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - Your upgrading unit, the worker is one of the most numerous units you
             will build, since they upgrade the tiles into more productive tiles.
    [8.02] Classical Era
     - Ballista
     Hammer Cost    - 100
     Resources Cost - Iron
     Combat Type    - Siege
     Tech Required  - Mathematics
     Bonuses        - Strong against Cities
     Penalties      - Cannot Melee Attack, No Defensive Bonuses, Limited 
                      Visibility, Must Set Up to Attack
     Combat Strength        - 4
     Ranged Combat Strength - 14
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Physics
     Upgrades To - Trebuchet
     Notes - Unique to the Romans, the Ballista is stronger than the Catapult 
             in terms of ranged combat strength, they are useful to taking cities,
             better than the catapult.
     - Catapult
     Hammer Cost    - 100
     Resources Cost - Iron
     Combat Type    - Siege
     Tech Required  - Mathematics
     Bonuses        - Strong against Cities
     Penalties      - Cannot Melee Attack, No Defensive Bonuses, Limited 
                      Visibility, Must Set Up to Attack
     Combat Strength        - 4
     Ranged Combat Strength - 11
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Physics
     Upgrades To - Trebuchet
     Notes - The Catapult is the first siege unit that you will have access
             to. They aren't good against units, but they are pretty good against
             cities, so use them to bombard cities, then send in the troops. 
     - Companion Cavalry
     Hammer Cost    - 90
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Direct
     Tech Required  - Horseback Riding
     Bonuses        - Can move after attack, combat can produce Great Generals
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses
     Combat Strength        - 12
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 5
     Obsolete By - Metallurgy
     Upgrades To - Knight
     Notes - The Greek unique unit, the Companion Cavalry is the replacement of
             the Horseman, except that they have better movement and better 
             combat strength. What is even better is that they can produce Great
             Generals if you defeat enemies, which is really nice. 
     - Horseman
     Hammer Cost    - 90
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Direct
     Tech Required  - Horseback Riding
     Bonuses        - Can move after attack
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses
     Combat Strength        - 10
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - Metallurgy
     Upgrades To - Knight
     Notes - The first in terms of mounted melee units, which is pretty cool, but
             at this time, the problem is that there are plenty of spearmen around
             and those guys basically ruin your day. 
     - Legion
     Hammer Cost    - 90
     Resources Cost - Iron
     Combat Type    - Melee
     Tech Required  - Iron Working
     Bonuses        - Can build Improvements
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 13
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Gunpowder
     Upgrades To - Longswordman
     Notes - The Roman unique unit, the Legion is pretty damn powerful. They have 
             better combat strength than your normal swordsman, and they can build
             roads, since that is what the Legion was used for, a semi-skilled 
             labour force.
     - Mohawk Warrior
     Hammer Cost    - 90
     Resources Cost - Iron
     Combat Type    - Melee
     Tech Required  - Iron Working
     Bonuses        - Stronger fighting in Forest or Jungle Tiles
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 11
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Gunpowder
     Upgrades To - Longswordman
     Notes - This guy is the same as your normal swordsman, however, when you 
             stick them into a forest or jungle tile, and they are a lot 
             stronger. Just hope your enemy doesn't have an army of workers 
             clearing the forests. 
     - Swordsman
     Hammer Cost    - 90
     Resources Cost - Iron
     Combat Type    - Melee
     Tech Required  - Iron Working
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 11
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Gunpowder
     Upgrades To - Longswordman
     Notes - The swordsman is really the first of the normal melee units, better
             than your warriors. Swordsman require iron, which is plentiful in
             the game, and they really do pack a punch, they will destroy any of
             the ancient era units. 
    [8.03] Medieval Era
     - Camel Archer
     Hammer Cost    - 165
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Indirect
     Tech Required  - Chivalry
     Bonuses        - Can move after attack
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses, cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 10
     Ranged Combat Strength - 15
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 3
     Obsolete By - Military Science
     Upgrades To - Cavalry
     Notes - The unique Arabian unit, they replace the Knight, and although they
             are weaker than the Knight in terms of sheer combat strength, they do
             have a ranged attack. Basically, an advanced archer on a camel, 
             somehow the horses magically turned into a camel. 
     - Cho-Ko-Nu
     Hammer Cost    - 140
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Ranged / Indirect
     Tech Required  - Machinery
     Bonuses        - Can attack twice
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - 9
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - The Chinese unique unit, although they are weaker than the 
             crossbowman, they can attack twice, which is pretty useful, they 
             can take down enemies more powerful than a normal crossbowman can
     - Conquistador
     Hammer Cost    - 165
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Direct
     Tech Required  - Chivalry
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking, found city on a new continent
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses
     Combat Strength        - 18
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 3
     Obsolete By - Military Science
     Upgrades To - Cavalry
     Notes - The Conquistador is the same as your normal knight, which makes
             you wonder why this is a unique Spanish unit. But notice that it
             is able to found a city on a new continent. So if you discover a
             continent, instead of sending over a settler, and then some units,
             you can just use a conquistador. And given that it is a powerful
             unit, you can get the best land as well. 
     - Crossbowman
     Hammer Cost    - 140
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Ranged / Indirect
     Tech Required  - Machinery
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - 12
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - The Crossbowman is the next line up in terms of archery units,
             instead of arrows, they fire crossbow bolts at you. They are 
             stronger, but they are still weak in melee, so that is one thing you
             will want to keep an eye out on. 
     - Keshik
     Hammer Cost    - 165
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Indirect
     Tech Required  - Chivalry
     Bonuses        - Earns promotions twice as fast, doubles EXP towards Great
                      General, can move after attacking
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses, Cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 8
     Ranged Combat Strength - 13
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 5
     Obsolete By - Military Science
     Upgrades To - Cavalry
     Notes - The Mongolian Keshik replaces the knight, and you can see that they
             have a much lower combat strength, which makes them very vulnerable
             to infantry units, but they have outstanding movement at 5, and they
             have a pretty powerful ranged attack, better than a crossbowman. 
             They are extremely hard to defeat in groups, and given their 
             movement, they can hit and run, and that hurts. 
     - Knight
     Hammer Cost    - 165
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Direct
     Tech Required  - Chivalry
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses
     Combat Strength        - 18
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 3
     Obsolete By - Military Science
     Upgrades To - Cavalry
     Notes - The Knight is your basic horseman. They have a very good combat
             strength, better than your average swordsman, but on par with the
             longswordsman. They have one real advantage though, they have 1 
             extra movement, and they use horses rather than iron, given that 
             at this stage in the game, horses are easier to obtain than iron. 
     - Landsknecht
     Hammer Cost    - 50
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Pike / Direct
     Tech Required  - Civil Service
     Bonuses        - Strong against mounted units
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 10
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - The Landsknecht are the unique German unit that replaces the Pikeman,
             and although they have the same in terms of stats, they are half the
             price. They are useful en masse against knights, but they are useless
             against swordsman, who are stronger.
     - Longbowman
     Hammer Cost    - 140
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - None
     Tech Required  - Ranged / Indirect
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - 12
     Range                  - 3
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - The English unique unit that replaces the Crossbowman, the 
             Longbowman has a longbow, and you can see that the difference 
             between the Longbowman and the Crossbowman is the range, which is
             critical to archers, their longer range makes them harder to attack,
             only Knights are able to get to them, swordsmen don't have the range.
     - Longswordsman
     Hammer Cost    - 165
     Resources Cost - Iron
     Combat Type    - Melee
     Tech Required  - Steel
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 18
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - This is the advanced melee infantry, they are better than the 
             Swordsman, they are stronger. They are generic pretty much, but
             until you can upgrade them, well, you're stuck with them.
     - Mandekalu Cavalry
     Hammer Cost    - 165
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Direct
     Tech Required  - Chivalry
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking, Bonus against Cities
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses
     Combat Strength        - 18
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 3
     Obsolete By - Military Science
     Upgrades To - Cavalry
     Notes - The unique Songhai cavalry, that replaces the Knight, the real 
             advantage is that they have a bonus when attacking cities, that
             is something other cavalry units lack. They have the same in terms
             of strength and movement.
     - Naresuan's Elephant
     Hammer Cost    - 165
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Direct
     Tech Required  - Chivalry
     Bonuses        - Strong against Mounted Units, Can move after attacking
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses
     Combat Strength        - 22
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Military Science 
     Upgrades To - Cavalry
     Notes - The Naresuan's Elephant is a unique Siam unit, and they replace the
             Knight. The good thing is that they don't use up a horse unit, and 
             they have better combat strength than other units. They also have 
             a bonus against other mounted units, elephants scare horses. However,
             all this comes at a price of a lower movement speed.
     - Pikeman
     Hammer Cost    - 100
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Pike / Direct
     Tech Required  - Civil Service
     Bonuses        - Strong against Mounted Units
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 10
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - Pikemen are the upgraded version of the Spearman, they are a bit
             stronger, but that's about it. The problem is that they are weak, 
             much weaker than their generic longswordsmen that they complement,
             but they are still good against mounted units, and given that a lot
             of civilizations have mounted unique units, this is a good thing to
             invest in.
     - Samurai
     Hammer Cost    - 165
     Resources Cost - Iron
     Combat Type    - Melee
     Tech Required  - Steel
     Bonuses        - +20% Combat Strength on Open Terrain, Can produce Great
                      Generals after combat
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 18
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - The Samurai, if you can't guess, are the unique unit for the 
             Japanese, and they replace the swordsman. The stats are pretty 
             much the same, they have the same movement and strength, but they 
             are able to produce Great Generals after battle, and move 
             importantly, on terrain such like plains and grassland, they have
             a nice combat bonus. 
     - Trebuchet
     Hammer Cost    - 185
     Resources Cost - Iron
     Combat Type    - Siege
     Tech Required  - Physics
     Bonuses        - Bonus against cities
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack, no defensive bonuses, limited 
                      visibility, must set up to attack
     Combat Strength        - 6
     Ranged Combat Strength - 16
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Chemistry
     Upgrades To - Cannon
     Notes - The Trebuchet is the upgraded siege weapon. They have the normal
             range, but slightly better ranged combat strength. Still, don't 
             expect your siege units to fare up well against melee combat, they
    [8.04] Renaissance Era
     - Cannon
     Hammer Cost    - 250
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Siege
     Tech Required  - Chemistry
     Bonuses        - Strong against Cities
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack, must set up to attack, no defensive
                      bonuses, limited visibility
     Combat Strength        - 10
     Ranged Combat Strength - 26
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Dynamite
     Upgrades To - Artillery
     Notes - The Cannon is the upgraded unit for siege weapons. It is 
             significantly better than the trebuchet, it has a more powerful 
             ranged attack, and this is in the time before artillery, unit is 
             even more powerful. 
     - Caravel
     Hammer Cost    - 120
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Naval
     Tech Required  - Astronomy
     Bonuses        - +2 Sight, Can enter enemy territory
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 15
     Ranged Combat Strength - 7
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 6
     Obsolete By - Electricity
     Upgrades To - Destroyer
     Notes - The Caravel is the basic ship, and it is significantly better than
             other ships, simply because it can enter ocean tiles. The caravel is
             basically an exploration ship, you use them to sail the seas and have
             a look at what's there, and new lands to conquer. 
     - Cavalry
     Hammer Cost    - 285
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Direct
     Tech Required  - Military Science
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses, weak against mounted units
     Combat Strength        - 25
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 3
     Obsolete By - Combustion
     Upgrades To - Tank
     Notes - Your basic cavalry unit, this is probably the strongest mounted
             unit that you will be able to build in the game. They move fast,
             hit hard, but funnily enough, they are weak against other cavalry
             units, such as lancers. 
     - Cossack
     Hammer Cost    - 285
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Direct
     Tech Required  - Military Science
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking, combat bonus on open terrain
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses, weak against mounted units
     Combat Strength        - 25
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 3
     Obsolete By - Combustion 
     Upgrades To - Tank
     Notes - The Cossack is the Russian unique answer to the Cavalry. They have
             the same cost, strength and movement, but they do have one bonus 
             over the cavalry unit, they have a combat bonus when they fight on
             open terrain, so as long as you're fighting on grassland or plains,
             the Cossacks will win. 
     - Frigate
     Hammer Cost    - 180
     Resources Cost - Iron
     Combat Type    - Naval
     Tech Required  - Navigation
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 30
     Ranged Combat Strength - 15
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 5
     Obsolete By - Electricity
     Upgrades To - Destroyer
     Notes - The Frigate is the upgraded Caravel basically, they to can sail the
             seven seas, and are more powerful in terms of combat. They are able 
             to inflict some serious damage to ground units if they are hanging
             off the coast. 
     - Janissary
     Hammer Cost    - 135
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Gunpowder
     Tech Required  - Gunpowder
     Bonuses        - Full heal after destroying an enemy unit, +25% combat bonus
                      when attacking
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 16
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - The Janissary are the unique Musketman from the Ottomans. They have 
             the same in terms of strength and movement, but when they defeat an
             enemy unit, they will be fully healed, which is quite a powerful 
             perk. They also have a combat bonus when they are attacking, which 
             makes them a very powerful unit when used in the right hands.
     - Lancer
     Hammer Cost    - 240
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Melee
     Tech Required  - Metallurgy
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking
     Penalties      - Penalty when defending, no defensive bonuses
     Combat Strength        - 22
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - Combustion
     Upgrades To - Anti-Tank Gun
     Notes - The Lancer is a dude, on a horse, with a lance. They are quick to
             move, and relatively powerful, but weaker than the Cavalry unit. They
             have better movement, which is useful to remove archers, and run away
             from danger. They do get penalised when they are defending, which is
             fair, a guy on a lance isn't the best defensive unit.
     - Minuteman
     Hammer Cost    - 135
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Gunpowder
     Tech Required  - Gunpowder
     Bonuses        - All terrain cost is reduced to 1
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 16
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - The Minuteman is more towards the Industrial Era, but well, in the
             interest of balance, it replaces the Musketman for the Americans. The
             real lovely thing is that all terrain cost is reduced to one, which 
             means they can cross 2 forest tiles, 2 hill tiles, within the one 
             turn. This makes them more effective on large maps, or any map where
             combat isn't on open terrain.
     - Musketeer
     Hammer Cost    - 135
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Gunpowder
     Tech Required  - Gunpowder
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 20
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - The Musketeer is the French answer to the Musketman, and they only 
             have one real benefit over the Musketman, where they have better 
             combat strength. How, I don't know, perhaps they are better with 
             a bayonet on their guns?
     - Musketman
     Hammer Cost    - 135
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Gunpowder
     Tech Required  - Gunpowder
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 16
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - The Musketman is the first type of gunpowder unit that you will get
             in the game. They aren't as powerful as your normal melee units, such
             as the Longswordsman, but the good thing is that it doesn't take long
             before you get Rifleman, and they don't use up 1 Iron resource as 
             well, which longswordsmen do. 
     - Rifleman
     Hammer Cost    - 220
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Gunpowder
     Tech Required  - Rifling
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 25
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Replaceable Parts
     Upgrades To - Infantry
     Notes - This is really the first true gunpowder unit, they are powerful in
             their own right, they are much better than the musketmen that they
             replace. They don't use up a valuable resource either, allowing you
             to use them for other things. What's more, they're good enough to
             eliminate other ground units by themselves.
     - Ship of the Line
     Hammer Cost    - 160
     Resources Cost - Iron
     Combat Type    - Naval
     Tech Required  - Navigation
     Bonuses        - +1 Sight
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 30
     Ranged Combat Strength - 17
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 5
     Obsolete By - Electricity
     Upgrades To - Destroyer
     Notes - This is the English version of the Frigate, the only difference is
             that it is slightly cheaper than the frigate, and it has slightly  
             better ranged combat strength, so they can bombard the enemies that 
             much better. And they have one extra sight bonus, so they are that 
             much better to bombard.
     - Sipahi
     Hammer Cost    - 240
     Resources Cost - Horses
     Combat Type    - Mounted / Direct
     Tech Required  - Metallugry
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking, no movement cost to pillage, +1
     Penalties      - Penalty when defending, no defensive bonuses
     Combat Strength        - 22
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 5
     Obsolete By - Combustion
     Upgrades To - Anti-Tank Gun
     Notes - Sipahi is the Indian version of the Lancer. The Sipahi has one 
             extra sight point, which is okay, but it also has 1 extra movement
             point, which makes them even more useful for hit and run tactics.
             And to top that, they don't use up movement points when they pillage,
             which is good if you are planning to declare peace, not that smart
             if you planning to take that city. 
     - Tercio
     Hammer Cost    - 155
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Pike / Melee
     Tech Required  - Gunpowder
     Bonuses        - Strong against Mounted units
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 18
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - Rifling
     Upgrades To - Rifleman
     Notes - The Spanish unique unit, replacing the Musketman, and they are 
             interesting in that they are a melee unit, replacing a gunpowder
             unit. They have the same strength as a normal musketman, but they
             have the ability to defeat mounted units with ease. This makes it
             that much more interesting. 
    [8.05] Industrial Era
     - Anti-Aircraft Gun
     Hammer Cost    - 350
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Anti-Air
     Tech Required  - Radio
     Bonuses        - Strong against air units, strong against helicopters,
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 32
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - Mobile SAM
     Notes - The AA Gun is basically a gun you station in your cities, and such,
             to defend against air units. They are exceptionally strong against
             aircraft and helicopters, but the thing is, they aren't that useful
             early on, fighters and Zeros aren't that poweful, but in the Modern 
             Era, where bombers come into play, they are next to invaluable. 
     - Anti-Tank Gun
     Hammer Cost    - 350
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Anti-Armoured
     Tech Required  - Replaceable Parts
     Bonuses        - Strong against Armoured units
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 32
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - Helicopter Gunship
     Notes - The Anti-Tank gun is the same as the AA gun, except it is good
             against tanks. They totally destroy armoured units, which makes
             them devastating, but again, tanks aren't as used as much as 
             infantry, so their value isn't all that much. I prefer an army
             of infantry, supported by tanks. 
     - Artillery
     Hammer Cost    - 350
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Siege
     Tech Required  - Dynamite
     Bonuses        - Strong against cities
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack, must set up to attack, no defensive
                      bonuses, limited visibility
     Combat Strength        - 16
     Ranged Combat Strength - 32
     Range                  - 3
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - Rocket Artillery
     Notes - Artillery is well, artillery. They are powerful, and for once, their
             range is outside the range of the city, which makes them impossible 
             to attack from the city, so they much send out their units, which you
             can then subsequently target, and destroy. 
     - Battleship
     Hammer Cost    - 550
     Resources Cost - Oil
     Combat Type    - Naval Indirect
     Tech Required  - Telegraph
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 60
     Ranged Combat Strength - 32
     Range                  - 3
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The Battleship is a very powerful naval unit. Although they are out
             of fashion in navies nowadays, replaced by the aircraft carrier, they
             have a nice range, which makes them feared by naval units. Their only
             downside is their movement, they can't move as quickly, which makes
             it hard to fight well with them. 
     - Carrier
     Hammer Cost    - 450
     Resources Cost - Oil
     Combat Type    - Naval Support
     Tech Required  - Flight
     Bonuses        - Carries up to 3 Fighters
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 30
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 5
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The Carrier is basically a carrier, they can carry 3 aircraft. They
             can carry all aircraft except for stealth bombers, which means that
             they are a platform for fighters, which is useful as they act as the
             anti-air for a naval group, and bombers, which allows penetrating 
             strikes against enemies. 
     - Destroyer
     Hammer Cost    - 420
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Naval
     Tech Required  - Electricity
     Bonuses        - +3 Sight, Can see Submarines, Strong against Submarines,
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 35
     Ranged Combat Strength - 22
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 8
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The Destroyer will act as the standard naval unit, they are powerful
             against enemy naval units, and can bombard ground targets. This is
             adding in that their cost does not involve resources, and they have
             excellent movement to boot. This really does make them the standard
             unit of all navies, they are cheap, efficient, and easy to use. 
     - Fighter
     Hammer Cost    - 450
     Resources Cost - Oil
     Combat Type    - Air
     Tech Required  - Flight
     Bonuses        - Interception, Air Sweep, Air Recon, Strong against 
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - 50
     Range                  - 8
     Movement               - N/A
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - Jet Fighter
     Notes - The fighter is your basic aerial unit. Fighters are useful as they
             can target both air and ground units. Air units can be targeted by
             fighters by using them as intercept units, or they can bomb ground
             targets, not bomb, more strafing runs. They are also useful to keep
             around, since Helicopters tend to start being built, and they are
             powerful against ground units. 
     - Foreign Legion
     Hammer Cost    - 350
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Gunpowder
     Tech Required  - Replaceable Parts
     Bonuses        - +20% Combat Bonus when not fighting in Friendly Territory
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 36
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - Mechanized Infantry
     Notes - The French Foreign Legion, which is obviously a French unique unit,
             are the same in terms of power, however, they have the added benefit
             that when they are not fighting in friendly (your own or allied)
             territory, they get a combat bonus. That makes them useful as the
             spearhead of your attacks against your enemies, they get a bonus 
             after all. 
     - Infantry
     Hammer Cost    - 350
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Gunpowder
     Tech Required  - Replaceable Parts
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 36
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - Mechanized Infantry
     Notes - Infantry is well, your basic ... infantry unit. They are armed with
             guns, and ready to rock and rull. They are powerful and they are 
             multirole on the ground. They suck against tanks, so they are used
             to take out other infantry units, and just cause a source of 
             annoyance to the enemy. 
     - Ironclad
     Hammer Cost    - 220
     Resources Cost - Coal
     Combat Type    - Naval
     Tech Required  - Steam Power
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack, Cannot enter Ocean tiles
     Combat Strength        - 35
     Ranged Combat Strength - 18
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - Telegraph
     Upgrades To - Battleship
     Notes - Ironclads are powerful naval units, they are the predecessor to
             the destroyer, but they have one severe weakness, the fact that they
             cannot enter ocean tiles, which makes them strictly useful to protect
             your own seas, nothing else. They are cheap to produce though. 
     - Panzer
     Hammer Cost    - 450
     Resources Cost - Oil
     Combat Type    - Armoured
     Tech Required  - Combustion
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses, Penalty when attacking Cities
     Combat Strength        - 60
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 5
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - Modern Armour
     Notes - The Panzer is the German unique replacement to the Tank. The 
             Panzer is superior to the tank in both combat, and movement, which
             makes anyone facing a Bismarck wanting to have a few anti-tank
             units lying around, ready to destroy them before they cause too 
             much damage.
     - Submarine
     Hammer Cost    - 380
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Naval
     Tech Required  - Refrigeration
     Bonuses        - Invisible to other units, Can see submarines, Can enter
                      enemy territory, Can enter ice tiles
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 25
     Ranged Combat Strength - 60
     Range                  - 3
     Movement               - 5
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - Nuclear Submarine
     Notes - The submarine is one of the best units to toy with in the sea,
             mainly because they are invisible to other units, except destroyers
             and submarines, so they are able to sneak up, destroy a carrier or 
             battleship, and escape before they are spotted. This makes them the
             best counter to the high-end naval units. 
     - Tank
     Hammer Cost    - 450
     Resources Cost - Oil
     Combat Type    - Armoured
     Tech Required  - Combustion
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses, Penalty when attacking Cities
     Combat Strength        - 50
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - Modern Armour
     Notes - The tank, the upgraded cavalry unit. This totally destroys 
             infantry, but they need up an oil resource. They are weaker against
             anti-tank units, and units such as helicopters, but in land combat,
             you definitely need a few of these around. 
     - Zero
     Hammer Cost    - 450
     Resources Cost - Iron, Oil
     Combat Type    - Air
     Tech Required  - Flight
     Bonuses        - Interception, Air Sweep, Air Recon, Strong against 
                      Helicopters, Strong against Fighters
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - 50
     Range                  - 8
     Movement               - N/A
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - Jet Fighter
     Notes - The Zero is a Japanese unique unit, which replaces the Fighter. They
             are the same as the fighter, except they have an added bonus against
             fighters, which makes them excellent for aerial patrols against enemy
             fighters. Which doesn't help when they are attacking ground units, 
             unless they run into fighters. 
    [8.06] Modern Era
     - Atomic Bomb
     Hammer Cost    - 850
     Resources Cost - Uranium
     Combat Type    - Nuke
     Tech Required  - Nuclear Fission
     Bonuses        - Evasion, Massive Damage to all within Blast Radius
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - 10
     Movement               - N/A
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The Atomic Bomb is the first of the nuclear weapons, they can do
             some serious damage to enemies, but the problem is that their range
             isn't that food, 10 tiles is pretty much the standard distance 
             between your border city and the enemy's border city. The real 
             problem with nukes is that their range is limited. And that really
             forces you to use it on lesser targets, or capture cities and move
     - B17
     Hammer Cost    - 550
     Resources Cost - Oil
     Combat Type    - Bomber
     Tech Required  - Radar
     Bonuses        - -50% from Air Interceptions, +25% Strength against Cities
     Penalties      - Penalty against Naval Units
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - 60
     Range                  - 10
     Movement               - N/A
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The B17 Flying Fortress is the unique American bomber, replacing the
             normal Bomber unit. The real benefit of this workhorse is that it
             has extra strength against cities, an extra 15 points to be exact, 
             and they also take less damage from anti-air units, which makes
             them harder to kill, and a bigger headache for your enemies. 
     - Bomber
     Hammer Cost    - 550
     Resources Cost - Oil
     Combat Type    - Bomber
     Tech Required  - Radar
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - Penalty against Naval Units
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - 60
     Range                  - 10
     Movement               - N/A
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - Bombers are the next form of aerial units. They aren't useful 
             at all against aircraft, in fact, they're just targets for air
             units, but they are powerful against ground units, and especially
             against cities, they are used to knock down the city's defences 
             next to zero, before you send in ground units to capture them. 
     - Guided Missile
     Hammer Cost    - 200
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Missile
     Tech Required  - Satellites
     Bonuses        - Cannot be intercepted
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - 70
     Range                  - 8
     Movement               - N/A
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - A guided missile is a one use weapon, you use them to attack,
             and then they explode, destroying both the unit, and doing massive
             damage to all that stand in the path. Their range is a limiting
             factor, so they are either stored in your border cities, ready to
             fire, or store them on missile carriers. 
     - Helicopter Gunship
     Hammer Cost    - 500
     Resources Cost - Aluminium
     Combat Type    - Anti-Armoured
     Tech Required  - Rocketry
     Bonuses        - Ignore Terrain, Hovering, Strong against Armoured Units
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses, Cannot capture cities
     Combat Strength        - 50
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 6
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The Helicopter Gunship is basically an anti-tank unit. They are 
             powerful against armoured units, since a tank really can't shoot
             down a helicopter, unless you're me in Bad Company 2, but still,
             they do massive damage to tanks. The problem is that they are 
             weak against anti-air units, and they get killed by fighters. So
             if you're using them, you need to protect them. 
     - Jet Fighter
     Hammer Cost    - 600
     Resources Cost - Aluminium
     Combat Type    - Air
     Tech Required  - Lasers
     Bonuses        - Interception, Air Sweep, Air Recon, Strong against 
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - 70
     Range                  - 10
     Movement               - N/A
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - A Jet Fighter is pretty much a modern fighter, they are strong
             against aerial units, and although they can be used to attack
             enemies, you really use them to just protect your lands from
             bombers and the like. You can also use them to go helicopter
             hunting, which protect your valuable tank forces from harm. 
     - Mechanized Infantry
     Hammer Cost    - 550
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Gunpowder
     Tech Required  - Electronics
     Bonuses        - None
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 50
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - Mechanized Infantry are the ultimate in terms of infantry
             units, they are powerful, with good range. The problem is that
             they are destroyed by tank units, which means that you really
             need to protect them either with tanks, or helicopters to remove
             tanks. Otherwise, they are the bread and butter of your armies,
             they are cheap and efficient. 
     - Missile Cruiser
     Hammer Cost    - 700
     Resources Cost - Aluminium
     Combat Type    - Naval
     Tech Required  - Robotics
     Bonuses        - Can carry 3 missiles, Interception
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack
     Combat Strength        - 60
     Ranged Combat Strength - 25
     Range                  - 3
     Movement               - 7
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - A missile cruiser really isn't there to fight. They are to provide
             naval support in terms of anti-air interception power, but they are
             really useful in terms of carrying guided missiles, which are useful
             for your navy. After all, your navy can attack 3 tiles in, so you can
             capture coastal cities, and you can use missiles to hit 10 tiles in,
             which is used to remove reinforcements. 
     - Mobile SAM
     Hammer Cost    - 500
     Resources Cost - Aluminium
     Combat Type    - Anti-Air
     Tech Required  - Computers
     Bonuses        - Strong against Helicopters and Aircraft, Interception
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 40
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - 2
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - Mobile SAMs are powerful tools to use if you are fighting a serious
             air power. If the enemy loves air power, SAMs are powerful to remove
             air units, and along with fighters, they can seriously deny air power
             to the enemy, which forces the enemy to use ground units, which you
             can bomb down to zero. 
     - Modern Armour
     Hammer Cost    - 700
     Resources Cost - Aluminium
     Combat Type    - Armoured
     Tech Required  - Lasers
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking
     Penalties      - No defensive bonuses, Penalty when attacking Cities, 
                      Limited visibility
     Combat Strength        - 80
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 4
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - Modern Armour is the best you get in terms of tank units. They
             are quick, and have massive combat strength, but they are weak
             to helicopters. Modern armour is best used in support, since
             Aluminium is used for a lot of other things as well, you cannot
             base an army fully on modern armour. 
     - Nuclear Missile
     Hammer Cost    - 1200
     Resources Cost - Uranium
     Combat Type    - Nuke
     Tech Required  - Advanced Ballistics
     Bonuses        - Evasion, Massive Damage to all within Blast Radius
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - 12
     Movement               - N/A
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The nuclear missile is the best you will get in terms of nukes,
             they have better range, but that is about it. They are better
             able to evade enemies, but they are useful nonetheless. The real
             problem you have to watch out for when using nukes is diplomatic,
             but if you don't care about that...
     - Nuclear Submarine
     Hammer Cost    - 600
     Resources Cost - Aluminium
     Combat Type    - Naval
     Tech Required  - Computers
     Bonuses        - Invisible to other units, Can see submarines, Can enter
                      enemy territory, Can enter ice tiles, Strong against 
                      Submarines, Can carry 2 missiles
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 30
     Ranged Combat Strength - 70
     Range                  - 3
     Movement               - 6
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - A nuclear submarine is a powerful unit to play with, they are 
             dangerous against all naval units, except destroyers most of the
             time. The real threat is that they can carry missiles, and they
             are invisible, which forces all enemies to be on their toes since a
             missile strike can come from nowhere. They are even more dangerous
             since they can use ice tiles, which normally can't be used. 
     - Paratrooper
     Hammer Cost    - 450
     Resources Cost - None
     Combat Type    - Gunpowder
     Tech Required  - Radar
     Bonuses        - Paradrop 5 tiles from Friendly Territory
     Penalties      - None
     Combat Strength        - 40
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 2
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The paratrooper is weaker than mechanised infantry, but the only
             thing that is good for them is that they can be dropped pretty much
             anywhere on your border, which makes them excellent in terms of 
             rapid response troops. Although they aren't strong, they can be used
             as stalling troops, stalling the enemy until you can get proper units
             on the line. 
     - Rocket Artillery
     Hammer Cost    - 600
     Resources Cost - Aluminium
     Combat Type    - Siege
     Tech Required  - Rocketry
     Bonuses        - Strong against cities
     Penalties      - Cannot melee attack,  no defensive bonuses, limited
     Combat Strength        - 18
     Ranged Combat Strength - 46
     Range                  - 3
     Movement               - 3
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - Rocket artillery is the best in terms of artillery. The thing is, 
             they don't need to set up before they fire, so they can make the 
             most of their movement and range. Again, they aren't used to take
             down enemy units, that is what your mechanized infantry and modern
             armour is for, they are to weaken cities. This is useful when cities
             are out of reach of your bombers, the fact that they don't need to
             set up is one not to take lightly. 
     - Stealth Bomber
     Hammer Cost    - 800
     Resources Cost - Aluminium
     Combat Type    - Stealth Bomber
     Tech Required  - Stealth
     Bonuses        - Evasion, Air Recon
     Penalties      - Penalty against Naval Units
     Combat Strength        - N/A
     Ranged Combat Strength - 80
     Range                  - 20
     Movement               - N/A
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The stealth bomber is a very dangerous unit to fight against, simply
             because it is extremely hard to intercept. They are next to 
             impossible to stop, and with a powerful attack and long range, they
             are something to be feared. The only thing that is limiting is the
             aluminium resource, so that is pretty much how you defeat it, take
             away that resource. 
    [8.07] Future Era
     - Giant Death Robot
     Hammer Cost    - 1000
     Resources Cost - Uranium
     Combat Type    - Anti-Everything
     Tech Required  - Nuclear Fusion
     Bonuses        - Can move after attacking
     Penalties      - Penalty when attacking cities, no defensive bonuses
     Combat Strength        - 150
     Ranged Combat Strength - N/A
     Range                  - N/A
     Movement               - 3
     Obsolete By - N/A
     Upgrades To - N/A
     Notes - The ultimate weapon in the game, the Giant Death Robot, it does need
             a better name, is the best thing to take out ground units in the game
             since it does have outrageous combat strength. You can have a lot of
             fun with this little toy, who doesn't want to crush some warrior
             barbarians with a giant death robot?
    [8.08] Promotions
    Promotions are basically level-ups for your units. The more you send them
    into combat, the more EXP they will get if they win. Basically, the more EXP
    they have, the stronger they will be. This is done via the level system, when
    they reach a new level, they get a promotion chosen by you. This can be to 
    improve their attack power, or their line of sight, etc. 
    The more you upgrade them, the more powerful they are. This was done 
    specifically to stop thinking units as one off things, you buy one, send it
    off, they die, get a new one. This system ensures that losing a highly
    decorated unit will be harder to replace than just purchasing a green unit,
    fresh out of the factory.
    The promotions are broken up into several groups, Melee, Ranged, Naval, Air,
    Healing, Scouting and Shared. All but shared are unique to specific units, 
    Melee for melee units for example. Shared promotions are obtained not via the
    level system, but from Wonders, or certain social policies. 
    Promotions also have requirements. For example, Shock III will require that 
    the unit already has Shock II, which requires Shock I. 
    And finally, promotions stack. So Shock I to III will end up with a unit
    gaining +65% attack and defence on open terrain. Which explains why you really
    don't want to be losing such units. 
                                                                         ~ Melee ~
     ~ Ambush
     - Ambush I
     Requirements - Shock II or Drill II
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength against Armoured Units 
     - Ambush II
     Requirements - Ambush I
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength against Armoured Units
     ~ Blitz
     - Blitz
     Requirements - Shock III or Drill III
     Benefits     - Unit can attack multiple times per turn
     ~ Charge
     - Charge
     Requirements - Shock II or Drill II
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength against Wounded Units
     ~ Cover
     - Cover I
     Requirements - Shock I or Drill I or Accuracy I or Barrage I
     Benefits     - +25% Defence against Ranged Units
     - Cover II
     Requirements - Cover I
     Benefits     - +25% Defence against Ranged Units
     ~ Drill
     - Drill I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +20% Attack and Defence on Rough Terrain
     - Drill II
     Requirements - Drill I
     Benefits     - +20% Attack and Defence on Rough Terrain
     - Drill III
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +25% Attack and Defence on Rough Terrain
     ~ Formation
     - Formation I
     Requirements - Shock II or Drill II or Accuracy II or Barrage II
     Benefits     - +25% Attack against Mounted Units
     - Formation II
     Requirements - Formation I
     Benefits     - +25% Attack against Mounted Units
     ~ Shock
     - Shock I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +20% Attack and Defence on Open Terrain
     - Shock II
     Requirements - Shock I
     Benefits     - +20% Attack and Defence on Open Terrain
     - Shock III
     Requirements - Shock II
     Benefits     - +25% Attack and Defence on Open Terrain
     ~ Siege
     - Siege
     Requirements - Shock II or Drill II or Accuracy I or Barrage I
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength against Cities
     ~ Woodsman
     - Woodsman
     Requirements - Shock III or Drill III
     Benefits     - Double movement rate through Jungle and Forest tiles
                                                                        ~ Ranged ~
     ~ Accuracy
     - Accuracy I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - Attack on Open Terrain increased by 20%
     - Accuracy II
     Requirements - Accuracy I
     Benefits     - Attack on Open Terrain increased by 20%
     - Accuracy III
     Requirements - Accuracy II
     Benefits     - Attack on Open Terrain increased by 25%
     ~ Barrage
     - Barrage I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - Attack on Rough Terrain increased by 20%
     - Barrage II
     Requirements - Barrage I
     Benefits     - Attack on Rough Terrain increased by 20%
     - Barrage III
     Requirements - Barrage II
     Benefits     - Attack on Rough Terrain increased by 25%
     ~ Bombardment
     - Bombardment I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +20% Combat Strength against Land Units
     - Bombardment II
     Requirements - Bombardment I
     Benefits     - +20% Combat Strength against Land Units
     - Bombardment III
     Requirements - Bombardment II
     Benefits     - +20% Combat Strength against Land Units
     ~ Logistics
     - Logistics
     Requirements - Accuracy III or Barrage III or Targeting III or 
                    Bombardment III
     Benefits     - Can move after attacking and can attack twice per turn
     ~ Mobility
     - Mobility
     Requirements - Shock III or Drill III or Targeting I or Bombardment I
     Benefits     - +1 Movement
     ~ Range
     - Range
     Requirements - Accuracy III or Barrage III or Targeting III or
                    Bombardment III
     Benefits     - +1 Attack Range
     ~ Volley
     - Volley
     Requirements - Accuracy I or Barrage I
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength against Fortified Units
                                                                         ~ Naval ~
     ~ Amphibious
     - Amphibious
     Requirements - Shock I or Drill I
     Benefits     - No combat disadvantages when attacking from sea or river
     ~ Supply
     - Supply
     Requirements - Shock III or Drill III or Accuracy II or Barrage II
     Benefits     - Can heal outside Friendly Territory, 2HP per turn
     ~ Targeting
     - Targeting I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +20% Combat Strength against Naval Units
     - Targeting II
     Requirements - Targeting I
     Benefits     - +20% Combat Strength against Naval Units
     - Targeting III
     Requirements - Targeting II
     Benefits     - +20% Combat Strength against Naval Units
                                                                       ~ Healing ~
     ~ Air Repair
     - Air Repair
     Requirements - Interception II or Dogfighting II or Air Siege II or
                    Bombardment II
     Benefits     - Unit heals every turn, even if it performed an action
     ~ Heli Repair
     - Heli Repair
     Requirements - Heli Ambush II or Heli Mobility II
     Benefits     - Unit heals every turn, even if it performed an action
     ~ March
     - March
     Requirements - Shock III or Drill III or Accuracy II or Barrage II
     Benefits     - Unit heals every turn, even if it performed an action
     ~ Medic
     - Medic
     Requirements - Shock I or Drill I or Scouting II or Survivalism II
     Benefits     - +1 Heal to Adjacent units. 
     ~ Repair
     - Repair
     Requirements - Shock III or Drill III
     Benefits     - Unit heals every turn, even if it performed an action
     ~ Survivalism
     - Survivalism I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +1 HP per turn when not in friendly territory
     - Survivalism II
     Requirements - Survivalism I
     Benefits     - +50% Combat Strength when Defending
     - Survivalism III
     Requirements - Survivalism II
     Benefits     - Unit heals every turn, even if it performed an action, 
                    +50% Combat Strength when Defending
                                                                      ~ Scouting ~
     ~ Scouting
     - Scouting I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +1 Sight
     - Scouting II
     Requirements - Scouting I
     Benefits     - +1 Sight
     - Scouting III
     Requirements - Scouting II
     Benefits     - +1 Sight
     ~ Sentry
     - Sentry
     Requirements - Shock I or Drill I or Targeting I or Bombardment I
     Benefits     - +1 Visibility
                                                                           ~ Air ~
     ~ Air Ambush
     - Air Ambush I
     Requirements - Interception I or Dogfighting I or Air Siege I or 
                    Bombardment I
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength against Armoured Units
     - Air Ambush II
     Requirements - Air Ambush I
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength against Armoured Units
     ~ Air Logistics
     - Air Logistics
     Requirements - Air Siege II or Bombardment II or Heli Ambush II or 
                    Heli Mobility II
     Benefits     - Can move after attacking and can attack twice per turn
     ~ Air Range
     - Air Range
     Requirements - Interception I or Dogfighting I or Air Siege I or
                    Bombardment I
     Benefits     - +2 Range
     ~ Air Siege
     - Air Siege I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength when attacking a city
     - Air Siege II
     Requirements - Air Siege I
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength when attacking a city
     - Air Siege III
     Requirements - Air Siege II
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength when attacking a city
     ~ Air Targeting
     - Air Targeting I
     Requirements - Interception I or Dogfighting I or Air Siege I or 
                    Bombardment I
     Benefits     - +20% Combat Strength against Naval Units
     - Air Targeting II
     Requirements - Air Targeting I
     Benefits     - +20% Combat Strength against Naval Units
     ~ Dogfighting
     - Dogfighting I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength when performing an aerial sweep
     - Dogfighting II
     Requirements - Dogfighting I
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength when performing an aerial sweep
     - Dogfighting III
     Requirements - Dogfighting II
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength when performing an aerial sweep
     ~ Evasion
     - Evasion
     Requirements - Air Siege II or Bombardment II
     Benefits     - -50% Damage from Interception
     ~ Heli Ambush
     - Heli Ambush I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength against Armoured Units
     - Heli Ambush II
     Requirements - Heli Ambush I
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength against Armoured Units
     ~ Heli Mobility
     - Heli Mobility I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +1 Movement
     - Heli Mobility II
     Requirements - Heli Mobility I
     Benefits     - +1 Movement
     ~ Interception
     - Interception I
     Requirements - None
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength when intercepting enemy aircraft
     - Interception II
     Requirements - Interception I
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength when intercepting enemy aircraft
     - Interception III
     Requirements - Interception II
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength when intercepting enemy aircraft
     ~ Sortie
     - Sortie
     Requirements - Interception II or Dogfighting II
     Benefits     - +1 Sorties per turn
                                                                        ~ Shared ~
     ~ Discipline
     - Discipline
     Requirements - Discipline Social Policy
     Benefits     - +15% Combat Strength when fighting next a friendly unit
     ~ Embarkation
     - Embarkation
     Requirements - Tech 
     Benefits     - Allows unit to embark across water
     ~ Great Lighthouse
     - Great Lighthouse
     Requirements - Great Lighthouse Wonder
     Benefits     - +1 Movement, +1 Visibility
     ~ Himeji Castle
     - Himeji Castle 
     Requirements - Himeji Castle Wonder
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength in Friendly Territory
     ~ Indirect Fire
     - Indirect Fire
     Requirements - Targeting II or Bombardment II or Accuracy III or Barrage III
     Benefits     - Ranged attacks ignore terrain
     ~ Morale
     - Morale
     Requirements - Heroic Epic
     Benefits     - +15% Combat Strength
     ~ Nationalism
     - Nationalism
     Requirements - Nationalism Social Policy
     Benefits     - +25% Combat Strength in Friendly Territory
     ~ Naval Tradition
     - Naval Tradition
     Requirements - Naval Tradition Social Policy
     Benefits     - +1 Visibility
    [9.01] Social Policies
    Social Policies replace the civics from previous Civ games. Basically, when
    you generate culture in your cities, all of these points are collected into a
    national pool of culture points. These points can then be spent on social
    policies, which determine how you rule your empire.
    Social Policy can be adopted when you have enough culture points. When you
    have enough, you can select a new policy branch, or select another policy in
    a chosen branch. When you adopt a new policy, any unspent culture points will
    be rolled onto the next policy, which will be increased in price. 
    There are 10 branches of social policy. Note that there are conflicting social
    policies, for example, Liberty cannot be active the same time as Autocracy. 
    Ratioalism cannot be active the same time as Piety. 
    Anyway, there are different reasons to choose a single policy branch. They
    Tradition   - Used for small empires, these policies are used to improve the
                  capital city, first and foremost. 
    Liberty     - Used to quickly expand your empire by settling on more land and
                  building up a bigger population.
    Honour      - Used to improve the military, used to attack other civilizations
                  or barbarians.
    Piety       - Used to improve culture, useful to build up all the way to a 
                  cultural victory.
    Patronage   - Used to develop a relationship with the city states, useful for
                  those who want a diplomatic victory.
    Commerce    - Used for civilizations looking at naval power, as well as thoes
                  who eye more wealth.
    Rationalism - Used to boost science production, it is useful to quickly scale
                  the tech tree.
    Freedom     - Used as a mixture of culture production as well as specialist
                  production, it helps with specialists in cities. 
    Order       - Used for those civilizations that have a large amount of 
                  cities, as well as those want to boost production.
    Autocracy   - Used for those who want a powerful army late in the game, it is
                  a branch focussed solely on the military. 
    When you pick a social policy, a branch consists of this. First, it unlocks 
    the branch which allows you to choose policies from that branch, as well as
    an initial bonus. From there, you get to choose and unlock further branches,
    or build up the branch.
    [9.02] Tradition
    Tradition is focussed on the capital city most of the time, but there are
    extension for the rest of your empire. This is one of the ones I normally 
    choose, simply because Aristocracy is one of the best policies as a person
    who is a Wonder builder. 
    The branch looks like this:
               |                          |                       |
          Aristocracy                 Oligarchy               Legalism
               |                       |     |
                -----------------------      |
                           |                 |
                           |                 |
                     Landed Elite        Monarchy
     Tradition    - -25% Culture Required for new tiles
                    +3 Culture for Capital City
     Aristocracy  - +20% Production when building Wonders
     Oligarchy    - Garrisoned units cost no maintenance
                    Cities with garrison have +100% Ranged Combat Strength
     Legalism     - First 4 cities get a free culture building
     Landed Elite - Cities grow 15% faster
                    +2 Food per city
     Monarchy     - +1 Gold
                    -1 Unhappiness for every 2 Citizens in the Capital
    Tradition helps early on in the game, where culture is a bit of a tough thing
    to build. Aristocracy is useful when you build wonders, but it isn't as good as
    it was before. Oligarchy is useful though, you really do want to keep garrison
    units around, simply because with roads being built everywhere, it is quick to
    move them around.
    Legalism is useful again, because early on in the game, culture is one of the
    hardest thing to generate, and it allows you to unlock more social policies. 
    The Landed Elite is another powerful policy, with 15% faster city growth, as
    well as extra food. Finally, Monarchy, which is useful, gold is nice, first of
    all, as well as the unhappiness removal. 
    Overall, Tradition is one of the first policies that you will want to choose,
    and probably one you want to max out in the game. 
    [9.03] Liberty
    Liberty isn't available to those with Autocracy, but overall, Liberty is
    used for culture, settlers and workers. Along with Tradition, it is one of
    the better policies to choose early on in the game, simply because there is a
    rush to build settlers and workers, and to have them work as quickly as 
    The branch looks like this:
                      |                                  |
               Collective Rule                      Citizenship
                      |                                  |
                      |                            -------------
                      |                           |             |
                      |                           |             |
                  Republic                 Representation   Meritocracy
     Liberty         - +1 Culture per City
     Collective Rule - +50% Settler Production in the Capital City
                       Free settler appears near the city
     Citizenship     - Workers build improvements 25% faster
     Republic        - +1 Production per City
     Representation  - Each city founded increases the social policy cost 33% less
                       Starts a 10 turn Golden Age
     Meritocracy     - +0.5 Happiness per Trade Route
                       +1 Great Person of your Choice appears near the Capital
    Liberty is a nice little boost early on in the game. However, Collective Rule
    is one of the better policies option, you get quicker settlers, and get one
    straight away. Citizenship is also a nice boost, 25% boost to building 
    improvements, which is the only way to get better tiles, is a very nice boost.
    Republic is another nice boost, production is a nice way to boost your cities
    early in the game. Representation is even more powerful with a free Golden Age
    when you get it, and the decrease in social policy cost is appreciated. 
    Finally, meritocracy with a Great Person is a quick boost to the game, and the
    happiness boost is also nice.
    Overall, Liberty is one of the most changed in terms of since the first patch,
    but it is a very powerful branch none the less. Along with Tradition, it is
    one of the branches you might consider maxing out. 
    [9.04] Honor
    Honor is the weaker in terms of boosting your army, it is useful early on
    when your army costs are high compared to your overall income, but becomes
    more or less obsolete when you get Autocracy. However, if you choose Liberty,
    which deactivates Autocracy, this might be the alternative. 
    The branch looks like this:
                      |                                  |
                Warrior Code                        Discipline
                      |                                  |
             Military Tradition                   Military Caste
                                                Professional Army
     Honor              - +25% Combat Bonus against Barbarians
                          Can always see new Barbarian Camp Spawns
     Warrior Code       - One Great General appears near the Capital City
     Discipline         - +10% Combat Strength for units next to other friendly 
     Military Tradition - Units gain 1.5X EXP from Combat
     Military Caste     - +1 Happiness for each City with a Garrison
     Professional Army  - Gold cost of upgrading units decreased by 50%
    Honor is the weaker policy chain for military action, but it is good none the
    less. It is useful early on in the game, since it has a combat boost against
    barbarians, and you can always see where new camps are spawned, which allows
    you to avoid or attack them.
    The Warrior Code gives you a Great General, which you can do whatever you want
    with, including a Golden Age. Discipline is useful when you are stacking units
    together on the front line, whereas Military Tradition lets you level up your
    troops faster. 
    Military Caste is useful, because, like I said, a garrisoned city is a wise
    idea, simply because with roads connecting cities together, it is useful to
    quickly move units from one area to another. And finally, professional army is
    nice, upgrading units does get very expensive later in the game. 
    Overall, Honor is a nice military based policy chain, however, you want to get
    this early on in the game, simply because the uses are limited later in the
    [9.05] Piety
    Piety is very culture based, it is very much based on religion. It cannot be
    active the same time as rationalism, but them problem with this is that 
    Rationalism is very focussed on science, and no other policy will do this,
    whereas Piety is focussed on culture and happiness. So it is up to you which
    you choose. 
    The branch looks like this:
                       |                                |
               Organised Religion               Mandate of Heaven
                       |                                |
                 -------------                          |
                |             |                         |
                |             |                         |
            Theocracy    Reformation                    |
                              |                         |
                                   Free Religion
     Piety              - +2 Happiness
     Organised Religion - Amount of happiness to enter Golden Age reduced by 25%
     Mandate of Heaven  - 50% of your Happiness score (if positive) is added to 
                          your Culture pool for Social Policies
     Theocracy          - -25% Unhappiness from Citizens in non-occupied cities
     Reformation        - Enter a Golden Age for 10 turns
     Free Religion      - +2 Free Social Policies
    Piety straight off starts with 2 extra happiness points, which is a nice boost
    but really, early on in the game, your happiness should be positive first of
    all. Organised Religion is useful to get into Golden Ages faster, however, the
    real problem with it is that you need a lot of happiness points to enter a 
    Golden Age. 
    Mandate of Heaven is useful if you have a very large happiness score, but most
    of the time, it isn't. 10 Happiness means that you get 5 culture points for
    Social Policies. Theocracy means that you get 25% less unhappiness, which is 
    very nice, especially later in the game.
    Reformation is useful, a Golden Age is always useful, and finally, Free
    Religion gives you 2 free social policies, which is very very useful. 
    Overall, Piety is something you want to have a look at, but it really depends
    if you want to choose this over Rationalism. 
    [9.06] Patronage
    Patronage is really geared towards the city states, which is useful if you 
    are shooting for the diplomatic victory, since it is the votes of the city
    states that really help you win the game. Really, Patronage really depends 
    on how you play, if you want to play with City-States, that's up to you, but
    it is a branch you can choose. 
    The branch looks like this:
                    |                                     |
               Philanthropy                           Aesthetics
                    |                                     |
              Scholasticism                               |
                |        |                                |
                |         --------------------------------
                |                       | 
        Cultured Diplomacy        Educated Elite
     Patronage          - -25% Friendship Decay with City States
     Philanthropy       - +25% Friendship Boost with City States when you pay in
     Aesthetics         - Minimum influence with City States is 20
     Scholasticism      - Allied City States provide 33% of Science they produce
                          to you
     Cultured Diplomacy - Amount for resources from city states increased by 100%
                          Luxury Goods from City State provide 50% extra Happiness
     Educated Elite     - City states occasionally give you Great People
    This is definitely based towards the city states, again, it is up to how you
    want to play the game. Patronage reduces the friendship decay with the city
    states. Philanthropy increases the amount of influence you can purchase with
    gold. Aesthetics set the minimum influence with city states to 20, which is
    still above neutral.
    Scholasticism means that you get a little boost to science from the city
    states, which is nice. Cultured Diplomacy increases the amount of resources
    that you get by 100%, and luxury resources give 50% more happiness, which is
    a quick boost. Finally, educated elite is a nice boost.
    Overall, Patronage is one you want to invest in if you want to boost your
    relations with the city states, but if you are there to conquer them, you
    might want to look somewhere else.             
    [9.07] Commerce
    Commerce is the policy that is geared more towards gaining more money, which
    is excellent when you think about it, and it also helps you with naval 
    power, it will help your navy significantly in terms of boosting vision. But
    gold is the one thing that you want. 
    The branch looks like this:
                    |                                        |
             Naval Tradition                           Trade Unions
                    |                                        |
              Merchant Navy                            Mercantilism
     Commerce        - +25% Gold from the Capital City
     Naval Tradition - +1 Movement and +1 Sight for naval units
     Merchant Navy   - +3 Production for all coastal cities
     Trade Unions    - -20% Maintenance on Roads and Railroads
     Mercantilism    - -25% Cost when purchasing items in Cities
     Protectionism   - +1 Happiness from Luxury Resources
    Commerce straight off starts with a nice gold boost in your capital city, 
    which might mean you will need to boost gold in your capital. Naval Tradition
    is there to boost your naval units, movement for a big lug like a battleship
    is a useful little toy, and sight doesn't hurt either.
    Merchant Navy is a very powerful boost, especially if you have coastal cities,
    since that production boost is then boosted by a variety of other things. 
    Trade Unions is useful, since a large road or railroad network is very
    expensive to maintain later in the game. Mercantilism is useful if you
    purchase things in cities, and finally, Protectionism is extremely useful
    since it boosts happiness from luxury resources by 100%.
    Commerce is one of the branches that you will definitely need to max out, 
    since all the policies are useful, which means that you should max it out. Or
    at least have a look. 
    [9.08] Rationalism
    Rationalism is heavily based on science, which is something that you will 
    need later in the game, towards the Medieval Era and beyond that, tech is 
    harder to research, and there are a lot more of them, so science is useful
    for that reason. Besides, a quicker science rate means more techs, which means
    more units to play with. Note that it cannot be active the same time as Piety
    The branch looks like this:
                      |                                     |
                 Secularism                             Humanism
                      |                                     |
                Free Thought                           Sovereignty
           Scientific Revolution
     Rationalism           - Enter a 4 turn Golden Age
     Secularism            - +2 Science from every Specialist
     Humanism              - +1 Happiness from every University
     Free Thought          - +1 Science from every Trading Post
     Sovereignity          - +15% Science when the Empire is happy
     Scientific Revolution - Gain 2 free Techs
    Rationalism is useful for a quick Golden Age, which is useful, but it doesn't 
    last long enough for an impact. Secularism is useful only if you have a 
    specialist in your city, which is useful later in the game since specialists
    meant that the citizen is not working on the fields. 
    Humanism is nice, since most cities will have a university to start off with,
    as it boosts science production. Free Thought is useful, since a trading post
    means that it produces gold, and science at the same time. Sovereignty is
    a nice boost, since your empire should be happy all the time, simply because
    if you don't, it hurts your population growth rate. 
    Finally, it ends with the scientific revolution, which gives you 2 free techs.
    This is useful later in the game, especially when tech is so expensive to
    All in all, I do prefer this over Piety, but the choice is up to you. You can
    either look at both of them, and judge on their merits, or just choose based
    on your current playstyle. 
    [9.09] Freedom
    Freedom is a mix mash of a variety of policies, it is there for culture and
    specialists primarily. This is useful when you get Wonders as well. To be
    honest, late in the game, this isn't as useful as it could be, but you should
    judge by its merits.
    The branch looks like this:
               |                          |                        |
          Constitution            Universal Suffrage         Civil Society
               |                                                   |
          Free Speech                                          Democracy
     Freedom            - -50% Unhappiness from Specialists
     Constitution       - Cities with a Wonder have 100% extra culture
     Universal Suffrage - +33% Combat Strength for Cities
     Civil Society      - -50% Food Consumption from Specialists
     Free Speech        - -25% Policy Culture Costs
     Democracy          - +50% Great People Production rate
    Freedom starts off with a boost for specialists, which is nice if you use
    specialists, and Civil Society boosts this with reducing the amount of food
    consumption specialists will consume. Constitution will be useful for those
    who have decided to build wonders, since it doubles the amount of culture a
    city with a Wonder generates.
    Universal Suffrage is basically a city will be able to increase the amount
    of damage a city can dish out. Free Speech is useful to reduce the amount 
    a future policy will cost. And finally, Democracy is useful to generate more
    Great People.
    Basically, Freedom is a nice branch to choose if you want to use specialists
    in the cities. I personally don't, I'd rather have them work the fields, but
    that is up to you. However, the culture boost is rather useful to anyone who
    has decided to build wonders, and the boost to city combat and great people
    production is quite useful.
    [9.10] Order
    Order is very useful when you want to play with production. Order basically
    makes it such that production is increased in all cities. This is something
    you really want to invest in, and the good thing is, it doesn't conflict with
    any of the other policy branches.
    The branch looks like this:
              |                          |                         |
         United Front                Socialism                Nationalism
                                  Planned Economy
     Order           - +15% Production for all Buildings
     United Front    - Other players City-State Influence decreases 33% faster
     Socialism       - -10% Gold Maintenance cost for Buildings
     Nationalism     - +25% Attack Bonus when fighting in friendly territory
     Planned Economy - -50% Unhappiness from the number of cities
     Communism       - +5 Production per city
    Order is really a powerful boost to start off with, since a 15% production
    is one that I cannot refuse. United Front is useful in combination with 
    Patronage, since it means that you get a boost, and the enemies get a 
    Socialism is useful, simply because by the time you get access to Order, the
    maintenance cost for buildings will be exceptionally high. Natioalism is a 
    military boost, useful for when you are defending, rather than attacking on
    your own lands.
    Planned Economy is useful if you have a large sprawling empire, since the 
    number of cities does increase the unhappiness that you have. And finally, 
    Communism is actually useful, with 5 extra production hammers per city as 
    well bonuses on that bonus.
    Overall, Order is one of the ones that I will max out without fail, since 
    Communism is one of the best policies that you will have access to in the
    game. Other than that, it is useful, simply because production is the only
    way to build a big army. 
    [9.11] Autocracy
    Autocracy is heavily military focussed, but this comes at the cost that you
    cannot use Liberty as a branch, so that is really up to you whether you want
    to use it or not. However, if you are seeking a domination type victory, then
    this is something you really will want to have a look at. 
    The branch looks like this:
                       |                                    |
                   Populism                            Militarism
                   Fascism                            Police State
                       |                                    |
                                      Total War
     Autocracy    - -33% Gold Maintenance for Units
     Populism     - Wounded units inflict 25% more damage
     Militarism   - -33% Gold Cost when purchasing units in cities
     Fascism      - Quantity of Strategic Resources is doubled
     Police State - -50% Unhappiness from occupied cities
     Total War    - For 20 turns, all military units get a 33% attack bonus
    Autocracy starts off reducing the cost of your army, which is useful if you
    have a large army ready to dominate some enemies on the battlefield. With 
    Populism, it does save you from resting your units so they can heal back to
    full health so you can send them out again, they can still damage enemies 
    that much more.
    Militarism is useful when you have a lot of gold, and need to purchase an 
    army in a short amount of time. Fascism is exceptionally useful in the game,
    since Uranium and Aluminium will be used twice as much, so more Giant Death
    Robots, nukes, stealth bombers and the like for you. 
    Police state isn't that useful when you think about it, it does save you from
    building a courthouse immediately, but when you can buy one, it isn't as
    useful as you think. Finally, Total War is just a last burst of enemy, this 
    is enough time to finish off the enemy. This of this as the final push for
    your army.
    Overall, Autocracy is useful in domination type games, particularly if you
    are focussed on the military. It is useful, but you need to weigh this up
    against the Liberty branch, which cannot be active together. 
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