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Amazon Guidebook Transcript by Shotgunnova
Version: Final | Updated: 04/08/2006
AMAZON GUIDEBOOK TRANSCRIPTION by: Shotgunnova (P. Summers) o----------------------------------------o | LEGAL: | | | | This can't be hosted without asking me | | first, and I'll give you permission if | | you do, most likely. That's about it. | o----------------------------------------| All of this information can be found initially by opening up a (new) game and clicking on the open-book icon. These notes and articles are all listed in there without having to find them yourself. Enjoy. ------------ 01. Diseases ------------ -Beriberi -Bubonic Plague -Chagas' disease -Dysentery -Influenza -Malaria -Parasites -Smallpox -Typhoid -Yellow Fever -------- 02. Bugs -------- -Blue Morpho Butterfly -Goliath Bird-eating Spider -Leaf-cutter Ant -Rhinoceros Beetle -Termite --------- 03. Birds --------- -Blackish-gray Antshrike -Blue-backed Manakin -Collared Trogon -Common Potoo -Crested Oropendola -Fork-tailed Woodnymph -Great Egret -Green Honeycreeper -Harpy Eagle -Hoatzin -King Vulture -Mealy Parrot -Paradise Tanager -Red-billed Scythebill -Scarlet Macaw -Spectacled Owl -Toco Toucan -Undulated Tinamou -White-vented Euphonia ----------- 04. Mammals ----------- -Amazonian Manatee -Black Spider Monkey -Boto -Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth -Capybara -Collared Peccary -Common Opossum -Common Tapir -Common Vampire Bat -Giant Anteater -Giant Armadillo -Jaguar -Kinkajou -Night Monkey -Ocelot -Pygmy Marmoset -Red Howler Monkey -Red-Rumped Agouti -Tucuxi ---------- 05. Plants ---------- -Banana Tree -Brazil Nut Tree -Bromeliad -Cacao -Liana -Mushroom -Orchid -Passionflower -Philodendron -Rubber Tree ----------------------- 06. Reptiles/Amphibians ----------------------- -Amazon River Turtle -Anaconda -Bushmaster -Common Iguana -Fer-de-lance -Poison Dart Frog -Spectacled Caiman -------- 07. Fish -------- -Arowhana -Electric Eel -Giant Catfish -Lungfish -Pirarucu -Red-bellied Pirahna -Stingray -Tambaqui ---------- 08. Places ---------- -Belem -The Xingu River -Santarem -The Trombetas River -The Madeira River -Manaus -The Purus River -Tefe -The Ica River -Leticia -The Napo River -Iquitos -The Maranon River -Pucallpa -The Apurimac River -Vilcabamba --------------- 09. Trade Items --------------- -Balsam Oil -Barbasco -Blowgun -Brazil Nuts -Cacao -Chondrodendron -Cinchona -Clove -Copal Oil -Curare -Guarana -Indigo -Ipecacuanha Root -Justicia -Leche Caspi -Manioc -Mask -Pilocarpus -Rosewood Oil -Rubber Ball -Unonopsis -Vanilla -Woven Basket ------------------ 10. People (A - L) ------------------ -Agassiz, Elisabeth -de Aguirre, Lope -Arana, Julio -Bates, Henry Walter -Boras Tribe -Botanist -Cashinawa Tribe -Fawcett, Colonel Percy Harrison -Ford, Henry -Godin, Isabela -von Humboldt, Alexander -Jivaro Tribe -Juruna Tribe -Kayapo Tribe -Levi-Strauss, Claude ------------------ 11. People (M - Z) ------------------ -Maku Tribe -Mayoruna Tribe -McIntyre, Loren -Munduruku Tribe -de Orellana, Captain Francisco -Rancher, Cattle -Rondon, Colonel Candido -Roosevelt, Theodore -Savoy, Gene -Schultes, Richard Evans -Seringueiro -Spruce, Richard -Student -de Teixeira, Captain Pedro -Titu Cosi -Tucuna Tribe -Tupac Amaru, Jose Gabriel -Villas Boas, Claudio -Wallace, Alfred Russel -Witoto Tribe -Yanomamo Tribe [Agassiz, Elisabeth] -- (ag-ah-see) Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz was one of the first white women to see the Amazon. She accompanied her husband, Swiss-American geologist and nautralist Louis Agassiz, on a year-long expedition up the Amazon. The expedition, which was helped considerably by native people, collected almost 2,000 species of fish. Mr. Agassiz discovered that the Amazon has more species of fish than the entire Atlantic Ocean. Mrs. Agassiz was a keen observer of the people and the natural history of the Amazon. She kept a detailed journal of the expedition that was published in 1869 as "A Journey in Brazil." Later, she helped found Radcliffe College in Massachusetts. [Alexander von Humboldt] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Alexander von Humboldt was a biologist, geologist, geographer, astronomer, and explorer. Charles Darwin called him "the greatest scientific traveler who ever lived." In 1800, before Lewis and Clark were exploring the Missouri River, Humboldt was exploring the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. He explored more than 6,000 miles by land and water, making observations and collecting plants all along the way. Humboldt wrote several books about his experiences in South America. The books gave the world the first realistic picture of the Amazon basin and inspired other scientists to explore Amazonia. [Alfred Russel Wallace] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Alfred Russel Wallace was a self-taught naturalist from England. In 1848, Wallace went to the Amazon with HENRY WALTER BATES. Wallace and Bates studied insects in BELEM for about a year. Then Wallace traveled upriver, eventually reaching MANAUS. There he met up with Bates. Wallace later returned to England in 1852 and later went to Malaysia to study the rainforest there. On the basis of his observations of plants and insects, he developed the theory of evolution -- independently of Charles Darwin. In fact, he sent an outline of his theory to Darwin in 1856, which compelled Darwin to finally publish his own historic book on the subject. [Amazon River Turtle] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: During the day Eats: Fruits and other plant materials that fall into the water Size: Can grow to be as big around as a manhole cover Amazon river turtles belong to a group of turtles called "side-necks." They withdraw their heads into their shells by moving them sideways, which leaves part of the head exposed. Thus, side-necks are more vulnerable than "hidden-necked" turtles that draw their heads straight back into their shells. To avoid predators, Amazon river turtles spend most of their time in water. When it is time to lay their eggs, these turtles gather on beaches and bury large numbers of eggs in the sand. [Amazonian Manatee] -- (MAN-uh-tee) Active: Both day and night Eats: Vegetation in the rivers such as grasses, water hyacinths, and water lettuce Size: Big, like a walrus Manatees are aquatic mammals -- they spend their entire lives in the water. Every four minutes or so, they raise their nostrils out of the water to breathe. During the rainy season, vast areas of the Amazon become flooded. The high water gives manatees access to lots of vegetation, and they eat up to 100 pounds every day. In the dry season, the water level drops and the manatees must return to the main channels of the rivers where there is not as mcuh food. Manatees do not eat very much during the dry season. [Anaconda] -- (ann-uh-CON-duh) Active: Both day and night Eats: Large mammals, including agoutis and capybaras; also fish, birds, and reptiles Size: A large one weighs more than a linebacker and could be used to measure first downs Anacondas are constrictors, a type of snake that kills its prey by chomping down on its neck. If the prey is large, the anaconda also coils around it. This prevents the prey from breathing and can even stop its heart from beating. They swallow their prey whole, head first. Anacondas spend most of their time in a hiding place such as a hole in a tree trunk. They do their hunting in or near water. They do not chase their prey but rather lie in ambush when the unsuspecting prey gets close. [Apurimac River] -- (ah-poo-ree-MAC) The mouth of the Apurimac River is about 3,500 miles upriver from Belem. The source of the Apurimac is close to the source of the Amazon. It begins high in the Andes Mountains about 200 miles souch of Cuzco, Peru. In its first 300 miles, the Apurimac drops 13,000 feet through dramatic canyons and deep gorges. It can be crossed at only eight or ten places by rope bridges. After that dramatic drop, the Apurimac flows into the lowland rainforest of eastern Peru. Several revolutions have begun along the banks of the Apurimac. In the 1500s, the last stronghold of Inca warriors burned the rope bridges over the Apurimac to stop the conquistadors and held out for 40 years. In the late 1700s, JOSE GABRIEL TUPAC AMARU, a descendant of the last Inca King, began a revolution here to try to overthrow the Spanish colonial government. In the 1980s, the Shining Path (El Sendero Luminoso) guerrillas began a violent Maoist revolution that was still being fought in 1993. [Arowhana] -- (AIR-oh-WAH-nuh) Edible?: Yes Size: About as long as your arm Arowhanas have one of the most peculiar feeding behaviors of any fish. In addition to taking insets that fall into the water, arowhanas also leap out of the water and grab animals that are resting on overhanging branches. An adult arowhana can leap completely out of the water. Arowhanas are mouth-brooders. That is, one parent (in the case of arowhanas, the male) keeps the eggs in its mouth. After they hatch, the young fish swim out to feed. When danger approaches, the youngsters scoot back into Dad's mouth for safety. [Balsam Oil] -- (BAHL-sum) Balsam oil is a general term for a resin that comes from several kinds of legume trees. The resin has a strong aroma that is used in incense and in some healing preparations. It does not have any medicinal properties. There are two kinds of balsam. Balsam of Peru is a thick, dark brown substance used in perfumes. Balsam of Tolu is found in the rainforests of Columbia. It is lighter brown than Balsam of Peru but thicker. It is used in some perfumes, but is found more frequently in cough syrups. [Banana Tree] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) The banana tree is not really a tree; it is an herb. This means that it does not have a woody trunk. Instead, the "trunk," actuall a stalk, is made up of leaves that overlap each other. A full-grown banana tree is about 20 feet tall. Each tree produces one clump of bananas that can weigh up to 125 pounds. Banana trees are an important source of food in the Amazon. Almost all Amazonian tribes cultivate bananas. There are at least a dozen kind of banana trees in the Amazon. Some produce fruit for eating; others produce medicine that treats DYSENTERY. Edible bananas are not native to the Amazon; they originated in Asia. People have brought them to most tropical parts of the world. Bananas were introduced into the Amazon sometime in the 1500s. [Barbasco] -- (bar-BASS-koh) Barbasco is a name for several tropical trees and woody bushes of the Lonchocarpus family. Some barbasco plants have an ingredient that is used as an insecticide. Another species of barbasco is used as fish poison. Upstream, large quantities of barbasco are dumped into a stream. The poison stuns the fish and in some cases kills them. Downstream, fishermen wait with nets hung from bank to bank. The fish float downstream and get caught in the nets. [Belem] -- (bay-LAIN) Belem is a port city near the mouth of the Amazon River, about 70 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. It was founded in the early 1600s by Portuguese explorers. For the next two hundred years, it was the only port of entry into Amazonia. All of the great explorers and naturalists passed through Belem on their way to the interior. Today, Belem is still a major port with a population of one million. Its residents are a mix of people from Africa, Brazilians of European descent, native people, and settles from a variety of countries. A major highway stretches for 1,500 miles to Brazil's capital, Brasilia, at the southeastern edge of Amazonia. The huge island of Marajo lies to the north. It is the largest river island in the world -- as big as New Hampshire and Vermont combined. [Beriberi] -- (bare-ee-bare-ee) Beriberi is a nutritional disorder caused by a lack of thiamine (which is also called vitamin B1). Beriberi affects your nerves and sometimes your heart. You begin to lose your appetite. You feel lazy. Your legs start to feel weak and numb. In one form of beriberi, your muscles may get soft and your reflexes slow. In another form, the disorder spreads to your heart. Your blood circulation is poor because your body swells up. Your heart may actually stop. Unless you get treatment, you may suffer permanent nerve damage. The treatment for beriberi is simple. Eat extra meat, fish, and vegetables. The foods are rich in vitamin B1 and will reverse the symptoms. [Blackish-gray Antshrike] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: During the day Eats: Insects disturbed by ants Size: A little bigger than a sparrow The blackish-gray antshrike is one of about 100 species of antbirds in Amazonia. Compared ot the eye-catching apperance of many Amazonian birds, most antbirds are drab-looking. Antbirds do not actually eat ants. Instead, antbirds and other insect-eating birds often follow army ants around and feed on the insects that are rousted by the ants. The parade does not stop with ants and antbirds. Butterflies sometimes follow the antbirds and feed on their droppings. [Black Spider Monkey] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: During the day Eats: Mostly fruit; a small amount of leaves and flowers Size: Bigger than most other Amazonian monkeys, with especially long arms, legs, and tail. Spider monkeys spend a lot of time near the treetops. Sometimes they swing from branch to branch. Sometimes they hang from branches by their tails. They sleep in groups of up to 20 or 30. During the day they spend most of their time in small groups of about five individuals. If you disturb a group of spider monkeys, they are likely to growl, stamp their feet, and drop dead branches on you. [Blowgun] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Blowguns are used by many Amazonian tribes in hunting and warfare. Hunters and warriors insert a dart into the blowgun and blow the dart at their target. The dart is often dipped in CURARE or the poison from a POISON DART FROG. An accomplished user can hit a small target at 20 paces. Blowguns are made from the hollow stems of vines. They come in a variety of sizes. Some are as long as your arm. Others are longer than the tallest person. [Blue-backed Manakin] -- (MAN-uh-kin) Active: During the day Eats: Fruits and insects Size: About as big as a sparrow Blue-backed manakins have one of the most bizarre courtship dances of any bird on Earth. Two males dance together. They start on a thin branch. One bird jumps, hovers for a moment, and then lands. Then the second bird repeats the action while the first bird returns to the branch. Sometimes a drab-colored female is nearby. Other times, the males seem to dance for the fun of it. There are about 30 species of manakins in Amazonia. They all have their own peculiar dances. [Blue Morpho Butterfly] -- (MORE-fo) Active: During the day Eats: Plants Size: There are about 80 species of varying sizes. The largest ones have a wing span that would stretch from your wrist to your fingertips. Blue morpho butterflies in flight are among the most spectacular sights in the rainforest. The top surface of their wings is a brilliant blue color that is incredible to behold. The undersides of their wings are a dull brown. Thus, when they fly you see a flash of blue, then nothing, then another flash of blue. This so-called "flash and dazzle" flight makes it difficult for predators to catch them. [Boras Tribe] -- (BOE-rahs) The Boras Indians live in the northeast section of the Amazon Basin in what is now northeast Peru and Southern Colombia. Their peaceful culture has been studied by anthropologists and others. Anthropologists spent time with the Boras learning of their extensive knowledge of medicinal plants. The Boras Indians, like the WITOTOS, were enslaved during the rubber boom and forced to work far from their homes. Many were executed for trying to escape, and thousands of others died of disease and starvation. Their tribe almost became extinct by the end of the rubber boom. [Botanist] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Today, there are many plant experts, called botanists, from all over the world who have come to Amazonia. Many of the botanists are looking for plants that can be used to produce medicines. Many important medicines are derived from plants that grow in Amazonia and other rainforests. The most well-known example is CINCHONA, the plant that cures malaria. No one knows how many plant species exist in the Amazon rainforest. Estimates range from 35,000 to 80,000 species. Only a tiny fraction have been evaluated for their usefulness as medicines. Whenever rainforest land is cleared, potentially useful plants are lost forever. The smartest botanists seek information from tribal people, who have lived in the rainforest for thousands of years. Indian plant experts know a lot more about rainforest plans than do botanists who come from other parts of the world. [Boto (Pink River Dolphin)] -- (boe-toe) Active: During the day Eats: Fish Size: About the size of Flipper (who is a bottle-nosed dolphin) Dolphins are mammals, not fish. They come to the surface of the water to breathe air through blowholes on the tops of their heads. Botos really are pink! Young botos are gray, but the older they get, the pinker they get. Botos, like most dolphins, have poor eyesight. They "see" by using echolocation. They emit a variety of sounds that bounce off objects and return to the dolphins. The dolphins interpret the sounds to determine an object's size, density, direction, and speed. [Brazil Nuts] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Brazil nut trees grow in many parts of the Amazon basin, with a concentration around the Rio Negro, MADEIRA, and PURUS. The trees begin to bear fruit when they are about 10 years old and reach a height of about 100 feet. Once a year the trees produce beautiful yellow flowers. A full year or more later, the flowers mature into fruits -- Brazil nuts. The ripe fruits are the size and weight of cannonballs. Harvesters must wait until the fruits fall to the ground. Look out below! Inside each fruit there are a dozen or more sections that are the brazil nuts that we buy in the grocery store. Each brazil nut tree can produce up to 1,000 pounds of nuts per year. [Brazil Nut Tree] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Brazil nut trees grow in many parts of the Amazon basin, with a concentration around the Rios Negro, MADIERA, and PURUS. The trees begin to bear fruit when they are about 10 years old and reach a height of about 100 feet. Once a year the trees produce beautiful yellow flowers. A full year or more later, the flowers mature into fruits -- Brazil nuts. The ripe fruits are the size and weight of cannonballs. Harvesters must wait until the fruits fall to the ground. Look out below! Inside each fruit are a dozen or more sections containing Brazil nuts. Each Brazil nut tree can produce up to 1,000 pounds of nuts per year. In recent years, it has been learned that native tribes cultivate Brazil nut trees by planting them in scattered spots around their villages. [Bromeliad] -- (bro-MEE-lee-ad) Bromeliads grow throughout Amazonia and in other parts of South and Central America. There are at least 1,500 species of bromeliads. Some have roots in teh ground, while others are "epiphytes" -- they grow on other plants. In the rainforest, you can find bromeliads from the forest floor to the tops of tall trees. Many bromeliads are called "tank" bromeliads. Their leaves overlap and form pools where rainwater collects. Some tank bromeliads hold just a few drops of water, while others hold several gallons! Tank bromeliads collect more than water. They also collect pollen, leaves, and other plant materials. In turn, the plant materials attract animals. More than 500 species of animals, including frogs, insects, and birds use bromeliads as a source of food and shelter. [Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth] -- (slawth or slowth) Active: Day and night Eats: Leaves Size: About as big as a house cat, with longer legs Sloths use their long, curved claws (not their toes) to hang upside down from tree branches high in the canopy. They move, very, very, very slowly. Sloth's hairs have tiny grooves where green algae grows. (Algae is a tiny kind of plant.) This helps the sloths hide from HARPY EAGLES and JAGUARS. Amazingly, sloths are excellent swimmers. This comes in handy during the rainy season, when rivers rise as high as the lower canopy! [Bubonic Plague] -- (boo-BAH-nick plaig) Bubonic plague is a fever caused by fleas that normally live in rats and other rodents. If you have bubonic plague, you probably came in contact with a rat at a port or a campsite. The fleas jump off the rats and bite you. Bubonic plague starts with shivers, vomiting, and headaches. The glands in your armpits and groin swell up. Your temperature might go as high as 104 degrees. Light hurts your eyes. Then, a pain begins to grow in your back, arms, and legs. You can't sleep. You may even hallucinate. Finally, you begin to feel apathetic -- you don't care about anything. Left untreated, bubonic plague will kill you. Bubonic plague is highly contagious, meaning that it is easily passed from one person to another. In the 14 century, bubonic plague swept through Europe and wiped out half the population. Today, plague can be prevented and cured with medicine. [Bushmaster] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: At night Eats: Mostly small animals; also birds and amphibians Size: About as tall as Shaquille O'Neal is tall Like the fer-de-lance, the bushmaster is a type of snake called a pit viper. The "pits" are holes between the eyes and nostrils that detect the doby heat of nearby prey and enemies. The word "viper" refers to a poisonous snake. Bushmasters are indeed highly poisonous snakes. But as long as you do not try to handle one, the risk of being bitten is small. To be safe, however, you should always have antivenin with you. [Cacao] -- (kuh-KOW) The cacao bean is native to Amazonia and also grows as far north as Mexico. It is the raw ingredient in cocoa powder, which is used to make chocolate. In the Amazon, cocoa powder is used in tea-like drinks and as a cooking spice. It has a very bitter taste. The hot cocoa that we drink is made from cacao beans, but it is also sweetened with sugar. The Aztecs in Mexico introduced the Spaniards to a chocolate beverage. The Spanish kept the secret of this beverage for almost 100 years. But by the 1650s, chocolate was popular in Italy, France, and England. [Capybara] -- (cop-uh-BAR-uh) Active: During the day, but more active at night where it is hunted by people. Eats: Grass and water plants Size: Largest rodent on earth; bigger than your average pig Capybaras always stay close to or in the water. They have partially webbed feet that help make them very good swimmers. Capybaras live in groups of up to 20 individuals. The groups tend to be larger when water is plentiful and smaller when water is scarce. For people, capybaras offer a good source of meat and leather. In some places, people have over-hunted them to the point that there are none left. In other places, people have learned how many they can kill without hurting the population. [Cashinawa Tribe] -- (kah-shee-na-WAH) The Cashinawa tribe lives along the Jurua and Purus rivers. They are known as the bat people. They are fiercly protective of their territory. They are excellent archers. They also make traps that shoot blowgun darts automatically. Like all tribes in this region, they practice a mix of fishing, agriculture, and hunting. The Cashinawa men go on lengthy hunting trips into the rainforest. The Cashinawa have several interesting beliefs. Humans have two souls. One soul lives in the eyes and goes to heaven after death. The other is the shadow that becomes a ghost. They also have many stories of people turning into animals and animals turning into men. Many of their stories have to do with ghosts. [Cattle Rancher] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Since the early 1970s, thousands of people have moved to Amazonia to become cattle ranchers. Most rainforest that is cleared -- perhaps as much as 85% -- is used for cattle ranching. The Brazilian government has been practically giving away land to rich people on the condition that they convert the rainforest to grazing land. Government officials thought that cattle ranching would be a big boost to the economy, but they were wrong. Cattle ranching is an unwise use of rainforest land. In the rainforest, most nutrients are tied up in the plants. The soil is actually quite poor. When the rainforest is cleared for pasture land, the nutrients are destroyed and the soil can support vegetation for only a short time. Pretty soon there is nothing for the cattle to eat, and more rainforest land must be converted to pasture. If current trends continue, there will soon be no rainforest and no grazing land. [Chagas Disease] -- (sha-gahs) Chagas disease is an infection spread by a PARASITE. The parasite lives in mosqitoes and chiggers and enters your body when one of those insects bites you. About a week after being bitten, the lymph nodes under your arms and in your groin swell up. You come down with a fever. You'll be laid up in bed for several weeks. Sometimes, the parasite enters your heart. If that happens, your heart begins to beat irregularly. Your heart might also swell up. You might die. There is no known treatment for Chagas disease. You should do everything you can to keep from getting bit by mosquitos. Wear clothing that covers your body, use insect repellant, and enclose your sleeping area with a mosquito net. [Chondrodendron] -- (kon-droh-DEN-drun) Chondrondendron is a vine native to the Amazon basin. The YANOMAMI Indian tribe uses it to make CURARE -- BLOWGUN dart poison. The Yanomami know that a substance found in chondrodendron paralyzes animals' muscles. Scientists have developed a drug from chondrodendron, turbocurarine, that is used as a muscle relaxant. [Cinchona] -- (sin-CHOH-nuh) The cinchona tree is an evergreen shrub that grows in hilly and forested regions of Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador. In the bark is a substance, quinine, that cures fevers like MALARIA. For thousands of years, native South Americans have used cinchona to cure fevers. In the mid-1600s, Jesuit priests brought the substance back to Europe. They called it Jesuit's Bark or Peruvian Bark. By the mid- -1800s, quinine was used in tonics -- mediccinal carbonated soft drinks -- and it came into incredible demand. To get around the monopoly enjoyed by South America, RICHARD SPRUCE and others smuggled cinchona out of Peru to start plantations in tropical areas of Asia. After years of failure, Westerners were successful in growing cinchona that has a high percentage of quinine in the bark. Quinine has probably saved millions of lives since it became part of western medicine. [Claude Levi-Strauss] -- (cload lay-vee stroase) Claude Levi-Strauss is a French anthropologist (and no relation to Levi Strauss, the inventor blue jeans). An anthropologist is a scientist who lives with a tribe or community for long periods of time to study their way of life. Claude Levi-Strauss began studying the lives of Amazonian native tribes in the mid-1930s. He was one of the first to record the daily lives, myths, and struggles of many tribes. Levi-Strauss wrote several important books. His travel book, "Tristes Tropiques," comments on the impact of Western civilization on tropical lands. His four-volume "Mythologiques" analyzes North and South American native mythology. One volume of his work, "The Raw and the Cooked," won France's highest scientific award. [Claudio Villas Boas] -- (CLAW-gee-oh VEE-las BOH-ahs) Claudio Villas Boas and his brothers Orlandu and Leonardo were Brazilians of European descent. Originally, they were hired by the Brazilian government to build airplane landing strips across the Amazon rainforest. The brothers soon realized that dozens of Indian tribes would be displaced by the airstrips and the developments that would follow. The Villas Boas brothers decided to attempt an almost impossible task. They would make contact with the tribes and try to prepare them for the inevitable, fundamental changes that development would bring. They also decided to try to convince the Brazilian government to set aside part of the rainforest for the tribes so to that the tribes could continue their traditional way of life. Through the efforts of the Villas Boas brothers, Brazil established the National Park of Xingu in 1961. The story of the Villas Boas brothers is told in "The Tribe that Hides from Man," a book by Adrian Cowell. [Clove] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Clove is not native to Amazonia. And, unlike some plants such as BANANAS, clove has never been introduced into Amazonia. The fact is, there aren't any clove plants here! So how can people offer cloves to you? Until the 17th century, cloves grew almost exclusively in the Spice Islands of Indonesia, which were controlled by the Dutch. Spanish conquistadors were consumed with a passion for finding their own source of cloves. Why was it so important to them? Because cloves were used as a food preservative and spice, as a breath mint, and even as perfume. AGUIRRE and ORELLANA both found a tree that looked like a clove tree. It had barries that looked like clove, smelled like clove, and tasted like clove. Even ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE was convinced that it was cloves. But no! What they actually found was a different spice that we now call allspice. Today, allspice is used like clove, cinnamon, and nutmeg in cooking. [Collared Peccary] -- (PECK-uh-ree) Active: During the day Eats: Fruits, nuts, vegetation, small animals Size: Like a small pig Peccaries are loosely related to pigs. Collared peccaries are highly adaptable. They live in the deserts of Arizona, in the Amazon rainforest, and everywhere in between. In the Amazon, collared peccaries live in small groups, usually 6-9 individuals. The strengthen ties by rubbing one another's scent glands. By doing this, all the animals in the herd tend to smell alike. When alarmed by people, herds of collared peccaries tend to emit a foul odor in all directions. [Collared Trogon] -- (CAHL-ard TROH-gun) Active: During the day Eats: Insects and fruits Size: About as big as a robin Trogons are among the most beautiful birds in the world. The metallic green on their backs is most striking when it catches the sunlight. They are not always easy to see because they tend to sit still for long periods. The collared trogon is one of about six species of trogons in Amazonia. Only one species of trogon is seen in the United States, in remote sections of southeastern Arizona. The trogon is so beautiful, however, that thousands of people travel long distances in hopes of seeing it. [Colonel Candido Rondon] -- (KAHN-jee-doh run-DOAN) Colonel Candido Mariano de Silva Rondon was born and raised in Brazil. In 1907, when the Brazilian government decided to build telegraph lines along the Rio MADEIRA, Colonel Rondon was selected to explore the area. For several years, he explored and mapped the area that is now named Rondonia. Rondon also helped start a federal Indian agency. He inspired the VILLAS BOAS brothers by the humane way that he treated Indians. At one point, when his party was lost and out of supplies, Rondon discovered a major river which he named Rio da Duvida (River of Doubt). In 1913, he returned to the area with former president of the United States TEDDY ROOSEVELT. Together, Rondon and Roosevelt led a scientific expedition that mapped previously uncharted territory and collected more than 2,500 specimins of birds, mammals, and reptiles. They traveled on the River of Doubt, which Rondon renamed Rio Roosevelt in honor of the former president. [Colonel Fawcett] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Colonel Percy Harrison Fawcett, an Englishmen, was one of the last adventurous explorers of the Amazon rainforest. Nowadays, most explorers are methodical scientists. Fawcett was a man of fantastic vision who hoped to discover a mythical city made of quartz. For years, Fawcett had heard stories about cities hidden in the rainforest. Then he acquired a small stone carving that he said sent electric currents up his arm. He was sure that the carving came from one of the lost cities. He took the carving to a psychic, who interpreted the currents and declared that the lost city was in the Brazilian rainforest. In 1925, Fawcett set off for the lost city, which he called "Z." On his departure, Fawcett wrote that "you need have no fear of failure." He was never heard from again. A rescue party sent out three years later determined that Fawcett and everyone in his party had be1en killed by Indians. [Common Iguana] -- (ih-GWAH-na) Active: During the day Eats: Youngsters eat insects; adults eat fruits and leaves Size: Body and tail each about as long as your arm Common iguanas are like chameleons -- they can change the color of their skin in order to blend into their environment. You might find an iguana anywhere from the forest floor to the top of an emergent tree. Iguanas use their long toes and claws to climb. When threatened, they sometimes jump from great heights to the ground or river. They are excellent swimmers. In spite of their fearesome appearance, iguanas are no threat to people. [Common Opossum] -- (oh-POSS-um) Active: At night Eats: Fruit, insects, and small mammals Size: Slightly larger than an average house cat; males larger than females Opossums are marsupials, which means that females give birth to tiny infants which attach themselves to their mother's nipples for several weeks. Some marsupials, including the common opossum, have a pouch in which they carry their young. Watch out! This animal does not "play possum." If you try to handle it, it is likely to defecate and squirt urine at you. Chances are, you would not be inclined to handle one in the first place, because they like to roll in fresh dung. [Common Potoo] -- (POH-TOO) Active: At night Eats: Insects, usually caught in mid-air Size: About halfway between a pigeon and a crow The common potoo, true to its name, is a fairly common bird in Amazonia. But there are two reasons why it is difficult to see them. First, potoos are active at night. Second, they hide during the day. You might think they would hide in a hole in a tree. But no! They hide in plain sight! They perch on the end of a dead branch. When they know they are being watched, they sit perfectly still and upright. Their color and posture makes them look just like the branch. [Common Tapir] -- (TAY-per) Active: Mostly at night Eats: Vegetation, both on land and in water, and fruits Size: The largest land mammal in the Amazon; about as a big as a small cow Tapirs are strange, almost prehistoric-looking mammals. Their most remarkable feature is a long, downward-turned upper lip that is very flexible -- like an elephant's trunk. In spite of their size, common tapirs tend to be amazingly shy, quiet, and difficult to see. Baby tapirs are even harder to see because their fur has a black-and-white camouflage pattern. Tapirs spend most of their time near water. Aquatic areas offer plentiful food and a means of escaping from danger. [Common Vampire Bat] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: At night Eats: Blood of mammals (including humans!) Size: Tiny, like hummingbirds; except a vampire bat's wings are bigger Bats are the only mammals in the world that fly. There are as many species of bats in the Amazon as there are of all other species of mammals combined. Most bats eat insects. Vampire bats eat blood. Unlike Dracula, vampire bats do not suck blood. They scoop out a large chunk of skin with their sharp teeth and then lap up the blood that oozes out. vampire bats are rare in undisturbed rainforest. They are much more numerous (and will attack people) where land had been cleared by CATTLE RANCHERS. [Copal Oil] -- (coh-PAHL) Copal oil is a resin-like varnish that comes from several varities of rainforest trees. When the resin hardens, its color ranges from clear to golden. When it is dissolved in alcohol, it is used in varnishes and in some kinds of inks. Varnish from copal oil is also used to treat canoes. On the lower Amazon, copal oil has been used as a fuel in lamps. There are copal oils from other parts of the world that are not collected from living trees, but from the fossil remains of trees. Zanzibar copal is found deep in the ground throughout East Africa. [Crested Oropendola] -- (OAR-oh-PEN-dol-luh) Active: During the day Eats: Fruits and insects Size: A little smaller than a crow; males bigger than females The easiest way to find crested oropendolas is to look for their nests. Oropendolas nest in colonies -- several pairs together. They build basket-like nests that hang from thin branches near the tops of trees. The hanging nests keep chicks out of the reach of most predators, but not from botflies. These insects lay their eggs on the chicks. The young botflies can literally eat the chicks alive. To protect against botflies, oropendolas sometimes build nests near bee hives. The bees scare off the botflies. [Curare] -- (koo-RAHR-ray) Curare is a mixture of plant materials that Amazonian Indians concoct to make poison. The name curare comes from an Indian phrase that means "he, to whome it comes, falls." The recipe varies from tribe to tribe but can include as many as 30 ingredients. It takes many years of training for a person to learn how to make curare. Curare is a powerful poison. It relaxes an animal's breathing muscles to the point that they stop working. Many Amazonian tribes put curare on their BLOWGUN darts. They use the darts mostly for hunting but also in warfare. The Spanish conquistador ORELLANA, writing about one of his soldiers who was hit by an arrow, said, "the arrow did not penetrate half a finger, but, as it had poison on it, he gave up his soul to our Lord." In small doses, some tribes use curare for stomach aches. It has been used as amuscle relaxant in heart surgery for over 50 years. [Dysentery] -- (DISS-en-tair-ee) Dysentery is a digestive disorder caused by bacteria, protozoa, or PARASITES in food or water. Dysentery affects your stomach and intestines. In one form of dystentery, you get stomach pains after you become infected. You come down with diarrhea. Sometimes your stools contain blood. In bad cases, you can die from dehydration. In another form of dysentery, your large intestine actually gets small cuts. This causes problems with your liver and even your lungs and skin. Even with treatment, the problems could continue for many years. You can treat dysentery with special drugs and antibiotics. With treatment, dystentery usually goes away in a week or so. [Electric Eel] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Edible?: No Size: Stretch your arms as far apart as you can. The eel might still touch both of your hands. Unlike most fish, the electric eel must come to the surface every few minutes to get a gulp of air. Almost the entire inside of the eel's mouth is covered with delicate little bumps used to collect oxygen. The electric eel also captures prey with its mouth. To prevent the prey from damaging the air collectors in its mouth, the electric eel has developed an ability to stun its prey with electricity -- 300-500 volts of it. The eel quickly swallows its prey before the prey has time to recover from the shock. [Fer-de-lance] -- (fair-duh-lance) Active: Both day and night Eats: Adults eat small mammals and birds; younger snakes also eat reptiles and amphibians Size: About as long as a gold club The fer-de-lance gets its name from the triangular shape of its head, which looks like the point of a spear or lance. Like many snakes, the fer-de-lance spends most of its time in a hiding place. One meal can satisfy a fer-de-lance for several weeks. The fer-de-lance is a VERY poisonous snake. If one bites you, and you do not have any antivenin, you might die. Even if you have antivenin, the wound from the bite can be very painful for several days. [Fork-tailed Woodnymph] -- (wood-nimf) Active: During the day Eats: Nectar (a sweet liquid found in flowers) and tiny insects Size: Slightly smaller and more delicate than a sparrow The fork-tailed woodnymph is a hummingbird. Hummingbirds can fly backward and forward. They can also hover like a helicopter, beating their wings up to 75 times per second. Small animals like hummingbirds use a lot of energy to maintain their body heat. Thus, "hummers" must eat more than their own body weight every day. Hummingbirds live from Alaska to Argentina. There are more than 200 species in South America as compared to about 12 species in North America. [Francisco de Orellana] -- (fran-SIS-koh day oh-ray-YAH-nah) Francisco de Orellana was a Spanish conquistador. In 1540, he set off from Quito, Ecuador, with Gonzalo Pizarro. They were looking for the golden city of El Dorado and the riches of spices. The expedition started off in grand style. There were 300 Spanish soldiers, 4,000 Indians and thousands of pigs, dogs, and llamas. But instead of gold and spices, they encountered bad weather and rough terrain. In desperation, they decided to split up. Pizarro stayed put with most of the men, while Orellana and 50 soldiers sailed down river in search of food. Orellana got so far down river before he found food that he decided not to go back. He continued down river, stealing food and killing Indians along the way. After eight months he reached the mouth of the Amazon. He claimed to have seen a tribe of female warriors, whom he called Amazons after the warrior women of Greek legend. The name has been used with the river ever since. [Gene Savoy] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Gene Savoy is an American explorer and archaeologist. In 1964 and 1965, he retraced the route of the early twentieth-century explorer Hiram Bingham. Savoy, like Bingham, was looking for the city where the last Inca Kings had hidden from the Spanish conquistadors. Savoy centered his search in Espiritu Pampa (The Plain of Ghosts). Bingham had visited there briefly, but he found only a few small buildings. Savoy and his team explored the area more carefully, cutting their way through dense rainforest. They found a 230-foot-long temple, a sunken palace, and more than 300 other buildings and houses. Today, researchers are convinced that Savoy found Vilcabamba -- the lost city of the Incas. [Giant Anteater] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: Day and night Eats: ANTS! (also TERMITES) Size: About as big as Lassie, with shorter legs and a much longer snout Anteaters have no teeth! They do, however, have two things that make them well-suited for their diet: First, they have strong, sharp front claws that they use for digging. In fact, their claws are so long that anteaters must walk on the sides of their feet. Second, anteaters have a very long tongue that is coated with sticky saliva. They shoot their tongue deep into an ant nest, snatch a few ants, and swallow them whole! [Giant Armadillo] -- (ar-muh-DILL-oh) Active: At night Eats: ANTS and TERMITES Size: Gigantic, at least compared to the nine-banded armadillo that occurs in the United States Giant armadillos are digging machines! They dig up their food, and they dig burrows for sleeping and raising their young. Armadillos have armor-like plates on their backs. When they are threatened, they sometimes curl up into a ball to protect themselves. Armadillos have a good sense of smell but very poor eyesight. If you are standing on a trail, and you have taken a bath recently, they might accidentally run into you. [Giant Catfish] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Edible?: Yes Size: Almost as big as a PIRARUCU Giant catfish like to hang out during the day near the bottom of major river channels -- sometimes as much as 150 feet deep. At night, they move into shallow water to prey on smaller fish. Catfish get their name from the fact that they have long whiskers called barbels. They are very sensitive and may even be able to detect smells. The barbels help catfish locate prey at night. There are about 500 species of catfish in the Amazon River, compared to about 20 in the Mississippi. [Goliath Bird-eating Spider] Active: At night Eats: Mostly insects, but also birds and small mammals Size: If you held it in your cupped hands (not that you would want to), its legs would hang out The Goliath bird-eating spider is a large, hairy-looking kind of spider commonly called a tarantula. It kills its prey by injecting venom from glands in its jaws. The birds it catches are usually babies in the nest. Bird-eating spiders may look dangerous to people, but they are not that bad. Their venom is not particularly hazardous to people. However, if you pick one up, you might get some of its prickly "hairs" stuck in your skin. [Great Egret] -- (EE-gret) Active: During the day Eats: Fish and frogs Size: About half as tall as an adult human being The great egret is a member of the heron family. They are almost always found near water. They like to wade in shallow water looking for food. The great egret is a bird that you can see as far south as the Amazon and as far north as the northern United States. Great egrets who summer in the northern edge of their range migrate south to the southern United States and Mexico. Amazonian egrets don't migrate. [Green Honeycreeper] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: During the day Eats: Nectar and berries Size: About as big as a sparrow Honeycreepers are similar to hummingbirds in that they use their long bills to extract nectar from flowers. Unlike hummingbirds, honeycreepers do not hover in mid-air. They perch on a branch next to a flower. Then they poke a hole at the base of the flower and drink the nectar. [Guarana] -- (gah-rah-NA) Guarana is a shrub or vine. Its fruit is ground into a powder that is used to make a beverage. Guarana is used as a stimulant like cola, tea, or coffee. In fact, it has up to six times as much caffeine as coffee. Guarana is also used as a medicine for heart and liver conditions. Guarana has been cultivated for hundreds of years. Because its seeds get moldy quickly, the Indians grind up the seeds and mix them with MANIOC flour. Then they form the mixture into sticks, which become hard and dry. To make a beverage, the Indians scrape the guarana stick over the raspy tongue of a PIRARUCU, producing a powder that is dissolved in water. In many parts of the Amazon today, you can buy guarana soda. It's similar to what the Indians make, except it has sugar added. [Harpy Eagle] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: During the day Eats: Monkeys and sloths Size: About the same size as a bald eagle; females usually larger than males. The harpy eagle is one of the largest birds in the rainforest. Sometimes the harpy eagle soars high above the trees. Most of the time, however, it stays in the forest itself and is very hard to see. It has a remarkable ability to fly through the treetops to catch its prey. [Henry Ford] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Henry Ford, the successful American industrialist, was overmatched by the Amazon rainforest. The founder of Ford Motor Company, Ford wanted a cheap source of rubber for tires. (Today, most rubber is made in the laboratory, but in Ford's day all of it came from RUBBER TREES.) So in 1927 Ford acquired two-and-a-half million acres of land near Santarem and started the Forlandia rubber plantation. It was a disaster. The land was hilly and rocky. None of Ford's managers knew anything about farming. The workers did not like how they were treated. The trees were severely damaged by diseases and insects. In 1945, Ford sold the plantation at a loss of $10 million. There are still rubber plantations in Amazonia today. But much rubber is also collected by SERINGUEROS, who extract rubber from trees scattered throughout the rainforest. [Henry Walter Bates] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Henry Walter Bates was a self-taught entomologist -- an expert on insects. In 1848, he went with ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE to explore the Amazon. Bates stayed for over ten years before returning to his home in England, In 1863, Bates published a book titled "The Naturalist on the River Amazons." Bates became one of the most famous entomologists in history. He discovered the important survival strategy called protective mimicry. This is a strategy that harmless animals use to protect themselves from predators. They make themselves look like poisonous animals! The Amazon has more kinds of insect than anywhere on Earth. Bates collected 14,712 different species; more than 8,000 of those were new to science. Even today, entomologists are discovering new species of insect in Amazonia. [Hoatzin] -- (watt-SEEN) Active: Near dawn and sunset; you might hear their croaking calls at night Eats: Leaves Size: About as big as a chicken Hoatzins are among the most unusual birds on Earth. For one thing, they
feed entirely on the leaves of PHILODENDRON plants. Very few birds eat leaves. Their breeding behavior is also unusual. Up to seven adults may help with one nest. Only one female lays the eggs, but other adults help incubate the eggs and feed the young birds. When young hoatzins first leave the nest, they have claws on their wings which they use to climb trees! They lose their claws when they become adults. [Ica River] -- (ee-CHA) The Ica River flows into the Amazon from the west, about 1,750 miles from Belem. The Ica begins as the Putumayo River high in the Andes Mountains in Peru, north of Quito. Its name changes to the Ica when it crosses into Brazil. The Putumayo was the site of large rubber operations at the turn of the century. Many native peoples were enslaved as SERINGUEROS and eventually tortured or killed. Today, the river is a major transportation route. Boats can navigate almost its entire length. Today, the Predio Putamayo Indigenous Reserve extends for 300 miles along the river in Peru. [Indigo] -- (IN-dih-goh) Indigo is a dark blue crystal or powder. Indians in Peru use indigo for dyeing cotton and wool. They make it from plants of the Indigofera species. When it first comes out of the plant, indigo has no color. After it is mixed with water, and the water evaporates, the indigo turns blue. Various kinds of indigo were used in many parts of the ancient world, including Egypt, Rome, and Greece. Until 1900, all indigo came from natural plants. Then, a German chemist learned the properties of indigo and was able to make a similar dye in the laboratory [Influenza] -- (in-floo-EN-zah) Influenza, or simply "flu," is an infection caused by a virus. Influenza affects your head, mouth, breathing tube, and lungs. If you have the flu, you probably caught it from another person who had it. You feel weak. Your muscles are sore. Your head aches. You get a fever and chills and a sore throat. Influenza is tough on visitors to the Amazon, but it is much worse on the Indians. Indians have no resistance to disease. Thousands upon thousands of Indians died from influenza after being infected by white people. there is no cure for influenza. The best treatment is aspirin, cough syrup, and rest. [Ipecacuanha Root] -- (ee-pay-kah-COO-nyah) Ipecacuanha root is native to the Amazon basin. It is used as a medicine for treating intestinal PARASITES and for internal poisoning. Indiants make a drink form piecacuanha root to induce vomiting. In the rainforest, where people (especially young children) might accidentally eat poisonous leaves or fruits, this is an important medicine. Today, you can go into any drugstore and buy "ipecac." It is a common medicine that comes from this same root. Just as in the rainforest, it is used to induce vomiting when someone has swallowed a poisonous substance. [Iquitos] -- (ee-KEE-toes) Iquitos, about 2,300 miles upriver from Belem, was first an Indian village and then a military outpost. It became a bustling town during the rubber boom of the 1880s. At that time, millionaires began to build mansions and large buildings in Iquitos. One building in the central square was designed by Alexandre Eiffel -- the same architect who designed the Eiffel Tower in Paris. After the rubber boom, Iquitos once again became a quiet river town. Renewed economic interest in wood products, tourism, mining, and oil exploration have sparked some recent growth in Iquitos. Today, however, it is still somewhat of an outpost. There are no roads leading into or out of Iquitos! The only way in is by boat or plane. [Isabela Godin] -- (EES-ah-BELL-ah go-dan) Isabela Godin was the first white woman to travel from Quito, Ecuador, to the mouth of the Amazon. Her husband was a member of a Spanish scientific expedition. He had left Quito in 1749 to travel down the Amazon and return to France. He had never made that trip before, and he wanted to test it himself before having his wife do it. But he got stuck down river and was never able to return to her again. Finally, after 20 years, Madame Godin decided to make the journey without her husband. She set out with a large group of people including her children and brothers, some Indians, and a slave. The trip was a disaster. One after another, party members either ran off or died. Isabela Godin was left all alone. She wandered aimlessly in the rainforest for several days until some Indians found her and helped her reach her destination. Miraculously, she and her husband were reunited near BELEM. [Jaguar] -- (JAG-wahr) Active: Day and night Eats: Large mammals like CAPYBARAS; also reptiles, birds, fish, and small mammals Size: Largest cat in the Amazon and third-largest in the world Jaguars are at the top of the Amazon food pyramid. Jaguars eat things that eat other things, but nothing eats jaguars! They maintain large territories -- up to 10 square miles. They are solitary except when mating and when females are raising their cubs. If you are lucky enough to see a jaguar, it will probably be near water. You are more likely to hear one -- their roaring can be heard for large distances. Most jaguars are orange with black spots, but some are black with barely visible spots. [Japura River] -- (yah-poo-RAH) The Japura and Jurua rivers are both Amazon tributaries that are over 1,000 miles long. The Japura flows from the west-northwest. Its source is in the Colombian highlands, where it is called the Rio Caquette. It is about 1,100 miles long. [Jarua River] -- (yoo-roo-AH) The Jarua flows from the southwest into the Amazon. It begins in the Peruvian highalnds and flows through the Brazilian state of Acre. The Jurua is over 2,000 miles long. [Jivaro Tribe] -- (HEE-var-roh) The Jivaro Indians live in the area between the NAPO River and the MARANON. They are fierce defenders of their territory. They are known for their BLOWGUNS, shrunken heads, huge signal drum, and warfare. Th Jivaro make shrunken heads of their enemies. First, the skin is cut away from the skull and the lips are sewn together. Next, the head is boiled with a special plant to shrink it and keep the hair from falling out. Then, hot sand and stones are put inside to shrinki it some more. Finally, the head is smoked, polished, and stored in a clay jar. The Jivaro were first contacted by the Spanish in the 1550s but drove them away. In the 1760s, and again in the mid-1800s, the Jesuits tried to establish a mission in Jivaro territory but were driven out. [Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru] -- (HOE-say gah-bree-ELL too-PAHK ah-mah-ROO) The last Inca revolt took place in 1780-1783, just a few years after the American Revolution. Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru was its leader. He was the great-great-great grandson of the last Inca King, Tupac Amaru Inca, who had ruled in the hidden city of VILCABAMBA. Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru was an educated nobleman who had extensive land holdings. He wrote "I am the only one who remains of the royal blood of the Incas, kings of this kingdom. I have decided to try all means possible that all abuses introduced and planted by the corregidores and other persons may cease." The rebellion spread throughout Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, and northwest Argentina. When Tupac Amaru was captured and executed by Spanish military forces, there were over 30,000 Inca troops still fighting. Eventually, the rebellion was put down. [Julio Arana] -- (HOO-lee-oh ah-RAH-nyah) In the early twentieth century, Julio Arana, a Peruvian, controlled the rubber harvest in a large area from IQUITOS up the Rio Putamayo. Instead of hiring professional rubber trappers, he enslaved Indians -- mainly the WITOTO. Arana's company, the Peruvian Amazon Rubber Company, was known for its cruelty. Indians received no pay other than food. They were flogged. They received no medical treatment. They were tortured and killed if they failed to collect their quota of rubber. Before the authorities caught up with him, Arana had become responsible for the deaths of as many as 50,000 Indians. [Juruna Tribe] -- (zhoo-ROO-nah) The Juruna were first described by Westerners in 1640, when several thousand lived near the mouth of the XINGU. They cultivated MANIOC and supplemented their diet by hunting and gathering. They were cannibalistic. In the late 1600s, Jesuit missionaries tried but failed to "tame" the Juruna. (In those days, and indeed until very recently, Indians who were friendly to Europeans were called tame, and Indians who resisted were called wild.) By moving farther and farther up the Xingu River, the Juruna were able to maintain their culture until the late 1800s. But then they were enslaved by rubber barons. In 1916, the 50 or so surviving Juruna escaped deep into the rainforest. They were contacted again by the VILLAS BOAS brothers in 1949. [Justicia] -- (jhoo-STEESE-ee-uh) Several varities of justicia plants are native to Amazonia. Different tribes use justicia leaves and roots for a variety of purposes. One type of justicia is used to make snuff. Another type is dried and used as a perfume. Another type is dusted on the body and used as an insect repellant. Other kinds of justicia are used by Indian tribes to cure serious illnesses, including pneumonia and palsy. [Kayapo Tribe] -- (kay-YAH-poh) The Kayapo Indians' range is around the XINGU River and westward to the Tapajos. The Kayapo are a peaceful people who have great agricultural and botanical knowledge. Several research teams have studied the Kayapo Indians' use of domestic and wild plants. Western botanists have called the Kayapo "extraordinary scientists." Recently, the Kayapo have struggled with invading gold miners, ranchers, and encroaching villages. One of their chiefs, Paikan, has testified at conferences in the United States on the effect of thousands of settlers in the tribal areas. He has also spoken of the effect of huge hydroelectric dams like the Xingu Dam Complex that would have flooded 20 million acres of rainforest and created the world's largest man-made body of water. After his testimony, the Xingu dam was put on hold. [King Vulture] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: During the day Eats: Carrion (dead animals) Size: A little smaller than a bald eagle There are five species of vultures in Amazonia. Two of them, the turkey vulture and the black vulture, also occur in North America. The king vulture is slightly bigger, and much more colorful, than the North American varities. Vultures have no feathers on their heads. Scientists believe that this trait is related to their diet and feeding behavior. If you had to eat by sticking your head into the carcass of a dead animal, you would probably want a bald head too! [Kinkajou] -- (KING-kuh-joo) Active: At night Eats: Fruit and insects Size: Like a skinny house cat Kinkajous are related to raccoons, but they look more like monkeys. In fact, some native people call kinkajous and NIGHT MONKEYS by the same name. Kinkajous are unusual in that they can hold onto branches with their tail. This type of tail is called prehensile. Kinkajous are very agile and can move quickly through the treetops. When they eat fruits, they often swallow the seeds, which pass unharmed through their digestive system. In this way kinkajous help new trees get established. [Leche Caspi] -- (LAY-shay cahs-PEE) Leche caspi, also called chicle, comes from the latex of a tropical fruit tree. This latex -- a thick, milky sap -- is the main substance from which chewing gum used to be made. When it comes out of the tree, the latex is white and runny. It hardens into pink or reddish-brown rubbery chunks. Amazonian tribes, as well as the Maya and Inca peoples, have enjoyed leche caspi for centuries. It was imported to the United States in the 1800s. By the 1890s, it was used as the main ingredient in chewing gum. Since the 1940s, synthetic ingredients have been used instead of leche caspi. [Leticia/Javari River] -- (lay-TEE-see-ah)/(zha-VAR-ee) Leticia is Colombia's port city on the Amazon, about 2,000 miles upriver from Belem. Founded by Peruvians as a military outpost in the 1860s, it became a Colombian city in the 1930s. It is the point where the borders of Colombia, Peru, and Brazil meet. It is often called "Tres Fronteras," or Three Borders. You can walk across the border to the Brazilian city of Tabatinga. There are no roads leading to Leticia, but there is an airport and boats go to MANAUS and IQUITOS. Leticia was once a central trading village for many of the surrounding tribes. Today, it is a center for illegal drug and animal skin trafficking, and it is developing a tourist trade. [Lope de Aguirre] -- (LOH-pay day AHG-ee-ray) Aguirre was a member of a Spanish expedition from Cuzco, in what is now Peru, near the source of the Amazon River. In 1558, the expedition set out to conquer the Omagua Indians and find El Dorado, the mythical city of gold. The expedition was derailed by numerous mutinies and murders. Aguirre and another man killed the expedition leader, and Aguirre took over. He continued down the Amazon, leaving a trail of blood and rebellion. Aguirre made it all the way to the Atlantic Ocean. Along the way, he declared his independance from the King of Spain and pronounced himself to be the new king. His plan was to conquer several South American countries. Aguirre, who called himself "the wolf," the rebel," "the traitor," and "the wanderer," was clearly a madman. Eventually, he was captured. He was executed in public, and his body was quartered. [Loren McIntyre] -- (LOAR-en MACK-in-tire) Loren McIntyre is an author, photographer, and explorer who has spent most of his professional life in Amazonia -- from the Andes Mountains to the rainforest lowlands. He is recognized as having the most experience in Amazonia of any North American journalist. In 1971, McIntyre led an expedition that found the source of the Amazon River. The source is a lake at the headwaters of the APURIMAC River south of VILCABAMBA. The lake has been named after McIntyre. McIntyre is also an ethnographer -- a person who studies human cultures. Once, when he was with the MAYORUNA Indians, he was missing for nearly a year. McIntyre once said, "THe first explorers of South American were Indians." His photographs of native tribes and wildlife have been published in National Geographic magazine and more than 400 other books and publications. His 1991 book, "Amazonia," has particularly beautiful photographs. [Lungfish] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Edible?: Yes Size: A nice, pan-size fish While most fish breathe with gills, lungfish do indeed have a lung with which they breathe. Lungfish have been around for at least 150 million years. They may have been the first animal to develop a lung. Lungfish thrive in oxygen-poor lakes. In the dry season, when the lakes dry up, the lungfish bury themselves in the mud. They hibernate until the wet season returns. [Maku Tribe] -- (mah-KOO) The Maku live in a territory between the Rio Negro and the Japura river. They first encountered Europeans in the late 1800s and the early 1900s at the beginning of the RUBBER boom. There are two groups of Makus: "the howling monkey" Maku who are isolated and the "tame" Maku who maintain contact with Brazilian and European settlements. The "howling monkey" Maku are thought to be the last of an ancient people that once lived in large areas of the Amazon Basin. These Maku are excellent hunters and warriors who carry six-foot BLOWGUNS and arrows tipped in CURARE. They also carry bows, war clubs, and stone axes. [Malaria] -- (muh-LAIR-ee-uh) Malaria is a serious infection that affects your blood and spleen. Malaria is caused by a microscopic organism that enters your blood through the bite of a certain type of mosquito, the anopheles. If you get malaria, you start feeling feverish. You have sudden outbursts of chills. You become anemic or weak because your blood is low on red blood cells that carry oxygen. Your spleen becomes enlarged. You may even suffer brain damage. If left untreated, malaria can be fatal. You can usually, but not always, prevent malaria by taking anti-malaria pills before you travel to a place like the Amazon. Once you're there, you should stay out of mosquito-infested areas and wear insect repellant. You can treat malaria with quinine, which is made from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree. Sometimes, however, malaria resists treatment and becomes chronic, or long-lasting. [Manioc] -- (MAN-ee-ahk) Manioc has been cultivated by Amazonian Indians for at least 5,000 years. It is also called yuca or cassava. The edible part of manioc is a starchy root that is pulled from the ground. It is the staple carbohydrate in the Amazon diet. No other kind of starchy food grows well in Amazonia. There are two kinds of manioc. Bitter manioc contains cyonide, a poison that must be removed by soaking before the manioc is eaten. Sweet manioc is not poisonous and is cooked like potatoes. Recently, manioc has been developed into a fuel for motor vehicles. [Maranon River] -- (mar-ah-NYON) The Maranon River, about 2,400 miles upriver from Belem, was named for its maze of waterways and islands. In Portuguese and Spanish, Maranon means tangle, maze, or snarl. The Maranon is one of the Amazon's major tributaries. It starts in Lake Lauricocha, high in the Andes Mountains of Peru near the Pacific Ocean. It flows through the Peruvian rainforest and then joins the Ucayali River. Where the Maranon and Ucayali come together, the river takes on the name Las Amazanos or The River Amazon. Until the 1950s, the Maranon was thought to be the source of the Amazon River. Today, the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve lies between the Maranon and the Ucayali. [Mask] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Masks are used throughout the Amazon in tribal rituals. Many are carved from wood. The wooden masks are sewn to a hood pounded from the inner bark of certain types of palm trees. The mask covers the head, and the hood sometimes goes all the way down to the knees. Many maska are made to look like rainforest animals. Others represent gods and spirits. Masks are sacred items, and women are not allowed to wear them. About a hundred years ago in the northwestern part of the Amazon, two Franciscan priests brought out a sacred tribal mask while they were preaching to a group of Tariana Indians. The Tariana were furious. They started a rebellion, the Yurupari Revolt, and drove all Franciscan priests out of the area. [Mayoruna Tribe] -- (my-oh-ROO-nah) The Mayoruna Indians live in western Amazonia near the Ucayali River. They are known as the "Cat People" because they often have cat-like whiskers tattooed on their cheeks. The Mayoruna may have admitted some Spanish stragglers from AGUIRRE's voyage into their tribe. The Mayoruna were contacted by missionaries in 1654. An epidemic soon followed, and the tribe was reduced to about 1,000 people. After the missionaries left, the Mayoruna remained hidden and elusive. In 1851, W.L. Herndon sent the U.S. Congress a report that included these words: "[The Mayoruna] attack any person who goes into their territory." [Munduruku Tribe] -- (moon-dew-roo-KOO) The Munduruku live along the Tapajos and TROMBETAS rivers. They are a fierce people who aggressively defend their territory. The Munduruku are known for their beautiful garments made of feathers and for their elaborate tattoos. Children begin to get tattoos by the age of eight, and their bodies are not fully decorated until age 20. The Munduruku are headhunters. They collect the heads of their enemies and their own warriors who die in battle. They put the heads on trophy sticks and decorate them with feathers and dyes. [Napo River] -- (NAH-poe) The Napo River begins in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador. It flows from the northeast into the Amazon about 2,200 miles upriver from Belem. Spanish explorers and conquistadors of the 1500s made their headquarters in Quito, Ecuador. They traveled on the Nap into Amazonia. In 1542, FRANCISCO DE ORELLANA navigated the Napo on his way to the mouth of the Amazon. A small village at the mouth of the Amazon bears his name. [Night Monkey] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: At night, of course! Eats: Mostly fruit; some insects Size: With its tail curled up, one would fit in a grocery bag Night monkeys are the only monkeys in the world that are active at night. All other types of monkeys are active during the day. Their large eyes help night monkeys see. If you shine a flashlight at them, they will run away. But if you wait for a bright moonlit night, you may get a good view of them. In different parts of the Amazon, night monkeys have different colors and patterns of fur. Scientists are not sure how many species of night monkeys there are. [Pedro de Teixeira] -- (Pay-dro day tay-ee-SHAY-ee-rah) Pedro de Teixeira was a Portuguese soldier and explorer. He helped establish Portugal as the dominant European power in Amazonia. To this day, Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Teixeira led a group of 1,200 men in 47 canoes to explore the entire length of the Amazon River. They departed from BELEM in October 1637. No one in the expedition was a good pilot, but Teixeira and his men were able to make their way upriver. They did not go all the way to the source of the Amazon (In fact, the source of the Amazon was not discovered until 1971 by LOREN MCINTYRE.) They left the Amazon to travel up the Napo River on their way to Quito, Ecuador. After almost a year of travel, Teixeira reached Quito, near the western coast of South America. He then returned safely to Belem. [Leaf-cutter Ant] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: Both day and night Eats: Fungus Size: Normal ant size. Queens are by far the biggest, followed by soldiers. Workers are smallest. Leaf-cutter ants "harvest" pieces of leaves. Each piece may weight up to 50 times more than the ant. They carry the pieces to their huge underground nests. In the nest, they break the leaves into tiny pieces. Then they add chemicals from their own bodies and a smidgen of fungus. The fungus grows, and the ants eat the fungus. Leaf-cutting ants are incredibly numerous in the Amazon. Scientists estimate that they cut at least 15% of all the vegetation in the rainforest. [Liana] -- (lee-AH-nuh) Lians are the vines that are draped around trees throughout the rainforest. There are many different species of lianas. Some lianas start out as a shrub, with roots in the ground. Other lianas begin life when their seeds are dropped by birds on the branches of trees. In either case, lianas grow by wrapping themselves around the trunks of trees. Sometimes a liana will wrap itself so tightly that it actually strangles and kills the tree. In fac, one species of liana is commonly called the strangler fig. the stems of certain lianas are hollow and contain drinkable water! They are used by people traveling through the rainforest. But you have to be careful: Some lianas contain water that is poisonous. [Madeira River] At more than 2,000 miles long, the Madeira river is the longest tributary of the Amazon. In fact, it is the longest tributary in the world. On its own, the Madeira is the fourth-longest river in the world. It enters the Amazon from the south, about 1,000 miles upriver from Belem. The Madeira River was explored by COLONEL RONDON in 1907, when the Brazilian government wanted to set up a telegraph line from Porto Velho to MANAUS. A few years later, TEDDY ROOSEVELT and Rondon explored the river and had a very rough go of it. Today, a highway cuts through the Amazon rainforest where Rondon marked out the path for the telegraph, but many parts of the Madeira Valley are still relatively uncharted and unexplored. [Manaus] Manaus, about 1,100 miles upriver from BELEM, is the largest city in central Amazonia. It was founded in 1660 as a Portuguese fort. By the mid-1800s, when it was called Barra, it was a wild and dangerous place. Natural ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE said "Morals in Barra are perhaps at the lowest ebb in any civilized community." During the rubber boom, all rubber was shipped out of Manaus. The great wealth financed the building of a lavish opera house and other grand structures. Manaus got electric street lights before London. When the rubber boom collapsed in 1912, the wealth vanished. Today, Manaus is again a major trading center. [Mealy Parrot] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: During the day Eats: Fruits, nuts, and seeds Size: Almost as big as a crow The mealy parrot is the largest of several mostly-green parrots that are commonly called "Amazon parrots." Their coloration can make it very hard for predators to see them in the trees. Parrots are agile climbers. Their feet have two claws facing forward and two facing backward. This arrangement helps them hold onto branches and food. In addition, they frequently use their beaks as an extra foot. Not all Amazon parrots live in Amazonia. Some live as far north as Mexico. [Mushroom] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) The floor of the rainforest has a thin layer of pungent, decomposing plant material. The material is decomposing -- changing from dead to alive -- through the actions of mushrooms and various other life forms. Mushrooms, lichens, mosses, and insects all feed on the plant material and turn it into nutrients that can be used by other plants and animals. Just as in other parts of the world, the Amazon has some mushrooms that are edible and some that are poisonous. [Ocelot] -- (AHSS-uh-lot) Active: Mainly atnight Eats: Small mammals Size: About halfway between a house cat and a JAGUAR; males bigger than females Ocelots are the most common type of cat in the Amazon. Like most cats, ocelots are solitary and secretive. They hunt on the ground, often walking on trails made by people. They will climb trees to find a resting place or to cross streams. It is very unusual to actually see an ocelot. But it's not too hard to see signs of them. You might see their footprints in the mud on a trail or riverbank, and you might see scratch marks on fallen trees. Ocelots and some other cats scratch trees to mark their territories. [Orchid] -- (OR-kid) Orchids are among the most beautiful flowers in the world. About 500 species are known to occur in Amazonia. This number will probably grow as BOTANISTS continue to explore the rainforest. Many species of orchids attach themselves to trees. This is a strategy that helps the orchids get more sunlight -- almost no sunlight reaches the floor of a tropical rainforest. Plants that grow on other plants are called epiphytes. Many typesof orchids are pollinated by bees, and certain types of bees pollinate only certain types of orchids. Some orchid blossoms smell like female bees, which trick male bees into visiting the flowers and transporting the flowers' pollen. [Paradise Tanager] -- (TAN-uh-jer) Active: During the day Eats: Fruits and some insects Size: About as big as a sparrow The paradise tanager is one of the most beautiful of a large group of beautiful birds. In fact, there are more than 200 species of tanagers in South America. by contrast, there are about 650 total species of birds in North America. Paradise tanagers tend to move slowly and methodically through the forest looking for food. They often travel in flocks of several different species fo birds, including other tanagers, HONEYCREEPERS, ANTBIRDS, and EUPHONIAS. [Parasites] -- (PAIR-uh-sites) Parasites are organisms that invade -- and continue to live in -- your body. The most common parasites in the rainforest are worms that live in your intestines. Up to half the people who live in the Amazon year- -round may have intestinal parasites. Some parasites enter your body through the soles of your feet. Others enter through contaminated food. When you get parasites, you begin to feel weak and sluggish. You may lose your appetite. Your ability to eat and digest food will not be enough to sustain you. Your stomach and also your liver may swell. The treatment for parasites is strong medicines that poison the worms living inside you. The poison kills the parasites but can also make you sick. [Passionflower] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) A passionflower is a vine that produced beautiful flowers. Passionflowers go to great lengths to protect themselves form insects. They produce different forms of a poison called cyanide in their leaves, which not many insects can eat -- except certain types of caterpillars. These caterpillars have developed an immunity to specific types of cyanides produced by specific passionflower species. For added protection, passionflowers also produce nectars that attract aggressive ants and wasps. The presence of these insects helps keep the caterpillars away. [Philodendron] -- (fill-oh-DEN-drun) The common house plant philodendron is actually native to tropical rainforests. Philodendron is a climbing plant, beginning life on the ground. A small shoot comes out of the ground and seeks out the shade of a nearby tree. The shoot grows up the tree trunk, attaching itself to the trunk with small roots. It keeps climbing, all the way to the top if necessary, to find sunlight. Some philodendron leaves contain a substance that makes your mouth burn. This is a plant's way of defending itself against plant-eating enemies. There are many different kinds of philodendron. Indians use the different kinds for many different purposes. One kind is used to poison fish. Another is an oral contraceptive. Another is used to treat skin infections. [Pilocarpus] -- (pee-loh-KAR-poos) Pilocarpus is a native plant of Brazil's rainforest. Ointments made from this plant are used to treat eye problems among southern Amazon basin tribes. A drug, pilocarpine, has been developed from pilocarpus to treat glaucoma. Pilocarpine is used by eye doctors in many parts of the world today. [Pirarucu] -- (pee-rar-oo-KOO) Edible?: Yes Size: Possibly the largest freshwater fish in the world. Can be half as long as a station wagon and as heavy as two football players. In some ways, the pirarucu is a mammal. First, it cares for its young for four months, much longer than most fish. The mother helps her young find her by secreting a milky-white fluid from pores in her head. Second, pirarucus do not breathe underwater with gills. Instead, they have an air-bladder, similar to a mammal's lungs. They usually come to the surface to breathe ever 10 or 15 minutes. In addition to having teeth in their jaws, pirarucus also have teeth on their tongues. Yikes! [Poison Dart Frog] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: During the day Eats: Termites and ants Size: Some are as big as your thumbnail; others are as big as your whole thumb There are at least 100 species of poison dart frogs. Most have two things in common. First, they have pockets in their skin that contain poison, which makes them very undesirable to predators. Second, they have brightly colored skin, which warns predators to stay away. How did the poison dart frog get its name? Some native people extract the poison by warming a frog over a fire. Then they coat the tips of their arrows with the poison. When they shoot a mammal or bird, the poison paralyzes it. [Pucallpa] -- (poo-CAHL-pah) Pucallpa is a large Amazon port city in Peru that dates back to the early 1500s. Until 1945, when the Lima-Pucallpa highway was completed, it was very isolated. It lies on the west side of the Amazon known as the Ucayali River, about 2,900 miles upriver from Belem. Today, Pucallpa is still a frontier town. There is electricity, but no paved roads. Pucallpa is a center for local agriculture and industry. There are saw mills, oil fields, and factores for extracting ROSEWOOD OIL. Large river boats arrive from IQUITOS. Just west of Pucallpa are the Biabo-Cordillera Azul National Forest and the ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT National Forest. [Purus River] -- (poo-ROOS) The Purus River, over 1,000 miles long, is one of the Amazon's seven great tributaries. It flows into the Amazon from the southwest, about 1,300 miles upriver from Belem. Its source is in the Andean foothills of Peru. It passes through the huge agricultural section of the Brazilian state of Acre, where much deforestation has taken place. Then, it meanders through a very low-lying area of the Amazon basin. It is called "the world's crookedest river." The Purus joins the Amazon River about 100 miles upriver from the Rio Negro, about 800 miles from Belem. In Brazil, the section of the Amazon River between IQUITOS and the Rio Negros is known as the Solimoes River. [Pygmy Marmoset] -- (PIG-me MAR-moe-set) Active: During the day Eats: Sap, insects, and sometimes fruit Size: If it would sit still for long enough, you could hold on in your cupped hands. Pygmy marmosets are the world's smallest monkeys. They have sharp teeth with which they dig holes into trees and vines. Then they lap up the sap or resin that collects in the holes. They return to the same holes day after day. Pygmy marmosets move quickly and quietly, so they are difficult to see. You are more likely to hear them make their birdlike whistles and chirping sounds. They are too small to be worth hunting for food, so marmosets tend to be common near towns and villages. [Red-billed Scythebill] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: During the day Eats: Insects and the occasional frog Size: About as big as a blue jay The red-billed scythebill is in a family of birds called woodcreepers. They hunt insects in the bark of tree trunks and in flowers that grow on trees. Most woodcreepers are brown, which helps camouflage them against the tree trunks. Usually, a scythebill will start its search for food near the bottom of a tree. It clings to the trunk with its feet and uses its stiff tail as a prop. Then it takes small hops arond the tree, slowly spiraling upward. [Red-bellied Pirahna] - (puh-RAH-nyuh) Edible?: Yes, but be careful when you bring it into the boat Size: In the words of TEDDY ROOSEVELT, "short, deep-bodied" Groups of 12-100 red-bellied pirahnas hunt together. Pirahnas rarely attack people; they are most dangerous when they are handled out of the water. But don't go swimming if you see one! The red-bellied pirahna is one of at least 20 species in Amazonia. The red-bellied kills its prey, but most species of pirahna do not. Instead, they take small bites out of other fishes fins or scales. The fins and scales grow back, which means that the pirahnas can feed on the same fish many times. [Red-rumped Agouti] -- (uh-GOO-tee) Active: Mostly near dawn and dusk Eats: Fruits, nuts, and seeds Size: About as big as a North American raccoon The red-rumped agouti is a medium-sized rodent. There are somewhere between two and six species of agoutis in South America. Scientists need to do more research to learn how to identify the different species. Like squirrels, agoutis bury nuts and seeds when food is abundant. Later, when food is scarce, they dig them up. Sometimes they don't dig them up, and the nuts grow into trees! [Red Howler Monkey] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: During the day Eats: Leaves and fruits Size: Larger than most Amazonian monekys; males larger than females There are two species of howler monekys in the Amazon -- one on each size of the river. They get their name from the incredibly loud sounds they make. Howlers have smaller home ranges than other large monkeys. This is partly because howlers eat a lot of leaves and so do not need to roam very far in search of food. Howlers spend most of their time in the middle and upper levels of the forest. They are generally slow- -moving and quiet. If you disturb them, howwever, they might urinate or defecate on you. [Rhinoceros Beetle] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: Both day and night Eats: Other insects Size: About as long as your index finger The rhinoceros beetle is so named because the male has a "horn" that looks like the horn of a rhino. The females do not have horns. Males use their horns when they fight with one another. They seem to fight over feeding territory. Worldwide, there are at least 300,000 known species of beetles. More and more are being discovered because scientists are exploring in new places such as the upper canopy of rainforests. [Richard Evans Schutles] -- (SHOOL-tees) Richard Evans Schutles is a pioneer in the field of ethnobotany. An ethnobotanist finds out how different cultures use plants for medicine, as food, and in rituals. Schultes explored the Amazon in the 1940s and 1950s. Frequently, he would spend a full year or more in the field so that he could witness the annual life-cycles of the plants he was studying. "A botanist literally must live with them (plants) to be successful in his efforts," Schultes said. He met with the medicine men of many tribes to learn which plants they used, what they used them for, and how they prepared them. After extensive field research, Schutles began publishing articles and books about the use of rainforest plants. His research is summarized in a book, "The Healing Forest," published in 1990. [Richard Spruce] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Richard Spruce was a British mathemetician and self-taught botanist. In 1848, he learned that fellow Englishman ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE and HENRY WALTER BATES had gone to Amazonia, and decided to follow them. Over the course of 15 years, Spruce collected thousands of plant specimins. His travels took him along almost the entire length of the Amazon -- from BELEM to the Andes Mountains. Spruce was hired by the British government to help smuggle CINCHONA seeds and plants out of Peru. The bark of cinchona is extremely valuable because it contains a substance that cures MALARIA. The cinchona that Spruce helped to smuggle turned out to be worthless. [Rio Negro] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) The Rio Negro (Portuguese for Black River) is one of seven Amazon tributaries that are over 1,000 miles long. In its own right, the Rio Negro is one of the biggest rivers in the world. In fact, where the two rivers meet, the Rio Negro and the Amazon are about the same size. [Rosewood Oil] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Two kinds of sweet-scented rosewood trees produce a substance called linalool that is the main ingredient in rosewood oil. Rosewood oil is used as a scent in soaps and perfumes. Today, it is one of the most valuable crops of the Amazon rainforest. There are about 50 factories in the Amazon rainforest that extract oil from the rosewood tree. The trees are cut down and sent through a wood chipper. A ton of wood yields about 20 pounds of oil. The oil is exported -- about 70% of the United States and the rest to Europe. Efforts are underway to figure out how to extract rosewood oil without cutting down the tree. [Rubber Ball] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) The RUBBER TREE produces a milky substance called latex. The latex is collected by SERINGUEROS. The seringueros carry the latex back to a processing camp, where they pour it slowly upon a turning spit over a smoky fire. The latex hardens and the ball slowly grows in size. The ball gets to be bigger than a basketball and can weigh up to 80 pounds. The usefulness of latex to the rubber tree is not known for certain; it may be used as a protection against insects. But people have found many uses for it. Indians used it for balls for sport and also to make waterproof bottles. In 1888, British veterinarian John Dunlop developed air-filled rubber tires, and the world was changed forever. [Rubber Tree] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) The rubber tree is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 120 feet. Its sap is a milky-white substance called latex that is the raw ingredient for rubber. Western cultures started to make use of rubber in about 1820, but the rubber was sticky, stinky, and short- -lived. In 1839, Charles Goodyear developedd a process to make rubber easy to handle, not stinky, and long-lasting. Then, in 1888, John Dunlop created air-filled tires, and the rubber industry exploded. Rubber is still a major cash crop in Amazonia. There are some rubber plantations, but a lot of rubber is collected from widely scattered trees by SERINGUEROS. In the tropical forests of Asia and Africa, where there are no pests that harm rubber trees, plantations have been more successful. [Santarem] -- (san-tan-RAIN) Santarem is a large port city where the Tapajos River flows into the Amazon about 600 miles upriver from Belem. Santarem was founded as a Jesuit mission in 1661, and a fort was built at this spot by PEDRO DE TEIXEIRA. Originally, Santarem was named Tapajos after the Indians who lived in the area and the river of the same name. After the U.S. Civil War, a large group of Confederate exiles settled in Santarem. Although many returned to the United States, there are still many descendants of the Confederate exiles still living in Santarem today. [Scarlet Macaw] -- (muh-CAW) Active: During the day Eats: Fruits, nuts, and seeds Size: Body about as big as a crow, with an incredibly long tail As you might guess by looking at its body shape, beak, and feet, the scarlet macaw is a type of parrot. There are 14 species of macaws in South America and Central America; about half of them can be found in various parts of Amazonia. The scarlet macaw's beak is so powerful that it can crack open nuts, including the touch BRAZIL NUT. Like most parrots, scarlet macaws are almost always seen in groups of from two to twenty or more birds. [Seringuero (Rubber Tapper)] -- (say-reen-GAY-roh) Seringuero is the Portuguese word for rubber tapper. Seringueros slash the bark of RUBBER TREES and attach buckets below the slashes. The latex oozes out slowly. Once the latex is collected, it must be processed. The seringuero pours the latex on a revolving spit over a low fire. The latex hardens into a ball that the seringuero can take to market. Indians have always used small amounts of rubber. When white people discovered that they could use rubber for tires and other purposes, a giant industry was created. The whites enslaved Indians and forced them to become full- -time seringueros. Thousands of Indians died from overwork or torture or attempting to escape. Today, thanks in large part to the efforts of Chico Mendes, independant seringueros have made a comeback. They have become some of the strongest advocates for preserving the rainforest. [Smallpox] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Smallpox is a very severe infectious disease caused by a virus. The virus is spread from one human to another. Smallpox affects your lymph system and skin. Smallpox begins with a high fever. About two days later, small bumps, like pimples, begin to appear all over your body. These pimples begin to blister and fill with fluid. Then, the blisters break and begin to weep pus. They dry up and leave little scars. Smallpox can be fatal. Since about 1977, smallpox has been eradicated from the world. It is the only living thing that people have intentionally made extinct. Before then, it was one of the most feared diseases in the world. [Spectacled Caiman] -- (KAY-mun) Active: Both day and night Eats: Anything that crawls, walks, swims, or flies, whether alive or dead Size: A little smaller than your average alligator Being reptiles, caimans are cold-blooded. This means that their body temperature is determined by the outside environment. Caimans like to keep warm, so they spend their days basking on the sunny river banks. By soaking up energy from the sun, caimans reduce the amount of energy they must obtain by eating. Like most potentially dangerous animals in the Amazon, caimans try to avoid people, so there is little danger of one attacking you. Still, it's not a good idea to go swimming near them. [Spectacled Owl] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: At night Eats: Small mammals, birds, snakes, and frogs Size: A little bigger than a crow Like most owls, spectacled owls are active at night. Animals that are active at night are said to be "nocturnal." Owls have three traits that help them get food. First, they have superb vision, even when there is very little light. Second, they have excellent hearing. Third, they have strong, sharp claws for grabbing prey. Unlike people, owls cannot move their eyes in their sockets. Instead, they have flexible necks which allow them to look directly backwards. [Stingray] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Edible?: Yes, but it can be dangerous if you try to catch one Size: Relatively flat and round, like a garbage-can lid The stingray gets its name from its dangerous tail. The tail is dangerous for two reasons. First, it is poisonous. Second, it is sharp and serrated, like a bread knife. A sting is rarely fatal, but it is very painful. The pain can be extreme for up to 10 days. Stingrays like to bury themselves in the sand. Most accidents occur when someone steps on a stingray in shallow water. The good news is that the stingray only uses its sting in defense. If you leave it alone, a stingray will not attack you. [Student] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Students from all over the world have come to the Amazon to study biology, botany, ecology, anthropology, and many other subjects! There is much to discover in the rainforest, much that is not known. For example, scientists and students have only recently begun to explore the upper canopy of the rainforest. There are thousands of plants and mammals in the upper canopy that do not exist at lower levels of the rainforest. Another little-known subject concerns the economic value of rainforest plants. Only a tiny percentage of plants have bene studied for their value as food, medicine, and other uses. Still another subject that needs more study is the proper management of fish. Today, because of unwise fishing practices, many species of fish are not as numerous as they used to be. We need to learn how to take advantage of this enormous source of food without using it all up. [Tambaqui] -- (TOM-bah-key) Edible?: Yes Size: About as long as your arm The tambaqui eats fruit and seeds from trees. How is this possible? Well, for about half the year, vast areas along river channels are flooded. About 2% of Amazonia -- an area the size of Kentucky -- is affected. fish and other aquatic animals are able to swim where, during the season of low water, land creatures walk. It is during this time of year that many trees bear fruit, which drops into the water. In addition to the tambaqui, about 200 others species of fish take advantage of this source of food. [Tapajos River] -- (tah-pah-JHOISE) The Tapajos River flows into the Amazon from the south. South of Santarem on the Tapajos, HENRY FORD established his rubber plantation, Fordlandia, in the 1920s to supply the Ford Motor Company with its own source of rubber. [Termite] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Active: Day and night Eats: Dead wood and other plant material Size: A queen full of eggs can be as big as a hot dog; other termites are no longer than your fingernail Termites are essential to rainforest ecology. They eat dead plant material and return it to the soil so that living plants can use it. Some species nest underground, while others make basketball-sized nests on tree trunks. Tunnels branch out from the nests. Termites are not related to ants, but they have a similar social structure. Termite colonies include one king and one queen, who produce eggs, as well as many workers and soldiers. [Tefe] -- (tay-FAY) Tefe is located on the south bank of the Amazon, across from the mouth of the Japura River. It is about 1,500 miles upriver from Belem. Tefe, like many Amazon river cities, is a trading center for much of the surrounding area, with a focus on agricultur, timber, and fish. [Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) The 26th president of the United States, Teddy Roosevelt was a great adventurer and explorer. He worked as a cowboy in North Dakota and fought heroically in the Spanish-American War. But the Amazon almost proved too much for him. In 1913, Roosevelt teamed up with COLONEL RONDON for a scientific expedition. Their purpose was to explore and map the Rio da Duvida, which Rondon had discovered a few years earlier. It was a treacherous journey. The explorers were plagued by hordes of insects. Roosevelt almost drowned when his canoe overturned. A cut on his leg became infected with gangrene. In such poor health, Roosevelt knew that he had become a burden to the other members of the expedition. He begged them to leave him behind, but they refused. They say that after the expedition, Teddy Roosevelt was never quite the same. Upon his return, he wrote a book, "Through the Brazilian Wilderness." [Titu Cosi] -- (chee-TOO coh-SHEE) Titu Cosi was a young child in 1533 when his father, Manco Inca, fled from the invading conquistadors and founded the magnificent hidden city of VILCABAMBA. Titu Cosi became Inca shortly after his father died. (Today, the term "Inca" is commonly used to refer to a nation and its people. Technically, "Inca" refers to the leader or king. All other members of the population were followers of Inca.) Titu Cosi was an inspired leader. He maintained the Inca traditions, which included performing rites to the Sun and dressing in ceremonial costumes. Titu Cosi wa sable to keep secret the location of Vilcabamba and still have contacts with the conquistadors. He employed cannibals as his bodyguards. Titu Cosi ruled for 13 years until his death in 1571. His Brother, Tupac Amaru, became Inca but ruled for only one year before the conquistadors captured Vilcabamba, beheaded him, and ended the reign of the Incas. [Toco Toucan] -- (TOH-coh TOO-can) Active: During the day Eats: Fruit
Size: A body about as big as a crow's, with a bill about as long as the body (not including the tail) Why does a toucan have such a huge, colorful beak? No one knows. One reason may be to help the toucan reach its food. The beak is serrated, which means that it has jagged edges. This helps the toucan hold onto its food. Once a toucan grabs a piece of fruit, it tilts its head back to let the food fall into its mouth. Toucans can be very entertaining to watch. They travel in flocks of up to 12 individuals. Sometimes they toss berries to one another with their beaks. [Trombetas River] -- (trom-BAY-tuhs) The Trombetas River stats in the Guiana Highlands that form the northern border of the Amazon basin. It enters the Amazon west of Santarem, about 700 miles upriver from Belem. The Trombetes is known as a black-water river. In Amazonia, black-water rivers flow from the north. They have a color like dark tea, which they get from huge amounts of rotting vegetation in the swamps that feed the rivers. Black-water rivers are low in nutrients, sediment, and oxygen. They are also high in acid. For these reasons, black-water rivers do not contain much aquatic life. Sometimes, they are called "starvation" rivers. [Tucuna Tribe] -- (too-KOO-nah) Tucuna Indians are known for their masks and animal figures made of pounded bark cloth. They are also famous for their 10-foot BLOWGUNS. The CURARE poison they make for their darts is the most effective of any in Amazonia. They were first encountered by Europeans in 1641. They maintain a mix of farming, fishing, hunting, and gathering. The Tucuna have a long-held belief that they have offended their god. They believe that they corrupted their world through contact with the Europeans. Young Tucunas in puberty have had vissions of "immortals" who tell of the destruction of civilization by fire and flood. The immortals instruct the Tucuna to gather in a sheltered place to perform rituals. [Tucuxi] -- (too-coo-she) Active: Both day and night Eats: Mostly fish, sometimes crabs and turtles Size: About the size of a small mermaid The tucuxi is a dolphin. Even though they spend their entire lives in water, dolphins are mammals. They must come to the surface to breathe, and mothers provide milk to their young. Tucuxi spend most of their time in the main river channels. They are very acrobatic swimmers and can leap completely out of the water. Sometimes, you can see a group of three or four tucuxi jump out of the water and dive back in at precisely the same time. Just like at Sea World! [Typhoid] -- (TIE-foid) Typhoid, or typhoid fever, is a serious infection caused by bacteria. The disease enters your blood and causes blood poisoning. If you get typhoid, you probably ate or drank some contaminated food or water. In about two weeks, you start to get headaches and a fever. You feel achy, restless, and lazy. You may also lose your appetite and have diarrhea. After a week or so, the fever grows stronger. Red spots appear on your chest. Your intestines become inflamed. Your intestinal wall may even break. If you're lucky, by the third or fourth week, the fever will begin to decline. If you've got a bad case, you could develop very serious inflammation of the gall bladder. You could get pneumonia, encephalitis, or meningitis. You could even have heart failure. Before the twentieth century, there was no known cure for typhoid. In the 1950s, antibiotics were developed to treat it. [Undulated Tinamou] -- (UN-dew-lay-ted TIN-uh-moo) Active: During the day Eats: Mostly seeds and fruits; also insects Size: Like a small chicken The undulated tinamou looks like a chicken, but it is not related to chickens. There are about 15 species of Tinamous in Amazonia. It is very difficult to see an undulated tinamou. It is a shy bird with colors that blend in with vegetation, and it rarely flies. Tinamous spend their time on the forest floor, where there is very little ligt even in the middle of the day. When disturbed, they run quickly into dense vegetation. [Unonopsis] -- (yoo-noh-NOP-sis) Unonopsis is a plant native to the Amazon basin. Tribes in man parts of the Amazon basin use a species of unonopsis in their recipe for CURARE. Some tribes use this plant for birth control. In the MAKU tribe's language, the name for unonopsis translates as "the no-children medicine." [Vanilla] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) The vanilla that is so common today is native to the rainforests of Central America. CACAO, the source of chocolate, is also native to rainforests. So, without rainforests, we wouldn't have vanilla or chocolate ice cream! The Aztecs of Mexico cultivated vanilla as a spice long before the Europeans came to the Western Hemisphere. Apparently, wild varieties of vanilla also grew throughotut the rainforests of Venezuela and Colombia. Some species were cultivated by native tribes. Those species have dispersed and become wild again. [Vilcabamba] -- (vil-kah-BOM-bah) Vilcabamba is the hidden city of the Incas. It was established by the King Manco Inca and his followers after the Spanish conquistadors occupied the Inca capital of Cuzco in 1533. The Incas escaped into an isolated valley of the Peruvian rainforest called Espiritu Pampa -- the Plain of Ghosts. The Incas built a magnificent city that included palaces, temples, fountains, and canals. Manco Inca died for about 25 years. When he died, three of his sons, most notably TITU COSI, succeeded him. Vilcabamba finally fell to the conquistadors in 1572. For the next 200 years, the Spanish used Vilcabamba as a mining and farming center. When the Spaniards abandoned it in the 1700s, the rainforest quickly reclaimed it. It was not until 1964 tha GENE SAVOY, an American archaoelogist, correctly identified the site as the lost city of Vilcabamba. Today, it remains largely unexplored in its remote and inaccessible rainfores valley. [White-vented Euphonia] -- (yoo-PHON-nee-uh) Active: During the day Eats: Mistletoe berries Size: A little smaller than a sparrow Mistletoe plants and euphonias are very important to each other. The plants are important to euphonias because mistletoe berries are the euphonia's main source of food. Euphonias are important to mistletoes because they help them reproduce. When a euphonia eats mistletoe berries, the seeds pass through the bird's digestive system. The droppings land on branches, and some of the seeds become new plants. [Witoto Tribe] -- (wee-TOH-toh) The Witoto Indians live in the northwest section of the Amazon basin in what is now northeast Peru and southern Colombia. Anthropologist RICHARD EVANS SCHULTES spend time with the Witoto learning of their extensive knowledge of medicinal plants. They are also known for their large communal houses and hollow-log signal drums. When Witoto warriors are successful in battle, they have a ceremony in which they eat parts of their enemies. They display their enemies skulls as trophies, make flutes out of the long bones, and use the teeth in necklaces. The Witoto were first visited by Europeans in 1695. Until the end of the 19th century, the Witoto were left alone. Then they were enslaved during the rubber boom and forced to work far from their homes. Many were executed for trying to escape and thousands of others died of disease and starvation. [Woven Basket] -- (Obvious pronunciation?) Basket-weaving among Amazonian Indians is wide-spread and extensive. Baskets come in many sizes, from tiny containers woven from soft fibers to large carrying and foraging baskets made from bark and long strips of wood. Palm fiber is used for making trays and platters. Palm fiber is also used to make cord, nets, and skirts. The stiff parts of some palm leaves are used to make MANIOC strainers. The bark of some trees are pounded into a type of mesh that is used to make sacks, clothing, and MASK hoods. Even fish traps are woven from palm fiber or strips of wood. [Xingu River] -- (shin-GOO) The Xingu River is one of the seven great tributaries of the Amazon, about 400 miles upriver from Belem. It is over 1,200 miles long. The Xingu is known as a blue-water or clearwater river. In Amazonia, blue- -water rivers flow from the south. They aree not muddy, like the Amazon, and they are not stained black from rotting vegetation, like Rio Negro. The Xingu was first explored by a German explorer in the late 1800s. Many of the tribes along the Xingu were not contacted by outsiders until the 1950s and 1960s by teh VILLAS BOAS brothers. Today, several tribes live upriver in the Xingu National Park. The Park was established in 1961 through the efforts of the Villas Boas brothers. It offers the tribes a relatively undisturbed environment. Across from the mouth of the Xingu is the Jari River. It's the location of the Jari Project, one of the largest wood processing plants in the world. The Jari Project has consumed millions of trees and has been a financial flop. [Yanomamo Tribe] -- (yah-no-MAH-moh) The Yanomamo Indians live in large stretches of Amazon rainforest between the Orinoco river in Venezuela and the Rios Negros and Branco in Brazil. They call themselves the "Waika" -- the fierce ones. They live in small villages of about 60 people. Their land was relatively undisturbed until it was invaded by gold miners in the 1970s. The Yanomamo have a strong belief in witchcraft. They believe that all illness and disease comes from witchcraft or from contact with white people. The men engage in violent games and contests of endurance involving shouting insults and hitting each other over the head with clubs. As is true to all of the rainforest tribes, most of the Yanomamo's wars are fought over women. A tribe's ability to acquire women through warfare is the quickest way to increase its population. And whether it's done intentionally or not, adding people from other tribes improves the genetic diversity of one's own tribe. [Yellow Fever] -- (Obvious prononuciation?) Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by a virus. The fever is spread by a certain type of mosquito, the aedes. People get infected when the mosquitoes bite monkeys and other small mammals and then bite people. Yellow fever affects your liver. You develop a fever that rises quickly. You get a bad headache and backache. You vomit. If you have a bad case, your stomach lining ruptures and you may begin vomiting blood. The virus moves into your liver, which results in jaundice -- your skin and eyes turn yellow. Yellow fever does not last long. But you may be laid up recovering from it for a long while. If you live through it, you'll never get yellow fever again. There is no known cure for yellow fever, but you can prevent it with vaccines. Today, outsiders who want to visit the Amazon are required to get a yellow fever vaccination. /+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+\ | Transcription (c) Shotgunnova, 1997 - 2006 (and countin'!) | | Amazon Trail (c) respective owners, if it still has any | \+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+/
Shotgunnova is a long-time GameFAQer, author, and ASCII mapper.