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Amazon Guidebook Transcript by Shotgunnova

Version: Final | Updated: 04/08/2006

by: Shotgunnova (P. Summers)

| LEGAL:                                 |
|                                        |
| This can't be hosted without asking me |
| first, and I'll give you permission if |
| you do, most likely. That's about it.  |

All of this information can be found initially by opening
up a (new) game and clicking on the open-book icon. These
notes and articles are all listed in there without having
to find them yourself. Enjoy.

01. Diseases

     -Bubonic Plague
     -Chagas' disease
     -Yellow Fever

02. Bugs

    -Blue Morpho Butterfly
    -Goliath Bird-eating Spider
    -Leaf-cutter Ant
    -Rhinoceros Beetle

03. Birds

    -Blackish-gray Antshrike
    -Blue-backed Manakin
    -Collared Trogon
    -Common Potoo
    -Crested Oropendola
    -Fork-tailed Woodnymph
    -Great Egret
    -Green Honeycreeper
    -Harpy Eagle
    -King Vulture
    -Mealy Parrot
    -Paradise Tanager
    -Red-billed Scythebill
    -Scarlet Macaw
    -Spectacled Owl
    -Toco Toucan
    -Undulated Tinamou
    -White-vented Euphonia

04. Mammals

    -Amazonian Manatee
    -Black Spider Monkey
    -Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth
    -Collared Peccary
    -Common Opossum
    -Common Tapir
    -Common Vampire Bat
    -Giant Anteater
    -Giant Armadillo
    -Night Monkey
    -Pygmy Marmoset
    -Red Howler Monkey
    -Red-Rumped Agouti

05. Plants

    -Banana Tree
    -Brazil Nut Tree
    -Rubber Tree

06. Reptiles/Amphibians
    -Amazon River Turtle
    -Common Iguana
    -Poison Dart Frog
    -Spectacled Caiman

07. Fish

    -Electric Eel
    -Giant Catfish
    -Red-bellied Pirahna

08. Places

    -The Xingu River
    -The Trombetas River
    -The Madeira River
    -The Purus River
    -The Ica River
    -The Napo River
    -The Maranon River
    -The Apurimac River

09. Trade Items

    -Balsam Oil
    -Brazil Nuts
    -Copal Oil
    -Ipecacuanha Root
    -Leche Caspi
    -Rosewood Oil
    -Rubber Ball
    -Woven Basket

10. People (A - L)

    -Agassiz, Elisabeth
    -de Aguirre, Lope
    -Arana, Julio
    -Bates, Henry Walter
    -Boras Tribe
    -Cashinawa Tribe
    -Fawcett, Colonel Percy Harrison
    -Ford, Henry
    -Godin, Isabela
    -von Humboldt, Alexander
    -Jivaro Tribe
    -Juruna Tribe
    -Kayapo Tribe
    -Levi-Strauss, Claude

11. People (M - Z)

    -Maku Tribe
    -Mayoruna Tribe
    -McIntyre, Loren
    -Munduruku Tribe
    -de Orellana, Captain Francisco
    -Rancher, Cattle
    -Rondon, Colonel Candido
    -Roosevelt, Theodore
    -Savoy, Gene
    -Schultes, Richard Evans
    -Spruce, Richard
    -de Teixeira, Captain Pedro
    -Titu Cosi
    -Tucuna Tribe
    -Tupac Amaru, Jose Gabriel
    -Villas Boas, Claudio
    -Wallace, Alfred Russel
    -Witoto Tribe
    -Yanomamo Tribe

[Agassiz, Elisabeth] -- (ag-ah-see)

Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz was one of the first white women to see
the Amazon. She accompanied her husband, Swiss-American geologist and
nautralist Louis Agassiz, on a year-long expedition up the Amazon. The
expedition, which was helped considerably by native people, collected
almost 2,000 species of fish. Mr. Agassiz discovered that the Amazon
has more species of fish than the entire Atlantic Ocean. Mrs. Agassiz
was a keen observer of the people and the natural history of the
Amazon. She kept a detailed journal of the expedition that was
published in 1869 as "A Journey in Brazil." Later, she helped found
Radcliffe College in Massachusetts.

[Alexander von Humboldt] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Alexander von Humboldt was a biologist, geologist, geographer, 
astronomer, and explorer. Charles Darwin called him "the greatest
scientific traveler who ever lived." In 1800, before Lewis and Clark
were exploring the Missouri River, Humboldt was exploring the Amazon
and Orinoco rivers. He explored more than 6,000 miles by land and
water, making observations and collecting plants all along the way.
Humboldt wrote several books about his experiences in South America.
The books gave the world the first realistic picture of the Amazon
basin and inspired other scientists to explore Amazonia.

[Alfred Russel Wallace] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Alfred Russel Wallace was a self-taught naturalist from England. In
1848, Wallace went to the Amazon with HENRY WALTER BATES. Wallace and
Bates studied insects in BELEM for about a year. Then Wallace traveled
upriver, eventually reaching MANAUS. There he met up with Bates. Wallace
later returned to England in 1852 and later went to Malaysia to study 
the rainforest there. On the basis of his observations of plants and
insects, he developed the theory of evolution -- independently of
Charles Darwin. In fact, he sent an outline of his theory to Darwin in
1856, which compelled Darwin to finally publish his own historic book
on the subject.

[Amazon River Turtle] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: During the day
Eats: Fruits and other plant materials that fall into the water
Size: Can grow to be as big around as a manhole cover

Amazon river turtles belong to a group of turtles called "side-necks."
They withdraw their heads into their shells by moving them sideways,
which leaves part of the head exposed. Thus, side-necks are more
vulnerable than "hidden-necked" turtles that draw their heads straight
back into their shells. To avoid predators, Amazon river turtles spend
most of their time in water. When it is time to lay their eggs, these
turtles gather on beaches and bury large numbers of eggs in the sand.

[Amazonian Manatee] -- (MAN-uh-tee)

Active: Both day and night
Eats: Vegetation in the rivers such as grasses, water hyacinths, and
      water lettuce
Size: Big, like a walrus

Manatees are aquatic mammals -- they spend their entire lives in the
water. Every four minutes or so, they raise their nostrils out of the
water to breathe. During the rainy season, vast areas of the Amazon
become flooded. The high water gives manatees access to lots of
vegetation, and they eat up to 100 pounds every day. In the dry
season, the water level drops and the manatees must return to the
main channels of the rivers where there is not as mcuh food. Manatees
do not eat very much during the dry season.

[Anaconda] -- (ann-uh-CON-duh)

Active: Both day and night
Eats: Large mammals, including agoutis and capybaras; also fish, birds,
      and reptiles
Size: A large one weighs more than a linebacker and could be used to
      measure first downs

Anacondas are constrictors, a type of snake that kills its prey by
chomping down on its neck. If the prey is large, the anaconda also coils
around it. This prevents the prey from breathing and can even stop its
heart from beating. They swallow their prey whole, head first. Anacondas
spend most of their time in a hiding place such as a hole in a tree trunk.
They do their hunting in or near water. They do not chase their prey but
rather lie in ambush when the unsuspecting prey gets close.

[Apurimac River] -- (ah-poo-ree-MAC)

The mouth of the Apurimac River is about 3,500 miles upriver from
Belem. The source of the Apurimac is close to the source of the Amazon.
It begins high in the Andes Mountains about 200 miles souch of Cuzco,
Peru. In its first 300 miles, the Apurimac drops 13,000 feet through
dramatic canyons and deep gorges. It can be crossed at only eight or 
ten places by rope bridges. After that dramatic drop, the Apurimac
flows into the lowland rainforest of eastern Peru. Several revolutions
have begun along the banks of the Apurimac. In the 1500s, the last 
stronghold of Inca warriors burned the rope bridges over the Apurimac
to stop the conquistadors and held out for 40 years. In the late 1700s,
JOSE GABRIEL TUPAC AMARU, a descendant of the last Inca King, began a
revolution here to try to overthrow the Spanish colonial government. In
the 1980s, the Shining Path (El Sendero Luminoso) guerrillas began a
violent Maoist revolution that was still being fought in 1993.

[Arowhana] -- (AIR-oh-WAH-nuh)

Edible?: Yes
Size: About as long as your arm

Arowhanas have one of the most peculiar feeding behaviors of any fish.
In addition to taking insets that fall into the water, arowhanas also
leap out of the water and grab animals that are resting on overhanging
branches. An adult arowhana can leap completely out of the water. 
Arowhanas are mouth-brooders. That is, one parent (in the case of
arowhanas, the male) keeps the eggs in its mouth. After they hatch, the
young fish swim out to feed. When danger approaches, the youngsters 
scoot back into Dad's mouth for safety.

[Balsam Oil] -- (BAHL-sum)

Balsam oil is a general term for a resin that comes from several kinds
of legume trees. The resin has a strong aroma that is used in incense
and in some healing preparations. It does not have any medicinal
properties. There are two kinds of balsam. Balsam of Peru is a thick,
dark brown substance used in perfumes. Balsam of Tolu is found in the
rainforests of Columbia. It is lighter brown than Balsam of Peru but
thicker. It is used in some perfumes, but is found more frequently in
cough syrups.

[Banana Tree] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

The banana tree is not really a tree; it is an herb. This means that it
does not have a woody trunk. Instead, the "trunk," actuall a stalk, is
made up of leaves that overlap each other. A full-grown banana tree is
about 20 feet tall. Each tree produces one clump of bananas that can 
weigh up to 125 pounds. Banana trees are an important source of food in
the Amazon. Almost all Amazonian tribes cultivate bananas. There are at
least a dozen kind of banana trees in the Amazon. Some produce fruit for
eating; others produce medicine that treats DYSENTERY. Edible bananas
are not native to the Amazon; they originated in Asia. People have
brought them to most tropical parts of the world. Bananas were 
introduced into the Amazon sometime in the 1500s.

[Barbasco] -- (bar-BASS-koh)

Barbasco is a name for several tropical trees and woody bushes of the
Lonchocarpus family. Some barbasco plants have an ingredient that is
used as an insecticide. Another species of barbasco is used as fish
poison. Upstream, large quantities of barbasco are dumped into a stream.
The poison stuns the fish and in some cases kills them. Downstream, 
fishermen wait with nets hung from bank to bank. The fish float
downstream and get caught in the nets.

[Belem] -- (bay-LAIN)

Belem is a port city near the mouth of the Amazon River, about 70 miles
from the Atlantic Ocean. It was founded in the early 1600s by Portuguese
explorers. For the next two hundred years, it was the only port of entry
into Amazonia. All of the great explorers and naturalists passed through
Belem on their way to the interior. Today, Belem is still a major port
with a population of one million. Its residents are a mix of people from
Africa, Brazilians of European descent, native people, and settles from
a variety of countries. A major highway stretches for 1,500 miles to 
Brazil's capital, Brasilia, at the southeastern edge of Amazonia. The
huge island of Marajo lies to the north. It is the largest river island
in the world -- as big as New Hampshire and Vermont combined.

[Beriberi] -- (bare-ee-bare-ee)

Beriberi is a nutritional disorder caused by a lack of thiamine (which
is also called vitamin B1). Beriberi affects your nerves and sometimes
your heart. You begin to lose your appetite. You feel lazy. Your legs
start to feel weak and numb. In one form of beriberi, your muscles may
get soft and your reflexes slow. In another form, the disorder spreads
to your heart. Your blood circulation is poor because your body swells
up. Your heart may actually stop. Unless you get treatment, you may 
suffer permanent nerve damage. The treatment for beriberi is simple. 
Eat extra meat, fish, and vegetables. The foods are rich in vitamin B1
and will reverse the symptoms.

[Blackish-gray Antshrike] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: During the day
Eats: Insects disturbed by ants
Size: A little bigger than a sparrow

The blackish-gray antshrike is one of about 100 species of antbirds
in Amazonia. Compared ot the eye-catching apperance of many Amazonian
birds, most antbirds are drab-looking. Antbirds do not actually eat
ants. Instead, antbirds and other insect-eating birds often follow
army ants around and feed on the insects that are rousted by the
ants. The parade does not stop with ants and antbirds. Butterflies
sometimes follow the antbirds and feed on their droppings.

[Black Spider Monkey] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: During the day
Eats: Mostly fruit; a small amount of leaves and flowers
Size: Bigger than most other Amazonian monkeys, with especially
      long arms, legs, and tail.

Spider monkeys spend a lot of time near the treetops. Sometimes they
swing from branch to branch. Sometimes they hang from branches by
their tails. They sleep in groups of up to 20 or 30. During the day 
they spend most of their time in small groups of about five
individuals. If you disturb a group of spider monkeys, they are 
likely to growl, stamp their feet, and drop dead branches on you.

[Blowgun] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Blowguns are used by many Amazonian tribes in hunting and warfare.
Hunters and warriors insert a dart into the blowgun and blow the
dart at their target. The dart is often dipped in CURARE or the
poison from a POISON DART FROG. An accomplished user can hit a
small target at 20 paces. Blowguns are made from the hollow stems
of vines. They come in a variety of sizes. Some are as long as your
arm. Others are longer than the tallest person.

[Blue-backed Manakin] -- (MAN-uh-kin)

Active: During the day
Eats: Fruits and insects
Size: About as big as a sparrow

Blue-backed manakins have one of the most bizarre courtship dances
of any bird on Earth. Two males dance together. They start on a
thin branch. One bird jumps, hovers for a moment, and then lands.
Then the second bird repeats the action while the first bird returns
to the branch. Sometimes a drab-colored female is nearby. Other
times, the males seem to dance for the fun of it. There are about 30
species of manakins in Amazonia. They all have their own peculiar

[Blue Morpho Butterfly] -- (MORE-fo)

Active: During the day
Eats: Plants
Size: There are about 80 species of varying sizes. The largest ones
      have a wing span that would stretch from your wrist to your

Blue morpho butterflies in flight are among the most spectacular
sights in the rainforest. The top surface of their wings is a 
brilliant blue color that is incredible to behold. The undersides
of their wings are a dull brown. Thus, when they fly you see a flash
of blue, then nothing, then another flash of blue. This so-called
"flash and dazzle" flight makes it difficult for predators to catch

[Boras Tribe] -- (BOE-rahs)

The Boras Indians live in the northeast section of the Amazon Basin
in what is now northeast Peru and Southern Colombia. Their peaceful
culture has been studied by anthropologists and others. 
Anthropologists spent time with the Boras learning of their
extensive knowledge of medicinal plants. The Boras Indians, like
the WITOTOS, were enslaved during the rubber boom and forced to work
far from their homes. Many were executed for trying to escape, and
thousands of others died of disease and starvation. Their tribe
almost became extinct by the end of the rubber boom.

[Botanist] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Today, there are many plant experts, called botanists, from all
over the world who have come to Amazonia. Many of the botanists are
looking for plants that can be used to produce medicines. Many
important medicines are derived from plants that grow in Amazonia
and other rainforests. The most well-known example is CINCHONA, the
plant that cures malaria. No one knows how many plant species exist
in the Amazon rainforest. Estimates range from 35,000 to 80,000
species. Only a tiny fraction have been evaluated for their
usefulness as medicines. Whenever rainforest land is cleared, 
potentially useful plants are lost forever. The smartest botanists
seek information from tribal people, who have lived in the 
rainforest for thousands of years. Indian plant experts know a lot
more about rainforest plans than do botanists who come from other
parts of the world.

[Boto (Pink River Dolphin)] -- (boe-toe)

Active: During the day
Eats: Fish
Size: About the size of Flipper (who is a bottle-nosed dolphin)

Dolphins are mammals, not fish. They come to the surface of the
water to breathe air through blowholes on the tops of their heads.
Botos really are pink! Young botos are gray, but the older they get,
the pinker they get. Botos, like most dolphins, have poor eyesight.
They "see" by using echolocation. They emit a variety of sounds that
bounce off objects and return to the dolphins. The dolphins interpret
the sounds to determine an object's size, density, direction, and

[Brazil Nuts] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Brazil nut trees grow in many parts of the Amazon basin, with a
concentration around the Rio Negro, MADEIRA, and PURUS. The trees
begin to bear fruit when they are about 10 years old and reach a
height of about 100 feet. Once a year the trees produce beautiful
yellow flowers. A full year or more later, the flowers mature into
fruits -- Brazil nuts. The ripe fruits are the size and weight of
cannonballs. Harvesters must wait until the fruits fall to the
ground. Look out below! Inside each fruit there are a dozen or more
sections that are the brazil nuts that we buy in the grocery store.
Each brazil nut tree can produce up to 1,000 pounds of nuts per

[Brazil Nut Tree] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Brazil nut trees grow in many parts of the Amazon basin, with a
concentration around the Rios Negro, MADIERA, and PURUS. The trees
begin to bear fruit when they are about 10 years old and reach a 
height of about 100 feet. Once a year the trees produce beautiful
yellow flowers. A full year or more later, the flowers mature into
fruits -- Brazil nuts. The ripe fruits are the size and weight of
cannonballs. Harvesters must wait until the fruits fall to the 
ground. Look out below! Inside each fruit are a dozen or more 
sections containing Brazil nuts. Each Brazil nut tree can produce up
to 1,000 pounds of nuts per year. In recent years, it has been learned
that native tribes cultivate Brazil nut trees by planting them in 
scattered spots around their villages.

[Bromeliad] -- (bro-MEE-lee-ad)

Bromeliads grow throughout Amazonia and in other parts of South and
Central America. There are at least 1,500 species of bromeliads.
Some have roots in teh ground, while others are "epiphytes" -- they
grow on other plants. In the rainforest, you can find bromeliads 
from the forest floor to the tops of tall trees. Many bromeliads
are called "tank" bromeliads. Their leaves overlap and form pools
where rainwater collects. Some tank bromeliads hold just a few
drops of water, while others hold several gallons! Tank bromeliads
collect more than water. They also collect pollen, leaves, and other
plant materials. In turn, the plant materials attract animals. More
than 500 species of animals, including frogs, insects, and birds use
bromeliads as a source of food and shelter.

[Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth] -- (slawth or slowth)

Active: Day and night
Eats: Leaves
Size: About as big as a house cat, with longer legs

Sloths use their long, curved claws (not their toes) to hang upside
down from tree branches high in the canopy. They move, very, very,
very slowly. Sloth's hairs have tiny grooves where green algae grows.
(Algae is a tiny kind of plant.) This helps the sloths hide from HARPY
EAGLES and JAGUARS. Amazingly, sloths are excellent swimmers. This
comes in handy during the rainy season, when rivers rise as high as 
the lower canopy!

[Bubonic Plague] -- (boo-BAH-nick plaig)

Bubonic plague is a fever caused by fleas that normally live in rats
and other rodents. If you have bubonic plague, you probably came in
contact with a rat at a port or a campsite. The fleas jump off the 
rats and bite you. Bubonic plague starts with shivers, vomiting, and
headaches. The glands in your armpits and groin swell up. Your 
temperature might go as high as 104 degrees. Light hurts your eyes.
Then, a pain begins to grow in your back, arms, and legs. You can't
sleep. You may even hallucinate. Finally, you begin to feel
apathetic -- you don't care about anything. Left untreated, bubonic
plague will kill you. Bubonic plague is highly contagious, meaning 
that it is easily passed from one person to another. In the 14 century,
bubonic plague swept through Europe and wiped out half the population.
Today, plague can be prevented and cured with medicine.

[Bushmaster] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: At night
Eats: Mostly small animals; also birds and amphibians
Size: About as tall as Shaquille O'Neal is tall

Like the fer-de-lance, the bushmaster is a type of snake called a
pit viper. The "pits" are holes between the eyes and nostrils that
detect the doby heat of nearby prey and enemies. The word "viper"
refers to a poisonous snake. Bushmasters are indeed highly poisonous
snakes. But as long as you do not try to handle one, the risk of
being bitten is small. To be safe, however, you should always have
antivenin with you.

[Cacao] -- (kuh-KOW)

The cacao bean is native to Amazonia and also grows as far north as
Mexico. It is the raw ingredient in cocoa powder, which is used to 
make chocolate. In the Amazon, cocoa powder is used in tea-like
drinks and as a cooking spice. It has a very bitter taste. The hot
cocoa that we drink is made from cacao beans, but it is also
sweetened with sugar. The Aztecs in Mexico introduced the Spaniards
to a chocolate beverage. The Spanish kept the secret of this beverage
for almost 100 years. But by the 1650s, chocolate was popular in 
Italy, France, and England.

[Capybara] -- (cop-uh-BAR-uh)

Active: During the day, but more active at night where it is hunted
        by people.
Eats: Grass and water plants
Size: Largest rodent on earth; bigger than your average pig

Capybaras always stay close to or in the water. They have partially
webbed feet that help make them very good swimmers. Capybaras live in
groups of up to 20 individuals. The groups tend to be larger when water
is plentiful and smaller when water is scarce. For people, capybaras
offer a good source of meat and leather. In some places, people have
over-hunted them to the point that there are none left. In other places,
people have learned how many they can kill without hurting the

[Cashinawa Tribe] -- (kah-shee-na-WAH)

The Cashinawa tribe lives along the Jurua and Purus rivers. They are
known as the bat people. They are fiercly protective of their
territory. They are excellent archers. They also make traps that
shoot blowgun darts automatically. Like all tribes in this region,
they practice a mix of fishing, agriculture, and hunting. The Cashinawa
men go on lengthy hunting trips into the rainforest. The Cashinawa have
several interesting beliefs. Humans have two souls. One soul lives in 
the eyes and goes to heaven after death. The other is the shadow that
becomes a ghost. They also have many stories of people turning into
animals and animals turning into men. Many of their stories have to do
with ghosts.

[Cattle Rancher] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Since the early 1970s, thousands of people have moved to Amazonia to
become cattle ranchers. Most rainforest that is cleared -- perhaps as
much as 85% -- is used for cattle ranching. The Brazilian government
has been practically giving away land to rich people on the condition
that they convert the rainforest to grazing land. Government officials
thought that cattle ranching would be a big boost to the economy, but
they were wrong. Cattle ranching is an unwise use of rainforest land.
In the rainforest, most nutrients are tied up in the plants. The soil
is actually quite poor. When the rainforest is cleared for pasture
land, the nutrients are destroyed and the soil can support vegetation
for only a short time. Pretty soon there is nothing for the cattle to
eat, and more rainforest land must be converted to pasture. If current
trends continue, there will soon be no rainforest and no grazing land.

[Chagas Disease] -- (sha-gahs)

Chagas disease is an infection spread by a PARASITE. The parasite 
lives in mosqitoes and chiggers and enters your body when one of those
insects bites you. About a week after being bitten, the lymph nodes
under your arms and in your groin swell up. You come down with a fever.
You'll be laid up in bed for several weeks. Sometimes, the parasite
enters your heart. If that happens, your heart begins to beat 
irregularly. Your heart might also swell up. You might die. There is
no known treatment for Chagas disease. You should do everything you can
to keep from getting bit by mosquitos. Wear clothing that covers your
body, use insect repellant, and enclose your sleeping area with a
mosquito net.

[Chondrodendron] -- (kon-droh-DEN-drun)

Chondrondendron is a vine native to the Amazon basin. The YANOMAMI
Indian tribe uses it to make CURARE -- BLOWGUN dart poison. The
Yanomami know that a substance found in chondrodendron paralyzes
animals' muscles. Scientists have developed a drug from chondrodendron,
turbocurarine, that is used as a muscle relaxant.

[Cinchona] -- (sin-CHOH-nuh)

The cinchona tree is an evergreen shrub that grows in hilly and 
forested regions of Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador. In the bark is a
substance, quinine, that cures fevers like MALARIA. For thousands
of years, native South Americans have used cinchona to cure fevers.
In the mid-1600s, Jesuit priests brought the substance back to
Europe. They called it Jesuit's Bark or Peruvian Bark. By the mid-
-1800s, quinine was used in tonics -- mediccinal carbonated soft
drinks -- and it came into incredible demand. To get around the 
monopoly enjoyed by South America, RICHARD SPRUCE and others
smuggled cinchona out of Peru to start plantations in tropical areas 
of Asia. After years of failure, Westerners were successful in growing
cinchona that has a high percentage of quinine in the bark. Quinine 
has probably saved millions of lives since it became part of western

[Claude Levi-Strauss] -- (cload lay-vee stroase)

Claude Levi-Strauss is a French anthropologist (and no relation to
Levi Strauss, the inventor blue jeans). An anthropologist is a 
scientist who lives with a tribe or community for long periods of
time to study their way of life. Claude Levi-Strauss began studying
the lives of Amazonian native tribes in the mid-1930s. He was one of
the first to record the daily lives, myths, and struggles of many
tribes. Levi-Strauss wrote several important books. His travel book,
"Tristes Tropiques," comments on the impact of Western civilization
on tropical lands. His four-volume "Mythologiques" analyzes North and
South American native mythology. One volume of his work, "The Raw and
the Cooked," won France's highest scientific award.

[Claudio Villas Boas] -- (CLAW-gee-oh VEE-las BOH-ahs)

Claudio Villas Boas and his brothers Orlandu and Leonardo were
Brazilians of European descent. Originally, they were hired by the
Brazilian government to build airplane landing strips across the
Amazon rainforest. The brothers soon realized that dozens of Indian
tribes would be displaced by the airstrips and the developments that
would follow. The Villas Boas brothers decided to attempt an almost
impossible task. They would make contact with the tribes and try to
prepare them for the inevitable, fundamental changes that development
would bring. They also decided to try to convince the Brazilian
government to set aside part of the rainforest for the tribes so to
that the tribes could continue their traditional way of life. Through
the efforts of the Villas Boas brothers, Brazil established the
National Park of Xingu in 1961. The story of the Villas Boas brothers
is told in "The Tribe that Hides from Man," a book by Adrian Cowell.

[Clove] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Clove is not native to Amazonia. And, unlike some plants such as
BANANAS, clove has never been introduced into Amazonia. The fact
is, there aren't any clove plants here! So how can people offer 
cloves to you? Until the 17th century, cloves grew almost
exclusively in the Spice Islands of Indonesia, which were controlled
by the Dutch. Spanish conquistadors were consumed with a passion for
finding their own source of cloves. Why was it so important to them?
Because cloves were used as a food preservative and spice, as a 
breath mint, and even as perfume. AGUIRRE and ORELLANA both found a
tree that looked like a clove tree. It had barries that looked like
clove, smelled like clove, and tasted like clove. Even ALFRED RUSSEL
WALLACE was convinced that it was cloves. But no! What they actually
found was a different spice that we now call allspice. Today, 
allspice is used like clove, cinnamon, and nutmeg in cooking.

[Collared Peccary] -- (PECK-uh-ree)

Active: During the day
Eats: Fruits, nuts, vegetation, small animals
Size: Like a small pig

Peccaries are loosely related to pigs. Collared peccaries are highly
adaptable. They live in the deserts of Arizona, in the Amazon 
rainforest, and everywhere in between. In the Amazon, collared
peccaries live in small groups, usually 6-9 individuals. The 
strengthen ties by rubbing one another's scent glands. By doing this,
all the animals in the herd tend to smell alike. When alarmed by
people, herds of collared peccaries tend to emit a foul odor in all

[Collared Trogon] -- (CAHL-ard TROH-gun)

Active: During the day
Eats: Insects and fruits
Size: About as big as a robin

Trogons are among the most beautiful birds in the world. The metallic
green on their backs is most striking when it catches the sunlight.
They are not always easy to see because they tend to sit still for 
long periods. The collared trogon is one of about six species of
trogons in Amazonia. Only one species of trogon is seen in the United
States, in remote sections of southeastern Arizona. The trogon is so
beautiful, however, that thousands of people travel long distances in
hopes of seeing it.

[Colonel Candido Rondon] -- (KAHN-jee-doh run-DOAN)

Colonel Candido Mariano de Silva Rondon was born and raised in Brazil.
In 1907, when the Brazilian government decided to build telegraph lines
along the Rio MADEIRA, Colonel Rondon was selected to explore the area.
For several years, he explored and mapped the area that is now named 
Rondonia. Rondon also helped start a federal Indian agency. He inspired
the VILLAS BOAS brothers by the humane way that he treated Indians. At
one point, when his party was lost and out of supplies, Rondon discovered
a major river which he named Rio da Duvida (River of Doubt). In 1913, he
returned to the area with former president of the United States TEDDY
ROOSEVELT. Together, Rondon and Roosevelt led a scientific expedition
that mapped previously uncharted territory and collected more than 2,500
specimins of birds, mammals, and reptiles. They traveled on the River of
Doubt, which Rondon renamed Rio Roosevelt in honor of the former

[Colonel Fawcett] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Colonel Percy Harrison Fawcett, an Englishmen, was one of the last
adventurous explorers of the Amazon rainforest. Nowadays, most
explorers are methodical scientists. Fawcett was a man of fantastic
vision who hoped to discover a mythical city made of quartz. For 
years, Fawcett had heard stories about cities hidden in the rainforest.
Then he acquired a small stone carving that he said sent electric
currents up his arm. He was sure that the carving came from one of the
lost cities. He took the carving to a psychic, who interpreted the
currents and declared that the lost city was in the Brazilian 
rainforest. In 1925, Fawcett set off for the lost city, which he called
"Z." On his departure, Fawcett wrote that "you need have no fear of
failure." He was never heard from again. A rescue party sent out three
years later determined that Fawcett and everyone in his party had be1en
killed by Indians.

[Common Iguana] -- (ih-GWAH-na)

Active: During the day
Eats: Youngsters eat insects; adults eat fruits and leaves
Size: Body and tail each about as long as your arm

Common iguanas are like chameleons -- they can change the color of
their skin in order to blend into their environment. You might find
an iguana anywhere from the forest floor to the top of an emergent
tree. Iguanas use their long toes and claws to climb. When threatened,
they sometimes jump from great heights to the ground or river. They 
are excellent swimmers. In spite of their fearesome appearance, 
iguanas are no threat to people.

[Common Opossum] -- (oh-POSS-um)

Active: At night
Eats: Fruit, insects, and small mammals
Size: Slightly larger than an average house cat; males larger than

Opossums are marsupials, which means that females give birth to 
tiny infants which attach themselves to their mother's nipples
for several weeks. Some marsupials, including the common opossum,
have a pouch in which they carry their young. Watch out! This
animal does not "play possum." If you try to handle it, it is
likely to defecate and squirt urine at you. Chances are, you would
not be inclined to handle one in the first place, because they like
to roll in fresh dung.

[Common Potoo] -- (POH-TOO)

Active: At night
Eats: Insects, usually caught in mid-air
Size: About halfway between a pigeon and a crow

The common potoo, true to its name, is a fairly common bird in
Amazonia. But there are two reasons why it is difficult to see them.
First, potoos are active at night. Second, they hide during the day.
You might think they would hide in a hole in a tree. But no! They 
hide in plain sight! They perch on the end of a dead branch. When
they know they are being watched, they sit perfectly still and
upright. Their color and posture makes them look just like the

[Common Tapir] -- (TAY-per)

Active: Mostly at night
Eats: Vegetation, both on land and in water, and fruits
Size: The largest land mammal in the Amazon; about as a big as a
      small cow

Tapirs are strange, almost prehistoric-looking mammals. Their most
remarkable feature is a long, downward-turned upper lip that is very
flexible -- like an elephant's trunk. In spite of their size, common
tapirs tend to be amazingly shy, quiet, and difficult to see. Baby
tapirs are even harder to see because their fur has a black-and-white
camouflage pattern. Tapirs spend most of their time near water. 
Aquatic areas offer plentiful food and a means of escaping from 

[Common Vampire Bat] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: At night
Eats: Blood of mammals (including humans!)
Size: Tiny, like hummingbirds; except a vampire bat's wings are

Bats are the only mammals in the world that fly. There are as many
species of bats in the Amazon as there are of all other species of
mammals combined. Most bats eat insects. Vampire bats eat blood. 
Unlike Dracula, vampire bats do not suck blood. They scoop out a
large chunk of skin with their sharp teeth and then lap up the 
blood that oozes out. vampire bats are rare in undisturbed 
rainforest. They are much more numerous (and will attack people)
where land had been cleared by CATTLE RANCHERS.

[Copal Oil] -- (coh-PAHL)

Copal oil is a resin-like varnish that comes from several varities
of rainforest trees. When the resin hardens, its color ranges from
clear to golden. When it is dissolved in alcohol, it is used in
varnishes and in some kinds of inks. Varnish from copal oil is also
used to treat canoes. On the lower Amazon, copal oil has been used
as a fuel in lamps. There are copal oils from other parts of the
world that are not collected from living trees, but from the fossil
remains of trees. Zanzibar copal is found deep in the ground
throughout East Africa.

[Crested Oropendola] -- (OAR-oh-PEN-dol-luh)

Active: During the day
Eats: Fruits and insects
Size: A little smaller than a crow; males bigger than females

The easiest way to find crested oropendolas is to look for their
nests. Oropendolas nest in colonies -- several pairs together. They
build basket-like nests that hang from thin branches near the tops
of trees. The hanging nests keep chicks out of the reach of most
predators, but not from botflies. These insects lay their eggs on the
chicks. The young botflies can literally eat the chicks alive. To
protect against botflies, oropendolas sometimes build nests near bee
hives. The bees scare off the botflies.

[Curare] -- (koo-RAHR-ray)

Curare is a mixture of plant materials that Amazonian Indians concoct
to make poison. The name curare comes from an Indian phrase that means
"he, to whome it comes, falls." The recipe varies from tribe to tribe
but can include as many as 30 ingredients. It takes many years of
training for a person to learn how to make curare. Curare is a 
powerful poison. It relaxes an animal's breathing muscles to the point
that they stop working. Many Amazonian tribes put curare on their
BLOWGUN darts. They use the darts mostly for hunting but also in
warfare. The Spanish conquistador ORELLANA, writing about one of his
soldiers who was hit by an arrow, said, "the arrow did not penetrate
half a finger, but, as it had poison on it, he gave up his soul to our
Lord." In small doses, some tribes use curare for stomach aches. It has
been used as amuscle relaxant in heart surgery for over 50 years.

[Dysentery] -- (DISS-en-tair-ee)

Dysentery is a digestive disorder caused by bacteria, protozoa, or
PARASITES in food or water. Dysentery affects your stomach and 
intestines. In one form of dystentery, you get stomach pains after you
become infected. You come down with diarrhea. Sometimes your stools
contain blood. In bad cases, you can die from dehydration. In another
form of dysentery, your large intestine actually gets small cuts. This
causes problems with your liver and even your lungs and skin. Even with
treatment, the problems could continue for many years. You can treat
dysentery with special drugs and antibiotics. With treatment, dystentery
usually goes away in a week or so.

[Electric Eel] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Edible?: No
Size: Stretch your arms as far apart as you can. The eel might still 
      touch both of your hands.

Unlike most fish, the electric eel must come to the surface every few
minutes to get a gulp of air. Almost the entire inside of the eel's
mouth is covered with delicate little bumps used to collect oxygen.
The electric eel also captures prey with its mouth. To prevent the
prey from damaging the air collectors in its mouth, the electric eel
has developed an ability to stun its prey with electricity -- 300-500
volts of it. The eel quickly swallows its prey before the prey has 
time to recover from the shock.

[Fer-de-lance] -- (fair-duh-lance)

Active: Both day and night
Eats: Adults eat small mammals and birds; younger snakes also
      eat reptiles and amphibians
Size: About as long as a gold club

The fer-de-lance gets its name from the triangular shape of its
head, which looks like the point of a spear or lance. Like many
snakes, the fer-de-lance spends most of its time in a hiding
place. One meal can satisfy a fer-de-lance for several weeks. The
fer-de-lance is a VERY poisonous snake. If one bites you, and you
do not have any antivenin, you might die. Even if you have antivenin,
the wound from the bite can be very painful for several days.

[Fork-tailed Woodnymph] -- (wood-nimf)

Active: During the day
Eats: Nectar (a sweet liquid found in flowers) and tiny insects
Size: Slightly smaller and more delicate than a sparrow

The fork-tailed woodnymph is a hummingbird. Hummingbirds can fly
backward and forward. They can also hover like a helicopter, beating
their wings up to 75 times per second. Small animals like hummingbirds
use a lot of energy to maintain their body heat. Thus, "hummers" must
eat more than their own body weight every day. Hummingbirds live from
Alaska to Argentina. There are more than 200 species in South America
as compared to about 12 species in North America.

[Francisco de Orellana] -- (fran-SIS-koh day oh-ray-YAH-nah)

Francisco de Orellana was a Spanish conquistador. In 1540, he set off
from Quito, Ecuador, with Gonzalo Pizarro. They were looking for the
golden city of El Dorado and the riches of spices. The expedition 
started off in grand style. There were 300 Spanish soldiers, 4,000
Indians and thousands of pigs, dogs, and llamas. But instead of gold 
and spices, they encountered bad weather and rough terrain. In
desperation, they decided to split up. Pizarro stayed put with most
of the men, while Orellana and 50 soldiers sailed down river in 
search of food. Orellana got so far down river before he found food
that he decided not to go back. He continued down river, stealing food
and killing Indians along the way. After eight months he reached the
mouth of the Amazon. He claimed to have seen a tribe of female 
warriors, whom he called Amazons after the warrior women of Greek
legend. The name has been used with the river ever since.

[Gene Savoy] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Gene Savoy is an American explorer and archaeologist. In 1964 and 1965,
he retraced the route of the early twentieth-century explorer Hiram
Bingham. Savoy, like Bingham, was looking for the city where the last 
Inca Kings had hidden from the Spanish conquistadors. Savoy centered
his search in Espiritu Pampa (The Plain of Ghosts). Bingham had visited
there briefly, but he found only a few small buildings. Savoy and his
team explored the area more carefully, cutting their way through dense
rainforest. They found a 230-foot-long temple, a sunken palace, and 
more than 300 other buildings and houses. Today, researchers are
convinced that Savoy found Vilcabamba -- the lost city of the Incas.

[Giant Anteater] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: Day and night
Eats: ANTS! (also TERMITES)
Size: About as big as Lassie, with shorter legs and a much longer

Anteaters have no teeth! They do, however, have two things that make
them well-suited for their diet: First, they have strong, sharp front
claws that they use for digging. In fact, their claws are so long that
anteaters must walk on the sides of their feet. Second, anteaters have
a very long tongue that is coated with sticky saliva. They shoot their
tongue deep into an ant nest, snatch a few ants, and swallow them 

[Giant Armadillo] -- (ar-muh-DILL-oh)

Active: At night
Size: Gigantic, at least compared to the nine-banded armadillo that
      occurs in the United States

Giant armadillos are digging machines! They dig up their food, and they
dig burrows for sleeping and raising their young. Armadillos have
armor-like plates on their backs. When they are threatened, they 
sometimes curl up into a ball to protect themselves. Armadillos have a
good sense of smell but very poor eyesight. If you are standing on a
trail, and you have taken a bath recently, they might accidentally run
into you.

[Giant Catfish] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Edible?: Yes
Size: Almost as big as a PIRARUCU

Giant catfish like to hang out during the day near the bottom of major
river channels -- sometimes as much as 150 feet deep. At night, they
move into shallow water to prey on smaller fish. Catfish get their name
from the fact that they have long whiskers called barbels. They are very
sensitive and may even be able to detect smells. The barbels help
catfish locate prey at night. There are about 500 species of catfish in
the Amazon River, compared to about 20 in the Mississippi.

[Goliath Bird-eating Spider]

Active: At night
Eats: Mostly insects, but also birds and small mammals
Size: If you held it in your cupped hands (not that you would want to),
      its legs would hang out

The Goliath bird-eating spider is a large, hairy-looking kind of spider
commonly called a tarantula. It kills its prey by injecting venom from
glands in its jaws. The birds it catches are usually babies in the nest.
Bird-eating spiders may look dangerous to people, but they are not that
bad. Their venom is not particularly hazardous to people. However, if
you pick one up, you might get some of its prickly "hairs" stuck in your

[Great Egret] -- (EE-gret)

Active: During the day
Eats: Fish and frogs
Size: About half as tall as an adult human being

The great egret is a member of the heron family. They are almost always 
found near water. They like to wade in shallow water looking for food.
The great egret is a bird that you can see as far south as the Amazon
and as far north as the northern United States. Great egrets who summer
in the northern edge of their range migrate south to the southern United
States and Mexico. Amazonian egrets don't migrate.

[Green Honeycreeper] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: During the day
Eats: Nectar and berries
Size: About as big as a sparrow

Honeycreepers are similar to hummingbirds in that they use their long
bills to extract nectar from flowers. Unlike hummingbirds, honeycreepers
do not hover in mid-air. They perch on a branch next to a flower. Then
they poke a hole at the base of the flower and drink the nectar.

[Guarana] -- (gah-rah-NA)

Guarana is a shrub or vine. Its fruit is ground into a powder that is
used to make a beverage. Guarana is used as a stimulant like cola, tea,
or coffee. In fact, it has up to six times as much caffeine as coffee.
Guarana is also used as a medicine for heart and liver conditions.
Guarana has been cultivated for hundreds of years. Because its seeds
get moldy quickly, the Indians grind up the seeds and mix them with 
MANIOC flour. Then they form the mixture into sticks, which become hard
and dry. To make a beverage, the Indians scrape the guarana stick over
the raspy tongue of a PIRARUCU, producing a powder that is dissolved in
water. In many parts of the Amazon today, you can buy guarana soda. It's
similar to what the Indians make, except it has sugar added.

[Harpy Eagle] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: During the day
Eats: Monkeys and sloths
Size: About the same size as a bald eagle; females usually larger than

The harpy eagle is one of the largest birds in the rainforest. Sometimes
the harpy eagle soars high above the trees. Most of the time, however, it
stays in the forest itself and is very hard to see. It has a remarkable
ability to fly through the treetops to catch its prey.

[Henry Ford] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Henry Ford, the successful American industrialist, was overmatched by the
Amazon rainforest. The founder of Ford Motor Company, Ford wanted a cheap
source of rubber for tires. (Today, most rubber is made in the laboratory,
but in Ford's day all of it came from RUBBER TREES.) So in 1927 Ford
acquired two-and-a-half million acres of land near Santarem and started 
the Forlandia rubber plantation. It was a disaster. The land was hilly and
rocky. None of Ford's managers knew anything about farming. The workers
did not like how they were treated. The trees were severely damaged by
diseases and insects. In 1945, Ford sold the plantation at a loss of $10
million. There are still rubber plantations in Amazonia today. But much
rubber is also collected by SERINGUEROS, who extract rubber from trees
scattered throughout the rainforest.

[Henry Walter Bates] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Henry Walter Bates was a self-taught entomologist -- an expert on insects.
In 1848, he went with ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE to explore the Amazon. Bates
stayed for over ten years before returning to his home in England, In 1863,
Bates published a book titled "The Naturalist on the River Amazons." Bates
became one of the most famous entomologists in history. He discovered the
important survival strategy called protective mimicry. This is a strategy
that harmless animals use to protect themselves from predators. They make
themselves look like poisonous animals! The Amazon has more kinds of insect
than anywhere on Earth. Bates collected 14,712 different species; more than
8,000 of those were new to science. Even today, entomologists are discovering
new species of insect in Amazonia.

[Hoatzin] -- (watt-SEEN)

Active: Near dawn and sunset; you might hear their croaking calls at night
Eats: Leaves
Size: About as big as a chicken

Hoatzins are among the most unusual birds on Earth. For one thing, they
feed entirely on the leaves of PHILODENDRON plants. Very few birds eat
leaves. Their breeding behavior is also unusual. Up to seven adults may
help with one nest. Only one female lays the eggs, but other adults help
incubate the eggs and feed the young birds. When young hoatzins first 
leave the nest, they have claws on their wings which they use to climb
trees! They lose their claws when they become adults.

[Ica River] -- (ee-CHA)

The Ica River flows into the Amazon from the west, about 1,750 miles from
Belem. The Ica begins as the Putumayo River high in the Andes Mountains
in Peru, north of Quito. Its name changes to the Ica when it crosses into
Brazil. The Putumayo was the site of large rubber operations at the turn
of the century. Many native peoples were enslaved as SERINGUEROS and
eventually tortured or killed. Today, the river is a major transportation
route. Boats can navigate almost its entire length. Today, the Predio
Putamayo Indigenous Reserve extends for 300 miles along the river in Peru.

[Indigo] -- (IN-dih-goh)

Indigo is a dark blue crystal or powder. Indians in Peru use indigo for
dyeing cotton and wool. They make it from plants of the Indigofera
species. When it first comes out of the plant, indigo has no color. After
it is mixed with water, and the water evaporates, the indigo turns blue.
Various kinds of indigo were used in many parts of the ancient world,
including Egypt, Rome, and Greece. Until 1900, all indigo came from
natural plants. Then, a German chemist learned the properties of indigo
and was able to make a similar dye in the laboratory

[Influenza] -- (in-floo-EN-zah)

Influenza, or simply "flu," is an infection caused by a virus. Influenza
affects your head, mouth, breathing tube, and lungs. If you have the flu,
you probably caught it from another person who had it. You feel weak. Your
muscles are sore. Your head aches. You get a fever and chills and a sore
throat. Influenza is tough on visitors to the Amazon, but it is much worse
on the Indians. Indians have no resistance to disease. Thousands upon
thousands of Indians died from influenza after being infected by white
people. there is no cure for influenza. The best treatment is aspirin,
cough syrup, and rest.

[Ipecacuanha Root] -- (ee-pay-kah-COO-nyah)

Ipecacuanha root is native to the Amazon basin. It is used as a
medicine for treating intestinal PARASITES and for internal
poisoning. Indiants make a drink form piecacuanha root to induce
vomiting. In the rainforest, where people (especially young
children) might accidentally eat poisonous leaves or fruits, this
is an important medicine. Today, you can go into any drugstore and
buy "ipecac." It is a common medicine that comes from this same
root. Just as in the rainforest, it is used to induce vomiting when
someone has swallowed a poisonous substance.

[Iquitos] -- (ee-KEE-toes)

Iquitos, about 2,300 miles upriver from Belem, was first an Indian
village and then a military outpost. It became a bustling town
during the rubber boom of the 1880s. At that time, millionaires
began to build mansions and large buildings in Iquitos. One building
in the central square was designed by Alexandre Eiffel -- the same
architect who designed the Eiffel Tower in Paris. After the rubber
boom, Iquitos once again became a quiet river town. Renewed economic
interest in wood products, tourism, mining, and oil exploration have
sparked some recent growth in Iquitos. Today, however, it is still
somewhat of an outpost. There are no roads leading into or out of
Iquitos! The only way in is by boat or plane.

[Isabela Godin] -- (EES-ah-BELL-ah go-dan)

Isabela Godin was the first white woman to travel from Quito, 
Ecuador, to the mouth of the Amazon. Her husband was a member of a
Spanish scientific expedition. He had left Quito in 1749 to travel 
down the Amazon and return to France. He had never made that trip
before, and he wanted to test it himself before having his wife do
it. But he got stuck down river and was never able to return to her
again. Finally, after 20 years, Madame Godin decided to make the 
journey without her husband. She set out with a large group of people
including her children and brothers, some Indians, and a slave. The
trip was a disaster. One after another, party members either ran off
or died. Isabela Godin was left all alone. She wandered aimlessly in
the rainforest for several days until some Indians found her and 
helped her reach her destination. Miraculously, she and her husband
were reunited near BELEM.

[Jaguar] -- (JAG-wahr)

Active: Day and night
Eats: Large mammals like CAPYBARAS; also reptiles, birds, fish, and
      small mammals
Size: Largest cat in the Amazon and third-largest in the world

Jaguars are at the top of the Amazon food pyramid. Jaguars eat things
that eat other things, but nothing eats jaguars! They maintain large
territories -- up to 10 square miles. They are solitary except when
mating and when females are raising their cubs. If you are lucky 
enough to see a jaguar, it will probably be near water. You are more
likely to hear one -- their roaring can be heard for large distances.
Most jaguars are orange with black spots, but some are black with
barely visible spots.

[Japura River] -- (yah-poo-RAH)

The Japura and Jurua rivers are both Amazon tributaries that are over
1,000 miles long. The Japura flows from the west-northwest. Its source
is in the Colombian highlands, where it is called the Rio Caquette. It
is about 1,100 miles long.

[Jarua River] -- (yoo-roo-AH)

The Jarua flows from the southwest into the Amazon. It begins in the
Peruvian highalnds and flows through the Brazilian state of Acre. The
Jurua is over 2,000 miles long.

[Jivaro Tribe] -- (HEE-var-roh)

The Jivaro Indians live in the area between the NAPO River and the
MARANON. They are fierce defenders of their territory. They are known
for their BLOWGUNS, shrunken heads, huge signal drum, and warfare.
Th Jivaro make shrunken heads of their enemies. First, the skin is cut
away from the skull and the lips are sewn together. Next, the head is
boiled with a special plant to shrink it and keep the hair from falling
out. Then, hot sand and stones are put inside to shrinki it some more.
Finally, the head is smoked, polished, and stored in a clay jar. The
Jivaro were first contacted by the Spanish in the 1550s but drove them
away. In the 1760s, and again in the mid-1800s, the Jesuits tried to
establish a mission in Jivaro territory but were driven out.

[Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru] -- (HOE-say gah-bree-ELL too-PAHK ah-mah-ROO)

The last Inca revolt took place in 1780-1783, just a few years after
the American Revolution. Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru was its leader. He
was the great-great-great grandson of the last Inca King, Tupac Amaru
Inca, who had ruled in the hidden city of VILCABAMBA. Jose Gabriel
Tupac Amaru was an educated nobleman who had extensive land holdings.
He wrote "I am the only one who remains of the royal blood of the
Incas, kings of this kingdom. I have decided to try all means possible
that all abuses introduced and planted by the corregidores and other
persons may cease." The rebellion spread throughout Ecuador, Peru,
Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, and northwest Argentina. When Tupac 
Amaru was captured and executed by Spanish military forces, there
were over 30,000 Inca troops still fighting. Eventually, the
rebellion was put down.

[Julio Arana] -- (HOO-lee-oh ah-RAH-nyah)

In the early twentieth century, Julio Arana, a Peruvian, controlled
the rubber harvest in a large area from IQUITOS up the Rio Putamayo.
Instead of hiring professional rubber trappers, he enslaved 
Indians -- mainly the WITOTO. Arana's company, the Peruvian Amazon
Rubber Company, was known for its cruelty. Indians received no pay
other than food. They were flogged. They received no medical
treatment. They were tortured and killed if they failed to collect
their quota of rubber. Before the authorities caught up with him,
Arana had become responsible for the deaths of as many as 50,000

[Juruna Tribe] -- (zhoo-ROO-nah)

The Juruna were first described by Westerners in 1640, when several
thousand lived near the mouth of the XINGU. They cultivated MANIOC
and supplemented their diet by hunting and gathering. They were
cannibalistic. In the late 1600s, Jesuit missionaries tried but failed
to "tame" the Juruna. (In those days, and indeed until very recently,
Indians who were friendly to Europeans were called tame, and Indians
who resisted were called wild.) By moving farther and farther up the
Xingu River, the Juruna were able to maintain their culture until the
late 1800s. But then they were enslaved by rubber barons. In 1916, the
50 or so surviving Juruna escaped deep into the rainforest. They were
contacted again by the VILLAS BOAS brothers in 1949.

[Justicia] -- (jhoo-STEESE-ee-uh)

Several varities of justicia plants are native to Amazonia. Different
tribes use justicia leaves and roots for a variety of purposes. One
type of justicia is used to make snuff. Another type is dried and used
as a perfume. Another type is dusted on the body and used as an insect
repellant. Other kinds of justicia are used by Indian tribes to cure
serious illnesses, including pneumonia and palsy.

[Kayapo Tribe] -- (kay-YAH-poh)

The Kayapo Indians' range is around the XINGU River and westward to the
Tapajos. The Kayapo are a peaceful people who have great agricultural
and botanical knowledge. Several research teams have studied the Kayapo
Indians' use of domestic and wild plants. Western botanists have called
the Kayapo "extraordinary scientists." Recently, the Kayapo have struggled
with invading gold miners, ranchers, and encroaching villages. One of 
their chiefs, Paikan, has testified at conferences in the United States
on the effect of thousands of settlers in the tribal areas. He has also
spoken of the effect of huge hydroelectric dams like the Xingu Dam Complex
that would have flooded 20 million acres of rainforest and created the
world's largest man-made body of water. After his testimony, the Xingu
dam was put on hold.

[King Vulture] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: During the day
Eats: Carrion (dead animals)
Size: A little smaller than a bald eagle

There are five species of vultures in Amazonia. Two of them, the turkey
vulture and the black vulture, also occur in North America. The king
vulture is slightly bigger, and much more colorful, than the North
American varities. Vultures have no feathers on their heads. Scientists
believe that this trait is related to their diet and feeding behavior.
If you had to eat by sticking your head into the carcass of a dead
animal, you would probably want a bald head too!

[Kinkajou] -- (KING-kuh-joo)

Active: At night
Eats: Fruit and insects
Size: Like a skinny house cat

Kinkajous are related to raccoons, but they look more like monkeys. In
fact, some native people call kinkajous and NIGHT MONKEYS by the same
name. Kinkajous are unusual in that they can hold onto branches with
their tail. This type of tail is called prehensile. Kinkajous are very
agile and can move quickly through the treetops. When they eat fruits,
they often swallow the seeds, which pass unharmed through their
digestive system. In this way kinkajous help new trees get established.

[Leche Caspi] -- (LAY-shay cahs-PEE)

Leche caspi, also called chicle, comes from the latex of a tropical fruit
tree. This latex -- a thick, milky sap -- is the main substance from which
chewing gum used to be made. When it comes out of the tree, the latex is
white and runny. It hardens into pink or reddish-brown rubbery chunks.
Amazonian tribes, as well as the Maya and Inca peoples, have enjoyed
leche caspi for centuries. It was imported to the United States in the
1800s. By the 1890s, it was used as the main ingredient in chewing gum.
Since the 1940s, synthetic ingredients have been used instead of leche

[Leticia/Javari River] -- (lay-TEE-see-ah)/(zha-VAR-ee)

Leticia is Colombia's port city on the Amazon, about 2,000 miles upriver
from Belem. Founded by Peruvians as a military outpost in the 1860s, it
became a Colombian city in the 1930s. It is the point where the borders
of Colombia, Peru, and Brazil meet. It is often called "Tres Fronteras,"
or Three Borders. You can walk across the border to the Brazilian city
of Tabatinga. There are no roads leading to Leticia, but there is an
airport and boats go to MANAUS and IQUITOS. Leticia was once a central
trading village for many of the surrounding tribes. Today, it is a
center for illegal drug and animal skin trafficking, and it is 
developing a tourist trade.

[Lope de Aguirre] -- (LOH-pay day AHG-ee-ray)

Aguirre was a member of a Spanish expedition from Cuzco, in what
is now Peru, near the source of the Amazon River. In 1558, the
expedition set out to conquer the Omagua Indians and find El
Dorado, the mythical city of gold. The expedition was derailed
by numerous mutinies and murders. Aguirre and another man killed
the expedition leader, and Aguirre took over. He continued down the
Amazon, leaving a trail of blood and rebellion. Aguirre made it all
the way to the Atlantic Ocean. Along the way, he declared his
independance from the King of Spain and pronounced himself to be 
the new king. His plan was to conquer several South American
countries. Aguirre, who called himself "the wolf," the rebel," "the
traitor," and "the wanderer," was clearly a madman. Eventually, he
was captured. He was executed in public, and his body was quartered.

[Loren McIntyre] -- (LOAR-en MACK-in-tire)

Loren McIntyre is an author, photographer, and explorer who has spent
most of his professional life in Amazonia -- from the Andes Mountains
to the rainforest lowlands. He is recognized as having the most 
experience in Amazonia of any North American journalist. In 1971, 
McIntyre led an expedition that found the source of the Amazon River.
The source is a lake at the headwaters of the APURIMAC River south of
VILCABAMBA. The lake has been named after McIntyre. McIntyre is also
an ethnographer -- a person who studies human cultures. Once, when he
was with the MAYORUNA Indians, he was missing for nearly a year.
McIntyre once said, "THe first explorers of South American were 
Indians." His photographs of native tribes and wildlife have been
published in National Geographic magazine and more than 400 other books
and publications. His 1991 book, "Amazonia," has particularly beautiful

[Lungfish] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Edible?: Yes
Size: A nice, pan-size fish

While most fish breathe with gills, lungfish do indeed have a lung
with which they breathe. Lungfish have been around for at least 150
million years. They may have been the first animal to develop a lung.
Lungfish thrive in oxygen-poor lakes. In the dry season, when the 
lakes dry up, the lungfish bury themselves in the mud. They hibernate
until the wet season returns.

[Maku Tribe] -- (mah-KOO)

The Maku live in a territory between the Rio Negro and the Japura
river. They first encountered Europeans in the late 1800s and the early
1900s at the beginning of the RUBBER boom. There are two groups of
Makus: "the howling monkey" Maku who are isolated and the "tame" Maku
who maintain contact with Brazilian and European settlements. The 
"howling monkey" Maku are thought to be the last of an ancient people 
that once lived in large areas of the Amazon Basin. These Maku are
excellent hunters and warriors who carry six-foot BLOWGUNS and arrows
tipped in CURARE. They also carry bows, war clubs, and stone axes.

[Malaria] -- (muh-LAIR-ee-uh)

Malaria is a serious infection that affects your blood and spleen.
Malaria is caused by a microscopic organism that enters your blood
through the bite of a certain type of mosquito, the anopheles. If you
get malaria, you start feeling feverish. You have sudden outbursts of
chills. You become anemic or weak because your blood is low on red 
blood cells that carry oxygen. Your spleen becomes enlarged. You may
even suffer brain damage. If left untreated, malaria can be fatal. You
can usually, but not always, prevent malaria by taking anti-malaria
pills before you travel to a place like the Amazon. Once you're there,
you should stay out of mosquito-infested areas and wear insect repellant.
You can treat malaria with quinine, which is made from the bark of the
CHINCHONA tree. Sometimes, however, malaria resists treatment and becomes
chronic, or long-lasting.

[Manioc] -- (MAN-ee-ahk)

Manioc has been cultivated by Amazonian Indians for at least 5,000
years. It is also called yuca or cassava. The edible part of manioc
is a starchy root that is pulled from the ground. It is the staple
carbohydrate in the Amazon diet. No other kind of starchy food grows
well in Amazonia. There are two kinds of manioc. Bitter manioc contains
cyonide, a poison that must be removed by soaking before the manioc is
eaten. Sweet manioc is not poisonous and is cooked like potatoes. 
Recently, manioc has been developed into a fuel for motor vehicles.

[Maranon River] -- (mar-ah-NYON)

The Maranon River, about 2,400 miles upriver from Belem, was named for
its maze of waterways and islands. In Portuguese and Spanish, Maranon 
means tangle, maze, or snarl. The Maranon is one of the Amazon's major
tributaries. It starts in Lake Lauricocha, high in the Andes Mountains
of Peru near the Pacific Ocean. It flows through the Peruvian rainforest
and then joins the Ucayali River. Where the Maranon and Ucayali come
together, the river takes on the name Las Amazanos or The River Amazon.
Until the 1950s, the Maranon was thought to be the source of the Amazon
River. Today, the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve lies between the 
Maranon and the Ucayali.

[Mask] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Masks are used throughout the Amazon in tribal rituals. Many are carved
from wood. The wooden masks are sewn to a hood pounded from the inner
bark of certain types of palm trees. The mask covers the head, and the
hood sometimes goes all the way down to the knees. Many maska are made
to look like rainforest animals. Others represent gods and spirits.
Masks are sacred items, and women are not allowed to wear them. About
a hundred years ago in the northwestern part of the Amazon, two
Franciscan priests brought out a sacred tribal mask while they were
preaching to a group of Tariana Indians. The Tariana were furious. 
They started a rebellion, the Yurupari Revolt, and drove all Franciscan
priests out of the area.

[Mayoruna Tribe] -- (my-oh-ROO-nah)

The Mayoruna Indians live in western Amazonia near the Ucayali River. 
They are known as the "Cat People" because they often have cat-like
whiskers tattooed on their cheeks. The Mayoruna may have admitted some
Spanish stragglers from AGUIRRE's voyage into their tribe. The Mayoruna
were contacted by missionaries in 1654. An epidemic soon followed, and
the tribe was reduced to about 1,000 people. After the missionaries
left, the Mayoruna remained hidden and elusive. In 1851, W.L. Herndon
sent the U.S. Congress a report that included these words: "[The
Mayoruna] attack any person who goes into their territory."

[Munduruku Tribe] -- (moon-dew-roo-KOO)

The Munduruku live along the Tapajos and TROMBETAS rivers. They are a
fierce people who aggressively defend their territory. The Munduruku
are known for their beautiful garments made of feathers and for their
elaborate tattoos. Children begin to get tattoos by the age of eight,
and their bodies are not fully decorated until age 20. The Munduruku
are headhunters. They collect the heads of their enemies and their
own warriors who die in battle. They put the heads on trophy sticks
and decorate them with feathers and dyes.

[Napo River] -- (NAH-poe)

The Napo River begins in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador. It flows from
the northeast into the Amazon about 2,200 miles upriver from Belem. 
Spanish explorers and conquistadors of the 1500s made their headquarters
in Quito, Ecuador. They traveled on the Nap into Amazonia. In 1542, 
FRANCISCO DE ORELLANA navigated the Napo on his way to the mouth of the
Amazon. A small village at the mouth of the Amazon bears his name.

[Night Monkey] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: At night, of course!
Eats: Mostly fruit; some insects
Size: With its tail curled up, one would fit in a grocery bag

Night monkeys are the only monkeys in the world that are active at night.
All other types of monkeys are active during the day. Their large eyes
help night monkeys see. If you shine a flashlight at them, they will run
away. But if you wait for a bright moonlit night, you may get a good view
of them. In different parts of the Amazon, night monkeys have different
colors and patterns of fur. Scientists are not sure how many species of
night monkeys there are.

[Pedro de Teixeira] -- (Pay-dro day tay-ee-SHAY-ee-rah)

Pedro de Teixeira was a Portuguese soldier and explorer. He helped establish
Portugal as the dominant European power in Amazonia. To this day, Portuguese
is the official language of Brazil. Teixeira led a group of 1,200 men in 47
canoes to explore the entire length of the Amazon River. They departed from
BELEM in October 1637. No one in the expedition was a good pilot, but
Teixeira and his men were able to make their way upriver. They did not go 
all the way to the source of the Amazon (In fact, the source of the Amazon
was not discovered until 1971 by LOREN MCINTYRE.) They left the Amazon to
travel up the Napo River on their way to Quito, Ecuador. After almost a year
of travel, Teixeira reached Quito, near the western coast of South America.
He then returned safely to Belem.

[Leaf-cutter Ant] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: Both day and night
Eats: Fungus
Size: Normal ant size. Queens are by far the biggest, followed by
      soldiers. Workers are smallest.

Leaf-cutter ants "harvest" pieces of leaves. Each piece may weight up to
50 times more than the ant. They carry the pieces to their huge underground
nests. In the nest, they break the leaves into tiny pieces. Then they add
chemicals from their own bodies and a smidgen of fungus. The fungus grows,
and the ants eat the fungus. Leaf-cutting ants are incredibly numerous in
the Amazon. Scientists estimate that they cut at least 15% of all the 
vegetation in the rainforest.

[Liana] -- (lee-AH-nuh)

Lians are the vines that are draped around trees throughout the rainforest.
There are many different species of lianas. Some lianas start out as a
shrub, with roots in the ground. Other lianas begin life when their seeds
are dropped by birds on the branches of trees. In either case, lianas grow
by wrapping themselves around the trunks of trees. Sometimes a liana will
wrap itself so tightly that it actually strangles and kills the tree. In
fac, one species of liana is commonly called the strangler fig. the stems
of certain lianas are hollow and contain drinkable water! They are used by
people traveling through the rainforest. But you have to be careful: Some
lianas contain water that is poisonous.

[Madeira River]

At more than 2,000 miles long, the Madeira river is the longest
tributary of the Amazon. In fact, it is the longest tributary in
the world. On its own, the Madeira is the fourth-longest river in
the world. It enters the Amazon from the south, about 1,000 miles
upriver from Belem. The Madeira River was explored by COLONEL RONDON
in 1907, when the Brazilian government wanted to set up a telegraph
line from Porto Velho to MANAUS. A few years later, TEDDY ROOSEVELT
and Rondon explored the river and had a very rough go of it. Today,
a highway cuts through the Amazon rainforest where Rondon marked out
the path for the telegraph, but many parts of the Madeira Valley are
still relatively uncharted and unexplored.


Manaus, about 1,100 miles upriver from BELEM, is the largest city
in central Amazonia. It was founded in 1660 as a Portuguese fort.
By the mid-1800s, when it was called Barra, it was a wild and 
dangerous place. Natural ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE said "Morals in Barra
are perhaps at the lowest ebb in any civilized community." During the
rubber boom, all rubber was shipped out of Manaus. The great wealth
financed the building of a lavish opera house and other grand
structures. Manaus got electric street lights before London. When
the rubber boom collapsed in 1912, the wealth vanished. Today, Manaus
is again a major trading center.

[Mealy Parrot] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: During the day
Eats: Fruits, nuts, and seeds
Size: Almost as big as a crow

The mealy parrot is the largest of several mostly-green parrots that
are commonly called "Amazon parrots." Their coloration can make it
very hard for predators to see them in the trees. Parrots are agile
climbers. Their feet have two claws facing forward and two facing 
backward. This arrangement helps them hold onto branches and food. In
addition, they frequently use their beaks as an extra foot. Not all
Amazon parrots live in Amazonia. Some live as far north as Mexico.

[Mushroom] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

The floor of the rainforest has a thin layer of pungent, decomposing
plant material. The material is decomposing -- changing from dead to
alive -- through the actions of mushrooms and various other life
forms. Mushrooms, lichens, mosses, and insects all feed on the plant
material and turn it into nutrients that can be used by other plants
and animals. Just as in other parts of the world, the Amazon has some
mushrooms that are edible and some that are poisonous.

[Ocelot] -- (AHSS-uh-lot)

Active: Mainly atnight
Eats: Small mammals
Size: About halfway between a house cat and a JAGUAR; males bigger
      than females

Ocelots are the most common type of cat in the Amazon. Like most cats,
ocelots are solitary and secretive. They hunt on the ground, often
walking on trails made by people. They will climb trees to find a 
resting place or to cross streams. It is very unusual to actually see
an ocelot. But it's not too hard to see signs of them. You might see
their footprints in the mud on a trail or riverbank, and you might see
scratch marks on fallen trees. Ocelots and some other cats scratch
trees to mark their territories.

[Orchid] -- (OR-kid)

Orchids are among the most beautiful flowers in the world. About 500
species are known to occur in Amazonia. This number will probably
grow as BOTANISTS continue to explore the rainforest. Many species of
orchids attach themselves to trees. This is a strategy that helps the
orchids get more sunlight -- almost no sunlight reaches the floor of a
tropical rainforest. Plants that grow on other plants are called
epiphytes. Many typesof orchids are pollinated by bees, and certain
types of bees pollinate only certain types of orchids. Some orchid
blossoms smell like female bees, which trick male bees into visiting
the flowers and transporting the flowers' pollen.

[Paradise Tanager] -- (TAN-uh-jer)

Active: During the day
Eats: Fruits and some insects
Size: About as big as a sparrow

The paradise tanager is one of the most beautiful of a large group of
beautiful birds. In fact, there are more than 200 species of tanagers
in South America. by contrast, there are about 650 total species of
birds in North America. Paradise tanagers tend to move slowly and
methodically through the forest looking for food. They often travel in
flocks of several different species fo birds, including other tanagers,

[Parasites] -- (PAIR-uh-sites)

Parasites are organisms that invade -- and continue to live in -- your
body. The most common parasites in the rainforest are worms that live
in your intestines. Up to half the people who live in the Amazon year-
-round may have intestinal parasites. Some  parasites enter your body
through the soles of your feet. Others enter through contaminated food.
When you get parasites, you begin to feel weak and sluggish. You may 
lose your appetite. Your ability to eat and digest food will not be
enough to sustain you. Your stomach and also your liver may swell. The
treatment for parasites is strong medicines that poison the worms 
living inside you. The poison kills the parasites but can also make 
you sick.

[Passionflower] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

A passionflower is a vine that produced beautiful flowers. 
Passionflowers go to great lengths to protect themselves form insects.
They produce different forms of a poison called cyanide in their
leaves, which not many insects can eat -- except certain types of
caterpillars. These caterpillars have developed an immunity to specific
types of cyanides produced by specific passionflower species. For added
protection, passionflowers also produce nectars that attract aggressive
ants and wasps. The presence of these insects helps keep the caterpillars

[Philodendron] -- (fill-oh-DEN-drun)

The common house plant philodendron is actually native to tropical
rainforests. Philodendron is a climbing plant, beginning life on the
ground. A small shoot comes out of the ground and seeks out the shade
of a nearby tree. The shoot grows up the tree trunk, attaching itself
to the trunk with small roots. It keeps climbing, all the way to the
top if necessary, to find sunlight. Some philodendron leaves contain
a substance that makes your mouth burn. This is a plant's way of 
defending itself against plant-eating enemies. There are many different
kinds of philodendron. Indians use the different kinds for many
different purposes. One kind is used to poison fish. Another is an oral
contraceptive. Another is used to treat skin infections.

[Pilocarpus] -- (pee-loh-KAR-poos)

Pilocarpus is a native plant of Brazil's rainforest. Ointments made from
this plant are used to treat eye problems among southern Amazon basin
tribes. A drug, pilocarpine, has been developed from pilocarpus to treat
glaucoma. Pilocarpine is used by eye doctors in many parts of the world

[Pirarucu] -- (pee-rar-oo-KOO)

Edible?: Yes
Size: Possibly the largest freshwater fish in the world. Can be half as
      long as a station wagon and as heavy as two football players.

In some ways, the pirarucu is a mammal. First, it cares for its young for
four months, much longer than most fish. The mother helps her young find 
her by secreting a milky-white fluid from pores in her head. Second, 
pirarucus do not breathe underwater with gills. Instead, they have an
air-bladder, similar to a mammal's lungs. They usually come to the surface
to breathe ever 10 or 15 minutes. In addition to having teeth in their
jaws, pirarucus also have teeth on their tongues. Yikes!

[Poison Dart Frog] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: During the day
Eats: Termites and ants
Size: Some are as big as your thumbnail; others are as big as your
      whole thumb

There are at least 100 species of poison dart frogs. Most have two things
in common. First, they have pockets in their skin that contain poison,
which makes them very undesirable to predators. Second, they have brightly
colored skin, which warns predators to stay away. How did the poison dart
frog get its name? Some native people extract the poison by warming a frog
over a fire. Then they coat the tips of their arrows with the poison. When
they shoot a mammal or bird, the poison paralyzes it.

[Pucallpa] -- (poo-CAHL-pah)

Pucallpa is a large Amazon port city in Peru that dates back to the
early 1500s. Until 1945, when the Lima-Pucallpa highway was completed,
it was very isolated. It lies on the west side of the Amazon known as
the Ucayali River, about 2,900 miles upriver from Belem. Today,
Pucallpa is still a frontier town. There is electricity, but no paved
roads. Pucallpa is a center for local agriculture and industry. There
are saw mills, oil fields, and factores for extracting ROSEWOOD OIL.
Large river boats arrive from IQUITOS. Just west of Pucallpa are the
Biabo-Cordillera Azul National Forest and the ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT
National Forest.

[Purus River] -- (poo-ROOS)

The Purus River, over 1,000 miles long, is one of the Amazon's seven
great tributaries. It flows into the Amazon from the southwest, about
1,300 miles upriver from Belem. Its source is in the Andean foothills
of Peru. It passes through the huge agricultural section of the
Brazilian state of Acre, where much deforestation has taken place.
Then, it meanders through a very low-lying area of the Amazon basin.
It is called "the world's crookedest river." The Purus joins the Amazon
River about 100 miles upriver from the Rio Negro, about 800 miles from
Belem. In Brazil, the section of the Amazon River between IQUITOS and
the Rio Negros is known as the Solimoes River.

[Pygmy Marmoset] -- (PIG-me MAR-moe-set)

Active: During the day
Eats: Sap, insects, and sometimes fruit
Size: If it would sit still for long enough, you could hold on in
      your cupped hands.

Pygmy marmosets are the world's smallest monkeys. They have sharp teeth
with which they dig holes into trees and vines. Then they lap up the 
sap or resin that collects in the holes. They return to the same holes
day after day. Pygmy marmosets move quickly and quietly, so they are
difficult to see. You are more likely to hear them make their birdlike
whistles and chirping sounds. They are too small to be worth hunting
for food, so marmosets tend to be common near towns and villages.

[Red-billed Scythebill] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: During the day
Eats: Insects and the occasional frog
Size: About as big as a blue jay

The red-billed scythebill is in a family of birds called woodcreepers.
They hunt insects in the bark of tree trunks and in flowers that grow
on trees. Most woodcreepers are brown, which helps camouflage them 
against the tree trunks. Usually, a scythebill will start its search
for food near the bottom of a tree. It clings to the trunk with its
feet and uses its stiff tail as a prop. Then it takes small hops
arond the tree, slowly spiraling upward.

[Red-bellied Pirahna] - (puh-RAH-nyuh)

Edible?: Yes, but be careful when you bring it into the boat
Size: In the words of TEDDY ROOSEVELT, "short, deep-bodied"

Groups of 12-100 red-bellied pirahnas hunt together. Pirahnas rarely
attack people; they are most dangerous when they are handled out of
the water. But don't go swimming if you see one! The red-bellied
pirahna is one of at least 20 species in Amazonia. The red-bellied
kills its prey, but most species of pirahna do not. Instead, they
take small bites out of other fishes fins or scales. The fins and
scales grow back, which means that the pirahnas can feed on the same
fish many times.

[Red-rumped Agouti] -- (uh-GOO-tee)

Active: Mostly near dawn and dusk
Eats: Fruits, nuts, and seeds
Size: About as big as a North American raccoon

The red-rumped agouti is a medium-sized rodent. There are somewhere
between two and six species of agoutis in South America. Scientists
need to do more research to learn how to identify the different
species. Like squirrels, agoutis bury nuts and seeds when food is
abundant. Later, when food is scarce, they dig them up. Sometimes
they don't dig them up, and the nuts grow into trees!

[Red Howler Monkey] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: During the day
Eats: Leaves and fruits
Size: Larger than most Amazonian monekys; males larger than females

There are two species of howler monekys in the Amazon -- one on each
size of the river. They get their name from the incredibly loud sounds
they make. Howlers have smaller home ranges than other large monkeys.
This is partly because howlers eat a lot of leaves and so do not need
to roam very far in search of food. Howlers spend most of their time
in the middle and upper levels of the forest. They are generally slow-
-moving and quiet. If you disturb them, howwever, they might urinate or
defecate on you.

[Rhinoceros Beetle] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: Both day and night
Eats: Other insects
Size: About as long as your index finger

The rhinoceros beetle is so named because the male has a "horn" that
looks like the horn of a rhino. The females do not have horns. Males
use their horns when they fight with one another. They seem to fight
over feeding territory. Worldwide, there are at least 300,000 known
species of beetles. More and more are being discovered because
scientists are exploring in new places such as the upper canopy of

[Richard Evans Schutles] -- (SHOOL-tees)

Richard Evans Schutles is a pioneer in the field of ethnobotany. An
ethnobotanist finds out how different cultures use plants for 
medicine, as food, and in rituals. Schultes explored the Amazon in
the 1940s and 1950s. Frequently, he would spend a full year or more
in the field so that he could witness the annual life-cycles of the
plants he was studying. "A botanist literally must live with them
(plants) to be successful in his efforts," Schultes said. He met with
the medicine men of many tribes to learn which plants they used, what
they used them for, and how they prepared them. After extensive field
research, Schutles began publishing articles and books about the use
of rainforest plants. His research is summarized in a book, "The
Healing Forest," published in 1990.

[Richard Spruce] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Richard Spruce was a British mathemetician and self-taught botanist.
In 1848, he learned that fellow Englishman ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE and
HENRY WALTER BATES had gone to Amazonia, and decided to follow them.
Over the course of 15 years, Spruce collected thousands of plant
specimins. His travels took him along almost the entire length of 
the Amazon -- from BELEM to the Andes Mountains. Spruce was hired by
the British government to help smuggle CINCHONA seeds and plants out
of Peru. The bark of cinchona is extremely valuable because it 
contains a substance that cures MALARIA. The cinchona that Spruce
helped to smuggle turned out to be worthless.

[Rio Negro] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

The Rio Negro (Portuguese for Black River) is one of seven Amazon
tributaries that are over 1,000 miles long. In its own right, the
Rio Negro is one of the biggest rivers in the world. In fact, where
the two rivers meet, the Rio Negro and the Amazon are about the same

[Rosewood Oil] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Two kinds of sweet-scented rosewood trees produce a substance called
linalool that is the main ingredient in rosewood oil. Rosewood oil 
is used as a scent in soaps and perfumes. Today, it is one of the most
valuable crops of the Amazon rainforest. There are about 50 factories
in the Amazon rainforest that extract oil from the rosewood tree. The
trees are cut down and sent through a wood chipper. A ton of wood 
yields about 20 pounds of oil. The oil is exported -- about 70% of the
United States and the rest to Europe. Efforts are underway to figure
out how to extract rosewood oil without cutting down the tree.

[Rubber Ball] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

The RUBBER TREE produces a milky substance called latex. The latex
is collected by SERINGUEROS. The seringueros carry the latex back to
a processing camp, where they pour it slowly upon a turning spit over
a smoky fire. The latex hardens and the ball slowly grows in size. The
ball gets to be bigger than a basketball and can weigh up to 80 pounds.
The usefulness of latex to the rubber tree is not known for certain; it
may be used as a protection against insects. But people have found many
uses for it. Indians used it for balls for sport and also to make
waterproof bottles. In 1888, British veterinarian John Dunlop developed
air-filled rubber tires, and the world was changed forever.

[Rubber Tree] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

The rubber tree is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of
120 feet. Its sap is a milky-white substance called latex that is
the raw ingredient for rubber. Western cultures started to make use of
rubber in about 1820, but the rubber was sticky, stinky, and short-
-lived. In 1839, Charles Goodyear developedd a process to make rubber
easy to handle, not stinky, and long-lasting. Then, in 1888, John
Dunlop created air-filled tires, and the rubber industry exploded.
Rubber is still a major cash crop in Amazonia. There are some rubber
plantations, but a lot of rubber is collected from widely scattered
trees by SERINGUEROS. In the tropical forests of Asia and Africa, 
where there are no pests that harm rubber trees, plantations have been
more successful.

[Santarem] -- (san-tan-RAIN)

Santarem is a large port city where the Tapajos River flows into the
Amazon about 600 miles upriver from Belem. Santarem was founded as a
Jesuit mission in 1661, and a fort was built at this spot by PEDRO DE
TEIXEIRA. Originally, Santarem was named Tapajos after the Indians who
lived in the area and the river of the same name. After the U.S. Civil
War, a large group of Confederate exiles settled in Santarem. Although
many returned to the United States, there are still many descendants of
the Confederate exiles still living in Santarem today.

[Scarlet Macaw] -- (muh-CAW)

Active: During the day
Eats: Fruits, nuts, and seeds
Size: Body about as big as a crow, with an incredibly long tail

As you might guess by looking at its body shape, beak, and feet, the
scarlet macaw is a type of parrot. There are 14 species of macaws in
South America and Central America; about half of them can be found in
various parts of Amazonia. The scarlet macaw's beak is so powerful that
it can crack open nuts, including the touch BRAZIL NUT. Like most
parrots, scarlet macaws are almost always seen in groups of from two to
twenty or more birds.

[Seringuero (Rubber Tapper)] -- (say-reen-GAY-roh)

Seringuero is the Portuguese word for rubber tapper. Seringueros slash
the bark of RUBBER TREES and attach buckets below the slashes. The latex
oozes out slowly. Once the latex is collected, it must be processed. The
seringuero pours the latex on a revolving spit over a low fire. The 
latex hardens into a ball that the seringuero can take to market. Indians
have always used small amounts of rubber. When white people discovered 
that they could use rubber for tires and other purposes, a giant industry
was created. The whites enslaved Indians and forced them to become full-
-time seringueros. Thousands of Indians died from overwork or torture or
attempting to escape. Today, thanks in large part to the efforts of Chico
Mendes, independant seringueros have made a comeback. They have become 
some of the strongest advocates for preserving the rainforest.

[Smallpox] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Smallpox is a very severe infectious disease caused by a virus. The
virus is spread from one human to another. Smallpox affects your lymph
system and skin. Smallpox begins with a high fever. About two days
later, small bumps, like pimples, begin to appear all over your body.
These pimples begin to blister and fill with fluid. Then, the blisters
break and begin to weep pus. They dry up and leave little scars. 
Smallpox can be fatal. Since about 1977, smallpox has been eradicated
from the world. It is the only living thing that people have 
intentionally made extinct. Before then, it was one of the most feared
diseases in the world.

[Spectacled Caiman] -- (KAY-mun)

Active: Both day and night
Eats: Anything that crawls, walks, swims, or flies, whether alive or
Size: A little smaller than your average alligator

Being reptiles, caimans are cold-blooded. This means that their body
temperature is determined by the outside environment. Caimans like to
keep warm, so they spend their days basking on the sunny river banks.
By soaking up energy from the sun, caimans reduce the amount of energy
they must obtain by eating. Like most potentially dangerous animals in
the Amazon, caimans try to avoid people, so there is little danger of
one attacking you. Still, it's not a good idea to go swimming near 

[Spectacled Owl] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: At night
Eats: Small mammals, birds, snakes, and frogs
Size: A little bigger than a crow

Like most owls, spectacled owls are active at night. Animals that are
active at night are said to be "nocturnal." Owls have three traits
that help them get food. First, they have superb vision, even when 
there is very little light. Second, they have excellent hearing. Third,
they have strong, sharp claws for grabbing prey. Unlike people, owls
cannot move their eyes in their sockets. Instead, they have flexible
necks which allow them to look directly backwards.

[Stingray] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Edible?: Yes, but it can be dangerous if you try to catch one
Size: Relatively flat and round, like a garbage-can lid

The stingray gets its name from its dangerous tail. The tail is 
dangerous for two reasons. First, it is poisonous. Second, it is
sharp and serrated, like a bread knife. A sting is rarely fatal, but
it is very painful. The pain can be extreme for up to 10 days. 
Stingrays like to bury themselves in the sand. Most accidents occur
when someone steps on a stingray in shallow water. The good news is
that the stingray only uses its sting in defense. If you leave it
alone, a stingray will not attack you.

[Student] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Students from all over the world have come to the Amazon to study
biology, botany, ecology, anthropology, and many other subjects! 
There is much to discover in the rainforest, much that is not known.
For example, scientists and students have only recently begun to
explore the upper canopy of the rainforest. There are thousands of
plants and mammals in the upper canopy that do not exist at lower
levels of the rainforest. Another little-known subject concerns the
economic value of rainforest plants. Only a tiny percentage of 
plants have bene studied for their value as food, medicine, and
other uses. Still another subject that needs more study is the 
proper management of fish. Today, because of unwise fishing
practices, many species of fish are not as numerous as they used to
be. We need to learn how to take advantage of this enormous source of
food without using it all up.

[Tambaqui] -- (TOM-bah-key)

Edible?: Yes
Size: About as long as your arm

The tambaqui eats fruit and seeds from trees. How is this possible?
Well, for about half the year, vast areas along river channels are
flooded. About 2% of Amazonia -- an area the size of Kentucky -- is
affected. fish and other aquatic animals are able to swim where, 
during the season of low water, land creatures walk. It is during
this time of year that many trees bear fruit, which drops into the 
water. In addition to the tambaqui, about 200 others species of fish
take advantage of this source of food.

[Tapajos River] -- (tah-pah-JHOISE)

The Tapajos River flows into the Amazon from the south. South of
Santarem on the Tapajos, HENRY FORD established his rubber plantation,
Fordlandia, in the 1920s to supply the Ford Motor Company with its own
source of rubber.

[Termite] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Active: Day and night
Eats: Dead wood and other plant material
Size: A queen full of eggs can be as big as a hot dog; other termites
      are no longer than your fingernail

Termites are essential to rainforest ecology. They eat dead plant
material and return it to the soil so that living plants can use it.
Some species nest underground, while others make basketball-sized
nests on tree trunks. Tunnels branch out from the nests. Termites are
not related to ants, but they have a similar social structure. Termite
colonies include one king and one queen, who produce eggs, as well as
many workers and soldiers.

[Tefe] -- (tay-FAY)

Tefe is located on the south bank of the Amazon, across from the mouth
of the Japura River. It is about 1,500 miles upriver from Belem. Tefe,
like many Amazon river cities, is a trading center for much of the
surrounding area, with a focus on agricultur, timber, and fish.

[Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

The 26th president of the United States, Teddy Roosevelt was a great
adventurer and explorer. He worked as a cowboy in North Dakota and
fought heroically in the Spanish-American War. But the Amazon almost
proved too much for him. In 1913, Roosevelt teamed up with COLONEL
RONDON for a scientific expedition. Their purpose was to explore and
map the Rio da Duvida, which Rondon had discovered a few years earlier.
It was a treacherous journey. The explorers were plagued by hordes of
insects. Roosevelt almost drowned when his canoe overturned. A cut on
his leg became infected with gangrene. In such poor health, Roosevelt
knew that he had become a burden to the other members of the
expedition. He begged them to leave him behind, but they refused. They
say that after the expedition, Teddy Roosevelt was never quite the
same. Upon his return, he wrote a book, "Through the Brazilian

[Titu Cosi] -- (chee-TOO coh-SHEE)

Titu Cosi was a young child in 1533 when his father, Manco Inca, fled
from the invading conquistadors and founded the magnificent hidden city
of VILCABAMBA. Titu Cosi became Inca shortly after his father died. 
(Today, the term "Inca" is commonly used to refer to a nation and its
people. Technically, "Inca" refers to the leader or king. All other
members of the population were followers of Inca.) Titu Cosi was an
inspired leader. He maintained the Inca traditions, which included
performing rites to the Sun and dressing in ceremonial costumes. Titu
Cosi wa sable to keep secret the location of Vilcabamba and still have
contacts with the conquistadors. He employed cannibals as his bodyguards.
Titu Cosi ruled for 13 years until his death in 1571. His Brother, Tupac
Amaru, became Inca but ruled for only one year before the conquistadors
captured Vilcabamba, beheaded him, and ended the reign of the Incas.

[Toco Toucan] -- (TOH-coh TOO-can)

Active: During the day
Eats: Fruit
Size: A body about as big as a crow's, with a bill about as long as
      the body (not including the tail)

Why does a toucan have such a huge, colorful beak? No one knows. One
reason may be to help the toucan reach its food. The beak is serrated,
which means that it has jagged edges. This helps the toucan hold onto
its food. Once a toucan grabs a piece of fruit, it tilts its head back
to let the food fall into its mouth. Toucans can be very entertaining
to watch. They travel in flocks of up to 12 individuals. Sometimes they
toss berries to one another with their beaks.

[Trombetas River] -- (trom-BAY-tuhs)

The Trombetas River stats in the Guiana Highlands that form the northern
border of the Amazon basin. It enters the Amazon west of Santarem, about
700 miles upriver from Belem. The Trombetes is known as a black-water
river. In Amazonia, black-water rivers flow from the north. They have a 
color like dark tea, which they get from huge amounts of rotting
vegetation in the swamps that feed the rivers. Black-water rivers are 
low in nutrients, sediment, and oxygen. They are also high in acid. For
these reasons, black-water rivers do not contain much aquatic life. 
Sometimes, they are called "starvation" rivers.

[Tucuna Tribe] -- (too-KOO-nah)

Tucuna Indians are known for their masks and animal figures made of
pounded bark cloth. They are also famous for their 10-foot BLOWGUNS.
The CURARE poison they make for their darts is the most effective of
any in Amazonia. They were first encountered by Europeans in 1641.
They maintain a mix of farming, fishing, hunting, and gathering. The
Tucuna have a long-held belief that they have offended their god. 
They believe that they corrupted their world through contact with
the Europeans. Young Tucunas in puberty have had vissions of "immortals"
who tell of the destruction of civilization by fire and flood. The
immortals instruct the Tucuna to gather in a sheltered place to perform

[Tucuxi] -- (too-coo-she)

Active: Both day and night
Eats: Mostly fish, sometimes crabs and turtles
Size: About the size of a small mermaid

The tucuxi is a dolphin. Even though they spend their entire lives in
water, dolphins are mammals. They must come to the surface to breathe,
and mothers provide milk to their young. Tucuxi spend most of their 
time in the main river channels. They are very acrobatic swimmers and
can leap completely out of the water. Sometimes, you can see a group
of three or four tucuxi jump out of the water and dive back in at
precisely the same time. Just like at Sea World!

[Typhoid] -- (TIE-foid)

Typhoid, or typhoid fever, is a serious infection caused by bacteria.
The disease enters your blood and causes blood poisoning. If you get
typhoid, you probably ate or drank some contaminated food or water. In
about two weeks, you start to get headaches and a fever. You feel achy,
restless, and lazy. You may also lose your appetite and have diarrhea.
After a week or so, the fever grows stronger. Red spots appear on your
chest. Your intestines become inflamed. Your intestinal wall may even
break. If you're lucky, by the third or fourth week, the fever will
begin to decline. If you've got a bad case, you could develop very
serious inflammation of the gall bladder. You could get pneumonia, 
encephalitis, or meningitis. You could even have heart failure. Before
the twentieth century, there was no known cure for typhoid. In the 
1950s, antibiotics were developed to treat it.

[Undulated Tinamou] -- (UN-dew-lay-ted TIN-uh-moo)

Active: During the day
Eats: Mostly seeds and fruits; also insects
Size: Like a small chicken

The undulated tinamou looks like a chicken, but it is not related to
chickens. There are about 15 species of Tinamous in Amazonia. It is
very difficult to see an undulated tinamou. It is a shy bird with
colors that blend in with vegetation, and it rarely flies. Tinamous
spend their time on the forest floor, where there is very little
ligt even in the middle of the day. When disturbed, they run quickly
into dense vegetation.

[Unonopsis] -- (yoo-noh-NOP-sis)

Unonopsis is a plant native to the Amazon basin. Tribes in man parts of
the Amazon basin use a species of unonopsis in their recipe for CURARE.
Some tribes use this plant for birth control. In the MAKU tribe's
language, the name for unonopsis translates as "the no-children

[Vanilla] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

The vanilla that is so common today is native to the rainforests of
Central America. CACAO, the source of chocolate, is also native to
rainforests. So, without rainforests, we wouldn't have vanilla or
chocolate ice cream! The Aztecs of Mexico cultivated vanilla as a
spice long before the Europeans came to the Western Hemisphere. 
Apparently, wild varieties of vanilla also grew throughotut the
rainforests of Venezuela and Colombia. Some species were cultivated
by native tribes. Those species have dispersed and become wild again.

[Vilcabamba] -- (vil-kah-BOM-bah)

Vilcabamba is the hidden city of the Incas. It was established by
the King Manco Inca and his followers after the Spanish conquistadors
occupied the Inca capital of Cuzco in 1533. The Incas escaped into an
isolated valley of the Peruvian rainforest called Espiritu Pampa --
the Plain of Ghosts. The Incas built a magnificent city that included
palaces, temples, fountains, and canals. Manco Inca died for about 25
years. When he died, three of his sons, most notably TITU COSI, 
succeeded him. Vilcabamba finally fell to the conquistadors in 1572.
For the next 200 years, the Spanish used Vilcabamba as a mining and
farming center. When the Spaniards abandoned it in the 1700s, the
rainforest quickly reclaimed it. It was not until 1964 tha GENE SAVOY,
an American archaoelogist, correctly identified the site as the lost
city of Vilcabamba. Today, it remains largely unexplored in its remote
and inaccessible rainfores valley.

[White-vented Euphonia] -- (yoo-PHON-nee-uh)

Active: During the day
Eats: Mistletoe berries
Size: A little smaller than a sparrow

Mistletoe plants and euphonias are very important to each other. The
plants are important to euphonias because mistletoe berries are the
euphonia's main source of food. Euphonias are important to mistletoes
because they help them reproduce. When a euphonia eats mistletoe 
berries, the seeds pass through the bird's digestive system. The
droppings land on branches, and some of the seeds become new plants.

[Witoto Tribe] -- (wee-TOH-toh)

The Witoto Indians live in the northwest section of the Amazon basin
in what is now northeast Peru and southern Colombia. Anthropologist
RICHARD EVANS SCHULTES spend time with the Witoto learning of their
extensive knowledge of medicinal plants. They are also known for their
large communal houses and hollow-log signal drums. When Witoto warriors
are successful in battle, they have a ceremony in which they eat parts
of their enemies. They display their enemies skulls as trophies, make
flutes out of the long bones, and use the teeth in necklaces. The 
Witoto were first visited by Europeans in 1695. Until the end of the
19th century, the Witoto were left alone. Then they were enslaved 
during the rubber boom and forced to work far from their homes. Many
were executed for trying to escape and thousands of others died of
disease and starvation.

[Woven Basket] -- (Obvious pronunciation?)

Basket-weaving among Amazonian Indians is wide-spread and extensive.
Baskets come in many sizes, from tiny containers woven from soft
fibers to large carrying and foraging baskets made from bark and long
strips of wood. Palm fiber is used for making trays and platters. Palm
fiber is also used to make cord, nets, and skirts. The stiff parts of
some palm leaves are used to make MANIOC strainers. The bark of some
trees are pounded into a type of mesh that is used to make sacks, 
clothing, and MASK hoods. Even fish traps are woven from palm fiber or
strips of wood.

[Xingu River] -- (shin-GOO)

The Xingu River is one of the seven great tributaries of the Amazon,
about 400 miles upriver from Belem. It is over 1,200 miles long. The
Xingu is known as a blue-water or clearwater river. In Amazonia, blue-
-water rivers flow from the south. They aree not muddy, like the Amazon,
and they are not stained black from rotting vegetation, like Rio Negro.
The Xingu was first explored by a German explorer in the late 1800s.
Many of the tribes along the Xingu were not contacted by outsiders 
until the 1950s and 1960s by teh VILLAS BOAS brothers. Today, several
tribes live upriver in the Xingu National Park. The Park was established
in 1961 through the efforts of the Villas Boas brothers. It offers the
tribes a relatively undisturbed environment. Across from the mouth of
the Xingu is the Jari River. It's the location of the Jari Project, one
of the largest wood processing plants in the world. The Jari Project has
consumed millions of trees and has been a financial flop.

[Yanomamo Tribe] -- (yah-no-MAH-moh)

The Yanomamo Indians live in large stretches of Amazon rainforest
between the Orinoco river in Venezuela and the Rios Negros and Branco
in Brazil. They call themselves the "Waika" -- the fierce ones. They 
live in small villages of about 60 people. Their land was relatively
undisturbed until it was invaded by gold miners in the 1970s. The
Yanomamo have a strong belief in witchcraft. They believe that all
illness and disease comes from witchcraft or from contact with white
people. The men engage in violent games and contests of endurance
involving shouting insults and hitting each other over the head with
clubs. As is true to all of the rainforest tribes, most of the
Yanomamo's wars are fought over women. A tribe's ability to acquire
women through warfare is the quickest way to increase its population.
And whether it's done intentionally or not, adding people from other
tribes improves the genetic diversity of one's own tribe.

[Yellow Fever] -- (Obvious prononuciation?)

Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by a virus. The fever is
spread by a certain type of mosquito, the aedes. People get infected
when the mosquitoes bite monkeys and other small mammals and then bite
people. Yellow fever affects your liver. You develop a fever that rises
quickly. You get a bad headache and backache. You vomit. If you have a
bad case, your stomach lining ruptures and you may begin vomiting blood.
The virus moves into your liver, which results in jaundice -- your skin
and eyes turn yellow. Yellow fever does not last long. But you may be
laid up recovering from it for a long while. If you live through it,
you'll never get yellow fever again. There is no known cure for yellow
fever, but you can prevent it with vaccines. Today, outsiders who want
to visit the Amazon are required to get a yellow fever vaccination.

|     Transcription (c) Shotgunnova, 1997 - 2006 (and countin'!)       |
|      Amazon Trail (c) respective owners, if it still has any         |

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Shotgunnova is a long-time GameFAQer, author, and ASCII mapper.