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    FAQ by MKratzer

    Updated: 03/16/95 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

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                 by Mark "MarkShot" Kratzer - 01/22/94 (revised 03/16/95)
                 Compuserve ID:  73142,3650   BBS:  (718) 596-5938 N8,1
                   Modemgames & Fsforum              email to MarkShot
                                 ----- STK2 TEXT -----
    The reader has received this document without payment.
    All the author asks is:
      1)  Freely share this document with others.  It may be uploaded anywhere.
      2)  Acknowledge the source of these ideas.
      3)  Provide feedback to the author.
      4)  Do not alter STK2.  (Material may be borrowed.)
    DEDICATION:    This text is dedicated to my wife, Kam Wun Leung. She bought me
                   my first flight simulation and game card a few years back.  With
                   that a childhood dream of flying and dogfighting has been
                   realized.  Further, she supported me in joining Compuserve and
                   competing on the CIS Falcon Ladder.
    CONTRIBUTORS:  The author gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the
                   following individuals:
                   Blake "Vertigo" Jordan (graduated MarkShot Falcon Weapons
                   School 03/27/93)  Compuserve 73251,1636
                   Rafael "Drizzit" Cruz (attended MarkShot Falcon Weapons School)
                   Compuserve 74244,1760
    THANKS:        I would like to acknowledge Tom "Roustabout" D'Angelo as one of
                   my first and best sparing partners.  His vision and
                   perseverence brought the 718th TFW into existence and gave an
                   affordable home to many hobbyists in the New York Metropolitan
                   Thanks to the members of the 718th TFW who never tire of flying
                   with me (nor me with them).
                   Thank you to the many dedicated Falcon enthusiasts who have
                   flown with me and against me, and to the students who honored
                   me by letting me teach them.
                   Thanks to Victor "Duke" Zaveduk, Administrator of Compuserve's
                   Falcon Ladder, for providing an arena for the last couple of
                   years where the best of the best from around the world can
                   compete at Falcon H2H.
                   Thanks to Ken "Stinger" Richardson for producing software
                   utilities which have greatly enhanced H2H play.
    HISTORY:       I played my first match on Compuserve's Falcon Ladder on
                   10/25/94 and reached the top slot on the evening of 03/31/93.
                   Subsequently, I retired, and began to fly competively as
                   a member of the 718th TFW.  I still instruct students from
                   Puerto Rico to Vancouver.  New students and old are always
                   During my climb of CompuServe's Ladder, I began assisting
                   others with their technique and strategy.  Initially, it was
                   via messages.  I quickly accumulated a number of messages to
                   forward to new students.  This became cumbersome and thus, STK
                   was born.  New messages and direct entries were made to it.  It
                   remained a privately circulated document until I reached the
                   top of Compuserve's Ladder.  At which point, it was made public
                   and has been ever since.  New material is continuously being
                   added as more is learned.  (The latest version will always be
                   available on Compuserve.)
    NOTE:          Names have been X'ed out.
      LCC stands for Ladder Command Center.  It is a state-of-the-art
      Windows application for maintaining challenge ladders.  Among the
      features it supports are:
        The maintenance of a complete challenge ladder database.
        The maintenance of a complete historical database of matches played.
        Custom configuration of ladder parameters with regards to rungs
        which can be challenged, handling of defaults, inactivity penalties,
        etc ...
        General editors for the ladder and historical database.
        Open interfaces to other ODBC compliant software and spreadsheets,
        Full reports on membership, current challenges, history for all
        players and individual players.
        Ladder administration includes support for:
          Renaming players.
          Entering match results and recomputing positions and records.
          Membership information such as names and phone numbers.
          Entry and automatic management of inactive players.
          Entry and validation of challenges.
          A spreadsheet style ladder display is maintained via the use of
          free floating tools.
          Each processing step is fully supported by an UNDO capability.
    LCC will appear on BBS's as LCF100.ZIP (full {runtime/application} release
    version 1) and LCP100.ZIP (patch {application only} release version 1).
    Estimated release date is 05/01/95.
    This is the recipe for acheiving quick kills in the old Ladder ROE.  (Turn
    and shoot.)  For the new ROE, there is still much value here, since a fight
    can often evolve into a turn in shoot situation.  Pay attention to the
    padlock guns technique here.
    >> I sure wish I could learn your immelman.
    You must certainly can.  Here is the recipe:
      1) Be at AB-5.
      2) Toggle the brake to stay within 385-395 knots.
      3) Watch the inbound bandit to see if he is approaching fast.  If he is, then
         suspect an extension.  Very, very slow, then suspect a slice.
      4) On the merge make sure that your brake is off .5 seconds before the merge.
         Otherwise you could forget and leave it on.
      5) Pull up when you HUD goes off your padlock view.
      6) Keep pulling, you should white out briefly here.  Watch for the extension.
      7) After white out, begin tracking to the bandit.
      8) You MUST get your lift vector in line with his.  This means that in the
         upper right window the red line is perpendicular to the green line.  The
         guarantees you hit in step 10.
      9) Do NOT watch your opponent in the bottom window.  You will know soon
         enough whether he was quicker.  You got to have faith.  Watching him will
         only distract you.
    10) With your lift vector lined up, in the top middle window, get the little
         green HUD box under the red target box.  Right before they touch fire a
         one second burst and sweep the green box through the red box.
    11) The quicker you sweep, the better your chances of scoring a hit, but the
         less likely that it will be fatal.  The slower the sweep, the greater the
         chance of a complete miss, but if you do connect the bandit is finished.
    12) Other things to try are.  First, cut the sweep at little bit short and
         push the stick forward to keep fire on the bandit.  Second, with bandit
         line up after the initial hit, roll the nose while firing.
    >>    Hey, Mark what do you think is the best counter for the Immelman?
    That is simple.  A faster/tighter Immelman with a more accurate shot!
      1) Seriously, XXX has a pretty deadly slice.  I have not mastered this move.
         It is however dangerous, since it is definitely energy low.
      2) An extension is risky against someone who is very alert.  Against an
         unskilled opponent or a skilled opponent who has Immelman vs Immelman
         stamped into his brain.  It will work.  The extension should be just
         enough to gain missile parameters and no more.  Sometimes, it can be
         even less and you can surprize them with guns.
      3) Doing an oblique Immelman by rolling 10-30 degrees laterally is a good
         move.  It will catch the opponent who can Immelman well, but has trouble
         lining up the shot.  If you can't take an accurate shot, then position is
      4) One of the things that makes the Immelman so deadly is that usually your
         opponent does half the work for you by trying to nose on.  So, many times
         when the opponent does not go for nose on to me.  I do not get the shot,
         but I usually manage to pull in quickly behind the opponent that left
         me separation turning room.
    The following pertains to speed management in the new ROE at point of the pass
    after the initial merge.
    >> One of these days I'm going to get my speed under control after the
    >> pass and I'll suprise the heck out of somebody...probably myself!
    The optimum speed pass on the pass after the initial merge is 400 kts.  Faster
    than that you cannot turn tight enough to avoid being gun downed.  (Remember
    the former ROE.)  Slower than that and someone will work in on your six since
    then can work the energy on you by going vertical.
    Another rule on this pass is to minimize separation.  If you fail to, then you
    opponent will have room to work the angles on you which may cause you to start
    at the disadvantage.
    At 400 kts with minimum separation, it will basically revert back to the former
    ROE.  A quick Immelman with guns from padlock will be devastating.  (400 kts at
    10,000' yields about a 7 second Immelman.
    You ask what is the best entry speed for the merge?  550 kts.  You ask why?  If
    you do a high speed Immelman, you will level out doing 400 kts.  Do you get the
    picture?  You ask why Immelman at the merge?  Because it either matches you
    opponents energy perfectly.  Or you opponent is too fast and you will turn in
    on his tail.  Or you opponent goes low and then from your perch you can brake
    off some speed to minize separation and follow while still maintaining an
    energy advantage which will yield a shot.
    Well, XXXXX, I hope that this will be of some help to you.  These tactics have
    been proven in actual combat.  Good luck!
    Here are some practice items to work in Red Flag.
    So, as not to waste your money.  Here are some things to practice in Red Flag
    before we set up this Battle of the Titans.  (no bandits)
    1)  Practice doing a double Immelman.  Enter 550 kts do one, roll level at 400
         kts and do another comming out at about 280-300 kts.  When trying to
         minimize separation on the first pass after the merge, you should once
         again be level (not inverted) before the pass.  This is not the old ROE,
         there is nothing prevents you from doing this.  You should not waste time
         after pass rolling the plane.  This whole maneuver should be done in one
         fluid motion.
    2)  Practice going into the first Immelman and braking to about 400-420 kts
         and simulate countering someone going low with a Split-S.
    3)  Drop the speed in step #1 and practice canting the second Immelman on the
         side 10-40 degrees in order to maintain maximum energy without stalling
         (HIFI -> COMPLEX shift) out at the top or going too flat and blacking out.
    4)  Practice doing Split-S close to the ground at 400 kts from 3500'.  If an
         opponent with energy is at your six, then a number of things will happen.
         First, you opponent might pursue through the maneuver, and to avoid
         hitting the ground your opponent with have to give up his/her energy
         advantage.  Second, your opponent could crash.  Third, your opponent could
         flinch as separate.
    5)  Practice simulated overshoots.  Close at 400 kts.  Brake to 300 kts.  <no
         use you are going to overshoot>  Pull the nose up 30 degrees.  Your
         opponent cannot track, otherwise there would be no overshoot.  Climb two
         seconds.  Roll inverted and pull back down on your opponent who is
         probably diving to gain speed.
    6)  Practice fast draw padlock kills.  For this use an AN-12 as a target an
         practice quickly sweeping it with gun bursts
    The following has some information about energy management techniques.
    I just wanted to drop you this debrief about our flying the other night.  Well,
    you are finally comming back at me with more energy than before.  That is good.
    However, you are not managing it well.  Don't forget to minimize separation and
    try to stay close to 400 kts.
    Some observations:
    1) Sometimes, you kept too much energy and you were allowing me to turn inside
        of you.
    2) Sometimes, you had a slight but very useful energy advantage.  So, what did
        you do?  You kept bringing the fight back to me at a lower altitude while
        your nose accelerated and mine pivoted on to you.  You did this by climbing
        and comming back at me.  A see-saw of death.  If you have that slight
        energy advantage, then initiate a flat turning fight to pull onto my six.
        Keep yourself higher than me at about 250-270 kts.  Do not worry about head
        on shots.  I won't be able to get my nose up.  Keep it turning.  (If you
        fail to keep it turning.  I could pick up speed in a dive in order to put
        nose on you.)  Sooner or later you are going to work the angles for my six
        or be able to line up to take a forward quarters shot as I pass helplessly
        below and unable to lift by nose.
    3) Learn when at low speeds (250-340 kts) and clawing for your opponent to
        shoot from padlock.  The HIFI->COMPLEX mode switch hits padlock somewhat
        later and much smoother than the forward view.
    I hope to fly with you soon.  Thanks for the practice.
    This message discusses a relatively new a deadly head on guns technique.  I
    call it the "cone of death".  It involves rolling your plane/guns as a bandit
    flies right in to you.  Remember when two planes are about to get nose on at
    0.4 - 1.0 miles there are two things that count:  (1) Hitting your opponent
    first.  (2) Finishing you opponent before the planes pass.  If you only
    accomplish the first, the superior opponent may still take you out on this
    >> You and your cone of death, you crack me up.
    Here is how I have been using it.  Normally, if I and my opponent are both
    pulling for a forward quarters shot as in Immelman versus Immelman, then I will
    first sweep my opponent with a stream of cannon shells.  I have already
    explained this technique to you.  Unfortunately, this almost guarantees a hit,
    but may fail to devastate my opponent (high percentage for a hit, but low
    percentage for a good concentration).  Next, as the planes rapidly close, I
    roll my nose (as oppose to thumb my nose) in general direction of my onrushing
    opponent.  If all goes well, from a distance I first knock a few pieces off of
    him/her and as we close it totally flame him/her.  What does all this give me?
    Mainly a firing solution simplification; I only need to get nose on first.
    After that, I do not have to worry much about aim, since my motions do the
    Black out off in 3.03.0 matches has some very important implications.  The most
    important of which is that the Immelman is no longer the best move in a turn
    and shoot situation.  One of the things that made it the best move in version
    3.01.1 was that it minized the effects that blackout had on lining up the shot.
    At the right speed, you would only white out and you would be clear by the time
    you had to take the shot.  Other moves required timing the black out (which was
    tricky) and release pressure to get a visual reference (which slowed the turn).
    In 3.03.0, the flat turn or the yo-yo may prove to be the best technique for
    lining up the quick shot.
    NEWS FLASH:  The Immelman fails.
    Yes, I lost 3:1, although it was close.  I think with BO turned off the
    Immelman needs to be revisited.  The tightest Immelman is at risk to hang up at
    the top of the loop due to the mode shift.  Too fast and you don't turn well.
    With BO off, turning flatter is safer and you do not have to worry about losing
    sight.  That is what I have learned from this.
    Yes, I feel really rotten losing.  About the only thing left me to do is
    challenge again.
    The following entry describes a technique to be used in the new ROE which I
    believe may be the only effective counter which I have seen yet to the 550 kts
    opening Immelman.
    I am not positive what XXXXXXX was doing, since he did not fully confide in me,
    but I believe this was his approach or something similar.
    Enter the merge at 750-800 kts (maximum speed possible).  Fly level for 2 -3
    seconds.  This high speed and level flight is mainly to gain separation for
    missiles.  Yank the throttle to idle and slam on the brakes and execute a tight
    reversal in any plane with AIM-9Ms selected.  Get the lock take one, wait, and
    take the other.  (I have not had a chance to test this on the executing side
    with someone flying my 550 kts opening Immelman style.)
    Why does this work?  Due to my high speed, I fail to come around quickly.
    Thus, there is separation and I am second to get a missile lock.  Even my
    opponents much lower energy situation (assuming that I can dodge the missiles)
    at the end of his reversal is not such a negative.  Given the amount of
    separation and the comming second pass, my opponent accelerate over the gap and
    regain the energy needed for turning fight.
    I have yet to come up with an effective counter.
    This section addresses how to handle long range extensions in the new ROE.  It
    is assumed that you will be merging at high speed.
    An extension with the old ROE could prove to be deadly, since if your opponent
    did not respond quickly, then he did not have a enough energy to hold nose to
    launch missiles.  In the new ROE, this should not be the case.  Launching
    missiles should be easy.
    What is the best strategy for launching missiles on a long range extension?
    First, have your radar off.  Heat seeker heads get slaved to your radar and any
    decent opponent should have their ECM on.  Bring your nose around and launch
    your first AIM-9M.  Your opponent now has something to do.  You will now launch
    two AIM-9Ps.  They should be launched in a spaced out fashion.  This means that
    when one has almost reached its target, another one should come off the rails.
    Spacing missiles has a better percentage.  A group of missiles is more easily
    beaten with one move.  Spaced missiles keep your opponent busy longer, thus
    breaking up his move and allowing you to close the distance in safety.
    Depending on the Falcon version and the separation, you could flip on radar on
    go for a lock (your opponents ECM may be out) and launch some AIM-120s.
    If your opponent has survived up to this point, he is comming back at you with
    guns most likely, since guns are now free.  This is what the last AIM-9M was
    saved for.  Lock it up and put it right in his teeth.  If he is heading in for
    the guns kill, then he is going to straight into it.  Switch to guns
    immediately and go for the shot.
    If after all this, your opponent still survives, then you are now in a turning
    fight and his remaining missiles will serve him no value.
    The following describes a Falcon 3.03.0 revelation in regards to the new ROE
    which is so significant that it is beyond words.  My foolishness for
    overlooking cannot be excused.
    ECM is not all powerful in Falcon 3.03.0 as it was in 3.01.1.  Despite ECM, you
    will get intermitent radar locks.  These locks aren't worth squat for shooting
    missiles, but they give you a critical piece of information on the merge.  What
    is it you ask?  The speed of your opponent!  YES, THE SPEED OF YOUR OPPONENT.
    Consider this for a moment.  To extend (going ballistic or going for horizontal
    separation) you opponent should be doing 750 kts.  To pivot and turn with a
    fast missiles shot or go low and launch missiles, your opponent will need to be
    doing 320-420 kts.  (This by the way is the most vunerable aspect of the 550
    kts opening Immelman.  Even if you decelerate after merge, you are 1.5 seconds
    late in responding and still need time to slow.)
    I just discovered this approach.  So, I am not totally sure how to use it. Here
    is what I see at the moment.  Keep your radar on when you hop in to the
    cockpit.  Watch in padlock.  When you get the red box, then watch your radar
    screen.  You should get two to three locks.  You are looking only to catch the
    speed.  Once you got that, turn the radar off, look up, go to padlock, and
    break at the right time.
    Enter as usual at 550 kts.  If you see your opponent doing 750 kts, you can lay
    off the brake and let your speed build to 600 kts.  Do not go so fast that you
    cannot turn to point missiles at your opponent.  There is nothing your opponent
    can do to disguise an extension, since your opponent must grab and hold all the
    speed he can get.
    Enter as usual at 550 kts.  If you see your opponent doing 500-600 kts, then
    just go with the regular strategy addressed in other places.
    Enter as usual at 550 kts.  If you see your opponent doing 350-400 kts, then
    decelerate (throttle and brake) immediately to about 50 kts above your
    opponent.  You will have about 1.5-2 miles to kill at most 150 kts.  This will
    give a slight but workable energy advantage and at same time keep you so close
    that a missile shot is not practical.  On this your opponent could try to fake
    by dropping speed while in padlock over the last 1.5 miles.  But first your
    opponent must realize what you are doing.
    Lastly, if your TWI is buzzing on the merge, then consider that your opponent
    may well be checking your speed.  Consider the extension to be extremely
    dangerous in this circumstance and slow moves to be moderately risky.
    NOTE:  Some Red Flag research questions are here:  How fast can a plane
           decelarate at different speeds?  This means time and distance required.
           This information determines how effective you can use your opponents
           speed for planning the fight and how likely is it that you could be
           faked to mistake a pivot and lauch missile encounter.
    The following is a new submission from the Falcon Air-to-Air Research
    An area that has yet to be properly investigated for air-to-air combat is the
    use of flaps.  The following properties are believed/suspected to be attributes
    of flaps.
    1) Permits the aircraft to fly at slower speeds without stalling.
    2) Cannot be used about 400 kts without getting damaged and stuck.
    3) The COMPLEX flight model takes over control.
    4) The HIFI -> COMPLEX mode transistion wallowing is eliminated.
    5) Permit faster acceleration over time/distance/throttle movement than
    If the above are true, then the following possibilities exist:
    A climbing overshoot could be improved in a defensive position.  Going slow
    and climbing and turning, you hit the brake.  Then, before the mode shift,
    drop flaps.  Your opponent's counter if he does not shoot you should be climb
    above and then roll back into the fight.  Your opponent expects to be able to
    do this, since you should be too energy low to maintain nose position.  With
    flaps down you might continue pursuit and build energy quick, thus reversing
    your position.
    385-395 kts is the best speed for a tight Immelman under 8,000 feet.  Anything
    slower results in a mode shift at the top side of the loop.  Can the use of
    flaps at the top side of the loop result in a better Immelman?  Could a 330
    kts Immelman be performed?
    If the above works, then could you sucker an energy low opponent into looping
    with you when you are both too slow, but you intend to avoid the mode shift
    and build energy by dropping flaps?  This could put a half of a turn on your
    opponent.  It is clear that there are all types of possibilities for adding
    an energy boost at a critical moment provided that you negate your opponents
    turn advantage during the process.  The best way to do that is to drain him of
    energy by taking him higher with you.
    Research results to be reported later.
    Some research results:
    Entering a 9G continuous turn below 8,000 feet at 350 kts will bleed speed
    until the mode shift is hit.  Then you will oscillate back and forth at the
    mode shift.  Dropping flaps will build speed back towards 400kts, but you will
    only be able to pull 5Gs (turning slower).  However, I speculate that the
    acceleration/energy gain will exceed the loss of position.  (When you simply
    pull 5Gs in HIFI, you do get the same rate of acceleration you see in
    COMPLEX.)  Thus, taking off flaps and pulling 9Gs again will have yielded an
    energy bonus.
    Another possibility might be when you and your opponent have just passed and
    are both going slow.  Your opponent opts for a flat turn being energy low.
    You opt to foolishly go pure vertical.  However, you drop flaps and thus,
    continue to climb smoothly.  Your opponent comes around and attempts to get
    nose on, but cannot do it in HIFI.  Thus, no shot.  In meantime, you climb a
    few more thousand feet.  Retract flaps and turn back into the fight with an
    energy and position advantage.
    Actual combat results:
    Against XXXX, he extended vertically once with an opening 150 kts advantage.
    He dodged all my missiles, but I used toggling my flaps to maintain my speed
    between 350-400 kts in order to close the altitude.  Then I gunned him down!
    These are the final results are the technique which is now known as the "Flap
    This technique can best be employed in a vertical looping fight during the
    first third of loop while flying pursuit, particulary when you are somewhat
    below the energy requirements for the loop.  The amount of Gs you could pull in
    any case is somewhat limited.  This allows you to build an extra 30-60 kts over
    your opponent by going through the loop.  Although you might have had the
    advantage prior to this, you are not guaranteed the kill.  This can also be
    employed in more neutral situations.  However, you must be careful not allow
    you opponent too much of an angular advantage when doing this.
    Over the last few weeks, two great schools of Falcon have met to test their
    strategy.  The are the High School (Immelman) by MarkShot and the Low School
    (Spit-S) by XXXXXXX.  The High School teaches energy advantage and patiently
    working it into a kill and the Low School teaches angle advantage and seeking
    or one or two turn quick victory.
    It is my belief that the High School has more merit for the following two
    reasons.  First, when the two approaches face each other.  The High School is
    guaranteed the ability in the vertical dive to peg its speed on the second pass
    merge to the optimum corner velocity.  (Because he is on the brake/throttling
    back with gravity behind him.)  The low school is much less in control of his
    merge speed.  Second, the high school by taking an energy advantage into the
    fight is guaranteed a victory after a sufficient number of turns have passed.
    Of course, the fight may spiral downwards to delay the victory for a while.
    However, the ground is usually no more than 10,000 feet below.  So that, it is
    victory in about eight turns or so.  Following this thinking, the High School
    only looses when a mistake is made in pursuit as opposed to the weakness of the
    The one risk faced by the High School is the danger of missiles comming up by
    the faster turner opponent at the bottom of the Spit-S.  The opponent has
    basically two choices here.  If he really goes for a missile shot, he is
    guaranteed to be too slow to win a guns turning fight.  Otherwise, he takes
    more speed into the fight, but foregoes any realistic possibility of employing
    The High School's defense for the above is to perform the Immelman tightly to
    minimize separation by staying close.  This is safest.  A more risky approach
    would be to maximize separation for your own missile shot or to force opponent
    into a higher and more energy low second pass from his perspective.
    The High School has assisted the Low School in making some improvements in his
    technique.  These four items are believed to be key:
    Mix the move with something else.  Don't allow your opponent to play for it
    before the merge even takes place.
    Don't telegraph it.  Keep your speed up into the merge at 480-550 kts and only
    decelerate at the merge.
    Send missiles up your flight path.  Even if the missiles miss, if they take
    your opponents mind off of his speed for one second, then you will have
    suceeded greatly.
    Try for a one circle.  (The two planes have belly in the same direction.)  A
    two circle fight seems to end up in the High Fighter turning outside (but in
    the vertical) over and around the Low Fighter and gaining a six advantage in a
    few turns.
    Well here it is, the Golden Rule for the High Fighter:
    At 400 kts, you will be out turned and gunned down in your tracks, since you
    are still accelerating in the pullout of your dive.
    At 300 kts, you will mode shift at the top of your loop and loose time and the
    With 350 kts, you will generally perform a loop and initiate a turning fight
    with your opponent with a definite 30-60 kts energy advantage.
    The following is a good idea in the new ROE if you can do it.
    Right before the second pass, have you opponent in front of you and flip back
    to forward view.  Get oriented.  Your speed, your pitch, your roll, then make
    your break after the opponent optimal to manage energy and come around fast.
    It is much harder to do this from padlock.
    Some more information on the Split-S facing the Immelman.
    >> What is the "vertical merge"?
    In the Immelman vs Split-S the second pass happens completely in the vertical
    and not the horizontal.  This is why it works for the good Split-Ser, because
    if he is not careful the High Flyer's speed runs away with him like an out of
    control freight train.  The High Flyer's hits 450 kts or more at the bottom of
    his pull out and the Low Flyer is all over him.  Thus, shooting missiles is a
    very good strategy for the Low Flyer even if he will not hit.  A second or two
    of generated distraction force the High Flyer beyond 350 kts.
    IMPORTANT NOTE:  The High Flyer can guarantee his speed at the vertical merge,
    since he can get speed from gravity at will.  The Low Flyer is at the mercy or
    gravity and events in regards to speed.  Thus, it is much easier for the High
    Flyer than the Low Flyer to peg the perfect speed on the merge.
    >> I am getting curious about the members of the "Low School".
    The Low School depends on getting a quick one or two turn victory due to
    angles.  The High School can switch to angles by braking and going for a
    similar quick kill.  Or the High School can work with its energy through many
    turns wearing down the opponent to get a shot.  It is all about options.  That
    is why I think the High School is superior, it gives you more of them.
    A small point to remember about getting heat seeker locks.
    You must have your radar set to ACM mode in order to get a heat seeker lock
    even though the radar unit itself is actually off.  See if that helps.
    I have a training mission called, "The MIGs from Hell Workout".  The set up is
    a merge from a mile out with four fully armed MIG-29s taking place at 500 feet
    off the deck.  The goal is to kill them all and survive.  Guns kills are
    prefered and, of course, the mission can always be varied to change the way it
    plays.  Although not directly applicable to head-to-head, it teaches you how to
    be on your toes.  It serves as good match warm up when no one is around to
    >> The only way I can survive longer than 60 seconds is to go completely
    >> defensive.
    First, try to keep the fight low to the ground.  You turn better there and
    this tends to flatten out the fight.  The MIGs always get suckered into the
    horizontal.  If it was me, I would maintain my altitude and take a missiles
    shoot from 20,000 feet above the F-16.
       From time to time, I defensive and dive to get back to the ground.
       Spiraling dives to the ground tend to deny them a shot.
    Second, watch your speed, whenever you fall below 350 kts you are missile
    Third, keep looking behind you especially before every shot you take.
       You shots should usually be at high-Gs.  If the target reverses or just
       levels out, then strongly suspect that you have a bandit riding up behind
    Fourth, don't watch the results of missile launches.  Shoot and break.  If you
    want to watch, then do it from padlock while breaking.
    Fifth, after a kill.  Don't check your six, just immediately break.
    Sixth, use more flat turns in order to come around MIGs when you go through a
    merge.  They counter Immelmans better and flat turns keep the fight lower.
    Seventh, use your flaps, but do not get suckered high if you still have fur
    ball going on.
    Eighth, on the opening merge.  Try to go after the crowd.  The lone MIG is
    often a set up.  If you take the loner, then you must do him quick.  Also, if
    you take the crowd, then you know what most of the opposition is doing.
    Ninth, on the opening merge.  You can attempt to go forward quarters with one
    of the returning MIGs.  Then attempt to blow him away with a deflection shot
    slightly from below.  That evens the odds pretty quick.  The fourth MIG is key
    to their fight.  Two MIGs can easily be beaten.  Three just involves caution
    and quick responses.  With the fourth MIG, the fight opens in their advantage.
    Well, I hope this all makes a difference.
    Some points on what a tight two circle flat turning fight is about.
    Just wanted to tell you once again about #2.  You looked really good there. You
    were turning exactly at the optimum speed (280 kts) for that type of two circle
    fight.  It was one of our closest.
    When you are in the padlock there, you must watch your speed very carefully.
    You use the attitude of your plane (roll) to control your speed.  Forget about
    the right most window, it is not sensitive enough to tell you what you want to
    know.  Only your speed is.  You control it by slightly rolling your plane.  Up
    a little if you are breaking 290 kts, down a little if you are at 260 kts.
    If your opponent floats too high, he will hit the mode shift and you will gain
    a few degrees and have a forward quarter shot when he points his nose down.  If
    your opponent sinks too low, you can turn your nose faster and get a shot. Much
    too low, you can pivot above him and work for the six.
    This is what a match between good players looks like.  You keep spiraling
    towards the ground until someone makes the smallest of mistakes.  Then, the
    other capitalizes on it.
    What looked like a promising flap technique until flaps were banned.
    Well, since flaps are banned, you will not see it.  Here is what I had in
         For a high speed merge.  Turn flat at 310 kts and shoot missiles before
         your opponent knows what happened.  If he survives, then use the flaps to
         regain corner speed into the merge, and then dog fight.  The quick
         missiles should keep you from having to worry about missiles coming your
         way.  You do not have to worry about not being able to turn into the
         second merge, because your opponent will most likely be pulling into you
    The extension is back in fashion this season now that flaps have been banned in
    HIFI fights.  So, it is time take a look at high to manage one and how to
    defend against one.
    First, the extension is best applied against an opponent who is obviously slow
    as detected via radar into the merge.  If you see your opponent doing 350 kts
    and getting ready to do a Split-S, then you have it made.  The S'er will have
    to transcribe an arc of 270 degrees and be at about 4,000 feet by the time he
    can shoot.  And he will have precious little time to shoot with his plane
    pointed straight up doing 320 kts.  In the meantime, you should be passing
    through maybe 16,000-20,000 feet and still doing 500-600 kts.
    How to do an extension:
      1) Stay in AB-5 and build your speed to 750 kts.
      2) Watch you opponent in radar sweeps out to 3 miles.  If your opponent is
         at 450 kts or below, then you will probably be shooting missiles at him
      3) At 3 miles, turn off the radar (punch off ECM if you want) and go heads
         up.  Then, goto to padlock or stay heads up.
      4) At the merge, pull full back on the stick and be heads up.
      5) Keep the nose turning until it is perfectly vertical.
      6) Go to padlock to check on your opponent.  (We will assume here that your
         opponent did not extend.  This will be addressed later.)
      7) Watch your opponent and try to decide if you will turn with guns or
         missiles.  This is a crucial decision.  The wrong one will get you killed.
         If your opponent shows less than a mile away, then you are turning with
         guns.  If your opponent is at two miles or more, then you are turning with
      8) When your opponent launches his first missile, do NOT flinch.  Keep
         climbing.  Padlock it.  Wait until the missile is within a mile.  Come out
         of afterburner.  Pull back into your opponent (at high speed 500 kts is
         okay here).  Drop out of after drop out afterburner.  Pop a few flares
         nicely spaced.  (Remember you are only allowed a few of these in the air
         in head-to-head.  So, space them and do not go crazy.)
      9) Jump in out of padlock to check on the missiles status.  If something
         else is comming at you dodge it and then turn hard at your opponent for
         guns fight.  If you are clear, then turn hard into your opponent and
         select the appropriate weapon.
    10) A common mistake is to select missiles when you are too close.  Unless you
         have good separation, then go with guns.  A missile often serves to alert
         your opponent that you are starting your death run.  You probably appear
         to be a dot and he cannot tell what you are doing, but if you shoot a
         missile, then you are on your way back.  Don't shoot a missile if you
         cannot hit or cause your opponent extreme discomfort.
    11) If you shoot missiles, then put everything into the air that you have.
         First, then the 9Ms and then the 9Ps.  Do not worry about position here.
         If you cannot put everything into the air, then you should have probably
         been on your guns.  Remember that you can be on the brake to slow your
    12) If you choose guns, then remember not to exceed 350-380 kts.  Otherwise,
         you are going to have trouble moving your nose.  Line up your opponent
         (bore sight heads up), fire a long continuous burst.  This is an excellent
         time for the "Cone of Death".
    13) Whatever happens here do not let your speed run away at this pass.
         Immediately pull into a loop to pursue your opponent.  Most likely you
         will still hold the energy advantage for a dogfight at this point.
    What if you opponent extends?
      As soon as you detect this situation, pull hard over at your opponent and
      start firing missiles.  You will be much close then he expected and the
      missile percentages will be much higher.  If he survives, then start a
      turning fight.
    How to defend against the extension?  (At some point later, I will address how
    to detect the extension.)
      1) If you head into a 550 kts Immelman (the MarkShot first step to good
         health and family planning), then you are in very good shape.  Your
         opponent only has a 200 kts advantage on you.
      2) Do not brake, just keep comming around at high speed.  You are going to
         half let your opponents own vertical motion carry him into your HUD.
      3) As soon as you can, fire a 9M.  Wait.  Two well space 9Ps.  Hold the
         last 9M for when you think he has started his death run or you are out
         of energy.  Let it go.
      4) Do NOT fight gravity with your nose up.  Go heads up and get you nose
         level and get your speed to 350 kts fast!!!
      5) Your opponent is very likely moving fast and expects you to be stuck at
         the mode shift and dead in the water.  Watch him in padlock.
      6) If he heads in forward quarter, then when he is a one mile and starting
         his gun run, sweep if with your cannon from padlock.  Turn flat and pursue
         as he extends downward.  Nail him fast or he could get away from you.
      7) If he approaches from behind, wait until he reaches gun range and
         perform a quick split-S.  If he is moving fast, he will be unable to hit
         you.  Quickly turn flat or high yo-yo and take him out before it becomes
         a looping fight.
    Another S defense technique.  Note, although not an Immelman, this is still an
    energy strategy.
      1) Pull into a 550 kts Immelman.  Your opponent roles and cuts downward
         without warning from padlock.
      2) Go heads up.  Hit the brake and chop the throttle.
      3) You should be at about 350 kts 30-45 degrees nose up.  Pull into your own
      4) Keep the nose comming around fast.  Do NOT break 400 kts.  350 kts is
         more or less optimal.
      5) There should be a lot of lateral separation with you about 2000-4000 feet
         above with you opponent 20 degrees below you.
      6) Let go with all your missiles.
      7) Dodge missiles if you have to by going into a loop or high yo-yo while
         popping flares.  Although you break first, you opponent will not have
         energy for a looping fight.
      8) If you have second pass, then follow the golden rules of minize separation
         and hit 400 kts and then dogfight.  You should have the energy advantage
         since your first move had been to go high.
    "Burst of Four" technique is the automated firing sequence (9M,9M,9P,9P) via
    a one key sequence on a WCS II.  The goal was to overwhelm the opponents
    ability to dodge for a few seconds.  The technique failed and what follows is
    some post-testing discussion.
    >> Also, I wonder if the "Burst of Four" works better for the second
    >> pass, head-on missile shot (i.e., Immelman v. Immelman)?
    I do not believe so.  It wastes too much time trying to get the proper attitude
    for a stable missile lock through a continuous firing sequence of four
    Some explanation of the Spit-S and when one might user it.
    >> WHAT IS A SPLIT - S?
    It is the positional/energy inverse of the Immelman.
    1)  Roll inverted.
    2)  Pull back on the stick.
    3)  Come out of the bottom half of the loop.
    Proper entry speed is in the 300-350 kts region below 10,000 feet.
    That is the S.  I would never, never open a match with it; as well you know.
    So what good is it in my opinion?
    A)  In a close fight near the ground with an opponent who has more energy.
         You can force him to break off, auger in, or cut his energy advantage to
    B)  In a low energy forward quarter flat turning fight to sucker an
         opponent with more energy to be above corner and go head-to-head with you.
    C)  To dodge an extender who is now swooping in from the rear for a kill.
    D)  In a high altitude fight where denser air will yield a turning advantage.
    What follows reveals the strategy behind the extension move.
    >> An extension will NEVER work against the opponent who recognizes it,
    >> does a quick turn at the merge, and fires all his missiles
    If guns were free yes, but missiles are too low percentage and would be energy
    dead if they miss.  The best defense is to recognize it and keep almost as much
    energy as the extender for your pursuit.  The extender needs vertical
    separation to win.
    >> Is an Immelman a vertical extension?
    No, for two reasons and you can remove the word "vertical" here.
    First, extensions generally involve some amount of straight flight usually
    with your opponent at your rear.
    Second, the goal of the extension is separation.  Vertical extensions provide
    both separation and an energy advantage.  Horizontal separations only yield
    the former.  My Immelman's goal is to maximize the energy advantage while
    minimizing separation; both accomplished by the acceleration of gravity.
    Defending yourself against an extender.  What to do?
    >> My (naive) reaction is to slow to 350 or thereabouts, and wheel around
    >> fast and shoot the extender with missiles.  This is wrong?
    1) Your quick launched missiles will get beat, since you won't have the energy
        to space them.
    2) You will not have the energy to pursue for a gun battle.
    3) For sure, you are going to have to dodge four of my missiles on his
        return.  Better if for you if you can be close enough that it will be
        a gun fight.
    My advice (goes for me too), keep your speed up and learn how to detect the
    extension at the earliest possible moment.  The fast detection is not so that
    you can react quickly to it, but instead so that you don't brake and yank plane
    around putting yourself at a severe disadvantage.  You cannot beat the talented
    extender 1-2-3, you must stalk him.
    XXX proposes withholding one or all of your missiles and just pursuing.  His
    reasoning is that you want to begin shooting your missiles when the extender
    finally begins his death run.  At this point, he is committed and with the
    least energy to dodge.  Perhaps, only the Ps should be fired during the
    extension portion of the move.  I'll let you know.
    In looking for a manner to deal with the extension and a way of determining
    the opponents move via padlock, the following interesting observations where
    made in Red Flag.  The initial premise was that the opponents move could be
    spotted by comparing relative altitudes shortly after the intial merge in
    At 7,800 feet three planes break upwards (Immelman or vertical extension here
    is irrelevant).  The three enter at 430, 550, and 750 kts.  At four seconds,
    they have ALL RISEN to 9,400 feet.  NO RELATIVE ALTITUDE DIFFERENCES.  The
    inclination above the horizon respectively is:  90, 65, and 45 degrees.  Thus,
    the only thing which could be perceived out of padlock is nose attitude.
    However, at the range and video resolution, it is doubtful that there is
    anything of value there.
    The ultimate meaning of all this is that 750 kts Immelmans will have to be
    worked into the High School's game plan.
    The question here is how to win a very high speed opening guns fight?
    Playing with the four MIG-29s from Hell has demonstrate that missiles launch
    from the rear rarely strike a target pulling max G's at more than 450 kts.
    This is probably also true of distant forward quarter shots.  So, the main
    thing is how to work the gun battle from a high speed and high perch.  This of
    course goes against the original tenent of the 550 kts Immelman open which says
    that someone who does a 750 kts Immelman will allow you to turn inside of him
    on the second pass.  Avoiding this happening leaves, the 750 kts plane pointed
    sharply downwards.  What to do here?
    The following describes how to set yourself up on the second pass for optimal
    >> I realize that there is probably not a menouver or trick for this, but
    >> it seems to be a big factor.
    There are some aids.  For example, on the second pass.  Pull your HUD on your
    opponent.  Come out of padlock, since he is now in front.  Get your attitude
    (pitch, speed, bank, ...).  Determine the optimal break and reposition exactly.
    Hit padlock right at the second pass and then just pull straight back.  You
    have now set up and are executing the optimal break.
    The following describes the importance of multi-plane Red Flag practice
    challenge missions.  It is not the similarity to H2H matches that is the point
    of the practice.  Instead it is the importance of some very basic lessons.
    >> I spend most of my non-H2H practice on single planes - MiG 19's and
    >> UMF's have nice turning capabilities, although the latter is stupid.
    Too easy.  You don't get to be a master, by repeating the same easy motion.
    It is all conditioning.  The four MIGs emphasized some key H2H factors:
    1) Timing is the difference between life and death.
    2) It only takes one mistake to get you killed.
    3) Know what the entire global situation is around you.  Don't lose the world
        for the view from your HUD.
    The following describes the type of mentality it takes to excel at Falcon.
    Here is the most key lesson which I can give you for the future of your Falcon
    and sim career.
    Get analytical.  On each engagement ask:
      What did I do right and what did I do wrong?
      What did my opponent do right and what did my opponent do wrong?
      How could I detect the development of the situation which got me killed and
      how should I have responded?
    Think about the game at night looking up at the ceiling and imagine positions,
    speeds, nose attitude, and the moves that can be made.  See what new things
    you can come up with that look good on paper.  Then, try them.  Do not adopt
    them too quickly or discard them too slowly.  Work with them and fully
    understand the actual implications.
    When you reflect on the game, remember that it is a game and also think of how
    it behaves from that angle.  This is where the Padlock Sweep, Cone of Death,
    and Flap Trap came from.
    The following presents some basic questions to ask someone who is beginning
    the game and would like some help.  They represent a point of departure.
    In the meantime, let me ask you a few of questions.  Your replies will be held
    in confidence.
    (1) Is your radar on or off into the merge?
    (2) Is your ECM on or off into the merge?
    (3) At what speed do you hit the merge?
    (4) What is your speed about one second after the merge?
    (5) What do you think is the most effective move after the merge and what
         do you most commonly do?
    (6) When a second pass is evolving, how do you attempt to manage that
    More comments on the S as an opening move.
    >> The S is death,
    Very good.  I am going to attach some stuff from "Shoot to Kill" at the end of
    this message in regards to the S.  It is not totally without merit.  However,
    you should strive for strategies that keep your options open.  When you run out
    of options, you die.  The S has very limited options.
    The following describes why an extender does not stand a chance against an
    opponent he goes into the merge with lots of speed 650-750 kts and slows a
    little to start shooting missiles.
    His dodging will leave you with both and energy advantage and position
    advantage despite you having bled a little energy to get the shot.
    Furthermore, he has already given you his six and at high altitudes there just
    isn't the tight turning radius for him to get you off his tail.  So if you
    kept your speed up, he has for sure committed suicide.
    The following describes what can be done to survive in the face missiles and
    prepare for the turning fight.
    >> I'd start pumping flares like there's no tomorrow,
    There is a limitation in modem play that I think only allows three flares/chaff
    ejections to be active at once.
    >> If you're in that close, you should be too close for the missile to
    >> track (it shouldn;t arm until at least 1nm from the launching platform),
    >> but I can't remember if F3 models this or not.
    I have seen lots of in the teeth missile hits (9Ms) in H2H modem play.  Note:
    That current CIS Ladder ROE forbids guns at this point.  So, that is why
    missiles are being launched.  Otherwise, I would certainly opt for guns.
    The best I have on a more less level merge is:
    1) Be at 400 KTS or more.
    2) Break hard up and drop flares.  Cut the AB if you want, but I don't think
        it makes a difference.
    3) Continue through a loop pulling your nose onto your human opponent.
    This has worked for me on a number of occassions.  It accomplish two things at
    once.  First, you evade the missile in your face.  Second, you maneuver for
    position and hold energy for the comming gun fight.  The beauty of the two
    things at once is that it saves time, since usually matches can be decided by a
    half second or more.
    Another effective application of the "Cone of Death".
    First, I had portrayed the "Cone of Death" as a close proximity tactic.  This
    is primarily how I use it and how I originally arrived at it.  However, it also
    works quite well a long distances on a straight nose to nose situation.  This
    happened twice last night.  I lined you up from a mile out and began to shoot
    and roll.  Otherwise getting an accurate bead on a rapidly growing dot hard to
    A debrief on extensions viewed from both sides.
    Second, you mismanaged your extensions on the ones where I did an Immelman.
    You must count my missiles and go offensive as soon as you dodge the last.  It
    is at that point that your opponent is most vulnerable.  You should space fire
    missiles at me and approach at moderate speed.  Instead you allowed me recover
    a little speed.  Once I had that, I dodged both you and your high speed guns
    run.  The lesson to be learned in defense here is:
    Don't wait too long with the last missile or your nose will get stuck pointing
    up.  Get it off and then pull your nose down.  Then, watch carefully your
    opponents approach.  Right when you think, he is going to open up, you break
    and a split-S is a very good move here.
    Another debrief on extensions viewed from both sides.  And yes, the author
    did a split-s.  Incredible!  Times are changing.
    Third, I split-S'ed on the open.  These were like the first I have ever done
    since my very first days of flying Falcon H2H.  I just had to do something
    different.  Well, what was most amazing was that you extended and I found
    defense from the S to be much easier, than from the 550 kts Immelman.  Here is
    I launched my missiles relatively quickly.  There was already a great deal of
    separation and you were still in a high powered climb.  As a result, upon
    launching my last missile, I had much more time to prepare for your counter
    After the last launch, I pulled my nose straight down to build speed while I
    watched you dodge the last missiles in padlock.  I pulled out of my dive at
    about 3000-4000 feet and continued in a shallow dive of 10 degrees nose down
    and extending.
    By the time you began to launch your missiles, there was already three miles
    between us and I was doing about 570 kts.  Pulling in a low G climbing arc
    while popping flares was sufficient to beat them.  You were still out of guns
    range and I rapidly turned in the vertical to engage you with guns.  Piece of
    So, what did you do wrong here?  Well, perhaps you should have spaced your
    missiles better.  Maybe you should have held your last one or two until you
    were just outside of guns range (1.2 miles).  This would have made my
    reversing on you much more difficult.  As I dodged the last one or two, you
    should have been able to pick up the angles advantage.
    What might I have done different?  Same approach except, I could have just
    launched my Ps and saved my Ms to complicate your life as you closed the
    separation between us.
    Some basic things to keep in mind when entering a tight turning fight.
    Your lessons:
    1) Don't go up when you don't have the energy to do so.  You will loose 2
        seconds on the mode shift and 30 degrees.
    2) Don't go down for the sake of going down.  I will clip with guns as you
        tuck under and then drop in behind you.
    3) Don't do 330 kts flat turns pulling 9Gs.  You are way above corner.  (This
        means that your radius is too large.)
    4) Control your speed in padlock in a flat fight by rolling a little left or
        right with the stick pulled all the way back.  Stay at corner.
    5) Manage the second pass break to achieve a balance between staying at
        corner speed, maintaining energy by gaining altitude, and avoiding the
        mode shift.
    This section on the following sections present methods for measuring Falcon
    performance.  This is critical.  The sim pilot should attempt to play test
    pilot with the software to the maximum extent possible.  The good player will
    fully understand the performance of his aircraft and never be guessing.
    This particular section details some early work which was done during the
    old CIS Ladder ROE ("Turn and Shoot") days.
    As already noted, one of the best strategies for the old ROE was the Immelman.
    The player who did the fastest/tightest Immelman has the opportunity to bring
    his guns to bear sooner.  The following technique was used to determine the
    best Immelman in Falcon 3.01.1 at that time.
    The VCR was used to gather raw information.  Set yourself and your plane up in
    the same configuration you would be going head to head.  Adjust your speed and
    pull into a loop.  Make the loop pass through the horizon as your are inverted;
    do not ease off on the back pressure as you come around.
    What you want to build is a chart of entry speed, exit speed, diameter, and
    elapsed time.  To do this watch the video tape.  You can detect the beginning
    of the move, by watch the stick marker on the HUD and doing a frame advance as
    you get close to the point.  As soon as you see the stick marker twitch, the
    move in in progress.  Record the time, speed, and altitude.  Frame advance
    until the flight path marker crosses 0 degrees on the pitch scale.  Once again,
    record the time, speed, and altitude.  You can now work out the differences.
    In summation this approach yielded that at 7,700 feet, 390 kts yielded the best
    Immelman with a time of about 6 seconds, diameter of about 2,400, and exit
    speed of about 290 kts.  Note that there were other 6 second Immelmans, but
    they resulted in much larger diameters.  Therefore, you would not get guns on.
    With the best Immelman, you could have guns on in about 4 seconds.
    In order to do a similar analysis as above for flat turns, it necessary to
    establish a frame of reference.  In the last section, the VCR time and HUD
    altitude was used as that frame of reference.  The question is what can be used
    for flat turns.
    Answer:  The debug screen.
    The debug screen (pause,shift-tab,D,pause) presents seven red numbers in three
    lines.  We shall refer to them as:
    D1 D2
    D3 D4 D5 D6
    They represent:
    D1 - North/South axis increasing towards the south by .25/.33 nautical miles
    D2 - East/West axis increasing towards the west by .25/.33 nautical miles
    D3 - East/West axis increasing (ignore sign) towards the west by .5 feet.
    D4 - North/South axis increasing (ignore sign) towards the South by .5 feet.
    D5 - Vertical axis (above sea level) by .5 feet.
    D6 - Unknown
    D7 - Video display frames per second.
    D1 and D2 were arrived at by:
    Take off from Nellis and just fly straight along the two major compass
    bearings.  You will see how they increment and decrement.  The challenge is
    how to calibrate these numbers.
    This was accomplished by using the VCR, waypoint distance from the airbase on
    the HUD, and a 9P seeker head to leave a marker on the tape.  Take off and fly
    level and slow.  Everytime D2 increments, flash the seeker head.  Watch the
    tape and count how many seeker flashes between the waypoint nautical mile
    increments from base.
    Although the above yields a coordinate system, it is insufficiently precise to
    do any serious measurements with.  It is the author's conjecture that this
    represents some form of macro coordinate system used for the placement of
    stationary objects and waypoints.  The macro system is perhaps used to
    simplify various calculations to improve play performance characteristics.
    D5 was arrived at by:
    It is pretty easy to observe the D5 always appears to be double the altitude
    above sea level displayed on the HUD.  As such, it would be calibrate in 1/2
    feet.  This is very useful piece of information as we will see.
    D3 and D4
    Obviously represent a coordinate system as they conform to the behavour
    described above with regards to flying on major compass bearings.  However,
    when you play around, you will see that they are in reverse order of D1 and
    D2.  Additionaly, they change at a much greater rate, and therefore are
    calibrated on a much finer scale.
    A reasonable conjecture would assume that they are calibrated on the same
    scale as D3.  This is in fact the case and can be verified by doing the
    Taxi out from Nellis across the the desert at 50 kts.  Check the value of D1
    when a waypoint mile clicks off.  Check it again when the next waypoint mile
    clicks off.  Subtract the two and you will see that the difference divided by
    two comes out to be a nautical mile of approximately 6,080 feet.
    D6 unknown.
    D7 is FPS and was known previously by the author.
    This section describes how D3 and D4 can be used to measure turn performance.
    Unforetunately, these number do not appear on the VCR.  So, this must be done
    in real time flight with the pause key.  It is most convenient to program one
    of the FCS keys (such as the trigger) to do a pause and another to turn the
    recorder on and off.
    Fly on a major compass heading.  Set up all parameters.  Hit the pause button.
    Make note of the appropriate debug number.  Unpause, roll, and turn.  When the
    HUD indicates a full reversal, then hit the pause again.  Note the appropriate
    debug number, subtract the two and divide by two.  This yields the turn
    diameter in feet.
    MEASURING FALCON PERFORMANCE:  Part IV, A Falcon Performance Chart
    This section provides detail data on Falcon flight performance.  There are
    no real suprises here. It pretty much confirms what the author and others
    have intuitively known.  Discussion of the results will be provided later
                    Falcon 3.03 F-16 HIFI Turning Performance Chart
                       Mark Kratzer - 03/26/94 (revised 03/27/94)
    NOTE:     (1)  Tests were performed an 80486DX/50 processor.
              (2)  No weapons were loaded.
              (3)  No flares or chaff were fired.
              (4)  Fuel load effects were not determined.
              (5)  Flight model was set to HIFI.
    Method:   (1)  Debug coordinates were used.
              (2)  Speed and altitude were set along one axis.
              (3)  180 degree reversal was performed and the change was
                   measured on the axis.
              (4)  The pause key and the VCR was used to gather measurements 
                   and both were implemented as buttons on the FCS.
              (5)  Altitude is reflected as above sea level.
              (6)  The results are presented as a turn diameter in feet/elapsed 
                   time in seconds.
             1000 FT  3000 FT  5000 FT  8000 FT  10000 FT  12000 FT  14000 FT
    250 KTS  2314/8   1845/6   1827/7   1807/7   1726/7    1834/7    1955/9
    300 KTS  3003/8   3018/8   2383/7   2187/7   2025/7    2013/7    2035/7
    350 KTS  4092/9   3812/9   3787/10  3235/8   3718/10   2745/7    2719/8
    400 KTS  5234/10  5195/10  5044/11  4585/10  4633/10   3521/8    3538/9
    450 KTS  6218/11  6517/12  5966/11  5666/11  5741/12   5305/10   5063/11
    MEASURING FALCON PERFORMANCE:  Part V, Interpreting the Results in Part IV
    The horizontal turning results confirm some things that have been asserted
    all along.
    1) Proper speed control is everything.  The difference of 100 kts in a flat
        turn between two aircraft may equate to turn diameter which is twice as
        large and takes one and a half times long for the faster aircraft.  And
        the beginners keep asking, "Why do you always manage to turn on me?".
    2) A 400 KTS flat turn at 8000 FT yields 4585/10 whereas a 400 KTS Immelman
        yields 2672/7.  Clearly, an Immelman that uses gravity to decelerate and
        increase Gs pulled results in superior turn performance for the same
        energy input.  Furthermore, unlike hitting the brake which forfeits energy,
        the Immelman maintains energy for later use.
    3) Best turning performance occurs at altitudes of 7,000-11,000 feet.
        Perhaps, the optimal higher speed entry turn reversal on an open would
        be a climbing turn.  Maybe a 45 degree climbing turn at 430 KTS.  (At this
        point, this is conjecture and has yet to be tested.)
    4) On a high yo-yo the nose should be rolled downward only after the speed to
        has dropped below 300 KTS.  (At this point, this is conjecture and has yet
        to be tested.)
    MEASURING FALCON PERFORMANCE:  Part VI, Additional Research Topics
    More turn performance research is definitely called for.
    1) At what speed does the mode shift occur for each altitude?
    2) Is the mode shift speed affected by missile and ECM load?
    3) Is turn diameter and time affected by missile and ECM load?
    4) Given an entry speed at a particular altitude what is the maximum number
        of degrees turned before the mode shift is hit?
    There has been a lot of recent discussion on hardware advantages.  Well,
    there are tactics which will tend to neutralize such an advantage.
    >> That's my attitude as well.  Until I see differently I am going to
    >> continue to believe that the single biggest factor in Falcon H2H
    >> remains BFM skills and NOT machine speed.
    In fact, there are even BFM tactics for the hardware challenged player.  Some
      1) A former student was up against a 2:1 CPU cycle advantage.  His opponent
         had threatened to spin around in his tracks around 400 kts with an instant
         missile lock.  My advice to my former student before the match was.
           Watch your opponent's inbound speed on radar.  If he telegraphs a low
           speed, then take his speed and match it with yours plus 50-60 KTS.
           First, at such a low speed merge, the second pass would happen at about
           7 seconds and there would be no time for missile shots.  Second, a 60
           KTS energy advantage is all a good player needs to win a turning fight.
           Faster machine be damned.  (Yes, he did win doing precisely that.)
      2) I and the same former student simulated him having a faster machine by me
         not launching missiles and him launching.  (Note, I did not dump my own
         missiles.)  Here is what we found.
           First, the faster computer must still turn sharply on the open (meaning
           less energy).  Otherwise, he still could get beat to the missile shot.
           Since the slower computer could still get a very quick nose on if he
           chose to go that route.
           The slower computer thus goes high into an Immelman and keeps his speed
           up in the 400 KTS range and does not decelerate lower in order to get
           his nose around for the first shot.
           When the slower computer's opponent launches from below, he/she still
           returns fire with 9Ms whether or not there is a lock.  This may cause a
           moment of confusion on your opponent's part.  Next, the slower computer
           dodges by going into a steep climbing turn which is compatible with his
           energy.  This accomplishes two things:  dodges the missiles and reenters
           the fight.
           The slower computer is relative safe despite the dodge, because he/she
           is much higher than his/her opponent and difficult to shoot because of
           the altitude advantage.  After the turn the slower computer uses the
           energy advantage to win in the ensuing gun fight.
    The following contribution from Vertigo emphasizes the critical nature of
    mode shift.
            When flying in HIFI mode, there is a strange occurrence when your
    plane drops below a certain speed (approximately 250 kts at 8,000 - 2000 AGL).
    At that point, you will notice a lurch in your flight, and if you are pulling
    high G's in a tight turn, the G-meter will suddenly reduce to 1 G or below,
    your AOA will drop to zero, and your flight path will be interrupted.  This is
    due to the fact that at lower speeds, the flight model will suddenly change to
    Complex, and your plane will wallow for a moment.  If your opponent in a
    turning battle manages to avoid the mode shift while you hit it, you will find
    yourself suddenly gunned down, because his turning radius will improve in
    relation to yours.
            You can, of course, avoid the mode shift by keeping your speed high
    enough.  However, there is a fine line between the mode shift (250 kts) and
    being beyond corner speed (approximately 270 - 290 kts).  You must learn to
    balance on that fine line.
            It is essential to learn to recognize when this is going to happen,
    and avoid it if possible.  Practice the following in Red Flag:
            1.  Set up a mission without any enemies.
            2.  Get to 8,000 feet, and slow to about 300 kts.  Go into padlock so
    you can see the G-meter and your speed in the upper left window.
            3.  Go into a flat turn at 300 kts and full burners.  You will be able
    to maintain a level aspect only for a short time, and then you will bleed off
    speed rapidly until you hit the mode shift.  Stay in padlock and watch your
    flight path and the G-meter.  Watch what happens when you hit the mode shift.
    When you drop into Complex mode and your G's diminish, you are providing your
    opponent an advantage which will usually get you killed.  Note that you cannot
    avoid the mode shift with engine power alone.  Do this until you are familiar
    with the point at which the mode shift occurs.
            4.  Once you are familiar with where and when the mode shift occurs,
    deal with it as follows.  As your speed in a tight turn approaches 250 kts,
    angle the plane downward to use gravity to assist you.  This may require a 30
    - 45% angle down, and at the same time you have to keep pulling back on the
    joystick, so you don't widen your turn by decreasing your AOA.  Essentially,
    you are in a tight spiral down toward the ground.  Practice this until you can
    avoid the mode shift.  Note: the 250 kts is only an estimate!  The speed at
    which the mode shift occurs will be less at lower altitudes.  Experiment with
    this until you know when and where the mode shift occurs.
            Since there is no enemy in this practice and you are essentially
    looking through the HUD, you may be able to determine your angle by looking at
    the bars on the HUD.  You will not have this advantage in a dogfight, because
    you will be padlocked on the bandit (unless of course he is conveniently in
    front of you, in which case you can gun him down).  Thus, you will have to
    learn to watch your speed and, when you get too close to 250 kts, angle
    downward by feel only.  You will know you are angled downward when your speed
    begins to increase.  The upper right box in padlock, which shows your relative
    angle to the ground, may provide some cues, but often the angle required is
    such that it will show ground only in that box; you'll know you're pointing
    down, but you won't know at what angle.  Rely upon your speed indicator to
    tell you your relative angle to the ground.  If your speed is maintaining
    instead of decreasing, you're doing it.  If speed is still decreasing, angle
    downward more.  Practice this until you can tell the proper angle using your
    speed as the only indicator.  This sounds impossible, but it's not.  It just
    requires practice.
            In a tight turning battle in which neither side has a significant
    energy advantage, the two planes will often spiral downward as they attempt to
    close with the enemy and maintain enough speed to avoid the mode shift.  Thus,
    with pilots of equal skill, this will take the fight to the ground.  When you
    get lower than 1,000 feet AGL, you will notice another phenomenon.  The denser
    air will allow you to maintain speed, even in a flat turn, and the mode shift
    occurs at a lesser speed.  In fact, your primary problem now may be too much
    speed.  If you are not careful, your speed will increase beyond optimum corner
    speed, and this will get you killed as quickly as hitting the mode shift.  At
    this point, you have three options: (1) hit the brake and/or let up on the
    throttle to maintain corner speed; (2) angle your plane upwards to use the
    extra speed to buy some more energy (and get you away from the hard, hard
    ground); or (3) do both in combination.  Angling upwards is, logically, the
    superior move to decrease your speed, because you will gain an energy
    advantage at the same time.  But, it is difficult to pull off against a
    skilled opponent, because the speed loss from angling upward does not occur as
    quickly as the speed loss from hitting the brakes, and this may result in a
    turning radius that is too large, giving your opponent a clean guns shot.  You
    will have to learn to detect when you have enough of a lead on your opponent
    to afford angling upwards.  If your opponent is hard on your tail, it is
    probably best to hit the brakes.
    Some common mistakes when trying to learn how to open with an Immelman.
    >> I got beat severely in practise trying to emulate some of Markshot's
    >> routines so I took some of his points and MODIFIED them to suit my
    >> flying style.
    Two classic mistakes in trying to learn it are:
      1)  Remaining inverted in the Immelman and when your opponent passed
          beneath you pull down on him/her.  You should right your plane and then
          do a flat turn or go up some.
      2)  Keeping too much speed and separation as the result of the Immelman.
          Thus, you excess speed gets you killed especially if you try to take the
          fight low with it when your opponent is at corner.
          "Speed is Life" sometimes is "Speed is Death" especially when you
          opponent is turning inside of you.
    Some new and interesting phenomena have been observed.  These observations
    are based on some suggestions by Vertigo and another CIS Ladder flyer.  The
    phenomena shall henceforth be refered to as the "Speed Bump".  Some other
    terms that the reader should be familiar with are:
    "Mode Shift":    The speed at which the HIFI flight model switchs to COMPLEX.
    "Corner Speed":  The fastest and tightest turning speed at an altitude.
    At any given altitude in a max G flat turn, there is a speed which if
    exceeded, the F-16 will accelerate while in afterburner.  And if below, the F
    -16 will decelarate despite being in afterburner.  This speed shall we known
    as the "Speed Bump".  Here are two interesting properties of over "Speed Bump"
      First, if accelerating (in afterburner) over the "Speed Bump", then the F-16
      will only pull 8Gs despite the speed.  If decelerating (out of afterburner)
      over the "Speed Bump", then the F-16 will pull 9Gs.  In the same speed range
      over "Speed Bump", Gs pulled (and most likely turn diameter and time) will
      be affected by acceleration and deceleration.  Personal conjecture has it,
      that the real world cause of this might be the forward thrust of the engine
      pushing the jet out into a wider turn.
      Second, by going in and out of afterburn, it is possible to maintain a more
      or less continuous tight turn.
    Here are some interesting implications which follow from the speed bump.
      1)  Normally, two planes with equally skilled flyers that enter a turning
          fight at almost the same speed (within 5 kts) will tend to remain
          neutral.  By neutral we can say that their relative position/energy
          states neither converge nor diverge.
          However, if one plane enters the turn 2.5 kts under the "Speed Bump" and
          the other plane enters the turn 2.5 kts over the "Speed Bump", then the
          relative position/energy states will diverge.  This is immutable.  In
          a relatively short period of time, the plane over the "Speed Bump"
          should have gained a very significant energy advantage.
      2)  Suckering an opponent into a flat turning fight right at the "Speed
          Bump" where you can guarantee being above and your opponent below should
          convey an advantage on you that you can exploit.
          A risk here which needs to be accessed is whether the "Speed Bump" is so
          far above corner that you are risking being killed before taking
          advantage of it.
      3)  At what altitude if any does "Corner Speed" occur near the "Speed Bump"?
          The closer the two are, the more effective the above approach put forth
          in #2 will be.
      4)  At 500 feet and below, the "Speed Bump" occurs below the "Mode Shift".
          This means that it is impossible to hit the mode shift at 500 feet and
          below.  The implication of this is that a lower energy (and altitude)
          plane in a relatively close turning fight could take an advantage by
          passing below 500 feet and regain energy while turning and also be
          immune to the mode shift that may hit the 1200 feet high energy fighter.
      5)  It has commonly been accepted that it usually a mistake to diminish
          stick back pressure in a turning fight.  However, if by doing so, you
          can put yourself over the "Speed Bump" and if "Corner Speed" and the
          "Speed Bump" are close and if your opponent is under the "Speed Bump",
          then you should be able to force a reversal.
      6)  If dumping missiles can vary the value of the "Speed Bump", then this
          could be a highly effective technique.
    Some initial testing with the "Speed Bump" has yielded the following pieces
    of information.
      1)  The rate of acceleration or deceleration decreases with proximity to
          the "Speed Bump".  Another way of stating this, is that the further
          under the "Speed Bump" you are the quicker speed bleeds off.
      2)  Weight definitely affects the "Mode Shift" and "Speed Bump" values.
          With an unloaded plane and almost out of fuel, they can be as much as
          100 kts lower than they otherwise would be.
          The affect of unloading the plane would appear to drop the "Speed Bump"
          and "Mode Shift" values by about 20kts.
      3)  The "Speed Bump" at 8,000 feet with a loaded plane is 450 kts and the
          "Mode Shift" is 250 kts.
            A possible opening strategy which maintains high energy but low
            altitude might be the following:  Turn flat at 450+ kts and stay above
            the "Speed Bump".  Reverse and initiate a climb to meet your opponent.
            No speed should be bled in this reversal.  The diameter will be about
            5,000-6,000 feet at 11 seconds.
            Possible problems are that this might prove to be too time consuming.
            Also, it is necessary to varify at what entry speed and what pitch can
            a 400+ kts climb be maintained.
            A 550 kts full Immelman reaches 13,000 feet.
      4)  The "Speed Bump" existed in Falcon 3.01.1, but would not have seen much
          use in the old ROE, because of the prohibitive affects of Black Out
          which is now disabled.
      5)  The best way to recover if you fall below the speed bump in a turn is
          to dip the nose gain some acceleration.  You will know when you have
          crossed the "Speed Bump" by the fact that the G meter will flip from 8Gs
          to 9Gs.
    More early feedback on the "Speed Bump" based on actual trials.
    I think the technique looks promising.  I have actually beaten extensions
    (XXX's) by catching up with him and firing missiles or gunning him down!
    I have yet to be in any real peril of being hit by a missile in the face.
    My main problem with the maneuver is working out the decision points, speeds,
    and feel.  I had this same problem when I started the 550 kts school.
    Basically, it is a process of using it and adapting to what opponents do.  It
    takes time and patience to accept losses.
    Another beauty of this technique is that it looks very similar to the Split-S
    until a second or two after the merge.  They both decelerate at 1.5 miles.
    After the merge, the only immediate difference is about 1/4 of a roll from
    Why is this nice?  Well, the S is a low energy quick kill angles tactic and
    the Speed Bump Turn is a high energy extended kill tactic.  Very different,
    but they open so similar.  I like that!
    Also, I have been doing a little speed bumping at low altitudes too.  I think
    the best low altitude tactic instead of hitting the brake or going up is to
    pop out of AB.
    A LIGHTER STATE OF BEING:  Dump ECM and Missiles.
    After much mention of the advantages of dumping.  I have begun to look into
    this myself.  The assertion is that the plane get lighter and cleaner and
    therefore exhibits more acceleration and better turning properties.
    First, if you are going to dump things, then you might as well do it
    efficiently (ie. in a programmed fashion).  Here are some things to note:
      You cannot dump ECM while it is turned on.
      You cannot dump ECM (^C) or 9Ms (^K) when inverted or perpindicular to the
      It is better to fire 9Ms, then dump because of the above.
      Because ECM cannot be fired, it should be given a key of its own separate
      from missiles.  The way to check if ECM has been dumped is:
        Enter the plane with ECM on.
        Program the dump key to do E-^C-E.  If the padlock TSR, still shows a blue
        box, then it was not dumped.
    On the merge do the following:
      If you see that you entering a turning fight, then hit the DUMP ECM key.
      Otherwise, keep ECM.
      If you see that you have a 9M lock in the forward quarter, then hit the DUMP
      MISSILE key.  If you are pursuing and extender, then fire missiles as usual
      manually.  (see below about side effects)
      If you cannot get a a 9M lock, then hit the DUMP MISSILE key and get clean
      and light.
    Some results:
      I had the definite feeling and so did my opponent that I was turning much
      Although the "Burst of Four" (time spaced missiles) failed, this technique
      appears to very hard to dodge from.  I am quite certain that one of them, my
      opponent was flamed by an UNLOCKED 9P.  This alone outside the turning could
      become a major factor in its own right.
    A quick note about extensions.
    Even when you could have your opponent in the forward view and pursue, it is
    sometimes better to watch from padlock.  You need to know when your opponent
    cuts back on you.  When you see the distance close, wait until 1.3 miles. Go
    to the forward view and line your opponent up.  Then perform a continuous
    "Cone of Death" throughout the merge.
    Note that padlock measures horizontal separation and not vertical separation.
    A missile dumping enhancement follows.
    Program the missile dump key to on the press fire 2 9Ms and on the release
    fire 2 9Ps.  This is superior for the following reasons:
      When you have a 9M lock and hit quickly, it has the same affect as a
      straight dump four.
      When you have a good amount of separation, you can fire the 9Ms and hold the
      button momentarily to get a 9P lock before releasing it.  This allows you
      one of the fastest key sequences to get your 9Ps in the air while at same
      time avoiding wasting them needlessly if you can get a shot.
    Some missile dump key feedback.
    In defending against extensions, rapidly launched pairs of missiles seemed to
    have a higher hit rate than spaced singles.  However, not enough testing has
    been done with this to be sure.
    Vertigo has been demonstrating some excellent turning capability during
    practice flights.  Here is what he says about setting it up.
            >>So, break it down for me.  What are you keying on
            >>while you are turning?  How are you responding to
            >>make corrects while turning via stick, throttle, and brake?
            I love this theoretical stuff!  OK, here goes:
            What I try to focus on most is my speed, and let that determine the
    angle of the break.  For example, assuming both pilots break upwards at the
    merge at about the same speed and try to get nose on for the missile shot
    (e.g., two Immelmans, no extensions), this is my current theory.  First, I try
    not to let my speed be below 300 kts at the 2nd pass, nor in excess of 350
    kts.  While it may drop below 300 if I am braking for a missile shot, I try to
    get it back up prior to the point at which the two planes pass.  In any event,
    your speed at the 2nd pass, whatever it turns out to be, determines how I am
    going to break.  If my speed is around 300, I will break slightly downwards
    (since you cannot complete a flat turn beginning at that speed without hitting
    the mode shift).  If my speed is below 300, I will progressively break further
    downward in order to turn, hopefully, at about 290 kts.  If my speed is
    slightly above 300 (e.g., 330), I will break flat or even upwards slightly,
    and then angle downward as speed decreases.  If I am at 350 kts or higher, and
    assuming my opponent is below me (e.g., he broke downwards), I may risk not
    braking, and will angle even more upwards (the higher the speed, the greater
    the angle upwards).  If my opponent is not below me and I'm at 350 at the
    second pass, I will try and hit the brakes and/or pull back on the throttle to
    cut my speed to 300 (approximately) and shorten my turn radius.  If you don't
    do this, he will beat your turn and will gun you down.  The basic premise I'm
    operating on is that 290-300 is probably the best turn speed, and I try to
    average that through the turn, and at the same time maintain as much altitude
    as possible.
            There are some nuances, of course.  The decision to go up (rather than
    cut speed) when your speed is at 350 or higher is a critical and dangerous
    decision; if your opponent can turn at 270-290 kts, he will complete his turn
    before you, and if you are wrong about him being sufficiently below you, you
    will get shot.  On the other hand, if you are correct in your determination
    that he is sufficiently below you, he will still beat your turn, but it won't
    do him any good because his speed will be such that he probably can't lift his
    nose to shoot you, and you can use your energy advantage to slowly but surely
    win the turning battle as you both spiral down.  I say "probably", because if
    he is only slightly below you, he may be able to lift his nose just enough for
    one shot.  Maybe you'll be lucky and that shot won't take anything important,
    and then you'll still win the turning battle, made even easier by the fact
    that he blew his last bit of energy on that one gun shot, and is now
    dangerously close, or below, the mode shift.  If you're not lucky you lose
    your guns or your engines, and it won't matter that you have more energy.
    Another factor is sometimes your opponent can be below you, but with a high
    enough energy state that when you turn to shoot him he scoots out of the way
    and then gets above you, where he has effectively turned the tables (i.e., he
    has the energy advantage, and you are below him, spiraling downward in an
    attempt to stay at 290).
            Basically it's a balancing act.  Speed at the 2nd pass will allow you
    to go up, and get above your opponent, where winning is much easier.  Under
    this theory, the maximum speed you can get at the 2nd pass would be optimal.
    But too much speed will mean you will lose the turning battle at the first
    turn, and your opponent will get at least one shot at you, even though he is
    below you.  For example, if you could break sharply upwards at 400 kts at the
    2nd pass, you would be well above your opponent, but your turn will be so wide
    that even though he is below you, a tightly turning opponent will be able to
    get on your six and, in spite of your energy advantage, will usually be able
    to follow you through any maneuvers, until your energy advantage is gone.
            The proper angle for the break, while dependent upon speed, is a
    matter of feel.  If you were in a real plane, it would be easier to both see
    the angle at which your opponent broke (i.e., above or below you), and to feel
    the correct angle for the break.  You can't do much about the former, but
    situational awareness of the latter can be enhanced by going to the scrolled
    up front view momentarily to get positioned.  Note: while I think the view
    switching is, theoretically, a good idea, I rarely have the presence of mind
    to do it while in an actual fight, so it remains primarily an untested theory.
    The following comments by Vertigo offer some interesting insights for
    winning a tight turning fight.  Of particular interest, is the overshoot
    technique proposed in a descending vertical scissors.
            >>How are you squeezing out from under me or anyone else
            >>that matter who gets on your six?
            Hot Dog!  More theoretical stuff.  OK, here goes:
            For a two circle fight, where both pilots are coming around to get
    nose on for a front quarter shot, if I notice that my opponent has position on
    me and will beat my turn, either because he turned better, he has an energy
    advantage, or both, lately I have been quitting my turn into him (when I have
    the presence of mind to do so), thus hopefully denying him his shot.  As you
    know, when both pilots are turning into each other, they are both helping the
    other one come nose on.  I cease that help when I perceive that I'm going to
    lose the turning battle.  Instead, I will let up on the stick, allow my speed
    to build, and attempt to perform a perfect turn on the next go around.
    Sometimes I get shot anyway, sometimes I don't.  Often the hit isn't fatal
    (unlike the result when you go nose-to-nose). The opponent will often have
    sacrificed his superior position to get what he believes will be a good shot.
    For example, when he has the altitude advantage, he often points downward to
    get the shot.  If I have not pulled all the way around into his guns, and
    instead have backed off on the stick and used my decreased AOA to gain speed,
    two things happen.  First, he's now pointing downwards, and goes below me;  in
    addition, my speed build-up may allow me to increase that separation by flat
    turning or even going up slightly, an additional bonus.  Second, his speed may
    now be too high, since he was diving, and it's rare to remember to hit the
    brake or let up on the throttle while you are pulling the trigger.  The
    result?  I am now above him, at a better corner speed, and with more energy.
            For a one circle fight, it's much less elegant.  If someone is on your
    six and you're not dead, forget about anything other than making the perfect
    turn.  Concentrate on your angle toward the ground. Make it perfect, maintain
    a perfect corner speed.  Keep an eye on the bandit to make sure he doesn't
    break out of the circle (if he does, follow him and kill him), but your main
    concern is the perfect turn.  If you can slowly but surely turn better than he
    can, you will start to reverse the situation.  If the turning battle starts
    at, say, 10,000 feet, you'll have lots of time to slowly out-turn him.  Taking
    the fight to the ground also has a salutory effect, since energy states and
    other matters tend to get equalized when you can no longer angle downward to
    help your turn.  Also, when you are down low, the bandit, sensing he has the
    position, will sometimes shave it a little too close and do you the favor of
    augering in.
            Speaking of the ground, a split-S can be helpful in a one circle fight
    that you seem to be losing, but I personally don't use it much unless the
    bandit is very hard on my six, my energy state is poor, and it looks like I'm
    just about to be toasted;  otherwise, a high yo-yo by the pursuer (again,
    assuming he has sufficient energy to go up) will often place him in an even
    more superior position (more altitude) with plenty of separation.  Also, your
    opponent may expertly follow you through the S, leaving the situation as it
    was.  But sometimes it works.  I think this is why.  If he's hard on your six
    he's at corner speed, and thus pretty close to the mode shift.  If he is
    unable to duplicate the split-S, and stays in his turn (which he may do, since
    it was working for him), the split-S'er will trade altitude for speed and may
    be able to get right at corner speed as he comes up, at which point you wheel
    around fast and take the shot.  Even if he duplicates your split-S, he may not
    do it as well or in time, since he is merely reacting to what you already did.
            One other strategy I've noticed lately which I wanted to mention
    concerns the tactics in a vertical scissors fight heading for the ground.  The
    first time I recognized this was in a fight with XXXX.  I was all over his six
    (in fact, I was worried I would collide with him), but before I could get a
    guns solution, he expertly reversed the situation and suddenly, he was on my
    six and gunned me down.  I asked him about it later, and he said he was on the
    brake with no throttle, and getting way below mode shift speed.  This was the
    only time I've seen this work, and it may be an exception to the rule that you
    stay above mode shift speed no matter what.  Note: this should apply only to a
    downward vertical scissors, not a horizontal scissors nor an upward vertical
    scissors, because in the former, you can regain airspeed quickly with the
    benefit of gravity, which you can't do in either of the latter.
    The following is the first entry on flying ATG competition and some of the
    things which can help.
       1) Altitude is generally important.
            It permits you to be slower than you opponent, but still have a large
            amount of energy.  Slower will help you turn your nose quickly for a
            missile shot.  Energy will allow you to be able to dodge missiles or
            quickly close on a lower altitude opponent for the gun fight.  Lastly,
            all things being equal.  Your missiles when fired simultaneously with
            a lower altitude opponent should reach him sooner and have greater
            range.  From actual experience, it has appeared to me that the higher
            plane usually gets the quicker missile lock.  (However, this could
            simply be a function of relative speeds and turning radii.)
       2) Having your nose pointed in the general direction of your opponent is
            If you don't, then you either must give up speed to turn rapidly to
            fire missiles.  If you give up speed, then you become a better target
            for a missile.  If you don't give up speed, then you will definitely
            be fired upon first and probably lose your opportunity to even
            counter fire upon your opponent.
       3) When AIM-120s are unavailable (Falcon 3.03), then you should spend most
          of your time in padlock.  Padlock is the quickest means of spotting your
          opponent.  If you fail to spot him quickly, then you will hear a missile
          launch indicator before knowing what happened.
          The cockpit view in conjunction with radar and the TWI should be used
          sparingly and quickly to simply ascertain the rough location of your
          opponent and reorient your nose.  Remember that radar will also announce
          your own relative location.  (ECM should always be on.)
       4) Zooming radar in and out can be a way to quickly determine that
          your opponent is climbing about your search cone.  Although for my
          tactics this is irrelevant, since I will have generally gone high
       5) Generally, as soon as I get into the cockpit, I pull into a sharp
          climb which maintains my speed at 400-500 kts.  At about 20,000 feet, I
          invert and continue a shallow climb with my speed between 500-600 kts.
          As soon as I invert, I go to padlock with my 9Ms selected and await the
            You need to begin looking no later than 20,000 feet.  If your opponent
            comes in straight and level at 750 kts, then he could catch you
            climbing in a daze if you did not become alert at this point.
            You should not exceed 30,000 feet in your climb.  At high altitudes,
            missiles become harder to dodge due to the poorer corner performance.
            As you level off, keep your speed up, since you might need it to dodge
            against a coaltitude opponent.
            If 30-60 seconds beyond when your opponent should have appeared, then
            right your plane and begin a circular orbit using radar and the TWI to
            locate your opponent.  Continuously go back to padlock so that you do
            not get ambushed.  As soon as you locate your opponent, then place
            your nose on him and shut down your radar.  Once again invert and get
            ready to pounce.
       6) Speed management is important.
            Speeds of 450 kts or better are important for dodging missiles.  Keep
            fast while separation is large (2-5 miles).  When the missiles are
            spent and you close to within (1-1.5 miles) your opponent, then
            decelerate to dogfighting speeds.  This can be anywhere from 350-450
            KTS.  This is largly a function of altitude and whether your opponent
            is climbing above you with a lot of speed.
       7) Missiles will usually initially be launched from considerable distances
          (4-5 miles).  You should make an attempt to counter fire upon your
          opponent before beginning your evasion.  If you fail to do this, then
          you provide an open door for him to saddle you up while you evade.  So,
          attempt to counter fire and don't begin to evade too early.  Otherwise,
          the missiles will simply correct with small angular movements.  They
          must be allowed to close to within 2 miles.
       8) A key issue is how to properly put your missiles into the air.
            If your opponent appears way below you, then I think that it is best
            spread out your missiles to keep him occupied for as long as possible.
            Possibly a sequence of M-M-P-P.  Lower opponents as sited before will
            probably have less of an opportunity to counter fire.  At the same
            time, you should be racing towards him as quick as possible.
            If your opponent appears at relatively the same altitude or somewhat
            higher, then I think it is best to get all your missiles off as
            quickly as possible.  An opponent at relatively the same altitude will
            most likely counter fire and eliminate your opportunity to launch your
            remaining missiles.  A dump/auto-launch key is very useful here.
       9) Once you have launched your missiles, you have to be careful of how you
          close with your opponent.  In particular, you must be cautious if it
          looks like you are going head-to-head.  There is a good potential in
          such a situation to loose it by being a little too slow on the trigger
          or by aiming poorly.
          If you believe that you are going head-to-head, then you should watch
          your padlock as you close.  When your opponent is 1.3-1.5 miles away,
          you should come out of padlock and bore sight him.  Open fire and begin
          a cone of death which will continue into the merge.  The important thing
          is to get him lined up and begin shooting while he is still somewhat out
          of range.
      10) If AIM-120s should be available (Falcon 3.04), then one approach is to
          get your opponent to waste his while they are relatively ineffective.  I
          would jump into the cockpit and turn OFF my ECM and fly straight and
          level.  Your opponent might get so excited by his initial lock up that
          he fires.  Then you turn ECM on and drop chaff while climbing.  These
          missiles will be easily beaten.
          When you reach 15,000-20,000 feet, you paint your opponent with radar
          and launch your AIM-120s, shut down the radar and climb another 5,000
          feet before inverting and waiting.  Your opponent should be about 10
          miles out at the time you launch and dodging your missiles should be
          much harder.  Also, you should acquire a visual sighting on your
          opponent just about the time he is finished dodging your missiles and
          before he has had a chance to fully recover.
      11) It is helpful if you can get nose on your opponent without him doing the
          same to you.  Thus, if you can approach from the side or rear, you have
          a much better chance of launching your missile attack first.
          This can be accomplished by entering the cockpit (assume 90 degree
          heading) and bearing 70 degrees for 5 miles (waypoint scale) and then
          coming around to 110 degrees.
    The SimCap tournament has generated renewed interest in Falcon 3.04 CIS Old
    ROE competition.  So, I thought I would put some thoughts down on this too.
       1) The first thing to address is ECM and missile dumping.  Falcon 3.04
          provides:  1 ECM pod, 2 AIM-9Ps, 2 AIM-9Ms, and 2 AIM-120s.  As already
          noted, dumping extra weight and drag can be benificial in a close
          turning fight that is going to be decided by guns.
          In a H2H connection, it is only possible to have four missiles in the
          air at once.  Therefore, this poses the question as to what missiles
          should be dumped.  There are two schools of thought here.  First, dump
          the 120s and the 9Ms, since they represent the most weight.  Second,
          dump the 120s and the 9Ps, since the 9Ms are only slightly heavier than
          the 9Ps, but infinitely more valuable.  I, personally, favor the second.
          A dump key should include ECM+2x120s+2x9Ps and not provide for any
          aiming.  Thus, it should start from guns and return to guns.  The key
          should not require the same finger to operate as the brake, since
          hitting the optimal speed on the merge in this ROE is much more
       2) Dumping missiles should probably only be done if you can verify via
          radar or padlock that you opponent is very slow on the merge and will
          not be extending.  If unable to tell what your opponent is doing, then
          you should probably hold yours until your opponents dumps his.
          If you foolishly dump your missiles when your opponent extends, then you
          are left with two problems.  First, you have nothing to launch at him to
          keep him busy.  Second, your two remaining missiles will be launch
          restricted for about 15 seconds until the other four have ceased to be.
       3) There are three basic strategies which can be employed in this ROE:
                                     Turn and Shoot
            This is most commonly executed as an Immelman, Oblique Immelman, or
            Slice.  I, myself, prefer the Immelman.  The entry speed can be
            anywhere from 380-395 kts depending on whether you are going to dump.
            You should maintain 750 kts to about 3.5-5 miles out.  At which point
            you should hit your target speed and go full AB and maintain the right
            speed with the brake.  Being a little early to decelerate is better
            than being too late, since this move is very speed sensitive.  Being
            below speed by 30 KTS could result in hitting the mode shift as your
            plane comes through its Immelman.  Being above speed by 30 KTS could
            result in the Immelman being too wide and having your opponent achieve
            gun parameters first.
            The goal in this maneuver when facing an opponent who is attempting to
            turn on you is to hit them with a Padlock Sweep and, if possible,
            followed by a Cone of Death.  If you miss or fail to kill them, due to
            your energy state you will probably follow up with a Split-S reversal
            or a sharp downwards turn.
            Enter the merge at 750 KTS and pull MAX G until acheiving 75-85
            degrees pitch.  If your opponent came in slow and dumped missiles,
            then you are home free.  If missiles are launched, then you should
            dodge them with a spiral climb.  When your opponent has finished
            firing missiles and you peak at 23,000-33,000 feet, you should loop
            back down towards your opponent.  (You may even lose padlock
            momentarily.)  If your opponent is far below, then come back down on
            the brake with engine idle.  Place a good spread of missiles into the
            air as you descend.  I recommend P-P-M-M.  If none of them hit, then
            proceed with guns.  Do not overshoot your opponent at high speed
            heading down.
            This move opens the same as the extension, but after three seconds,
            you chop the throttle and hit the brake while looping over the top.
            If your opponent launched some quick and early missiles, then they
            should miss due to the initial high aspect angle.  Also, the three
            second run should put you outside of guns range and too high for him
            to keep his nose on you.
            Quickly reversing on your opponent should surprize him.  Either he
            will not notice this at all or he will be toggling his weapons when it
            is time to fire guns.  Also, you should catch him in a very precarious
            speed situation.
            From a Falcon physics point of view, it would be best to dump here.
            However, this makes your intentions clear to your opponent.  It says I
            am going to attack with guns.  So, I would think that not dumping is
            the better choice.
            This is NOT an option.  You CANNOT win with this.  Why?  It wastes too
            much time rolling your plane 180 degrees when your opponent opens with
            an Immelman.  (A flat turn would at least put you out of plane.)
       4) How to respond to each of the above if you do the Turn and Shoot:
                                     Turn and Shoot
            This is very simple.  You must just do it better.
            As soon as you spot this, stop pulling hard back on the stick.  Let
            your opponent's motion carry him into your aiming recticle.  Launch
            two spread out Ps and extend horizontally as quickly as possible.
            Then, play ATG rules with your 120s and Ms.
            As soon as you spot this, ask yourself do have energy to go H2H.  If
            yes, then open fire and perform a Cone of Death.  If not, then attempt
            to side step at the last minute with a flat turn into a sharp cut
            down.  If your opponent has not been careful, he will zoom beneath you
            and become easy prey in a turning fight.
    With regards to ATG in Falcon 3.03 H2H and waiting to spot your opponent and
    hit him with missiles.
    I had previously stated that it was best to hunt for your opponent in padlock
    when he is out of range in order to get a missile shot.  This would have been
    correct for Falcon 3.01.1 where ECM was 100% effective when used.  However, in
    Falcon 3.03, it appears that it is best to use radar to position your nose on
    your opponent.  By having your nose prepositioned before getting into 9M and
    9P range, you save about 1.5-2 seconds.  This will give you the quickest
    missiles launch possible.
    I think the proper way to do this is still to initially go for altitude first
    and then when your opponent should be within 10 miles to seek position with
    radar.  The point here is that if you play the radar nose on game from the
    start, you will simply be meeting your opponent co-altitude nose to nose.  I
    would still prefer if possible to attach off to the side and above.
    This section addresses performing a Split-S open.
    Head towards the merge at 750 KTS.  At 1.5 miles (padlock) from the merge,
    chop the throttle and hit the brake.  Go to the forward view.  If your
    opponent appears to be coming in slow, then dump your ECM.  When your opponent
    goes off your forward view, then roll smoothly inverted, release the brake
    (you should be at about 350 KTS), and pull back on the stick.  Select 9Ms and
    go to padlock to see what your opponent is doing.
    If your opponent is extending vertically, then use your 9Ps to buy time and
    perform your own horizontal extension.  Then proceed to play ATG style.  This
    is described elsewhere in this document.  (This might be an argument for
    holding your ECM until you determine your opponents intentions.
    If your opponent performs a Split-S, then you will probably have no
    opportunity for a missile shot.  Dump your missiles as soon as it is clear
    that you will not be able to get a shot.  Attempt to his about 380 KTS when
    passing and attempt an Immelman quick turn and shoot.
    If your opponent performs an Immelman, then keep your nose coming around at
    380-410 kts.  Although slower may yield a missile shot sooner, you will also
    be an easier target for your opponents missiles.  The additional speed will
    accomplish two things.  First, it will make the merge higher and sooner (less
    time for your opponent to get a missile lock).  Second, you will be in a
    better position to dodge.  Shoot your missiles (9Ps unguided) as soon as you
    can get a beginning of a tone.  To avoid your opponents missiles, do a 90
    degree aileron roll before making your break to dodge.  If you survive the
    missile attack, then you need must hit your opponent with guns before he can
    get more than 20 degrees above the horizon in a loop.  Otherwise, his energy
    advantage could allow him to win the fight.  Your goal is to play the angles
    before he can do that.
    The following point was made to me by Drizzit.  It has made H2H competition
    in the current CIS much easier for me.
    I had reached the point where I dodged all missiles into the verticle whenever
    I got a launch warning.  However, if your opponent takes enough energy into
    the fight and is a good turner, then you can be putting yourself at a major
    disadvantage.  Doing this I was hardly ever getting hit by missiles at the
    cost of possibly having to face an uphill fight.
    Drizzit pointed out that missiles which are not fired with the two F-16s nose
    to nose with you flying directly at them are relatively unlikely to hit.
    Thus, I now launch mine as soon as I get by opponent on the edge of the
    recticle and stop pulling into him.  I ignore his missiles and proceed into my
    break turn for the second pass when the two planes meet.
    Note that although this yields separation, it is relatively little on the
    second pass.  Perhaps a couple hundred feet.
    The following describes how to know if you have an energy advantage in a
      I am often asked, "How do I know I have the energy advantage?"  Some
        After the opening pass, you see that your opponent is substantially
        below you.
        Your opponent is on your six and you pull up into the vertical and your
        opponent fails to take you out by the time you are at a 45 degree pitch.
        You have a forward quarter pass with your opponent somewhat below and his
        nose comming up faster, but he fails to point it up at you to get the
    The following describes what I believe needs to be mastered to beat one of
    the all time best pilots on the CIS Ladder.  These items pertain to a
    second and third pass after the initial merge.
    In terms of beating XXXX:
      1)  You need to predetermine and memorize the best speed to turn at every
          altitude at every pitch.  PITCH is key here.
      2)  You need to determine the best way to decelerate if that is called for
          as not to waste time, but not to be under speed.
      3)  You need to determine how to verify the pitch of a turn as you pull it
          either from padlock or how to quickly cycle through the forward view
          in order to get the key information.
    The following covers two items.  First, how a Split-S vs Split-S open or an
    Immelman vs Immelman open will pretty much degenerate into the old CIS ROE.
    Second, a key mistake which can be made while executing your second pass
    break turn.
    When two opening S-ers meet, then you arrive back at the old CIS ROE.
    Attempting another Immelman on the second pass is the most effective approach
    here.  380 KTS is the best entry speed at 4000 feet after missiles and ECM for
    a subsequent Immelman.
    >> Does the same logic also apply to the Immelman?
    There the meeting will occur at more like 12000 feet and the missiles will be
    locked (due to increased separation) as opposed to simply dumped.
    My best suggestion is to do a little Red Flag research.  You are looking for
    the lowest speed that will bring you over the top and around without hitting
    the mode shift.
    Another key piece advice which I just gave someone on making vertical moves is
    not to correct your tracking prematurely.  What I mean is that if your
    opponent selects an out of plane move relative to you, then you should
    continue with your move and only begin your correction in the last third as
    you come around. If you correct too early, you will end up flattening out and
    being too fast (too wide) in your move.  Then, if your opponent is at corner,
    you will die.
    The following addresses what to do with opponents who are climbing in the face
    of the mode shift.
    Often you will be in pursuit of an opponent who will be pulling back into a
    climb.  However, you opponent does not have sufficient energy to complete the
    move without hitting the mode shift; nor do you (you do not hold a significant
    energy advantage, just position.)
    There are two things which your opponent may do here.  He may climb, roll and
    flatten out, and then cut back down.  When you perceive his roll, you should
    suspend your pursuit and flatten out trying to put your nose on the path his
    downward return will take.  If you do this right, you will either end up with
    a forward quarter snapshot opportunity or the chance to pull in behind him as
    he goes by.
    If he tries to brute force his was into a loop despite lacking the entry speed
    for it, then you must pursue.  If you follow him into the mode shift, you run
    the risk of losing your positional advantage as your nose and flight path will
    falter.  Therefore ease off the stick pressure and try avoid the mode shift as
    long as possible while pursuing.  When done properly, you will still be behind
    you opponent as the loop comes to an end without any lose of position.
    The following describes an issue other than speed which one needs to consider
    on the second pass when guns will immediately become free.  This is especially
    true in the situation where S meets S in the initial merge.
    Turn radius.  Just draw it on piece of paper and you will clearly see why.
    For a clean merge ROE, 375-390 KTS will yield the tightest Immelman at 7,750
    feet depending on the plane's load out.  Your nose should come around in 6
    seconds with a turn diameter of 2,400 feet.
    >> 2)What happens if opponent is above or below you at merge,does it
    >> matter?
    Being below in the above ROE with all other things being equal provides a
    slight advantage.  Draw it on a piece of paper an you will see why.  50 feet
    makes no difference; however, 600 feet would be quite significant.
    The following is some speculation on how a COMPLEX might defeat a HIFI player.
    >> There must be a way I can fight in complex and defeat good jocks who
    >> fly HIFI. What suggestion can you offer? I know you fly HIFI, but
    >> any advice you could offer would be great.
    Well, HIFI has the following two advantages over COMPLEX:
      Turn diameter.
      Deceleration.  (the brake is tremendously more effective)
    Well, COMPLEX has the following four advantages over HIFI:
      No mode shift.
    Thus, you need to architect a situation which plays to your advantages.
    One strategy which I have heard of is simply to extend to a very high altitude
    and then engage in standoff fashion with missiles.  That may catch the
    unskilled HIFI flyer, but I would not put too much faith in it.  It is too
    easy to get a missile shot up your tail and they are harder to dodge in
    COMPLEX, the plane will not turn as sharply.
    I would recommend entering a low speed turning fight with your HIFI opponent.
    Clearly, this will put him at the initial advantage.  However, before he
    either achieves forward or rear quarter lethal parameters, you begin to turn
    and climb.  (You should find out what COMPLEX's corner speed is.)  You turn at
    corner and climb at about a 30 degree angle.  Do not straighten out and do not
    go full AB and get too fast.
    HIFI turning fights almost always tend to flatten out and then turn into
    spiral down encounters or vertical scissors of split-S.  By spiraling up, you
    will force your opponent into the mode shift (the HIFI equivalent of a stall,
    the plane completely stops turning for about 2 seconds).  Climbing will
    accomplish this.  Turning prevents him from straightening out to rebuild
    speed, since if he does not turn, then you will work in behind him.
    This technique should allow you to hang your opponent on the mode shift while
    you continue comming back around for a shot.  If you cannot get the shot, then
    return to spiraling up.  If somehow the fight was to proceed beyond 35,000
    feet, then you will definitely be at advantage, since the HIFI flight model
    performance falls off significantly at higher altitudes.  Also, note that your
    opponent should not be able to extend downwards on you, since you can easily
    accelerate much faster.  If you find yourself in such a situation, chasing
    your opponent, just remember that he can easily force an overshot that you
    cannot respond to.  Your best option would be to achieve max speed downwards
    and separate to rejoin the fight later.
    To confirm some of what I have said here, you can check with HIFI pilots who
    fight MIG-29s and Mirages in Red Flag.  These planes are very troublesome,
    because they fly in COMPLEX and they constantly evade by spiraling up.
    The above was written for COMPLEX vs HIFI in a single merge ROE.  This section
    addresses how the above could be adapted specifically to the current
    CompuServe style two pass ROE.
    The COMPLEX player performs an Immelman which forces a high speed second pass
    (500 -600 KTS) which will cause the HIFI players to be in the area of 300-340
    KTS.  At this point the COMPLEX player begins the spiral up approach.  The
    important thing here was to slow down the HIFI player to significantly below
    400 KTS.
    How to determine the what the best Immelman is in COMPLEX.
    >> 4) AT complex what is best corner airspeed for immelman?
    I don't know, but it will be easy to determine.  Set up a Red Flag mission at
    7,750 feet.  Then test entry speeds of 250-500 KTS in 50 KTS increments.
    Video tape it.  (You may want to restart for each test, since burning fuel
    will affect results.)  Instead of doing an Immelman, pull the nose through the
    horizon.  Examine the tape recordings.  Get the altitude and time and the
    start of the maneuver (as soon as your joystick marker on your HUD twitches)
    and get the altitude and time at completion (as soon as your flight path
    marker crosses 0 degrees pitch on your HUD.)  The time difference will give
    you the timing of the move.  The altitude difference will give you the
    Once you have this.  You make want to play with different throttle settings
    during the Immelman.  For HIFI, it is AB-5 all the way.
    From my own experience, corner speeds for HIFI are closer to 300 KTS and for
    COMPLEX are closer 400 KTS.
    Just another iteration of what you are trying to accomplish on a second pass
    >> It would seem that the electric jet's ability (unlike the Mig) to
    >> quickly recover speed makes energy retention tactics less valuable
    >> and the energy flyer more vulnerable to the quick turn.
    Okay, the question still stands.
    I disagree.  The energy flyer is not only looking to hold an energy advantage.
    He must take the advantage into the vertical with minimum separation and turn
    at corner.  Let's look at this:
      Vertical:  This is the part that is going to give your lower energy opponent
                 trouble comming around on you while maintaining your advantage
                 for later application.
      Min Sep:   This prevents your opponent from descending and gaining the speed
                 necessary to turn and get nose on.  At which point, his guns will
                 traverse the relative altitude difference.
      Corner:    This guarantees that your nose is comming around faster than that
                 of your opponents.
    Some basic notes from yet another beginner debrief on CIS Ladder ROE.
    You asked for some notes:
    (1)  Don't break off going into a second pass.  That puts your opponent on
         your tail.
    (2)  350 KTS is a good entry speed for a split-S.  Do NOT significantly
         exceed 400 KTS comming around.
    (3)  Give up horizontal extensions.  They are useless.  Vertical extensions
         have their place, but are dangerous.  Learning to turn and gun fight is
         the key to ultimate Falcon H2H success.
    (4)  Do NOT foolishly push pursuit on an extender.  Either separate early
         after putting a pair of 9Ps in the air to tie him up or regain speed and
         side step him when he begins his death run.
    (5)  Do NOT give away your move by comming in slow from 5 miles out.  Maintain
         750 KTS and commence deceleration from 2-1 miles out.
    Some discussion of the Split-S speeds, countering, and energy state.
    >> You will throttle back, and usually hit the brakes (I assume) in order
    >> to stay at 350 kts through your move.
    It really depends on the type of S that I am doing.  My max speed around the S
    would be about 450 kts and my lowest about 350 kts.
    >>  Lets assume I level out when I reach the horizon, making you come up
    >> to meet me.
    A dangerous proposition for you if I had done the former.  Also, at an entry
    speed of only 450 KTS you are not going to be pulling me very far up to meet
    you in any case.
    Personally, I believe in a second pass as opposed to the drag him up approach.
    Drag up is too risky, where as second pass becomes a test of skill.  Now of
    course you can always go for a second pass which combines drag up.
    >> What am I missing?  Why don't you have less energy, rather than more?
    One last thing to consider in a split-S situation is that at 350 KTS, the S'er
    is beyond the Speed Bump for much of the trip down and pull out.  Thus, he
    pulls max-G of 8 and accelerates (increases energy) until his nose is pointing
    up.  The braking high player is below the Speed Bump and bleeding energy in
    the turns.
    Two planes merge in an Immelman versus Immelman or a Split-S versus Split-S
    situation.  Below follows some of the speed orientation issues which must be
    taken into consideration.
    Here is what I recall of last night:
      You must work on your turns.  Do this yourself in Red Flag.  Get a feel for
      corner and using the vertical.  Okay, some rough numbers from my head (this
      assumes a full load out with a full tank of gas at 5,000-11,000 feet).  The
      angle here is how much you will dip your left wing relative to the horizon.
      We will assume that the plane is perfectly level as the two planes merge.
        450 KTS - too fast/wide turn/you will die
       *400 KTS -   0 degrees
       *375 KTS -  10 degrees
        350 KTS -  40 degrees
        325 KTS -  60 degrees
        300 KTS -  90 degrees
        275 KTS - 130 degrees
        250 KTS - too slow/mode shift/you will die
       * This represents your optimal entry speed into the second pass merge.
    Okay, here are some points that the HIFI player should keep in mind when
    playing against COMPLEX.  CIS rules.
    (1)  Do not fire off missiles on the first turn.  They are unlikely to hit.
         Save them for when you opponent is making a run for it later on in the
         fight.  Also, dumping them will be of little use, because turning ability
         is already yours.
    (2)  Retain your speed.  It is easy for the COMPLEX player to get away from
         you if you are too slow.  Look for a second pass speed of 450 KTS on
         a second pass.  This way you can point your nose anywhere and still have
         some energy for pursuit.  (Remember to use those missiles if he goes
    (3)  Open the fight with an Immelman for energy retention.  Get above him
         when he is slow so that you can build speed for the second pass.
    (4)  Use your radar to get his speed into the merge.  He cannot disguise his
         speed intentions as a HIFI player does.  If he is doing 850 KTS, then
         he is extending.  If he is doing 400 KTS, then he is turning.  As always,
         close at 750 KTS.  (You may even not decelerate until after the merge.
         This limits the effectiveness of his extensions.)
    (5)  Note that despite being very fast and wide you can always use the brake
         to decelerate and respond to his turning.  Thus, better to be too fast
         than too slow.
    The following describes a new defensive strategy, the Double Loop, that a
    Split-S-er on the open can use against an Extender under the new CIS rules.
    In the past I have advocated the following defense for the S-er:  Fire 2
    Ps/Runaway/Play ATG another day.
    This defensive approach begins in a similar fashion.  Having initiated your S,
    you observe that your opponent is extending.  Thus, you remain in AB-5 and do
    not apply any further brake.  Your nose will point up at the Extender and you
    will probably being doing about 450 KTS.
    Launch 1 P as soon as possible.  Continue up with the Extender bore sighted.
    As your speed falls to 400-370 KTS, launch the second P.  Pull over the top
    and point your nose straight down.  (Here is where the defensive strategy
    diverges from the ATG oriented approach.)
    Watch your opponent in padlock.  The first P should have arrived and the
    second should be well on its way.  You should see a few flares out of your
    opponent.  You should pull out of your dive between 350-400 KTS and/or when it
    appears that opponent has dispensed with the second P.  (This means that your
    opponent is now working on bringing his nose to bare on you.)
    You are once again heading straight up and attempting to bore sight your
    opponent with an 9M selected.  As soon as you have tone, launch one.  If you
    have done this right, your opponent was just about to line you and launch some
    missiles, but you have spoiled his plans.  You should be able to accomplish
    this, since your nose will require less positioning to aquire him, because he
    was dodging missiles.  Additionally, the lower altitude should give you
    better turning performance.
    If there are no missiles tracking you, then fire your last 9M when it appears
    that the first has missed.  Then proceed in hot with guns.
    If your opponent launches at you first or counterfires, then break hard to
    avoid missiles.  You can dump yours, since you will not get another chance to
    use them.  After surviving the missile launch, break hard back into your
    This is an effective strategy against the Extender.  The Extender is most
    vunerable at top of his extension when he is slow and returning in a dive.
    From his perch, it is hard for the Extender to know what your speed state is.
    He hopes that you are hanging with your nose pointing straight up doing 200
    KTS. (If you are, then you get what you deserve.)  On other hand, you can know
    for sure that the extender is on his way down when the initial two Ps have
    been defeated.
    The Double Loop accomplishes the following:
      It allows you to maintain speed when you are vunerable.  There are two
        His initial rapid climb.  (If he doubles back on you here, you are in
        His returning dive.
      It breaks up the Extender's missile run by forcing him to dodge.  He may as
      a result lose situational awareness or end up in a bad angles situation.
      Even while dodging, he is still descending and you are climbing with decent
      Going nose to nose in the vertical, the Extender may falsely interpert your
      speed, since he will normally assume you had pushed your pursuit throughout
      the extension.  Thus, he assumes the gunshot is his.  But actually, it is
      probably yours.  Your nose is slower (but fast enough) and more
      maneuverable.  He on the other hand may be too fast.
      Finally, the Extender will probably dive past you with execessive speed.  At
      this point, you are in a classic Split-S versus Immelman situation which
      should allow to acheive gun parameters on him via an angles fight.
    The following describes some quick tips on extensions.
    1)  If your opponent foolishly blows off his missiles without looking to see
         what you are doing or launches without a lock, then cruise up to 33,000
         feet and make an easy pullover at the top.  Then, ride the brake down and
         perform a nice spread of missiles.
    2)  Do NOT react immediately to missiles launches.  The longer you wait, the
         more to your advantage it is.  You would like to dodge as many missiles
         as possible with a single maneuver so that you can get on the offensive.
         Thus, the best situation for you is when he launches four quickly.
         Begin your move when the first missile is 1.5-1.3 miles out.  The move
         should be a full AB-5 pull over with three spaced flares.  If done
         properly, you should be able to avoid at least two missiles.
    3)  After surviving the first two missiles, you should follow through towards
         your opponent.  Be careful of applying the brake excessively to improve
         turning, since there may be more missiles to come up.  If you get your
         nose around at this point, then you probably can use your missiles.
         Launch four quickly, if he is in pursuit.
         If other missiles are launched at you, then pull your nose up and
         initiate a completely flat turn or one with a little descent to dodge.
         Drop some flares.
      4) After surviving the second two missiles, you should consider dumping your
         missiles.  It is unlikely that you will get to use them.
         If it looks like you have decent angles, then bring your nose swiftly
         around for a gun kill.
         If the angles look bad and you still have 340-400 KTS, then head back
         into the vertical to position your nose.  AVOID pure loops, since that
         will probably be an easy shot for your opponent.  Your opponent is
         probably somewhat slow on his way up and going into the vertical will
         cause them to fall away below you so that you can look for a rear quarter
         Whatever you do, do NOT go diving past your opponent doing 400-500KTS.
    The following describes a good strategy when approaching an opponent in HIFI
    vs HIFI ATG.
    When you spot your opponent, (assuming the use of a missile dump key here) you
    should hold your first wave of missiles (9Ms) until you have a solid lock.
    Now, your 9Ps should be automatically up and your opponent has probably
    launched his own missiles.  Get a lock with your 9Ps and wait for about 2-3
    seconds.  Launch your Ps and dodge.
    Firing two separate spread out waves of missiles will allow the second wave to
    home in on your opponent if he only dodges the first wave.  Of course, this
    means that you must fly straight and level for a short period while you
    already have locked missiles inbound.
    You should already be moving at 500 KTS or above.  After firing your Ps, you
    should immediately break into a climbing turn.  When you think your opponent's
    first pair has been neutralized, then you should recycle padlock and reverse
    your turn to dodge the second pair.  If you fail to reverse, then a continued
    turn may put the second pair directly behind you.  Otherwise, you may also put
    your opponent behind you and with his nose on you.  Reversing after the first
    dodge makes you cut across the second pair of missiles and will either put
    your opponent back at your nose or behind you with his nose pointed away.
    This is the story of the Aberrant-S and what it is and why it lacks general
    utility.  (CIS rules)
    There once was pilot who responded to seeing a Split-S forming by doing his
    own Split-S.  The end result was a level pass with a quick turn and shoot gun
    encounter in the face.  The second pass would usually yield two low speed (380
    KTS) Immelmans.
    A challenger who majored in the Split-S was well aware of this situation and
    seeking a way to improve odds in an S versus S engagement.  Thus, he devised
    the Aberrant-S.  Essentially, the Aberrant-S is a high speed S.  The ordinary
    S is generally entered at around 350 KTS.  The Aberrant-S is entered at
    anywhere from 400-500 KTS.  However, similar results may be acheived by
    entering at low speeds and not using the brake to control speed while moving
    around the S.
    What does the above accomplish?
    The Aberrant-Ser because of his high speed will perform his S at a lower
    altitude than the Regular-Ser.  At which point, both players will most likely
    attempt to perform Immelmans or some highly vertical move.  The Aberrant-Ser
    has secured two advantages.  First, due to the offset centers of their turn
    circles, the lower altitude flyer will achieve nose on first for a gun shot
    before the higher altitude flyer.  Second, the vertical separation which
    occurs on the second pass will permit the Aberrant-Ser to initiate an early
    turn (Immelman) into his opponent.  The Regular-Ser can do little about this
    separation.  He cannot easily push his nose down and the only other
    alternative is to invert and pull down into your opponent.  Although doable,
    this is difficult.
    So what is wrong with the Aberrant-S and why is it aberrant?  The technique
    only works in this one particular case of S vs S.
    The Aberrant-S enters too fast and thus takes too long to bring the nose
    around.  When faced with a number of opening vertical moves, the Aberrant -Ser
    will become an easy missile target while holding no usable energy advantage.
    Additionally, the Aberrant-S is easily countered with a low-speed Flat Turn or
    Negative Slice on the initial merge.  The main tactic would be to dump
    missiles and turn hard into your opponents wide maneuver to gain an angular
    advantage.  From there, you should be able to catch your opponent doubling
    back over the top of an Immelman.
    The following section describes how the Negative Slice can be used to avoid
    an S vs S situation which would yield two nose to nose Immelmans and guns.
    (CIS rules)
    First to define the term, Slice.  A Slice is a balanced horizontal/vertical
    move composed of equal vectors in both planes.  Thus, if you pass your
    opponent level and dip a wing 45 degrees and pull back on the stick, you have
    a Slice.
    How is a Slice different from a Yo-Yo?  A Yo-Yo would be a move you initiate
    in response to your speed and energy state in order to conserve energy and
    maintain angles.  The Slice is an opening move where energy state is still
    completely under your control to determine.  A Positive Slice is one that
    climbs and a Negative Slice is one that descends.
    Against moves other than the S, a Negative Slice is pretty much the same as an
    The beauty of the Negative Slice is that for the most part it looks like a
    Split S to an inbound and passing opponent.  As such, that opponent may look
    to go S vs S.  This would normally put you in a nose to nose gun situation
    which is very risky.  The Negative Slice will put you off to the side and
    somewhat below the your opponent's second pass Immelman.  You will not be a
    viable padlock target.  From there, a tight turning fight will commence.
    The bottom line:  the Negative Slice is an excellent way of avoiding a risky
    guns in the face situation; especially when you are comfortable with your
    turning abilities in dogfight.
    The following section decribes what is required in a spiral down fight.  It is
    often missed by many newcomers to the games.
    First, it is important to realize that a HIFI Falcon cannot maintain a
    sustained max-G flat turn.  Speed will always bleed off below the Speed Bump
    and ultimately the mode shift will be hit.  Thus, most fights head into a
    spiral down engagement in order to avoid the consequences of the Mode Shift.
    In order to stay above the mode shift, the angle of inclination downwards must
    be anything but slight.  Although this is not an official number, I would
    estimate that the angle of inclination is between 30-45 degrees down
    depending on how close the participants are to approaching the mode shift.
    There are two things that get beginners killed in spiral down engagements.
      First, most beginners believe that once they roll the nose somewhat down out
      of a flat turn situation that the plane will continue to cork screw
      downwards.  It does not, but this is not all that easy to see when twisting
      around padlock.  (However, this can easily be verified in Red Flag.)  If you
      roll the nose just once, then the plane will eventually see-saw and the nose
      will come back up.  This will leave you hitting the Mode Shift as your
      opponent brings his nose around on you from below.
      The important thing to realize is that spiral down requires continuous
      corrections to the stick (rolling the aircraft) in order to acheive a cork
      screw motion.  In performing this, the key things to watch are:
        Your speed (left window).  Do not get too slow.  If you are approaching
        250 KTS, then you are going to hit the Mode Shift.
        The horizon indicator (right window) in padlock.  If you see brown
        receding and blue sky approaching, then you are not spiraling down.
        The target window (middle window) in padlock.  You should continously be
        rolling your HUD into your turning opponent.
      Second, the speed bump can often be crossed due to the acceleration of a
      spiral down fight.  This is especially true when you are in pursuit on your
      opponent's six.  This usually means you had the energy advantage.  So, the
      additional speed gained by descending can force you over the speed bump.
      Being over the Speed Bump will cause you to start slipping out on the turns.
      You can detect this situation by watching the G meter (right hand window).
      If your G's drop to 8 and you are breaking 300 KTS, then you have crossed
      over the speed bump.  You may either tap the brake to reduce your speed or
      come out of after burner for a few seconds.
    The following section decribes a technique that has been described to me by
    Vertigo, but I have not tried myself.  We will call it Whipping the Nose.
    Ocassionally,  you find yourself in a flat turning lag pursuit of an opponent
    and cannot convert to lead pursuit to take the shot.  According to Vertigo,
    you can ease off the stick to gain a little speed and then whip the nose
    around to take the shot.  This technique may not result in a sustained turn
    advantage.  However, it may result in an instantaneous turn advantage adequate
    to take the shot.
    This section describes playing Falcon (HIFI) against the MIG-29.
    Some initial perceptions about the MIG after flying it briefly are:
      Although it has more power and much greater climb capability, the engines
      spool up very slowly.  It can take 5 or more seconds for RPMs to build up to
      after burner speeds.  Thus, a slow MIG accelerates very slowly.  It is
      nothing like a COMPLEX or HIFI F-16.
      The plane rolls very slowly at low speeds (350 KTS and below).  Also, roll
      rate increases slowly.  So, the initial stick response is lethargic.
      The MIG-29's cannon only holds 150 rounds.  It can fire anywhere from 5-20
      on a single trigger squeeze.
      The MIG-29 requires continuous trim or flight adjustment to maintain a
      steady nose position.
      Brakes are relatively ineffective.
      The MIG does not hit the Mode Shift.  So, it can maintain control at speeds
      significantly below 250KTS.
      The MIG does not turn tightly when compared to a HIFI Falcon.
    Now some implications of the above:
      A slow MIG is a sitting duck in a turning fight.  It will have a hard time
      building the speed necessary to initiate a spiral up fight if the F-16 holds
      a momentary energy advantage.
      Generally, rolling maneuvers in an F-16 in order to evade an F-16 on your
      six is futile.  Against a good pilot it rarely works.  The best technique is
      usually ignoring the plane on your six and outturning him while spiralling
      down.  It would appear that rolling maneuvers might be very effective
      against a MIG as long as you stay above the Mode Shift.
      With only 150 rounds, the MIG must very carefully take its shots.  There
      will be no long range shots or sustained gun bursts.  Also, the inability
      to hold a steady nose easily will also tend to diminish the chance of long
      range gun shots.
      The MIG cannot hide its speed on the merge, since the brakes are not very
      effective.  The speed the MIG enters the merge is the speed he intends to
      fight at.
      Given that the MIG does not have a mode shift, it may have an advantage if
      it can drag you into a very slow fight.
      The MIG has the IRST system and you cannot hide in ATG from 10 miles out,
      but I think you can be outside of his cone if you are low and he is very
    Some lessons fighting the MIG - CIS rules:
      On the first pass do an Immelman and go to grab energy.  Watch his speed as
      he comes in and then given yourself 50-100 KTS more.  If you can hit a
      little more than 400 KTS on the second pass, then you are in excellent
      shape, since there is no place he can go to evade your guns.  You have him.
      Don't grab too much energy and make yourself an easy missile target.
      Don't take a missile shot, but instead save them for a rear quarter shot.
      They should be used to prevent him from climbing and running away from the
      fight once it has started.
      Unlike F-16 vs F-16, if you are too slow, then you can actually ease off the
      stick to regain speed.  When you do this, you will be giving up angles.
      Then take the speed and turn hard to gain angles.  What this means is you
      can actually give up angles in a turn and fall behind in turn, recover
      energy, and then regain angles and be out in front in the turn.  However, it
      does require a bit of timing.
      Unlike F-16 vs F-16, in a nose to nose situation, you can actually just get
      out of the way to deny the MIG the shot and then continue to turn.
      If the MIG spirals up, then extend downwards and rebuild speed.  Make the
      MIG come down to fight you.
    Some lessons fighting the MIG - ATG rules:
      As soon as you get into the cockpit, then get down low (500 feet).  Your
      general goal throughout the match is to bring the MIG down to you.
      The MIG's radar missiles are practically useless.
      When heat seekers are fired at you attempt to counter fire with at least one
      missile.  However, use your missiles sparingly.
      Use your missiles for the following situations:
        In a turning fight where the MIG begins to spiral up and then extend away
        into the vertical.  If you don't hit him, you may cause him to break down
        towards you.
        In a high speed turning fight where the MIG is heading at you or away from
        2-3 miles out.  Distract him so that you can get the gun shot.
    The following section addresses the utility of AIM-120 missiles in ATG
    AIM-120s are totally useless for the following reasons:
      If they are shot early (17-14 miles out), then they are very unlikely to
      hit.  A lock can be broken simply by turning on ECM and flying straight.
      A better lock can be acheived at closer ranges (8-3 miles) with a greater
      chance of hitting.  However, the lock can still be easily broken by turning
      on ECM, turning, and dropping chaff.
        Falcon H2H limits you to four active missiles in the air at any one time.
        This means that if you launch two AIM-120s at 6 miles that you will only
        be able to fire two heat seekers when you visually acquire your opponent.
        This is a very severe penalty to pay for having used AIM-120s.  Why?
          More often than not, it is the second wave of heat seekers fired inside
          of five miles that hit your opponent.  The first wave usually misses due
          to range and the fact that you opponent is well prepared to dodge them.
          Launching only a single wave of heat seekers at your opponent in visual
          range, allows your opponent to initiate his turn into you a few seconds
          earlier than if there had been a second wave.  Thus, he is now ahead in
          the race to get nose on for a guns solution if head had launched two
          The turning gun fight begins inside 2 miles.  Any missiles you are
          carrying at this point in time are now relatively useless and just hurt
          flight performance characteristics.  This goes for ECM too.
        Thus, it is clear that missile usage is more important at 5-3 miles than
        10 - 6 miles, since it is at the closer range that the fight actually
        begins to evolve.
      Shooting your AIM-120's as soon as possible or dumping them is the way to
      In conclusion, the best way to employ AIM-120's is to let your opponent
      work on thinking that he can somehow make effective use of them.
    The following points out one of the advantages of being the relatively higher
    player in a nose to nose ATG engagement.
    If both players sucessfully dodge missiles, then the higher player can
    immediately decelerate to corner speed and bring his nose around.  He can not
    be in an energy hole, since he can regain speed as he descends such that he
    reachs approximately 400 KTS as the planes merge.  The only thing that might
    invalidate this is that turn diameter and time required increases as a
    function of altitude due to diminishing air density.  However, below 30,000
    feet, I believe these affects can be ignored.
    Now, the lower player may put himself in jeapordy by getting down to corner,
    since he may need to climb and could end up facing the mode shift as the
    turning fight begins.
    Thus, the point is that the higher player should theoretically either be able
    bring his nose to bear sooner or will end up holding the necessary energy
    advantage to win the turning fight.
    The following addresses missile dodging techniques.
    A>I created a RFM with 4 Mig29's loaded with all their missles (no guns)
    >and I just give myself the ECM.  I've gotten to where I can evade ALL
    >their missles.  One thing I think is most important is the TIMING.
    {I am making this message public for the benefit of everyone.}
    Definitely true.  (Don't forget that an important part of ATG is the
    timing of firing your own missiles.)
      From 5-3 miles out (mainly ATG):
        Rear quarter:  Wait until 1.5-1.2 to initiate your dodge.  Until
        then, let them come right up your tail.  And stay in AB-5 when you
        dodge.  Usually just pull straight back on the stick.  If you are
        running from your opponent and level, then get your nose back down
        after the dodge and continue your run.
        Forward quarter:  Wait until 2-1.5 to initiate your dodge.  At that
        point it usually best to break into a high climbing turn.  If there
        are two waves, then reverse your turn and flatten out to miss the
        second wave.
      From 1.5-0 miles out (mainly CIS):
        If your nose is not bore sighted on your opponent or if you are
        pulling hard Gs, then the missiles are relatively unlikely to hit.
        So, let them fly by.  Dodging would give your opponent angles going
        into the second pass.
        If the missiles have your name on it, then you MUST be at 350 KTS
        or better to dodge effectively.  Breaking into a sharp high climbing
        turn is usually the best maneuver.  It also leaves your opponent who
        may well be below you with a hard gun shot given his speed.
    In ATG, keep your speed up until the missiles are out of play.  Then,
    brake hard and come around fast.
    Remember when ejecting flares that you can have at most 3 in the air at
    once.  Thus, time them properly.  Usually, one at the moment you pull on
    the stick and two as you follow through the dodge.
    The best practice *.RFM for CIS missile dodging is:
      3 MIG-29s with heat seekers only straight inbound on your nose at 2-3
      miles.  Your entry speed is 350 KTS.  Your goal is to survive their
      first two salvos of missiles.  Usually, it is with a sharp climbing
      turn.  Forget about engaging.  Just work on dodging the head ons.
    The following addresses how to use padlock.
    >afterward that he would nose down up to 45 degrees.  Maintaining the
    >perfect turn is an art all of itself!  HOWEVER, if I had flown against
    >him the "agressive" way rather than the "energy" way I would've been
    >killed MUCH more quickly.  Are you in padlock as you are circling?  What
    >do you look at...the Horizon indicator?  You want to keep JUST below the
    >horizon?  In conclusion...Turning properly is HARD.
    {I am making this public for everyone's benefit.}
    Most fighting I do is in padlock.  Except for rear quarter shots or safe
    forward quarter shots.
    While turning in padlock, you mainly focus on your speed and the horizon
    indicator (left and right windows) and sometimes red line flight vector
    for rolling your wings. These are the main things.  You watch your speed
    to avoid the Mode Shift and the Speed Bump.  (The G meter is also useful
    here. In fact, it is the first give away.)
    You focus on your opponent in the bottom window when it looks like you
    are going nose to nose and you need to know when to take the shot.
    The middle window and right most window can be useful for setting up
    padlock shots on tight second pass situations.  (The turn&burn style
    The bottom window is also useful when your opponent likes break
    shallowly above the horizon while your pursue and then roll back down.
    You use this window to examine his flight path and predict when he will
    come back down across the horizon.  Then instead of following him up,
    you turn flat and have your HUD and funnel waiting for him.
    The following addresses how to peform a Split-S.
    >lost-least from what you tell me.  Tell us how your doing your Split-s's
    The Split-S:
    1)  Approach the merge at 750 KTS.  (Give nothing away.)
    2)  Radar off and heads up at 4-3 miles.
    3)  Enter padlock.
    4)  Brake and chop the throttle at 1.8-1 miles.
    5)  Go to forward view until the merge.
    6)  Dump ECM if your opponent is slowing.
    7)  At the merge, in forward view (much easier than padlock), invert.
         Note:  350 KTS is the optimum speed to roll in HIFI.  Above this,
         the plane is sluggish and below this it is mushy.
    8)  Return to padlock.
    9)  Based on your opponents move control your speed.
         Against an Immelman, maintain 370-400 KTS coming around and take
         your missile shot.  You are looking to come quickly over the top
         to take a gun shot.
         Against another S, hit the second pass at 380 KTS and dump
         missiles.  It's turn&burn.  Meaning go for the best Immelman and
         shoot from padlock.
         (see STK for more)
         gives your opponent an opportunity begin his turn into you before
         the pass.  This gives him an angles advantage!
    10) In most cases, missiles fired at close range at you while you are
         turning in an S will not connect.
         If you are climbing straight up and they are fired down from an
         Immelman (this also means your S took too long), then do a quarter
         roll before dodging.  This puts you out of your opponents plane of
         motion.  Being in the same plane of motion increases lethality in
    This section illustrates the difficulty of escaping guns via an Extension in
    a Turn&Burn engagement.
    XXXX>MA>A final caution here:  Your Extension versus a fast Immelman will not
        >MA>put you out of guns range.  I once worked this out.  With him at about
        >MA>400 KTS and you at 750 KTS and pulling MAX-G, you will only be about 0
        >MA>miles away when his nose comes around.  Those, P90 guns can still be
        >MA>quite lethal at that range.
    XXXX>What math did you use master Markshot.
    ( 750 KTS / 3600 Seconds ) * 4 Seconds = 0.8 Miles.  The normal time to
    reach the horizon on a tight Immelman is about 6 seconds.  However, the
    Extender pulling up at 750 KTS, should be 20-30 degrees above the
    horizon when your nose crosses his flight path.  Thus, I arrive at 4
    seconds until your earliest possible shot.  (There are two things which
    I did not take into consideration here.  First, the Extender has not
    moved in a straight line.  So, that is more like 0.8 miles of turning
    arc and not actual separation.  Second, I have not counted the fact that
    the Immelman has elevated the other flyer by about 2,500 feet which
    reduces separation.)
    Falcon guns have been shown to be effective in H2H up to about about 1.5
    miles.  Also, guns appear to have instantaneous results.  Shells are not
    affected by travel time.  Finally, a P90's guns should deliver almost
    twice the number of rounds per unit time as a DX2/66.
    When playing ATG, it is very important to keep in mind the affect altitude
    has various speed points for Falcon.
    As a rule of thumb, when flying at 23,000 feet, you can add 100 KTS to any
    speed point that you would have had at about 8,000 feet.  Thus, an Immelman
    requires an entry speed of 500 KTS to avoid the Mode Shift and a Flat Turn for
    180 degrees requires an entry speed of 400 KTS.  The Mode Shift will hit about
    350 KTS.  (The Immelman speed is particularly easier to verify in Red Flag.)
    Another thing which is required at this increased altitude is increased
    patience.  It takes quite a long time to come around, but yet one should not
    hit the brake out of impatience.  Such a mistake can be fatal.
    The following describes what to do in a Turn&Burn match when you are extending
    and you realize that your opponent is extending.
    Generally, the first party to recognize this situation and respond to it
    usually has a significant advantage.  Although you may realize the situation
    quite early, you should generally allow the separation between the two planes
    to reach about 2 miles.  If you do not you could be an easy gun target, before
    your missiles are launched.
    You should decelerate to 500-550 KTS and pull your nose over on your opponent.
    Once you have achieved nose on, you should begin launching missiles across the
    gap while charging your opponent.  If you do this right, you will either hit
    your opponent with missiles, since you are firing from relatively close range
    or you will end up with an easy gun shot.  If your opponent, also pull his
    nose on you and counter fires, then you dodge the missiles and play an ATG
    The following describes responding to an Extension in Turn&Burn when you
    already decelarated very significantly at the merge.
    Immediately go to AB-5 and disengage the brake.  Come over the top of the
    Immelman in a lazy fashion.  This means to not pull so hard on the stick (so
    many G's).  This will diminish your speed loss a bit.  Also, allow your
    opponent to rise into your HUD as opposed to pulling him into it.
    Launch one 9P as soon as possible.  This is to break off your opponents
    vertical climb.  Launch another spread 9P.  And then, spread your 9Ms.  Try to
    use the 9Ms such that your opponent is turning back into you and head down.
    Don't forget your guns here either.  Keep your opponent busy dodging missiles
    and bleeding energy.  Go light on the stick here yourself moving your nose,
    since you will be tempting the Mode Shift.  If you opponent goes by you, then
    be prepared quickly invert and perform a Split-S after him.
    If you should foolishly dump your missiles an Extension, then fire a long gun
    burst slightly ahead into the path of the Extender as quick as possible.  If
    well excuted, this can be enough to bring down an Extender.
    The following describes an angles opportunity that can be worked by an
    Immelman as it descends upon and passes a Split S-er.
    You are the first to see this in writing.
    >> Anybody who gives this some thought will see that the Immelman who is
    >> headed down will have to counter 1g of gravity  on the way up, and
    >> the S'er will have a 1g gravity benefit going after the Immelman.
    If you reason through this, one will see that the relative orientations of the
    planes present the Immelman with a very nice angles opportunity.  However, I
    will leave that as an exercise to the readers.  It has been tried and will be
    incorporated in the next STK.
    Here goes:
      The S-er has his nose straight up.  Due to that situation he must maintain a
      minimum speed of 350 KTS.  (Note, this speed may be somewhat lower.  I have
      yet to have chance to fly this out in Red Flag.  But speeds slower than this
      tend to put the S-er at risk of getting too slow and being vunerable to an
      energy strategy of a looping fight or a target for missiles on the second
      pass.)  If he does less, he will hit the mode shift as he pulls over the
      top. (Gravity will not accelerate the slowing Falcon in a high-G turn until
      it has broken 0 degrees pitch.  At 90-0 degrees pitch, the Mode Shift still
      lurks.)  So, the S-er is constrained in how fast he can move his nose
      around.  Lastly, note that if the S-er initiated his second turn into the
      second merge early, then he could well expose his six to the Immelman.
      The Immelman is headed down.  He can totally throw energy away and chop the
      throttle and brake for a quick angles turn.  In doing this turn, the
      Immelman will be slow and lack energy for another full vertical move like a
      loop.  The Immelman will be safe from the Mode Shift with gravity providing
      an acceleration boost until his nose gets close to the horizon.  This quick
      turn is used to set up a gunshot opportunity.
      There is one final ingredient which is needed here.
        This is to adjust the orientation of the second turn.  Normally, in S
        versus Immelman, the second pass will yield opposite cockpits.  This would
        result in a looping fight which would make any quick angle opportunity
        The Immelman must roll his plane 180 degrees on the second pass to create
        a same side cockpit situation.  The S-er must still come over the top no
        matter where he goes.  The Immelman turns tight and slow and catches the
        S-er coming down and across his HUD.  This yields a nice snapshot
        opportunity.  After which, the Immelman should immediately invert and
        Split-S after the S-er in pursuit.
    The following describe a new and promising technique which I am working on for
    ATG matches.
    Usually in ATG, I initiate my dodging by timing missiles from the forward view
    and making a reflexive dodge.  I spend a considerable amount of effort cycling
    through padlock trying to reaquire my opponent.
    Consider this.  If my dodging is reflexive, then why not head into visual
    range with the padlock view already selected.  By doing this, I have locked my
    opponent despite any missiles launched.  I can reflexively dodge and at the
    earliest possible moment and begin maneuvering for a gun shot on my opponent.
    Based on the previous observation and some additional work, the Zen Low School
    of ATG is born.  It's basic precepts are decribed below.
      1) Don't let your opponent get below you in the opening merge.  If your
         opponent does get below you, then he will have an opportunity to drive in
         from your six or belly.
         In accordance with this rule, the following initial positioning is done:
           As usual, against HIFI opponents, blow off your AIM-120s right away
           without even going for a lock.
           Go radar scan 80 miles.
           Invert and pull down 45 degrees.
           Begin a hard pull out between 3,000-2,500 feet settling at 500-1000
         You must get your nose pointed at your opponent:
           If in the process of performing the above, your opponent dissappears on
           your radar scan and does not reappear when you have leveled out, then
           your opponent climbed sharply.
           To reaquire your opponent, lift your nose up 5 degrees and flip to ACM.
           If this does not suceed, then try this procedure two more times and
           you should be able to aquire your opponent.
         The rational for the above is to keep your opponent from getting below
      2) Once you have your nose pointed at your opponent, then go forward view
         up and then into padlock.  Do NOT come out of padlock.  Do NOT hit the
         target selection key.  You WILL dodge the eventual incomming missiles
         instinctively while keeping your eyes on your opponent.
         The rational for this is that if you keep your eyes on your opponent,
         then there will be no wasted time or maneuvering.  You will be on him as
         soon as humanly possible.
      3) If your opponent is coaltitude (zero pitch on your nose), then
         decelerate to 470-500 KTS maintaining this speed using the brake while at
         AB-5.  You may want to delay this decelaration until your opponent is 8
         miles out to avoid the possibility of a zoom climb.
         If your opponent is 5 degrees up, then shoot for 500-550 KTS; 10-15
         degrees up, then 550-600 KTS; 30 degrees or more, then maintain max
         If your opponent launches AIM-120s, you should already have your ECM on.
         Continue straight and start dropping chaff.
         The reasoning behind this deceleration is that you will not need the
         extra speed to dodge missiles.  Your existing speed will bring you in
         range for a guns kill.  Specifically, when you are coaltitude, you will
         be over the Speed Bump and accelerating in your dodge.  Note:  Beyond 5
         degrees nose up, you will not receive any Speed Bump acceleration in your
      4) When your opponent reaches 7 miles out and/or your 9M tone begins to
         warble slightly, shut off your radar and bore sight where your opponent
         will be.
      5) When you have a 9M lock and red visual box in padlock, then fire your
         first wave of missiles (9Ms).  Select 9Ps and wait a few seconds, then
         fire your second wave.  (This portion requires experience to master the
         timing of how long to wait to launch the second wave.)
      6) If there are inbound missiles, then roll 90 degrees left or right and
         initiate a flat dodge while popping flares.  And some point, you can
         roll 90 degrees in the opposite direction and begin pulling hard into
         your opponent.  You can do this before the warning buzzing goes silent.
         In fact, you must.  (This portion requires experience to master the
         timing of when to reverse and pull back in.)  The missiles can be
         completely dodged on instinct while tracking your opponent.  You know
         where they are comming from and the approximate range.
      7) One should visualize this move, the dodge and pull back in, as a swing
         out and swing back vis-a-vis your line of sight flight path to your
         opponent.  Some pointers on this maneuver.
           You are dodging flat, since you do not want to allow your opponent to
           get underneath you.
           You should pull max G on the swing out and swing back.  This keeps you
           from getting hit by missiles.
           You may begin braking on the swing back in order to improve your turn
           rate relative to your opponent and decelerate down to dogfighting
           Do not attempt to decelerate on the swing back so much that you can
           just fly straight and level towards your opponent.  This will make you
           a sitting duck for a well timed second wave missiles.  Max G will keep
           them from connecting.
      8) Although difficult, you will attempt to pull your nose on your opponent
         and get a first pass gun shot.  It is possible to finish the match right
         here.  Just don't get very slow and fly straight for a long period of
      9) If you see your missiles connect with your opponent while you are
         swinging back, do NOT brake any further and continue to pull max G until
         you are certain that you have survived all airborne missiles.
    10) Okay, let's look at some things that could happen with your opponent.
           If your opponent dodges and does not immediately pull back into you,
           then you should find yourself rapidly pulling onto his six.
           If your opponent pulls back into you due to pure instinct but looses
           sight as the planes are merging, then you have a good chance to pop him
           with guns as he goes by.
           If your opponent dives on you then, you should be able to catch him too
           fast and come over the top at corner and gun him down.
    11) On the merge following the swing back:
           You MUST get down to dogfighting speeds, 350-400 KTS.  500 KTS could
           get you killed.
           Do NOT go for a 300 KTS flat turn.  If your opponent goes by and up,
           then you will lose due to the energy situation and the Mode Shift.
           As the two planes pass, put some vertical component into your flight
           vector and go up to come around.  At this point, it is now Turn & Burn
           skills and dogfighting which are required.
    The following describes the Relativity Speed Principle of Turn & Burn.
    Typically one of your problems in Turn & Burn is:  I can know that my
    opponent is extending, but not be able to respond to it appropriately (because
    I myself am too fast to slow down for a tight Immelman) or I can slow down for
    a tight Immelman and risk being burned by an extension.
    If you approach the merge at max speed and initiate the deceleration at a
    fixed point, for me about 1.5 miles works, then you can have your cake and eat
    it too.  Here is how it works.
    Your target speed for the merge to do the tightest Immelman without missiles
    is about 380 KTS.  If you decelerate and the plane cannot come to 380 KTS
    quite a bit before the merge, then your opponent is extending.  You come off
    the brake and go AB-5 while holding your missiles.  Now, you have enough speed
    to deal with it.  If on the other hand, you easily hit 380 KTS, then your
    opponent is going to turn and fight.  As soon as you see his nose come up
    after the merge, then blow off your missiles and continuing coming around for
    a guns padlock shot.
      LCC stands for Ladder Command Center.  It is a state-of-the-art
      Windows application for maintaining challenge ladders.  Among the
      features it supports are:
        The maintenance of a complete challenge ladder database.
        The maintenance of a complete historical database of matches played.
        Custom configuration of ladder parameters with regards to rungs
        which can be challenged, handling of defaults, inactivity penalties,
        etc ...
        General editors for the ladder and historical database.
        Open interfaces to other ODBC compliant software and spreadsheets,
        Full reports on membership, current challenges, history for all
        players and individual players.
        Ladder administration includes support for:
          Renaming players.
          Entering match results and recomputing positions and records.
          Membership information such as names and phone numbers.
          Entry and automatic management of inactive players.
          Entry and validation of challenges.
          A spreadsheet style ladder display is maintained via the use of
          free floating tools.
          Each processing step is fully supported by an UNDO capability.
    LCC will appear on BBS's as LCF100.ZIP (full {runtime/application} release
    version 1) and LCP100.ZIP (patch {application only} release version 1).
    Estimated release date is 05/01/95.

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