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Territory Management Guide by ireant

Version: 3.05 | Updated: 08/02/2020

Shingen the Ruler 
Territory Management (TM) Guide 
Version 3.05 August 2, 2020 
Written by ireant (my Internet alias)


*TOC
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
---------------------------------
TM000 Introduction

TM005 Copyright notice

TM007 Contact Information

TM008 Contributors

TM010 Star-Search - The method for jumping to references

TM020 Platform: What difference does program you use to play Shingen make?

TM030 Randomization: Why game results repeat and how to change them

TM040 Moment of Randomization: AI plans made at month start.  No change later

TM050 Pecking Order - The order in which AI territories are processed

TM060 Full Examination of End of Month Processing - A look behind the scenes

TM110 Incrementals: What are they?

TM120 Yield Incremental: How to manage the wild incremental

TM130 CLT and Ca: Culture and Castle

TM140 EPI and Dr: Epidemics and Doctor

TM150 DST and Fc: Disaster and Flood control

TM160 YLD - yield

TM162 Fa-Development raises YLD and WEL

TM164 WEL - wealth

TM170 LOY and Fa-Aid: Loyalty and Farm-Aid

TM180 Gold Mines via Gm command

TM185 Produce More: the limitations of hiring more gold mine workers

TM190 Al - Alliance protects some of your borders

TM200 Nj - The spying and sabotage command

TM210 He-Heir: The arrival and training of Shingen's son, Katsuyori

TM215 Mi - Military Commands

TM220 Mi-Move Sending resources from one territory to another

TM230 Mi-Going attacking AI territories

TM240 Mi-Enlist: infantry recruitment

TM250 Upgrading Infantry
      TM251  Merchant Upgrade Prices Algorithm
      TM252  Implications of the Merchant Upgrade Prices Algorithm
      TM253  Upgrading Strategy

TM310 PRD Merchant Prices
TM312 Buying and Selling PRD for Profit - how to implement it

TM320 How to make a buying territory
TM321 Making a secure buying territory

TM330       Buying and Selling PRD Models
      TM331 The basic two territory model
      TM332 PRD stockpile: three territories, two buying, one selling
      TM333 Army Builder: One buying territory, two selling/recruiting
      TM334 Balanced Arrangement: Three territories, three different tasks
      TM337 Closing comments on buying and selling models

TM340 October Harvest -- details and advice

TM400       How to make money
      TM410 October Harvest as a provider
      TM420 Gold Mines as a financial support
      TM430 Commerce with PRD
      TM440 Combat spoils as a supplier
      TM441 Implications of the LRB exploit

TM500 How the AI plays the game

TM570 How I play the game

TM800 Postscript:  Last thoughts

TM910 Events: List of game story, seasonal, and random events

TM920 Glossary - Definitions for abbreviations or coined terms
=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+

Territory Statistics
      YLD  TM160     $$   TM920 - Glossary - $$
      DST  TM150     PRD  TM920 - Glossary - PRD
      CLT  TM130     G-M  TM180
      LOY  TM170     PRI  TM910 - Events - Anytime, Random Capital Only
      WEL  TM164     EPI  TM140

second screen
      HE   TM210
      RNK  BUT050         EXP  BUT060
      HDQ  BUT112         CAV  BUT114
      RM   BUT120         AR   BUT122
      LNC  BUT116         INF  BUT118, TM240, TM250 

Territory Commands
     MI TM215   Ca TM130   Fa TM162, TM170
     Fc TM150   Gm TM180   Al TM190
     Mr TM250   Dr TM140   He TM210
     Nj TM200   Sv TM920   Ps TM920

=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+

*TM000
INTRODUCTION to Territory Management:

Territory Management is the term I give to what the Shingen the Ruler
game manual calls Domestic Administration.  Territory Management (TM)
is the modification of territory statistics and manipulation of
territory resources: gold, PRD, and military units.

This is my third Shingen guide.  Version 1 was created in November 2011.
Version 2 was in February 2012.  It is six and half years later now,
July 2018, as I prepare this version 3 guide.  Even though Shingen the
Ruler has been my mainstay game, I pushed aside the thoughts of sharing
the new things I had learned.  I did think it a shame that I didn't let
others know the obscure facts that I had accumulated, but I wasn't
motivated to write again until recently.  I have made a new discovery
that has completely changed the way I play the game.

*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=
                    AUGUST  2020 UPDATE
*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=*=

It is August of 2020 as I update this Territory Management guide.  It
was updated in July of 2020 when I was given the formula for the Yield
Incremental.  A week later, I was given the formulas for the merchant
prices, both PRD and unit upgrades.  I have been slowly modifying the
document and my advice to align with the new information.

The new information is also a result of my LRB Exploit game play.  I
have developed new strategies and ideas because of finding a better
way to play.  As a result, much of this document needed and still needs
revision.  I feel like it is a garment with so many holes to be patched
that I would like to start over, re-write everything.

However, I am reaching the end of this effort.  I can't allow myself to
re-write everything, even if I could force myself to do it.  I have
other things to do.  I need to move-on.

When I wrote the Territory Management guide, I followed up promptly to
post the Basic Unit Tactics guide a month later.  The Combat Guide
never got written because LRB Exploit research was the hot topic.
Furthermore, I discovered that had I written the Combat Guide, I would
have had to throw out much of what I thought I knew because the LRB
Exploit taught me a better way.

Guides:
version 1.00 2011 complete guide
version 2.00 2012 complete guide
version 3.00 2018 TM and BUT 
version 1.00 2019 LEG
version 2.00 2020 LEG

TM  -- Territory Management
BUT -- Basic Unit Tactics
LEG -- LRB Exploit Guide

CG -- Combat Guide never written, but some concepts can be found in my
      version 2 Shingen the Ruler guide posted on IGN

Star- Search should be your next read after the preamble.  There, I will
tell you how to jump around in this document efficiently.

My 2012 guide was in HTML.  I used HTML primarily for the hyperlinks.
The Star-Search was compensation for its loss in making a text guide.
However, as I have come to discover, I have to split my information into
several guides.  Hyperlinks would have been difficult to orchestrate.
My Star-Search reference system works without hindrance across separate
documents.

There is also a Glossary at TM920 for times you see a phrase or term and
wonder what it means.  Looking over the Glossary can be a quick way to
bring you up to speed with the nomenclature I use.

Sometimes I quote from the Shingen the Ruler game manual.  I downloaded it
from a website.  I suggest you do the same and give it a read.




*TM005
COPYRIGHT NOTICE

Anthony Daniel Anderson wrote this Strategy Guide, Territory Management,
for Shingen the Ruler.  I write my guides for my benefit and to share with
others.  I don't mind other people using the information I provide in other
guides without credit to me.  However, I would take exception at someone
claiming my ideas were his own.  Laugh; I have to add that I would be even
more upset if someone thought to circumvent copyright by instead claiming
to be me.

My intention is to submit this guide to Gamefaqs, only.  I will rely on
their corporate muscle to discourage unauthorized duplication of my guides.



*TM007
Contact Information

Please write me about reference number mistakes.  Also, suggest phrases I
should add to the glossary.  I am not concerned so much with typographical
errors.  It is errors that confuse the information I want to stamp out.
Time will see typos corrected.  I will reread my documents at some point.
However, if you feel strongly that my writing needs improvement and you
can tell me how, then go ahead and tell me.

My email is ireant2@yahoo.com
Please put
SHINGEN
at the start of the subject line in all capitals.  This will help me
distinguish your email from the SPAM that packs my inbox.

I check my email about once or twice a month.  If I anticipate the
possiblity of email, I will check it a little more often.  I tell you
this so that you don't get upset that I haven't responded.  Give it time.


*TM008
Contributors

This section is for anyone that helped me to understand Shingen the Ruler.

[Robin Palm has a website dedicated to Shingen the Ruler:
www.speedrun.com/Shingen_the_Ruler
Apparently his approach to the game is completing it with as
little elapsed time as possible.]

David Wilson; armagon3650@yahoo.com



*TM010
Star-Search - the technique for navigating this document.

Every section is preceded by an asterisk (star) TM (Territory Management),
a unique three-digit number, followed by a section title with a possible
brief description.  The star in front of the TM number is the key to
searching.  I will reference a section throughout the guide by giving the
TM number, but when you search for it, preface the TM number with a star
(an asterisk).  For example, this section is TM010.  When bringing up the
find feature (often CTRL-F in many programs), type:
*TM010

Nowhere else in the document is the TM number preceded by an asterisk
(except here for the demonstration).  If you search without the star, you
may encounter all the times I am referencing the section.  Only by using
the star will you limit your search to the section itself.

[If you are unfamiliar with the Find command, it generally searches forward
from the cursor position.  If the cursor is past the place in the document
where the seek location resides, you have to search up, not down.  Some
programs, such as WordPad, require you to manually bring the cursor back
to the top of the document and then search.]

Furthermore, you can also return to the Table of Contents by using star TOC.  

References will also tell you where to look for information in my guides.
Those guides are:
TM  - Territory Management
BUT - Basic Unit Tactics
CG  - Combat Guide (not written yet)
LEG - LRB Exploit Guide



*TM020
PLATFORM:

Shingen the Ruler was a Nintendo Entertainment System ROM cartridge
produced around 1990.  I played it in 1991.  In 2011, I discovered that
I could play Shingen the Ruler on my PC via a NES emulator.  I downloaded
the Shingen ROM and the VirtualNES program.  I have also seen WebPages
that allow online Internet play of Shingen.  [The Internet has what you
need to play Shingen for free.]

My information was generated playing VirtualNES with the Shingen ROM.
My assertions on how the game functions assumes that other platforms
will perform the same way as mine.

One of the important differences between the original NES and my use of
VirtualNES is the ability to save the game at any moment.  The original
NES only allowed saving the game at the start of each month.  Being able
to save at any moment allows for more control over the game, getting
desired results, and experimenting to understand the game.  Additionally,
I archive my savegames while also logging my play in a text file.  Having
these files on my computer, as opposed to the NES or web-browser play,
allows me the freedom to manage savegames.  I often go back to old games
to investigate a concept or try different strategy of play.



*TM030 
RANDOMIZATION:

Some games use a true random number generator, meaning, results are
unpredictable: a group of observed results do not indicate or suggest
what results will follow.  This is not the case with Shingen the Ruler.
I have found that the game has patterns, clumps of results that make some
results highly improbable at some moments or extremely likely at other
moments.  For example, I will later explain 1x, 2x, and 3x results (TM110).
There are moments when one or two of these dominate to the exclusion of
the other one or two.  If you are seeking a certain result and are
reloading over and over trying to get the game to generate this
"randomization," you may be doing so in futility.  The game is stuck in a
pattern that you need to know how to shift.

A random number generator algorithm produces pseudorandom numbers, meaning
it is predictable to a computer or someone with a godlike mind, but
seemingly random to us lesser mortals.  Some RNGs will use or augment
results with external input, like the contents of a CPU register (which is
supposedly continuously changing) or the system time.  Seed numbers could
be used.  These numbers may even be stored in a savegame file (making a
pattern even more likely).

I have no idea how the VirtualNES is emulating the randomization of a NES
machine or how the NES works.  I can only tell you what I have observed.
Any savegame has the potential to generate any result.  Although a
savegame may store some information that affects randomization, it doesn't
predestine a result.  I have been able to get the result I want with any
savegame if I persist.

The VirtualNES has a software reset button and hardware reset button.
The first is a like booting a computer; the second is like turning it off
and then back on.  Although a well-written software program will erase
memory locations, a surer way to clear memory is to power off.  When
Shingen is stuck in a pattern, I hit the hardware or software reset
buttons and load my savegame.  [However, before I tell the game to seek a
result, I often save the game again back over itself in the same slot.
I do this just in case there is some machine state being stored in the
savegame file.  If so, my trials might be somewhat different each time,
thus hoping to break the cyclic pattern.]

In my archives, I save the result of each territory's activity.  From
there, I hit the button to advance to the next month.  This process
generates a fresh machine state.  On my next territory, I set it up for
its action, say digging a gold mine with $100.  I then save the game.
Repeating my attempt to get 3 gold mines over and over, I will eventually
try the reset buttons.  I reset, load, and then resave.  I then try for
my result again repeatedly, going back to reset after a time.  When the
reset button technique fails over and over, I then go back to the previous
territory's result because advancing from there generates a new state.
If that doesn't do it, I sometimes go back one extra.  However, this adds
the burden of repeating the same result I had already accomplished.  Yet,
I do so hoping the new machine conditions will now give me the other
result that was eluding me.

Sometimes, I exit, close VirtualNES and restart it hoping for a fresh
machine state that will make my savegame give me the result I want.
When that doesn't work, I imagine that VirtualNES is loading over in
the same PC memory, giving me the same results because of being in the
same RAM.  So, I exit then play some other game or launch some other
program with the hopes of overwriting computer memory with something
different.  After a time, I return to Shingen to seek my result.

Sometimes I continue until I obtain my objective.  Sometimes, I convince
myself that I can live without my objective, so I quit wasting time and
continue the game with less desirable results.

I waste a lot of time seeking "perfection."  To speed the loading and
game play, I use the VirtualNES option: Emulator Configuration.  I push
"Throttle use" from 120 to 600.  The game flies fast like this.  It is
so fast and the process of loading over and over so monotonous that I
often get the result that I want but I have already hit the reload button
to discard it to try again.  At such instances, I tell myself, "at least
I have proof of concept."  Meaning, I know my current machine state will
give me the result I want.  Then, I go seek it a second time (yet, haste
often has me passing up the desired result again, requiring a third or
forth attempt).  [When I get my result, I turn the throttle back down to
120.]

Besides time and game play satisfaction, statistical analysis is ruined
by the way randomization is implemented.  To illustrate, there are times
that I get a gold mine 40% of the time digging at $100.  Other times it
can be 10% or even worse, about 5%.  Because of the randomization
clumping, I cannot accurately say that digging at $100 works 40% of the
time, or 10%, or 5%.  Each moment has its own probability.  I can only
describe gold mine digging in generalizations.  I can't give precise
description for others' expectations.

Because of the non-random randomization of the game, I reject the
failures from gold mine digging.  I reload to obtain a result.  There is
no telling whether the game is stuck in "easy" gold mine digging or
"stingy."  The only way to find out is to conduct numerous trials.
I just don't know what is the fairest moment to give myself the "okay,
the next one counts," forcing myself to accept the next result regardless
of it being good or bad.  I just skip all the ethical dilemmas by seeking
the result I want, refusing failures.  [See TM180 gold mines for more on
the difficulty digging.]



*TM040 
MOMENT OF RANDOMIZATION:

Your last territory completes its turn.  You tell the computer to advance
to the next month.  You are informed that one of your territories
experienced a horrendous Ninja attack.  You reload back to your last
territory to advance to the next month again, this time hoping to avoid
the Ninja attack.  However, no matter how many times you try, you are
always attacked.  Is the game stuck in a pattern that you can change?
No.  You are experiencing predetermined results that were randomly formed
a month prior.

When you end your last territory's turn, the computer AI (artificial
intelligence) players get their turns for the month.  Then, the next
month starts.  Each territory collects gold mine income, harvest tax
(if October), experiences monthly events (such as disasters or
celebrations), and collects any gifts (such as military units).  Each
AI player makes plans as to what it will do this month.  Signal fires
are generated if attacks are planned.  Then, the human player gets to
operate his territories PRIOR to the planned actions of the AI players.
When the human ends his last territory's action, the AI players carry
out what they already planned to do.  They will not randomly do something
else.  However, the planning for the following month is still open to
change each time you reload an end of month.  

If you want to change what happens to you at the end of a month, you
have to return to the end of the previous month to generate new random
plans for the AI players.  (see TM060 for a more detailed look at what
happens at end of month.)



*TM050
PECKING ORDER - Who gets to go first?

The game doesn't allow multiple AI players to attack the same territory.
[This is a concept for the Combat Guide, but understanding it now will be
useful.]  The AI player with highest priority territory gets the first
opportunity to attack.  If the option is not taken, the next in line may
do it.  AI territories are processed in the following order.  A territory
controlled by the human doesn't participate in the "pecking order."

 1 - Kai             8 - West Shinano  15 - Etchu
 2 - Shinano         9 - Suruga        16 - Noto
 3 - Sagami         10 - Totoumi       17 - Kaga
 4 - Musashi        11 - Mikawa        18 - Echizen
 5 - Kozuke         12 - Owari         19 - Oumi
 6 - Echigo         13 - Mino          20 - Ise
 7 - North Shinano  14 - Hida          21 - Yamashiro



*TM060
Full Examination of End of Month Processing:

When you hit the button to advance to the next month, the AI players
execute the actions planned for this month.  The planning took place the
previous month's processing.

Next month's processing begins, one AI territory at a time as per the
Pecking Order (TM050).
--If the treasury has less than $1000, a random allowance of $0-$200 is given.
--Gold mine income is collected
--October Harvest PRD and money is collected (only in October)
--Events occur that modify territory (TM910)
--Merchant prices generated at each territory.
--Cost of Produce More at gold mines is set.
--Territory of refuge is selected.  A second territory of refuge is also
selected, etc.  [If a territory, AI or human, flees the Castle battle, the
territory of refuge is where the troops go.  If the territory of refuge is
captured or has to flee, troops are diverted to the next pre-selected refuge.
If the AI or human captures a territory, that new territory may replace the
territory of refuge for the Capturer so that if he or it, in turn, loses a
territory to someone else's attack, surviving troops are diverted
differently.]

--Planning on what to do is made for this month.
....If attack planned, 
    game map given signal fire and attacking units put in a combat container
....If resource movement chosen, 
    25% of treasury and army placed in move container
  
Now, the player manages his territories ahead of the plans the AI made.

If the player attacks an AI territory, that AI territory will not get its
planned action this month.  Obviously, the AI won't get its turn if the
territory is captured.  What I am saying is that even if the AI holds onto
the territory, it still loses its turn.  Even if the player sends units to
attack but immediately retreats, the AI loses its turn.  By attacking
repeatedly, a player can paralyze an AI territory.  Assuming the player
has other territories, progress can be made while holding an AI player
stagnant.

If the player attacks an AI territory that was sending units to attack or
reinforce elsewhere, they are returned home to assist in the defense of
the territory.

If the player captures an AI territory that was being sent reinforcements,
50% of the time the transfer joins the player's army.  The other 50% time,
the troops are returned to sender.  This bug generates another one:
Rollover.  Military units are stored in 8-bits.  Adding more that pushes
the count above 255 rolls the amount to whatever minus 256.  (For example,
suppose the pride of your army is 255 riflemen.  The AI sends you 8RM.
Your total riflemen exceed 255; 8-bit storage cannot handle it.  Your army
now has only 7RM.  I have had this happen to me far too often such that
when my slots are near full, I sometimes look ahead to see if a territory
I will capture has reinforcement units coming.  If so, I will reduce the
number I send in battle.) 

[This is bad programming.  All the rollover checking was done at the
moment one territory planned to send units to another.  Transfers above
255 were trimmed.  The sending force was placed in a container.  When
arriving at the destination, no checking is done for rollover because
it was done when the plan was made.  The programmers didn't take into
consideration that the receiving territory's army could be different.]

If the player captures an AI territory and doesn't kill all the AI troops,
some are sent as refugees to another AI territory.  The refugee territory
will accept units up to the 255 limit for each type.  Here, the game
correctly prevents unit rollover.  Refugee units in excess of the refugee
territory's 255 unit slots will be lost.  [I have seen this many times,
sometimes deliberately causing it to my AI rivals.]

However, what if the territory doesn't have room for all the refugee units,
but the refugee territory happens to be sending out an attack force this
turn so that, momentarily, there actually is room?  Furthermore, space
could be made because of battle casualties.  Finally, it may be that the
attacking army will capture the destination, not returning?  I don't have
the answers, but I think the game removes excess of 255 units immediately
although I think it illogical that it does.  Again, it is a lack of
programming foresight.

[Digression: earlier, I said that AI attacking forces are placed in a
container.  I deduce this because AI raiding parties comprise 30%, 50%,
or 70% of the home territory's army.  The percentage cannot change once
chosen at the start of the month.  If during the month the human player
captures one of this AI's territories and sends refugees into the
territory that planned attack, then one would expect a larger war party
according to the chosen attack percentage if the soldiers were sent out
at the end of the month.  However, this doesn't happen.  I have verified
it several times.  Hence, I maintain that attack groups are pre-selected
at the start of the month.  They are placed in a "container."]

If the player forms an alliance (TM190) with an AI who is going to
attack a player's territory this month, all the units sent out in the
attack will be destroyed at the end of the month.  I consider this a
bug, but maybe it was intended?  I personally find winning this way
distasteful.  However, all is fair in war.  Besides, avoiding the bug
means you have lost one of the tools to protect your territories.



*TM110
INCREMENTALS:

A system whereby the game designers attempt to confuse the player, to
mystify the use of game commands.  The confusion arises from randomly
giving single value results (1x), double value results (2x), or triple
value results (3x).  The illustration that follows will attempt to
explain it.

Your local farmer sells eggs, but he won't tell you the price.  Instead,
he says that if you give him money, he will give you eggs commensurate
to the money paid.  However, any money in excess of the last egg sold,
he keeps.  He simply refuses to divide another egg proportionately to
the excess money.  There is no such thing as a fraction of an egg.
You get a whole egg or nothing.

The farmer's objective is not to cheat you.  He doesn't care if you pay
more than needed.  Rather, he aims to keep you confused.  Hence, without
telling you he is doing it, he also gives you twice what you paid for
one third of the time.  One third of the time he gives you triple value,
leaving one third of the time giving exactly what was owed.

The territory Commands operate similar to the farmer: You choose an
amount to spend and the game tells you the result.  Pay too little and
you get nothing.  Pay more than the amount needed for a result and the
game keeps the excess money, never telling you of your waste.
Furthermore, the game randomly gives you the deserved result, twice the
result, or three times the result all the while never indicating any
difference.  I call this 1x, 2x, 3x results.

By reloading and gradually incrementing the amount used, you can determine
when the computer gives a result instead of nothing (the "no progress"
message).  Then, using multiples of the determined amount, you can see
the result grow.  The doubling and tripling may confuse the issue for a
time, but eventually you will know for a certainty the amount needed to
get a computer result.

Going back to the egg illustration, you cannot rightly say you have
determined the "COST" of eggs.  The system in place still has you giving
money to the farmer and getting back what you expected, twice what you
expected, or three times what you expected.  It doesn't really matter
when you want eggs and have limited funds.  You take what you are given.
You have no options.  However, if you want a certain number of eggs,
have sufficient money to purchase them, but don't want to pay more than
needed, then deducing the correct amount to give the farmer becomes
important.  If you knew if the farmer was giving 1x your money, 2x your
money, or 3x your money, you could figure out what to spend.

If you are wealthy, you could just assume 1x your money and you will
always get what you want.  However, you could gamble giving the farmer
half that amount hoping for a 2x payment.  Besides, if he is paying 3x,
you still get the number of eggs you wanted with a few more as well.
Paying one-third the amount hoping for a 3x payout is the riskiest
course: the odds are against you, but you will save lots of money if you
always get eggs at 3x.  (Note, even if you are using the 2x or 3x to
calculate what to spend, you still have to spend multiples of the
incremental: for example, if going for 40 points using 3x, you can't use
40/3 times the incremental.  You must round up, i.e., 42/3.  No fractions
of an egg, remember.)

I have called the amount needed to get a computer result the Incremental
because of the process used to determine it and the need to use multiple
increments of the amount to get the desired number of points you require
for any particular territory statistic.  I don't use the word "COST"
because it is based on knowing if the computer is giving 1x, 2x, or 3x
results.  The "Incremental" is a more meaningful descriptor of the
process of improving a territory for commands that have 1x, 2x, 3x results.

The Incrementals are:
CLT $30 via Ca 
DST $30 via Fc
HE  $100 via He
LOY $17 via Fa-Aid
WEL $17 via Fa-Aid (WEL doesn't get 1x,2x,3x results)
YLD ($40) OR ($40 + army rank) via Fa-Development -- YI is often referenced
Epidemic prevention $90 via DR.-Prevent


*TM120
THE YIELD INCREMENTAL (*YI)

The YI, yield incremental, is the price to raise YLD one point with the
Fa-Development command.  Unlike other incrementals, the YI is the only
one that can change.  Every territory starts the game with a YI of $40.
$40 is the base price, the lowest value YI can take.  New information
suggests that the highest YI can be is $140.  YI is always $40 or $40
PLUS territory army rank.

The new information comes from David Wilson.  He discovered the YI
boundaries and the YIF concept.  He researched the Yield Incremental
by studying the Motorola 6502 processor code of the Shingen ROM file.
I have not verified his results in their entirety, but I have verified
enough so that I am confident that his information is correct.

Like all that I write, I will be watching YI and YIF as I play to make
sure what is written matches with how the game actually works.

The Yield Incremental is $40 if either of two conditions are true:
1) The rank of the army in the territory is zero OR
2) Yield in the territory is NOT greater than the territory YIF value.

YIF is the Yield Incremental Factor (so named by David Wilson).  Every
game map territory has a YIF value attached to it that is higher than
the territory YLD at game start.  By being higher, it allows a
relatively small increase in YLD without worry of increasing the YI
price.  YIF is the maximum the territory YLD can be before the YI is
modified from $40 to also include the territory rank: that is, either
($40) or ($40 + territory rank).

The YIF table below lists each territory in Pecking Order (TM050).
The beginning Yield at game start is listed followed by the Yield
Incremental Factor (YIF).  

YIF TABLE
             beg                      beg                     beg
PO TERRITORY YLD YIF     PO TERRITORY YLD YIF    PO TERRITORY YLD YIF
---------------------------------------------------------------------
 1 Kai        20  23     08 West Shin. 05  08    15 Etchu      26  38
 2 Shinano    18  30     09 Suruga     22  25    16 Noto       15  21
 3 Sagami     18  20     10 Totoumi    19  27    17 Kaga       25  35
 4 Musashi    51  74     11 Mikawa     20  29    18 Echizen    35  50
 5 Kozuke     30  50     12 Owari      40  57    19 Oumi       54  77
 6 Echigo     35  41     13 Mino       38  54    20 Ise        39  56
 7 North Shi. 18  26     14 Hida       03  04    21 Yamishiro  25  33
---------------------------------------------------------------------

When the yield of a territory is increased by the Fa-Development command
or by the AUG rich harvest event (TM910), if the resulting YLD is higher
than the YIF, the YI changes from $40 to $40 PLUS the rank of the army
occupying the territory.  The converse is true, too.  If an event lowers
YLD or recruiting infantry drops YLD, if the YLD drops below the
territory YIF, the Yield Incremental can reset to $40.

For example, if your army in Kai fights neighbors to attain a rank of 11,
the YI will stay $40 as long as YLD does not exceed the YIF of 23.
Suppose in AUG, a rich harvest adds 8 points to YLD, making it 28.
28 is higher than Kai's YIF of 23.  The YI will now become $40 plus the
rank of the army which is rank 11.  The new YI will be $51.  Now, suppose
the next month, SEP, Kai has a storm that drops YLD 7 points to YLD=21.
The YI will reset to $40 because the territory YLD, 21, is below the YIF
of 23.

Interestingly, the way the YI works makes the tactics of the LRB Exploit
worth considering.  Territories at zero rank or near zero rank will
experience no additional costs because of inflated YI costs.  These zero
ranked territories make excellent infantry recruitment centers becasue
repairing the YLD will always be at $40 per point, the lowest possible.
[See the LRB Exploit Guide- LEG - for details on rank zero play.[

Another fact worth considering is that Musashi has a YIF of 74.  It
makes Musashi a great place to park a ranked army while the territory
does infantry recruitment.  The rank of the army will not affect YI
prices as long as you only repair the yield after YLD drops equal or
below the YIF of 74 for Musashi.


The 1x, 2x, 3x results system (TM110 Incrementals) still influences how
much to spend when trying to raise a territory's YLD.  The safest way
is to assume 1x results and pay accordingly.  Nonetheless, because YLD
is the most expensive territory improvement, you may not have the gold
to raise YLD to 100 in a territory.  Then, hoping for a 2x or 3x result
might be the plan.

The best way to raise YLD in terms of cost is to do it from its original
value at the start of the game.  Using Kai as an example, it takes $3200
to raise Kai's 20YLD to 100YLD with a 1x result.  It takes half that,
$1600, for a 2x result.  Since the $1600 will also raise YLD to 100 if a
3x appears, you have a two in three chance of getting YLD 100 by using
$1600.

Suppose you pay $1600 to raise YLD but only get the 1x result.  YLD is
now 60 which is halfway to your goal of 100.  Furthermore, because 60 is
above Kai's YIF of 23, you will be paying $40 plus Kai's army rank per
YLD point the next time you use the Fa-Development command.  This can be
super expensive - if you have an army of say rank 15 sitting in Kai, you
will pay $55 per YLD on the next Fa-Development.  So, you paid $1600 for
the first 40YLD, 20YLD to 60YLD, but will pay $2200 for the next 40YLD,
60YLD to 100YLD, at 1x result.  This is the YIF YI increase.

Obviously, having the gold to do a full 1x raising of YLD to 100 is the
most time efficient way.  However, you can still make adjustments if you
tried the 2x and failed.  For instance, you could move off the army in
Kai and recapture it with a zero ranked army.  Then, the YI will be $40
again.  (See LEG203 for how to capture territories at zero rank.)  [The
irony of suggesting LRB tactics is that you would be better off earning
the gold first before raising YLD because getting gold in LEG games is
relatively easy.]

However, you may have a supply of PRD that needs selling.  In such case,
you may want to raise YLD in a territory so as to get better PRD sell
prices.  Raise YLD what you can with the cash available, sell some PRD,
then use the proceeds to finish raising YLD to 100 to get the best sell
prices.  Or, move off the money somewhere else to make a new selling
territory, but this time making it YLD 100 from the getgo.

Knowing the YIF values becomes important as you recruit infantry.  If
you are using rank zero territories to recruit, you are safe from YI
escalation.  However, with ranked armies, you can decrease your costs
by chosing a high YIF territory for recruitment by only repairing YLD
after dropping it equal or below the YIF to reset the YI to $40.


High YIF Territories Table

              beg                      beg                      beg
   Territory  YLD YIF       Territory  YLD YIF       Territory  YLD YIF
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
 1 Oumi        54  77     8 Echigo      35  41    15 North Shin. 18  26
 2 Musashi     51  74     9 Etchu       26  38    16 Suruga      22  25
 3 Owari       40  57    10 Kaga        25  35    17 Kai         20  23   
 4 Ise         39  56    11 Yamashiro   25  33    18 Noto        15  21
 5 Mino        38  54    12 Shinano     18  30    19 Sagami      18  20
 6 Echizen     35  50    13 Mikawa      20  29    20 West Shina. 05  08
 7 Kozuke      30  50    14 Totoumi     19  27    21 Hida        03  04
-----------------------------------------------------------------------


Evenso, only a few territories with YIF of 50 or higher are useful for
dodging YI costs by recruiting until YLD drops below the YIF.  Only
Oumi and Musashi are practical in this regard, however.  Yet, there is
another consideration: the gap between starting YLD and the YIF.  You
will notice that Kozuke has a 20 point gap.  This makes Kozuke a great
place to use for early PRD sales before you get the cash needed to
raise YLD to 100.  You can bump Kozuke YLD 25 points with $1000, sell
PRD, raise LOY, recruit to drop YLD a few points below the YIF, and 
then finish raising YLD to 100.

[Certainly, Musashi would be a better place to sell PRD and with a
small bump in YLD, it may get high enough to get $4 sells.  I use
Kozuke as an example because it is an easy territory to capture early
in the game.  Musashi can also be captured early, but it takes more
effort even if you are using LRB Exploit tactics to scare off the
defender after turn 6 in the castle battle.  Kozuke, in contrast, is
easy to push out the occupant because a smaller army is stationed there.]



*TM130
*CLT and Ca: (an incremental command - TM110)

October Harvest 100% tax gives $10 per CLT point; 
no CLT drop from tax (TM340)
CLT Contributes to INF upgrades prices (TM250)
CLT damaged by JUL lightning, SEP storms, random earthquakes or riots,
    Shimazu ninja, or AI Nj-crisis (TM910 events)
CLT increased 0 or +3 by SEP festival (TM910 events)
CLT reduces chance of JUL epidemic; Dr-cure proportional to CLT level (TM140)

Every $30 used in the Ca command gives 1, 2, or 3 points of CLT
(Points x $30) Ca gives random (Points x 1, Points x 2, or Points x 3) CLT

Examples:
(6 x $30) Ca or $180Ca gives 6, 12, or 18CLT 
(17 x $30) Ca or $510Ca gives 17, 34, or 51CLT

Because of TM151 - TM152, Merchant upgrade prices go up with increase in
CLT.  Thus, my advice about raising CLT is mixed.  For a territory that
will not be upgrading INF, maximizing CLT is advised.  However, for a
territory doing upgrades, keep CLT low.

There is only one event that raises CLT, the SEP festival.  At only a
0 or +3CLT increase, odds are that the other events that lower CLT will
collectively reduce CLT if you don't increase it via the Ca: command.

JUL Lightning strike maximum -14CLT
SEP Storm -2, -3, or -4CLT
Shimazu Family Ninja imposter -4, -5, -8, or -9 CLT
earthquake -6 or -12CLT
riot -0 or -7CLT
AI Ninja crisis could randomly hit CLT

The consequences of low CLT is the chance for epidemic in JUL.  Epidemic
lowers WEL each month.  That is okay because it lowers merchant prices.
The other thing epidemic does is kill INF.  This can be a nuisance, but
if you promptly move off or upgrade INF, you can minimize the loss.
It would cost too much to cure the epidemic, both as a wasted game turn
and gold: the cure is proportional to CLT.  Since low CLT is the goal,
the cure price will be high.

Three "preventions" are available:
1) Move off or upgrade all INF before JUL
2) Don't manage a epidemic susceptible territory in JUL
3) Use the Dr. Prevent command prior to JUL (TM140)

I suggest that you do five-year Dr. Prevent to keep epidemics out of
your upgrader territory.  See TM140, below, for details.


*TM140
EPI and Dr:

Epidemics happen in JUL and last through NOV.  At the start of DEC,
they go away naturally.  However, you can use the Dr - Cure command
to get rid of the epidemic immediately.  The price you pay is based
on the CLT level of the territory.  Epidemics remove a few points
from WEL and several INF at the start of each month.  It is annoying,
but hardly worth the time and money to use the Doctor.  The best
prevention is to maximize CLT in your territories (see TM130 for CLT),
BUT DR.-Prevent does have some merit.

I reload to get rid of epidemics when they strike.  Also, I look
at my neighboring AI territories, some of which I plan on
capturing in the next few months.  I will reload to get rid of
their epidemics, too.  If I must capture a territory with an
epidemic, I don't send INF along with my army, instead leaving
them behind.  I find this so bothersome that I try to bump the
CLT in all territories, even the ones I don't plan on keeping.
You want high CLT in your territories to make money in the
October Harvest, but also so that you have peaceful Julys.

What I notice the AI do when they get an epidemic: some try to
upgrade all their infantry.  Some recruit regularly to replace
lost infantry.  Some cure it.  Most ignore it.  Throughout each
year, AI raise CLT.

However, when the AI cure it, I have noticed the rare occurrence
of a cash bug.  The AI $$ will skyrocket up to $5000.  Sometimes
it will do another to max out the gold at $9999.  Capturing the
territory with this mysterious cash appearance, I have gotten the
cash 50% of the time.  The other 50% of the time, it vanishes.
If I don't capture the territory, most of the time the money still
vanishes.  

The cash bug seems to happen in DEC, although sometimes the money
doesn't show up until JAN.  I think it happens because the AI,
being stupid, cure the epidemic in NOV.  In NOV, all the damage
from the epidemic has already been done.  As the DEC month
starts, epidemics go away on their own.  No WEL or INF loss
happens.  The cash bug is like a reward to the AI for wasting
money on the cure.

Ironically, I discovered a worthy use of the DR.-Prevent command.
Because of the LRB exploit, I have been re-thinking many of my
previous procedures.  My idea to have a territory dedicated to
selling PRD and upgrading infantry without buying PRD has
eliminated my buying territory model.  Keeping CLT zero in this
upgrading territory to get best prices could cause problems in
July.  The WEL aspect of an Epidemic is irrelvant since the
upgrader territory wants low or zero WEL for best prices.  Yet,
the loss of INF each month because of epidemic can be annoying.

So, I researched the DR. - Prevent command.  For every $90, you
will get 2, 3, or 4 months of Epidemic prevention with a maximum
of 60 months (five years).  At the lowest rate, 2 months per $90,
it takes $2700 to get 60 months of protection.  The rate is
randomly generated (an incremental command - TM110).

DR. - Prevent
 Rate          Amount for 60 months
 2months/$90   $2700
 3months/$90   $1800
 4months/$90   $1350

The above is simple, but not the best way.  The month you
choose to buy the insurance policy matters.  For instance, June
is logically the best month because it is right before July.
However, paying for 60 months of protection is wasteful.
Epidemics only happen in July.  Counting the number of Julys
is what matters.  June to July is 1 month, the next July is in
13 months, then 25 months, 37 months, and 49 months.  There is
no reason to pay for protection for months 50 through 60.
Month 61 is the next July after 49 months, but the game limits
protection duration to 60 months maximum.

Hence, I must revise the table giving the amount to pay based
on what month it is when you choose to purchase the prevention
policy.  The new table assumes you want the maximum protection
duration of five years and don't want to gamble getting the
best rate, so assumes the worst: 2 months at $90.

                          2m/$90
BUY MONTH    DURATION     COST      
-------------------------------
MAY or JUN   50 months    $2250
MAR or APR   52 months    $2340
JAN or FEB   54 months    $2430
-------------------------------
NOV or DEC   56 months    $2520
SEP or OCT   58 months    $2610
JUL or AUG   60 months    $2700
-------------------------------

As an addition, I give another table based on the 3months for
$90 rate.  You have 2/3 of a chance of this table being valid
because if the 4months for $90 rate happens, it works, too.

                              3m/$90
BUY MONTH         DURATION     COST      
-------------------------------------
APR, MAY or JUN   51 months    $1530
JAN, FEB or MAR   54 months    $1620
OCT, NOV or DEC   57 months    $1710
JUL, AUG or SEP   60 months    $1800
------------------------------------

You must remember the details of your prevention policy.  The
game will not tell you how long the prevention lasts.  All it
will say if you go back to the doctor while prvention is in
effect is that the "prevention is still effective."  No data
can be found in any NJ-spying screen about any territory as
to preventions or durations.

Because I advise others how to play, I have changed my way of
playing somewhat because I know that many people will not
reload save games.  I will incorporate DR. - Prevent in my play.
The LRB Exploit makes so much money that precautions for easier
play seem reasonable.  For instance, making an alliance to
prevent surprise attacks is sensible.  It is also sensible to
toss $2250 into DR. - prevent once every five years to have my
low CLT upgrade territory be epidemic worry-free.



*TM150
DST and Fc: (an incremental command - TM110)

Every $30 used in Fc (Flood control) removes 1, 2, or 3 points
of DST. (Points x $30) Fc reduces random (Points x 1, Points x 2,
or Points x 3) DST

Examples: 
$120Fc gives -4, -8, or -12DST;  
(27 x $30) Fc gives -27, -54, or -81DST

Higher DST is bad.  Zero DST is perfect -- that is the common
sense interpretation, but it is wrong.  High DST is best.

The game manual states that Fc is used to stop damage from a
typhoon or heavy rain.  This suggests that the JUN heavy rain
and typhoon (which is unknown to me) are the only use of DST.
DST will rise when disaster events happen to a territory.
Snowfall also can raise DST.  DST supposedly represents
preparation to resist disasters.  I have observed no difference
between my high DST territories and my zero DST territories.
I have concluded that DST doesn't matter except for two reasons:
One, the AI will try to lower territory DST.
Two, Mercant Prices are influenced by DST.  

The AI players will waste turns reducing DST.  Because I am
often manipulating the AI players hoping to coax certain
behaviors, I used to zero the DST in territories I gave away.
My thought was that I could do it efficiently in one turn so
that the AI players wouldn't waste more time attending to DST.
However, because of new understanding about Merchant prices,
I will not be using the Fc command ever again.

Merchant upgrade prices (TM250) are in part determined by the
DST variable.  High DST gets lower merchant upgrade prices.
Therefore, not only am I recommending not using the Fc command
to lower DST, I also suggest reloading to get earthquakes.  Save,
then reload the earthquake statistics assignment until you get
a +17DST.  This is the fastest way to increase DST.  Also, for
those territories that you have groomed for high DST, don't let
the AI hang onto those territories more than a turn.  You don't
want the AI to lower DST.  

[As TM910 mentions, if you save the game when an event happens,
but before the amount of gift/penalty is randomized, you can
reload to get the numbers you want if you are using an emulator
to play Shingen the Ruler.]



*TM160
YLD - yield

Mi-Enlist can recruit, for Shingen,  [YLD x LOY / 80] INF (TM240) 
    -- Enlist for Katsuyori may be different
October Harvest 100% tax gives 5PRD per YLD point with no YLD drop (TM340)
YLD sets PRD price range (TM310) AND contributes to upgrade prices (TM250)
YLD damaged by Mi-Enlist, JUN heavy rain, AUG drought, SEP storm, 
    Mouri Ninja, AI Nj-crisis (TM910 events)
YLD increased by AUG rich harvest (TM910 events)

YLD raised by YI (TM120) multiples using Fa-Development (TM162) 
Example:
(3 x YI) Fa-Development gives 3, 6, or 9YLD
If YI=$40, then the above command would be:
$120Fa-Development= 3, 6, or 9YLD



*TM162
Fa-Development (an incremental command (TM110) using YI (TM120))

Fa-Development is used to raise YLD.  Although it raises WEL too,
you are better off using Fa-Aid to raise WEL because it is cheaper
(if raising WEL is your goal).  However, if you are using
Fa-Development for WEL, you don't have to spend multiples of the YI.
You must spend at least $50 and at least one YI to make the command
function.  Then, you can choose an amount to spend that is favorable
to the formula for WEL.  Specifically, you would spend multiples of
the divisor, (YI+$10).

YLD = (Points x YI) Fa-Development= random (Points x1, Points x2, or Points x3)
WEL = (Points x (YI+$10)) / (YI+$10) the result has random +1WEL or +2WEL


Example:
Points=15
YI=$55

Result for YLD:
(Points x YI) Fa-Development = random (Points x1, Points x2, or Points x3)
(15 x 55) Fa-Development = random (15, 30, or 45)YLD  
$825Fa-Development = random (15, 30, or 45)YLD

Result for WEL:
(Points x (YI) / (YI+$10) and random +1WEL or +2WEL
(15 x (55) / (55+$10)     and random +1WEL or +2WEL
825 / 65 = 12.69          and random +1WEL or +2WEL
13WEL or 14WEL
$825Fa-Development = (15, 30, or 45)YLD and 13WEL or 14WEL

Step#1
To use Fa-Development, you must first calculate the YI (TM120) as
you would any incremental (TM110).  Or, consulting TM120, see if
the current YLD is above the YIF.  If the YLD is above the YIF,
then the current YI is $40 + territory army rank.  If YLD is 
equal or lower than the YIF, then the YI is $40.

Step#2
Next, how many YLD Points to you want to increase?  
Do you have the money to do Points x YI?  [YI is the amount you
found in step#1.]  If not, do you have half that money or one
third of that money? If no to all those questions, then you have
set your goal too high.  Choose a lower point count and repeat
step #2.

Step#3
Choose whether you will try for a 1x, 2x, or 3x result.  This
determines how much money you spend.  Note that even if you
don't get a 2x or 3x result, you can accept what is given
without reloading.  So, those who don't reload can gamble on
saving money.  Those that won't reload that don't want to
gamble, you must choose 1x results to get the points you want.

1x = Points x YI
2x = (Points/2 rounding fractions up) x YI
3x = (Points/3 rounding fractions up) x YI

Step#4
With the amount you have chosen in Step#3, use the Fa-Development
command.  If you get the result you want, you are done.  If you
are unwilling to reload, you are done.  Those that are still here,
reload and try it again, over and over.  If you get stuck, examine
the procedure at TM030 for forcing the game to give you the result
you want.



*TM164
WEL - wealth

October Harvest 100% tax gives $10 per WEL point; WEL loss is 50 or 75 (TM340)
WEL contributes to INF upgrade prices (TM250)
WEL damaged by Harvest, Mi-Enlist, JUN heavy rain; JUL epidemic, Date ninja,
    AI Nj-crisis (TM910 events)
WEL increased by AUG rich harvest (TM910 events)
WEL raised by Fa-Development (TM162):
    Moneyspent / (YI+$10) plus a random +1WEL or +2WEL 
WEL raised by Fa-Aid (TM170): 
    Moneyspent / $17  plus random +0WEL, +2WEL, or +4WEL

Note: Moneyspent must be at least $50.  Also, for Fa-Development
to function, it must be at least the YI.

Examples:
Fa-Development: Moneyspent / (YI+$10) with a random +1WEL or +2WEL
YI=$40; $1600Fa-Development=  
1600 / (40+10) +1WEL or +2WEL
1600/50        +1WEL or +2WEL 
32             +1WEL or +2WEL
33WEL or 34WEL

YI=$66; $990Fa-Development=
990 / (66+10)  +1WEL or +2WEL
990 / 76       +1WEL or +2WEL
13             +1WEL or +2WEL
14WEL or 15WEL

Fa-Aid: Moneyspent / $17  plus random +0WEL, +2WEL, or +4WEL
$850Fa-Aid = 
850 / 17  plus random +0WEL, +2WEL, or +4WEL
50        plus random +0WEL, +2WEL, or +4WEL
50WEL or 52WEL or 54WEL

$1275Fa-Aid = 
1275 / 17  plus random +0WEL, +2WEL, or +4WEL
75         plus random +0WEL, +2WEL, or +4WEL
75WEL or 77WEL or 79WEL



*TM170
LOY and Fa-Aid:  (an incremental command - TM110)

October Harvest 100% tax gives 5PRD per LOY point; LOY drops 66 or 99 (TM340)
Mi-Enlist can recruit, for Shingen,  [LOY x YLD / 80] INF (TM240)
    -- Enlist for Katsuyori may be different
LOY usually drops proportionately to the number INF recruited
LOY contributes to INF upgrade prices (TM250)
LOY damaged by Harvest, Mi-Enlist, random earthquake or riot, some story
    line events, AI Nj-crisis (TM910 events)
LOY increased by SEP festival, many capital only events (TM910 events)
LOY game manual claims LOY affects riot frequency, but I doubt it (TM910)

LOY raised by Fa-Aid
For every $17 spent in Fa-Aid 1, 2, or 3 points of LOY are given.  
(Points x $17) Fa-Aid = random (Points x1, Points x2, Points x3) 
    and (Points + random 0, 2, or 4) WEL

$17 and $34 Fa-Aid only raises LOY.  At $50 and above, Fa-Aid also raises WEL.

At 1x, $1700 Fa-Aid will give 100LOY and 100WEL
At 2x,  $850 Fa-Aid will give 100LOY and +50WEL +0, +2, or +4 random WEL
At 3x,  $578 Fa-Aid will give 100LOY and +34WEL +0, +2, or +4 random WEL

Examples:
(Points x $17) Fa-Aid = random (Points x1, Points x2, Points x3) 
  and (Points + random 0, 2, or 4) WEL
(100 x $17) Fa-Aid = (100, 100, 100) LOY and 100WEL --- never more than 100
 (50 x $17) Fa-Aid = ( 50, 100, 100) LOY and (50, 52, 54) WEL
 (34 x $17) Fa-Aid = ( 34,  68, 100) LOY and (34, 36, 38) WEL
 (22 x $17) Fa-Aid = ( 22,  44,  66) LOY and (22, 24, 26) WEL

To help make clear what the above means for (22 x $17) Fa-Aid =
1x = 22LOY, +22WEL or 24WEL or 26WEL
2x = 44LOY, +22WEL or 24WEL or 26WEL
3x = 66LOY, +22WEL or 24WEL or 26WEL



*TM180
Gold Mines via Gm command

This section covers Dig.  See TM185 for Produce More

Dig Investment Summary:
  $1 to   $99   1 to 2 gold mines
$100 to  $299   1 to 3 gold mines
$300 to  $399   1 to 4 gold mines
$400 to $9999   1 to 5 gold mines

A maximum of 100 gold mines can be found per territory.  Each gold
mine puts $5 into your treasury at the start of each month.  Gold
mine cave-ins remove 1 or 2 gold mines and prevent digging for
three months (TM910 events).  Also, the remaining gold mines
produce half as much money for those three months.

I have not observed an increase in gold mine success by increasing
the amount spent within a range.  Meaning, $1 seems just as likely
to get a gold mine as $99 and $100 works as well as $299.  However,
it could be that spending more within a range increases the
likelihood of a higher gold mine find.  That is, $1 may not give
you 2 gold mines as often as $99 will, but both find gold mines
with equal regularity.  $99 just gets more 2 gold mines.  Yet, this
is just untested speculation.  However, I have generally observed
that higher ranges have higher chances of success.  Meaning $1-$99
has less successes than $100-$299, and $100-$299 has less successes
than $300-$399, etc.  Digging at $400 is the best if you are not
reloading to ensure success.  Mathematically, this is the soundest
way to go without reloading.

There are some territories that are resistant to gold mine digging.
One sign of a resistant territory is that it won't allow for $1
gold mine finds.  In such territories, $100 is the lowest you can
use.  Examples are West Shinano, Kozuke, and Musashi.

I believe it is important to make sure your capital territory has
at least 11 gold mines.  And, if you are moving the capital back
and forth between two territories (see TM220), you should make sure
that both have 11 gold mines.  Why?  11 gold mines gives $55 income
each month.  The AI are aware when your capital doesn't have the
$54 needed to make an alliance at the start of the month, so the
chances of being attacked are higher (see TM190 for alliance).

I have observed the AI players digging about three times each year,
spending $100-$300 each dig, and seldom getting gold mines.  And
when the AI does get gold mines, the Cave-in event (TM910) occurs
far too often for the AI to keep the mines.  Meaning, the random
forces that remove gold mines is more frequent than the provision
for finding them.  If you don't reload for results, taking things
as the game naturally delivers them, then you won't get gold mines
either.  (See TM030 about randomization for more comment on my
frustration with gold mines.)

The exception being that you devote your resources to gold mine
digging.  By digging frequently, taking massive economic losses
each year to gold mines, then you can accumulate some.  If you dig
at the $400 rate per dig, you will gain gold mines with reliable
frequency.  However, it takes 16 months to recoup the $400 spent
digging if you get the maximum 5 gold mines.  If you get a moderate
2 gold mines, it takes 40 months to break even.  Even then, your
successes also have to cover the costs of failures: the times you
spend $400 and get nothing.  And when the game takes away some of
your hard won gold mines with a cave-in, which also forces you to
stop digging for three months, will you just accept it?  I cannot
imagine doing much digging at the best rate of $400 with five years
or more of losses.  Your military would be neglected, possibly
reloading to avoid attacks you can't defend or reloading to discover
where to make an alliance.  If you were using such tactics to stay
alive, why would you refuse reloading for gold mines?

I have some thoughts on how gold mine digging could be better
implemented, but it is a moot point.  I realize it is unfair for me
to get gold mines when the AI can't do it.  If you want fairness,
don't use gold mines.  However, if you don't dig gold mines, you
are also getting an advantage of time: the AI will waste time
attempting gold mine digs whereas you are wisely not doing so.
You can't balance the scale to compensate for what the AI does
unless you dig gold mines without reloading.

Maybe that is harsh because it was 2011 that I last tried gold
mines without reloading.  The advice I give about doing $400 digs
without reload is sound.  Yet, I haven't tried it.  You could get
gold mines that way.  However, I have to say, you will still lose
them all, eventually, if you don't reload to stop the cave-in event.
You will have to continue to dig to stay ahead of the mines lost to
cave-ins.



*TM185
Produce More:

Allows using PRD to make money.  The potential earnings is
influenced by the number of gold mines present in the territory.
Other territory statistics don't matter.  The best return you can
hope for at 1 gold mine is $5 per PRD.  At 100 gold mines, I have
seen $37.1 per PRD.  Yet, the path to high profits is a steep one,
because the best I saw at 40 gold mines was $7.6 per PRD.  At 72
gold mines, I saw a high of $23.9 per PRD.

Although you can make more than the maximum $5 per PRD sold to the
merchant via Produce More, you cannot do the same volume of trading
PRD, at least not at a significant profit.  Although you can hire
up to 99 workers and can thus easily surpass 999PRD, volume erodes
the profit margin.  More workers dilute the gold per PRD ratio.
I found that the amount of gold found doesn't rise proportionately
with the number of workers hired.  The best value and the most money
earned seems to be when only one or two workers are hired.  Then,
maybe five to seven hundred dollars above the value of the product
can be made.  Since you can sell 999PRD at $5/each = $4995, or
$4/each for $3996, to the merchant in a high YLD territory, this
isn't a good use of time to make $700. Selling PRD will give
higher profit.

I tested Kai at the start of the game, JAN 1545.  Kai rarely gave
returns barely above $1/ PRD.  Most results were below $1/PRD.
You can do better at the merchant.

The clincher that dooms Produce More is that you would have to
reload over and over again to seek the best profit.  It is not
worth your time, literally.  In my game play, I ignore this game
feature, never using it.

Note: the cost in PRD per worker is determined randomly at the
start of the month for every territory, not randomly as you
manage each territory.  See TM060 for a better understanding
why this is so. 



*TM190
Al - Alliance:

You must have a princess to make an alliance - the PRI territory
statistic must be greater than zero (see TM910 for princess event).
Making an alliance decreases the number of PRI by one, then for every
$54 spent, one month of alliance with a computer player is granted.
The maximum is 60 months for $3240.  The fee paid is not put into the
computer player's treasury.  The money is removed from the game.

The Al command can only be done from your capital territory.  If you
don't have at least $54, you can't make an alliance this month.  If
you move the capital to another territory that does have the money,
the new capital territory cannot make an alliance until the next month.
You are punished by the game for lack of preparation!  You must always
keep a minimum of $54 available, cash left over from the previous
month plus territory monthly income (gold mines or October Harvest).
Furthermore, I think the computer players are aware when you can't
make an alliance to escape an attack.  I get attacked more frequently
when my capital depletes all its money one month and doesn't have
enough gold mines to come up with $54.  [11 gold mines is all you need
to make sure your capital always has the money for an alliance.]

Alliance duration is divided into two unequal halves.  The two halves
are termed the unbreakable alliance period and the breakable alliance
period.  An odd number of months in the alliance duration gives the
extra month to the unbreakable period.  Then, the unbreakable alliance
period takes one month away from the breakable alliance period, thus
making it 2 or 3 months longer.  What this means is that one-month,
two-month, and three-month alliances are always unbreakable.

Breakable Alliance period = 
(Alliance duration divided by two, discarding fraction) then subtract one

Once the alliance has been made, examining the map via the Nj-spying
screen will show the alliance partner's territories in green.  Spying
on one of these green territories will show the term of the alliance
in the upper left corner in the gray rectangle.  The left number is
the duration of the alliance in months.  The right number is how many
months remain in the alliance.  When the right number is equal or less
than the breakable alliance period (calculated above), then you or
your computer ally can break the alliance at any time.

During the unbreakable alliance period, you cannot select a computer
ally's territories as destinations for the Mi-Going command (TM230).
Similarly, the computer ally cannot attack you, either.  [Nonetheless,
you can use Nj-Crisis (TM200) to attempt sabotage on your ally's
territories.  The AI can also do the same to you during an alliance.]
However during the breakable alliance period, either you or the AI can
break the alliance and attack the other.  If it was the AI that broke
the alliance, at the start of your month you will receive a message
that says AI Lord rejected alliance.  The game specifically tells you
witch AI player rejected the alliance.

If you are not peeking ahead to see what territory/AI is attacking
you, then you are getting at least half of that information from the
alliance.  You are not told which territory the attack is coming from,
but you are told which AI is attacking.  That is the only value of
the breakable alliance period.  So, if you are playing without
reloading, you can with a clear conscience make a new alliance with
this AI (which kills his attacking troops).  After all, you paid for
the previous alliance and this right.  [Why a new alliance kills
attacking armies is explained in the next paragraph.]

You can use an alliance to stop an announced attack in the current
month.  Because the AI already made the plan to attack, the soldiers
are in transit - the AI dispatched them at the start of the month
(see TM060).  When the alliance is made, the enemy soldiers are not
sent home.  Instead, they are given orders to commit seppuku (ritual
suicide with a knife to the belly).  All the AI attackers die.  The
AI army can thus be decimated turn after turn by leaving a territory
without HDQ and then forming a one-month alliance with the attacker.
If you have the cash and princesses to spare, this dirty trick can
all but wipe out a strong rival (for instance, Sagami/Hojo by
leaving Kai empty).  I doubt this exploit was intended.  Rather,
I think it is a programming bug.  [The programming returns troops
to home territory if the human player attacks the home territory.
Why wasn't alliance return correctly programmed?]

[Further comment on the Alliance bug: I had a game in which I
captured Musashi/Hojo.  I then tied up Hojo long term by forming
a 41-month alliance.  My army transfered back to Kai to recapture
it from West Shinano/Kiso.  I left 10HDQ in Musashi to hold it,
but eventually Kozuke/Uesugi captured it.  The next month, as I
was scouting Musashi for my recapture attack, I noticed a signal
fire over Musashi: Sagami/Hojo wanted it back.  Hojo couldn't
attack me, but could attack Uesugi.  Anyway, I recaptured Musashi
and noticed the next month that half the Sagami army was gone.
It seems the suicide rather than return troops home works also in
this situation.  (However, I have seen an additional bug, at times.
Instead of sending the troops home or suiciding them, the attack
commences anyway, defying the alliance.)]

Trick to transform a breakable alliance back into a secure one:
First, break the alliance by selecting an AI territory for the
MI-Going command.  Sending soldiers to the rival territory breaks
the alliance.  You can immediately retreat once reaching the field.
Now, your capital territory can create a new alliance with this AI
next month.  You would do this if you wanted to refresh the alliance
with 60 months or whatever you can afford.  

[You may think, "Why is this of any value?"  One of the purposes of
a secure alliance is to be free of interruption from a sudden attack.
Interruption may come at a time when you are super busy doing
something else.  Do you always have $3240 in your capital ready to
reassert a broken alliance?  The trick above is done at a convenient
moment for you - on your timetable.]

More information about the strategy of using alliances will be given
in the Combat Guide.  You can also see TM508 for an example.



*TM200
Nj - Spying and Crisis

Nj - Spying is your way to examine each territory in detail.  I use
it to examine my own territories and to cruise around the map to see
if there are any AI versus AI attacks upcoming.  By examining a
territory after a recent battle, you can see if there is a tempting
pile of resources from battle spoils.  Also, you can assess the state
of the army.  Sometimes even a high ranked AI that you would have
never considered attacking has become ripe for attack because of
fewer troops remaining.  This line of thought will be covered in the
Combat Guide.

The gray rectangle in the upper left corner is 0/0 in your territories.
In AI territories, it will also be 0/0.  The one exception is if you
see territories with green castles.  This means you have an alliance
with that AI.  Then, the gray rectangle will contain numbers that give
the term of the alliance (TM190).

When viewing your own territories, you also see your military units
with the Nj - spying command.  You can also toggle what you see while
commanding the current territory.  On my mapping of buttons for the
VirtualNES, the select button is mapped to the right shift key.  It
is a fitting assignment because pushing it shifts the view from the
territory condition statistics to the military ones.  Hitting right
shift again (select) toggles back to viewing the territory conditions.


Nj - Crisis is a command I don't use.  

By paying PRD, your ninja tries to damage an AI territory or army.
It is so ineffective that I say that you can do more damage just
attacking the AI by shooting his CAV and suicide attacks from your
size one divisions of INF and LNC and then retreating (you could kill
nine enemy CAV for the price of 3INF and 2LNC.  Repeating this over
and over could eventually eliminate all AI troops).  Furthermore, as
mentioned at TM060, attacking the AI deprives the AI of his action
that month.  What could be more potent than that?  Now rethink the
suicide attack idea on his cavalry.  You are slowly wiping out his
CAV WHILE depriving the AI of doing anything.  The cost?  One
territory turn, 3INF, 2LNC, and 5PRD for Mi-Going.  That is cheaper
than the Ninja - Crisis, effective, and not a gamble; it is certain.
[I am assuming the target is substantially higher ranked than your
army such that these guerilla tactics are the only way to best him
on the field.  Why this works is explained in the Basic Unit Tactics
guide (BUT402).]

But what if you want to hurt an AI that is not near you?  I think
the best way to hurt such an AI is to continue to build wealth and
your military.  Then, if you ever get near such one, you are ready
to really do damage.  Moreover, consider this: if you could hurt an
AI not near you, who benefits?  The other AI near your target, not you.

Despite my low opinion of Nj-crisis, I have seen devastating Ninja
attacks against me and other AI.  The attacker hardly paid any PRD,
so I thought it was a bug.  However, maybe crisis functions like the
Free Parking in Monopoly?  One variation puts all game penalties
into the Free Parking Pot.  When someone lands on Free Parking, he
gets the pot.  Applying this to crisis, perhaps all the PRD of
failed Ninja attacks get thrown into a pot?  Then someone wins the
lottery, getting an outrageously effective sabotage result?



*TM210
He - Heir command (an incremental command - TM110)

The HE territory screen statistic is described in the Shingen game
manual on page 12, which I am repeating verbatim:

HE (heir)

Indicates the educational level of the heir.  The educational level
affects the situation after inheritance, and the higher this level
the better.  This level is classified in ST (strength), 
IQ (intelligence quotient), and MO (morality) and its influence after
inheritance varies according to the balance among the three.  The
level may be lower by a disturbance due to an enemy's rioting or
negligence in education.  300 units maximum in this category.

On page 17, the game manual explains the He command, again repeated
verbatim:

To educate Shingen's heir Katsuyori

[He] (heir)

  ST (strength).... The command to train Katsuyori.  The "enlist" of the
                    "Military" command and the "crisis" of "ninja" become more
                    effective after his training and inheritance.
  IQ............... The command to educate Katsuyori.  After inheritance, the
                    commands of "flood control" and "castle" become more
                    effective.
  MO (Morality).....This command cultivates his human qualities and after
                    Inheritance the commands of Fa (aid) and "alliance" become
                    more effective.

I have concentrated my efforts playing the first few years of Shingen
the Ruler.  I start over and over again playing the initial years.
I don't get far enough to see Katsuyori.  I have little empirical
information.  I will give you what I have.

Katsuyori is born after the January 1546 marriage of Shingen to
Lady Koi.  Each subsequent January, Katsuyori may be randomly born.
You can delay or cause the birth by reloading an end of December
save over and over.  However, in the Year 1551, Katsuyori will be
born if he hasn't been born sooner, regardless of attempts to
prevent the birth.

After birth, the He command becomes active in your capital territory.
The He command functions like other incremental commands (TM110).
For every $100 spent, 1, 2, or 3 training points will be awarded.
To illustrate, spending $500 He will give 5, 10, or 15 training points.  

You must choose which category to train: ST, IQ, or MO.  All I can
remember from 1991 is that fully trained ST, 100 points, allows max
recruitment of 165 INF.  [Note: the territory screen only displays a
composite of the ST, IQ, and MO statistics, meaning, the sum of all
three.  Only at the He command can you see how the points are
distributed.]

The initial part of the game is relatively chaotic.  You need a quiet
corner of the map to place your capital, surrounded by your
territories, with war not taking place inside those territories.
Katsuyori loses points of training if nearby territories are not
peaceful.  Supposedly, he also loses points for inconsistent training.
I speculate this means that if too much time passes between training
sessions, he loses points?

I do not think there is any rush to train Katsuyori.  Shingen should
live to be fifty years old or older.  [I also wonder if Shingen's
death can be postponed by reloading a DEC save over?]  Training
Katsuyori costs the same whenever you do it.  If you do it early,
those points will just leak out of him.  Save training until Shingen
is approaching his death.  This is my opinion.  I have no game play
experience to support my notions.  If there is some reason training
Katsuyori early is important, I don't know it.

However, this I do know.  If you don't train Katsuyori, he performs
the same as Shingen did.

How much does it cost to train?  
At 1x, $10,000 to train ST, MO, or IQ to 100.  All three would be $30,000
At 2x,  $5,000 to train ST, MO, or IQ to 100.  All three would be $15,000
At 3x,  $3,400 to train ST, MO, or IQ to 100.  All three would be $10,200

Training ST increases the maximum number at infantry recruitments
and makes Nj-crises work better.  Having larger recruitments would
be nice, but Nj-crisis (TM200) is conceptually a waste of PRD and
a game turn.  Yet, I would gladly pay for larger recruitments.
Train ST to maximum.

Training IQ decreases the cost of reducing DST and raising CLT.  By
the time you get this ability, it is of small worth.  Both those
commands are used mainly in the beginning of the game.  Even the AI
are quick to attend to CLT and DST in AI territories.  After the
territories are fixed up, you would only use the Fc and Ca to repair
small damage from events.  If you are accepting events, then saving
money fixing damage is of interest to you.  Then, over the course of
time, you probably will recover your money spent training.  The only
advantage I can see is that your various territories don't have to
have as much cash on hand to fix event damages.  Only train IQ if
you have already trained ST and MO; then, if you have money you need
to dump, then train IQ.  Or, ignore it.

Third is MO making Fa-Aid and Al (alliance) more effective.  This
might be of some use if it increased the duration of alliances.
With Shingen, 60 months is the maximum alliance duration.  Alas, I
cannot remember what happens to either Fa-Aid or alliances.  However,
because I understand the economics of the October Harvest (TM340),
decreasing the cost of Fa-Aid or increasing its magnitude, which is
essentially the same thing, increases the yearly profit at harvest.
I can see how this would add up quickly considering this would be
applied to four territories (or three if you select your buying
territory at October).  I say train MO all the way to 100.



*TM215
Mi - Military Commands

Move, Going, and Enlist comprise commands deemed military in nature.
Enlisting infantry is easily seen as exclusively militaristic, but "Going"
to war and "Move" assets are more than military.  They also serve economic
purposes.

ENLIST: TM240       GOING: TM230       MOVE: TM220



*TM220
Mi-Move: Sending resources from one territory to another

This is a frequently used command to send money, product, and
military units to where they are needed.  If you arrange the
territory management order wisely at the start of the month, you
can move and then use the resources sent in the same month.  The
exception is your capital territory.  The capital territory always
has its turn first each month.  Anything sent to it can't be used
until the next month.  Early in the game when many territories
depend on resources being sent, this can be a problem.  The
solution is to move your capital when sending stuff out from the
capital - you can even send Shingen out with the army as it is
capturing an AI territory making it the new capital.  Having
foresight can keep your capital from having turns without the
resources it needs.

One trick when moving is sending Shingen each time.  For example,
if Shingen is in the buying territory, send him with the PRD to
the selling territory.  The selling territory sells.  The next
month, it is the first territory to manage.  Now send Shingen and
the cash back to the buying territory.  It buys.  The next month,
it is the first territory to manage.  This tactic has assured
that movements will happen in the correct order.  However, there
is also a hidden benefit: some events only happen at the capital,
many of them beneficial.  By moving your capital in a month, you
are getting two chances for capital only events that month
(see TM910 for events).

One warning caveat: you should make sure the capital always has
the money needed to make an alliance available ($54).  You
increase the odds of attack on any or all of your territories if
you ignore this rule (see TM190).



*TM230
Mi-Going: the command to attack the AI.

This command consumes 5PRD in your treasury - without PRD, you
can't attack (TM502 has an example of preventing AI attack because
of no PRD).  Fortunately, most successful attacks generate enough
PRD to pay back the 5PRD cost.  

Attacking has many uses besides the obvious:
1) Capturing territories,
2) Earning spoils (BUT070), 
3) Gaining experience points and rank (BUT060).

You can also attack to keep an AI player from attacking you.
For example, if you have moved the bulk of your army to Kai, West
Shinano/Kiso may attack Shinano.  If this is inconvenient, you can
attack West Shinano from Kai.  This prevents Kiso soldiers from
reaching Shinano.  Furthermore, attacks keep the AI from doing
anything.  It doesn't matter if you kill any enemy units.  The AI
still loses any action planned for the month (see TM060).

Attacks can also be used as a delay.  If the AI holds your
territory for a month, it can start using the territory resources
you left behind.  If you plan to recapture a territory given to
the AI, likely you will not bother to remove resources.  However,
if you discover you need an extra month before the army is ready,
you can use an attack on the attacker to stop the AI from taking
your giveaway territory too soon.  [You may think, "either I waste
a turn moving out resources or I waste a turn in a mock attack.
What is the difference?"  The difference is the resources stay
where they are needed.  If you move them out, you will have to
move them back in, wasting two turns.  Besides, not everything
goes as planned.  Knowing how to delay is useful to fix unexpected
problems.]  

Of course, you can also delay after the AI takes your territory.
By attacking it, the AI cannot use the territory resources because
it will lose its monthly action.  The difference between the two
attacks, delaying capture versus delaying AI use, is that you have
the opportunity to use the giveaway territory an extra month if you
delay capture.  Perhaps that territory has something it needs to do?

In the discussion above, I am envisioning a circumstance that
happens to me regularly at North Shinano.  The army has captured
Etchu, leaving North Shinano empty.  Kozuke/Uesugi will rush in to
take it.  I hold Shinano.  I can use it to delay Kozuke/Uesugi
either before Kozuke/Uesugi takes North Shinano or afterward to
prevent Uesugi from using it.



*TM240
Mi-Enlist: Obtaining more infantry

Because of battle casualties and the need to have upgraded units,
a large supply of infantry is eventually needed.  Once you have the
infantry, you go to the merchant to convert infantry into the other
unit types (TM250).

LOY and YLD equally determine how many infantry a territory can
enlist.  One other factor is the Ruler Maximum.  For Shingen, 125
Infantry is the maximum.  Katsuyori recruits between 125 and 165
infantry based on ST attribute when he inherits his father's rule
(see TM210 for Katsuyori training).

Current Enlistment Limit =
  YLD       LOY        
 -----  X  -----  X  RULER  MAXIMUM
  100       100

For Shingen, this formula simplifies to
  YLD   X   LOY
 ---------------   OR   (1/80) x YLD x LOY  OR  (YLD x LOY) / 80
        80

Of course, the game will always tell you the most infantry you
can recruit based on territory statistics and available room in
the 255 unit infantry slot.

Recruiting infantry causes upset to territory workers.
Productivity as represented by YLD and LOY may go down.  Territory
WEL (wealth) may go down.  YLD goes down in set amounts:
4, 6, 8, 10, 14, or 20.  On average, the drop rate reflects the
number of infantry recruited.  Similarly, LOY may drop anywhere
from 0 to 66.  WEL drops are 4 to 14.

I have not recorded a yield drop when recruiting below 17INF
(although it may have happened once).  It is difficult getting YLD
drops when recruiting 25 or less INF.  The reason I know is because
I reload over and over to try to zero the YLD of Shinano when YLD18,
LOY100 or Kai at YLD20, LOY100.  Kai enlists 25INF and Shinano
22INF.  I spend five minutes trying to get a -20YLD recruitment to
zero the YLD.  [Doing this is a recurring theme in my games - you
need at least one low YLD territory for buying (TM320 making a buying
territory).]  

Low recruitments will only drop LOY 0 to 9 points.  Any
recruitment 80 or above is guaranteed to drop YLD, LOY, and WEL.
IF you recruit 79INF, reloading over and over, eventually you will
get a drop of only 9LOY. 

I have experimented with different recruitment ideas over the years.
I have no solid advice to give you.  No matter what you do,
recruitment damages your territory.  You have to keep in mind the
October Harvest.  If you need money, you will have to take it easy
on recruitment so that your territory maintains high statistics that
generate PRD and money.  If you are in desperate need of troops, you
can enlist aggressively.  Repair statistics, mainly LOY, before OCT
if it makes sense to do so.  You also now know about the Yield
Incremental.  You don't want to be jumping the YLD up and down 10 or
so points at a time (unless, of course, you discover your enlistment
has reset the YI to $40.  Even then, you might want to squeeze in a
few more recruitments before fixing YLD knowing you will be paying
the lowest price possible later.)

With all my talk about the YI, I suppose I need to give an example.
I don't have a set way of recruiting because I am still searching
for a satisfying way to do it.  At times,  I recruit twice before I
consider repairing LOY.  After repair, I will recruit again.
I won't fix LOY again until after the harvest. It may lose me money,
but it is more time efficient.  If YLD is too low for good
recruitments, I bump it sometimes before harvest thinking the extra
YLD points will be partially paid for by the harvest tax.  When I
repair the YLD at 2x, I pay whatever the YI is.  Only when it starts
heading toward 70 do I worry about bringing it down.  Often it will
reset itself because of continued recruiting.  If it doesn't,
recruiting with forced -20 YLD drops should do it.  The YI is a
stubborn variable that will do what it wants.  All you can do is
push it toward where you want it to go

One concept deserves mention: Time.  In the beginning of the game,
you have lots of time and little money.  You spend time luxuriously
to earn or save money.  Yet, at some point, you realize that time
has a monetary value. Recruiting 30INF a turn might be a poor use
of time.  You may need to repair statistics to make sure you are
getting better enlistment numbers.  Also to be considered is the
255 unit limit.  You have to move off those recruited infantry to
a buying territory or a combat territory because you have no more
recruiting space.  And, how are you supplying money to the buying
territory to upgrade units?  You might not have the time to keep
recruiting infantry because you need to use more time making money.

Be mindful of seasonal events.  Your capital territory makes a
great place to recruit because of the possibility of princess
births with +5LOY, Imperial envoys +4LOY, and the marriage to Lady
Koi JAN 1546 +6 or +12 LOY.  All territories may get festivals in
SEP up to +9LOY and rich harvests in AUG that can increase YLD
4, 5, 6, 8, 10, or 11 points.  Sometimes, the game all but forces
you to accept a rich harvest (I try to avoid them because they often
raise the YI).  Recruit so that your territory isn't sitting at
100YLD and 100LOY when those events happen.  You only benefit from
the events if your statistics can go up.  Ideally, you repair LOY
after OCT harvest, recruit, which lowers statistics that make the
next recruitment lower, but you wait for a few events to bump LOY
back up to make the next recruitment bigger.



*TM250
*UPGRADING  INFANTRY

This section discusses upgrading INF at the Merchant.
See TM310 and TM312 for trading PRD at the Merchant.

This section has the following topics:

TM251  Merchant Upgrade Prices Algorithm
TM252  Implications of the Merchant Upgrade Prices Algorithm
TM253  Upgrading Strategy


*TM251  MERCHANT Upgrade Prices Algorithm

Introduction:

I knew that WEL and CLT influenced prices, but I had reversed my
view that YLD contributed.  I suspected that LOY may be involved.
This was an impossible problem to determine by testing and
observation.

Forunately, a programming enthousiast contacted me and offered
to tell me what he found tracing the Shingen code.  He told me
exactly what the computer was doing to determine merchant prices.
His name is David Wilson.  He not only explained it to me, but
also presented ideas on how to use the information.  I thank him
again via this document: he gave me a gift I much desired and
couldn't/wouldn't do for myself.

If you don't want to know the intricate details of how the
Merchant Upgrade Prices are formed, you can skip ahead to TM252
where I present the conclusions made from this information.


Merchant Upgrade Prices Algorithm Outline:

1) Each territory has merchant prices based on territory statistics
2) Use the YLD, DST, CLT, LOY, WEL to compute SBV
3) Use SBV to proportionally give prices to each unit type
4) Add or subtract a random modifier 0-3 to each unit type
5) Make sure each unit type price is equal or above the minimum price
6) If the calculated prices are for a human territory, double prices


#1 Each territory has Merchant Prices based on territory statistics
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Prices are computed for AI territories the same way as human controlled
territories with one exception: the prices are doubled for the human.
So, when step #5 comes along, the minimum prices will be from the AI
perspective, then prices are doubled in step #6 for the human.

The five prime territory statistics: YLD, DST, CLT, LOY, and WEL
all influence merchant upgrade prices equally.  Statistics add
together in the following manner:

STATS = YLD - DST + CLT + LOY + WEL

That equation means that YLD, CLT, LOY, and WEL increase the price
to upgrade units, but DST lowers that cost.  Since all statistics
have a range of zero to a hundred, that means the range of the
STATS variable is -100 to +400.

The computer never actually assigns a STATS variable; that variable
is for the convenience of explanation and human calculations.  The
computer actually computes a variable called the Statistical Base
Value.


#2 Use the YLD, DST, CLT, LOY, WEL to compute SBV
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
SBV is the Statistical Base Value.  In other words, it is a number
relatively unique to every territory because of the varying statistics
of each territory.  It is the number used to generate each unit type's
price in step #3.

SBV = (100 + YLD - DST + CLT + LOY + WEL) / 8 truncating fractions 

or it could be written using the STATS variable from step #1
SBV = (100 + STATS) / 8  truncating fractions


One hundred is added to the sum of territory YLD, CLT, LOY, and WEL so
that when subtracting the DST, the sum remains non-negative.  That sum
is divided by eight, taking only the whole number of the division --
the remainder is discarded.  The range of SBV values are from 0 - 62.

The SBV will be used to give each unit type a buy and sell price.  Sell
prices, for the human, are 25% of the buy price.  [However, it makes
no sense to downgrade your units to infantry.  You lose money and time.]


#3 Use SBV to proportionally give prices to each unit type
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Each unit type scales its price from the Statistical Base Value.

HDQ = 100% SBV  (no fraction because SBV is a whole number)
CAV =  60% SBV  truncate fractions
RM  =  70% SBV  truncate fractions
AR  =  40% SBV  truncate fractions
LNC =  20% SBV  truncate fractions


#4 Add or subtract a random modifier 0-3 to each unit type
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Modifiers, 0-3, are generated as part of the pre-month processing
(TM060).  The modifiers are random but will not vary during the month.
Modifiers are created for each unit type for each territory in the
game.  Part of the modifier "package" is a random sign, plus or minus,
that indicates how the modifier will be applied: either increasing or decreasing
a price.  So, the range of modifiers are:
-3, -2, -1, -0, +0, +1, +2, +3

[The distinction between a -0 and a +0 only matters if you are
assessing probabilities: there are eight possible values, not seven.]

Looking back at step #3 we could write:

HDQ = 100% SBV plus or minus zero to three  truncate fractions
CAV =  60% SBV plus or minus zero to three  truncate fractions
RM  =  70% SBV plus or minus zero to three  truncate fractions
AR  =  40% SBV plus or minus zero to three  truncate fractions
LNC =  20% SBV plus or minus zero to three  truncate fractions


5) Make sure each unit type price is equal or above the minimum price
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Each unit type has a minimum price.  The prices from step #4 are tested
against the minimum unit price (by type) and changed to that minimum
should it be less than it.

HDQ must be $40 or higher
CAV must be $15 or higher
RM  must be $20 or higher
AR  must be $10 or higher
LNC must be $04 or higher

These minimums are from the AI players' perspectives.  These are the
lowest amounts they will pay.  In step #6, the prices are doubled for
the human player.


#6 If the calculated prices are for a human territory, double prices
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
The Merchant Upgrade Prices Algorithm is designed to handle the AI unit
upgrades.  It works for the human because after step #5, the prices are
doubled.

Doubling prices means the modifiers that are added or subtracted in
step #4 are essentially doubled, too.  That means that prices go up or
down -6, -4, -2, 0, +2, +4, +6 for the human player.  This is a moot
point when upgrading from a territory with low statistics, but makes
a difference when trying to upgrade from a territory you are also
using to recruit the infantry.  Such a territory will likely have
healthy YLD, LOY, and WEL values.  [Later, I will advise moving INF
to a low statistic territory to do upgrades.]

Of course, getting modifiers that subtract could make for affordable
prices in a modest statistic territory.  That is one of the advantages
of this randomization: sometimes the prices will go down so you can
watch for better prices.

For an example of how to compute the Merchant Upgrade Prices, we will
consider the territory of Musashi at game start:
YLD=51, DST=75, CLT=40, LOY=26, WEL=35.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP #1 Use territory statistics to compute STATS variable
STATS= (YLD - DST + CLT + LOY + WEL)

Using Musashi's statistics YLD=51, DST=75, CLT=40, LOY=26, WEL=35.
STATS = (51 - 75 + 40 + 26 + 35) = 77


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP #2 Use the STATS variable to compute SBV
Compute the Statistical Base Value (SBV)
SBV = (100 + STATS) / 8  truncating fractions

using STATS = 77 for Musashi from step #1
SBV = (100 + 77) /8  truncating fractions
SBV = (177) / 8  truncating fractions 
SBV = 22.125  now truncate the fraction
SBV = 22


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP #3 Use SBV to proportionally give prices to each unit type

HDQ = 100% SBV
CAV =  60% SBV
RM  =  70% SBV
AR  =  40% SBV
LNC =  20% SBV

use SBV=22 from step #2
HDQ = 100% (22) = 1.0 X 22 = 22                      = 22
CAV =  60% (22) = 0.6 X 22 = 13.2  truncate fraction = 13
RM  =  70% (22) = 0.7 x 22 = 15.4  truncate fraction = 15
AR  =  40% (22) = 0.4 x 22 =  8.8  truncate fraction =  8
LNC =  20% (22) = 0.2 x 22 =  4.4  truncate fraction =  4


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP #4 Add or subtract a random modifier 0-3 to each unit type

This step will add modifiers that were stored for each territory during
pre-month processing.  We will never know what they are except by
inference - looking at the prices and calculating backwards.  The
modifiers could be: -3, -2, -1, -0, +0, +1, +2, +3
The modifiers are randomly generated for each unit type.

For this illustration, we will assume the modifiers are as follow:
HDQ modifier = +0
CAV modifier = +3
RM  modifier = -2
AR  modifier = -1
LNC modifier = +1

Using the above modifiers, adding to unit types from step #3
HDQ = 22 +0  = 22
CAV = 13 +3  = 16
RM  = 15 -2  = 13
AR  =  8 -1  =  7
LNC =  4 +1  =  5


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP #5 Make each unit type price equal or above the minimum price

Each unit type has a minimum price.  The prices from step #4 are tested
against the minimum unit price (by type) and changed to that minimum
should it be less than it.

HDQ must be $40 or higher
CAV must be $15 or higher
RM  must be $20 or higher
AR  must be $10 or higher
LNC must be $04 or higher

These minimums are from the AI players' perspectives.  These are the
lowest amounts they will pay.  In step #6, the prices are doubled for
the human player.

Using the prices from step #4:
HDQ = 22
CAV = 16
RM  = 13
AR  =  7
LNC =  5

applying the rules
HDQ = 22 must be $40 or higher  HDQ = $40
CAV = 16 must be $15 or higher  CAV = $16
RM  = 13 must be $20 or higher  RM  = $20
AR  =  7 must be $10 or higher  AR  = $10
LNC =  5 must be $04 or higher  LNC =  $5


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6) Double prices for human player

Prices from step #5
HDQ = $40
CAV = $16
RM  = $20
AR  = $10
LNC =  $5

DOUBLED
HDQ = $80
CAV = $32
RM  = $40
AR  = $20
LNC = $10

The above represents one possibility of random merchant upgrade prices
for Musashi at the start of the game.

Because prices are always doubled, the prices will always be even
numbers.  Prices go up in $2 increments.



*TM252  Implications of the Merchant Upgrade Prices Algorithm

Using the procedure at TM251 to evaluate territory statistics for every
territory on the Shingen game map yields the below table.  The numbers
below are computed using the game start statistics.

Territory   Stats   Territory   Stats   Territory Stats   
--------------------------------------------------------------
Shinano      -30    Kozuke        50    Hida        99
West Shinano  21    North Shinano 56    Mikawa     101
Noto          28    Echizen       63    Owari      110
Totoumi       34    Suruga        71    Mino       111 
Ise           41    Musashi       77    Sagami     115
Kai           43    Kaga          91    Yamashiro  147
Etchu         46    Echigo        93    Oumi       149
--------------------------------------------------------------

The Stats range of values are from -100 to +400.  As you can see,
Shinano tops the list with a -30.  Because of its high DST, it beats
out West Shinano as the best place to upgrade infantry.

To appreciate the uniqueness of Shinano, another table must be
considered.  The next table is TABLE-LOW-UV, which informs 



*TABLE-LOW-UV  
       MAX  LOW   100%    50% 
UNIT    UV   UV   STAT   STAT 
------------------------------
 HDQ  $130  $80   195     227 
 CAV   $80  $30    75     115 
 RM    $92  $40    99     139 
 AR    $54  $20    43     123 
 LNC   $30  $08   -21      99 
------------------------------

MAX UV = Maximum Unit Value (the highest price possible)
LOW UV = Lowest Unit Value possible
100% STAT = Stat value boundary for Unit Value to always be LOW UV
50% STAT = Stat value boundary for Unit Value to be LOW UV 50% of time
STAT = (YLD - DST + CLT + LOY + WEL)

I am a cheapskate when upgrading infantry.  I want the lowest prices and
will seldom even consider paying more than the minimum price.  Thus the
Table-Low-UV is my way of knowing what I need at an upgrader territory
to get those lowest prices.  The 100% Stat column tells me the highest
the sum of the Stat variable can be to still get a guaranteed lowest
upgrade price for that unit type.  The 50% Stat column gives the Stat
sum to get the lowest price for that unit type 50% of the time.  That
means that the random aspect of prices will still randomize to have that
unit type at the lowest upgrade price half the time.

Of course, having 100% Stat, guaranteed lowest upgrade price, is the
ideal,  However, it is not always practical for two reasons: 

REASON ONE - you may want to use the territory for more than just
upgrading or maybe you just recently acquired the territory and haven't
had the chance to groom the statistics.

REASON TWO -  each unit type has a different 100% Stat value.  The less
expensive units have harsher requirements to get the lowest prices.
You may have a territory that gives lowest upgrade prices for HDQ, CAV,
and RM, but not AR and LNC.  Compromise will be needed.  That is the use
of knowing the 50% Stat values.  You can do a little bit of trade off
and still use a territory for upgrading all unit types --
you just might have to wait until the price is randomly the lowest.

Examining the TABLE-LOW-UV, observe that a territory with STATS<=99 is
able to have 100% lowest prices for HDQ, CAV, RM, and AR.  LNC will be
the lowest price 50% of the time.  Such a territory would only have to
select the right prices for LNC.

The implication of a STAT<=99 territory is that you can have YLD=91 and
then if DST balances with the other territory statistics, then territory
meets the above criteria for a 100% of the time lowest price for all
units except 50% of time lowest for LNC.  

YLD=91 is the threshold to be at the highest range for selling PRD.
This territory can do upgrades and sell PRD to finance the upgrades.
All it needs is other territories to earn the PRD and recruit the INF
and then send both.  I call this type of territory an upgrader territory.



*TM253  Upgrading Strategy

Two questions will be considered here:
1) What to upgrade
2) Where to do the upgrade


111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
1) What to upgrade

The order of most useful/expedient upgrades are as follows:
1) CAV
2) LNC or RM
3) HDQ or AR


Early in the game, CAV is the most important unit to upgrade.  If you
are playing a conventional game, early rank gain is important.
Killing enemy HDQ yields the highest rank gains.  Most often, this
requires a sizeable force of CAV not only to kill the HDQ, but to
survive the defending INF counterattacks as well as possible range
unit and LNC counterattacks, too.  You will need to replace lost CAV
units if you are attacking month after month.

If you are playing an LRB Exploit game, rank gain is likely not
important.  Army Power (AP) is the most important aspect of a LRBex
game.  You need sufficient AP to have AI opponents leave the field
battle on turn 6.  Some exploits will not be possible until you have
increased AP.  CAV is the best unit to increase AP because each CAV
has the highest unit power of .20AP.  If you have limited INF, then
upgrade to CAV.  Although HDQ also have unit power of .20AP, they
are more expensive and thus INF should not be upgraded to HDQ until
later when you have wealth to spare.

Going along with the previous paragraph, LNC should be your second
choice of upgrade if you are playing a LRBex game.  They are the
least expensive upgrade and thus can be done in bulk.  Although LNC
only have a unit power of .10AP, having large numbers of them will
compensate for the modest increase in power over the .05AP INF

However, if you are playing for rank, LNC are still a good second
choice, but RM might be better.  With larger numbers of RM, you will
lose less of your CAV and LNC units because of thinning out or
eliminating AI unit divisions with your RM.  Or with more RM you can
beat larger and/or higher ranked AI foes.  Larger divsions of RM
allow for more aggressive play.

The below table, Army Power by Unit, gives the LRB Exploit summary
of how your upgrade money will best meet your needs.  The AP/Gold
column summarizes how to get the most out of limited funds.  The
AP column summarizes how to get the most out of a limited supply
of infantry.

ARMY POWER BY UNIT
           BASE   
UNIT   AP  COST  AP/GOLD
HDQ   .20  $80   .00125
CAV   .20  $30   .00667
RM    .15  $40   .00375
AR    .10  $20   .00500
LNC   .10   $8   .01250
INF   .05    ?


Of course, how you are playing determines how much money you have
and how much infantry are being recruited.  For me, I find that it
isn't until the second year of the game, 1546, when I can start
doing sizeable upgrades.  The first year may have some upgrades, but
they are usually 15-60 units.  I just don't have any territory ready
to produce infantry, so I only do what I feel I most need, which is
usually CAV or RM.

Note that INF are used to take the hits that would otherwise go to
more valuable units (see BUT410).  If the INF are depleted by
upgrades, the burden of dying in place of others goes to lancers.
However, there are some games where I have lost many lancers in
battle.  So, even though I would prefer CAV or RM as first year
upgrades, I will choose to use my INF to upgrade to more LNC.  That
way, the loss of the INF goes to my greatest need: more cheap troops
to take hits (especially when storming castle gates).

[One additional note: you may think, "why bother upgrading the INF to
LNC just so they can be fodder?"  Two reasons: LNC will kill more enemy
units than INF in attack and resist enemy attack better than INF.
A LNC division of equivalent size as an INF division will suffer less
casualties than the INF when attacked.  As such, you have upgraded
the ability of your fodder troops.  Increasing your division size of
LNC means more power, too (BUT405).  You are only trying to make do
until the second year when more infantry become available.  And, when
I say upgrade to LNC, I do mean to retain five or so INF to use as
size one division dummy units.]

Once you are in the second year of play when infantry starts being
recruited, you have some freedom of choice on what to upgrade.


2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222
2) Where to upgrade.

TM252 explains how territory statistics influence merchant upgrade
prices.  I recommend maximizing territory statiss for recruitment.
Although you can use a low YLD territory to get 20-40INF, it is
more efficient to get 100-125INF from a high YLD territory.  Time
is lost getting low amounts of INF and then upgrading low amounts.

So, if you have maximized the YLD and LOY of a territory, chances
are that WEL is maximized, too.  WEL doesn't help, but it will hurt
when it comes time to upgrade the infantry.  If you are recruiting
at a high DST, low CLT territory, that will lower the merchant
prices.  After you recruit a couple times, the YLD, LOY, and WEL
statistics drop.  You might be able to afford to upgrade the
infantry in the same territory that enlisted them.

However, a more certain way to afford the upgrades in the recruiter
territory is to do so after the OCT Harvest (TM340).  After the tax
is collected, if you choose 100% tax, the LOY will drop 66 or 99
points and the WEL will drop 50 or 75 points.  It could be that both
LOY and WEL are now zero.  Check the merchant in OCT.  The upgrade
prices are lower because the statistics that determine prices are at
the annual/yearly low (TM252).  And, if prices are not suitable in
OCT, as long as you don't increase statistics, you can check again
the next month for more favorable randomization.  For instance, if
the high-end randomization was shown one month, the low-end
randomization could be up to a maximum of $12 lower each unit.

======================================================================
reprint of TABLE-LOW-UV  
       MAX  LOW   100%    50% 
UNIT    UV   UV   STAT   STAT 
------------------------------
 HDQ  $130  $80   195     227 
 CAV   $80  $30    75     115 
 RM    $92  $40    99     139 
 AR    $54  $20    43     123 
 LNC   $30  $08   -21      99 
------------------------------
MAX UV = Maximum Unit Value (the highest price possible)
LOW UV = Lowest Unit Value possible
100% STAT = Stat value boundary for Unit Value to always be LOW UV
50% STAT = Stat value boundary for Unit Value to be LOW UV 50% of time
STAT = (YLD - DST + CLT + LOY + WEL)
======================================================================

Another idea coming from the TABLE-LOW-UV is that some units have a
higher statistic total allowance to still get the lowest prices.
If you were to recruit a few times, thus lowering YLD, LOY, and WEL,
it maybe that HDQ can upgrade at $80.  Sure it is expensive, but doing
this upgrade here will not waste time moving the INF elsewhere.
You are going to want some HDQ upgrades sometime.  You might as well
take advantage of the opportunity to upgrade at a recruiter territory.
After you get rid of the some of the INF by upgrading to HDQ, you can
continue to recruit more, this time sending the INF elsewhere to be
upgraded.

I still advise choosing a territory to be an upgrade territory.  This
territory will be HIGH DST and low CLT.  It will not enlist infantry,
so it will have zero LOY and WEL.  YLD can be low or high depending on
your desire to use the territory to sell or buy PRD.

In my PRD trading for profit games (TM312), I dedicate one territory
to stay low YLD to get low PRD buy prices.  With low YLD, recruiting
INF is not viable here, so I kept the LOY and WEL statistics at
zero, even before I knew the TM251 algorithm for merchant upgrade
prices.  Although I would maximize CLT (in my ignorance), prices
were always low with some random moments above minimum prices.

This buying territory was used to also upgrade INF.

Because of the LRB Exploit, I no longer use a buying territory that
both buys PRD and upgrades INF.  I get the PRD I need to sell from
LRB exploits.  Thus, I don't need low YLD in my upgrader territory.
I have found that I can bring YLD to 91 in this territory and sell
PRD at the highest rates: 25% of time $3, 50% $4, and 25% $5.

My upgrader territory takes delivery of INF and PRD.  It sells the
PRD and upgrades the INF, then distributes gold and upgraded units
to any territory that needs them.  Furthermore, in my LRBex games,
I usually do this in a pure zero rank territory.  That way, it can
send out units by re-imprinting a zero rank when capturing adjacent
territories.  [Often, the imprinting happens in a territory that
vacate by sending PRD and Army to the upgrader.  After the AI
captures the territory, the upgrader racaptures at zero or near zero
rank.]

By raising to 91YLD instead of 100, I save 9 points from the territory
statistics that determine merchant upgrade prices.  I try to maximize
DST in this territory while keeping CLT, LOY, and WEL zero.

The below is what I have called the base upgrade prices.  These prices
are the base prices from my perspective becasue I will base my upgrade
decisions on how well a territory's prices compare with these prices.
Base prices are the lowest prices possible and it is my goal to upgrade
at those prices unless in desperate circumstances.

             HDQ   080
CAV   030    RM    040
AR    020    LNC   008



*TM310
*PRD Merchant Prices (product, which is rice)

Due to research into the Shingen programming by David Wilson, I now
know the algorithm for PRD prices.  His research has given me an
in depth understanding of the merchant pricing, which I pass on to
you.

PRD buy price (the price to buy PRD from the merchant) is territory
YLD divided by 13, truncate any remainder, then a random number is
added, zero to three.  If the result is zero, then the result is
changed to one (one is the minimum).

BUY PRD = whole number (YLD/13) + random (0-3); if zero, change to one
SELL PRD = SELL PRD divided by two, discard any half fraction, 
          change a zero SELL PRD result to one.

For example, a territory like Musashi starts the game with YLD=51.
51/13 = 3 when truncated.  A random 0 to 3 is added.  Thus the BUY
PRD price in Musashi will be 3 + (0-3 random).  So the possible buy
prices in Musashi are buy $3, buy $4, buy $5, and buy $6.  

The SELL PRD prices in Musashi are half the buy prices: 
$3/2, $4/2, $5/2, and $6/2.
$1.5, $2, $2.5, $3 but halves must be truncated:
sell $1, sell $2, sell $2, sell $3.

Because each possible sell price has an equal probability of 25%, the
two ways of getting $2 make for 50% chance of sell $2.  The odds are
25% chance of sell $1
50% chance of sell $2
25% chance of sell $3

Each end of month processing generates the random additions/modifiers
that will be added when determining the BUY PRD price.  These are
generated for the new month and cannot be changed by reloading in
between two of your territories (see TM040).

The modifiers are randomized in the pre-month processing, but PRD prices
can change by reloading IF A TERRITORY EVENT THAT CHANGES THE YLD OCCURS:
--------------------------------------------------
JUN heavy rain (-2 or -4YLD)
AUG drought (-4 or -8YLD)
AUG rich harvest (+4, +5, +6, +8, +10, or +11YLD)
SEP storm (-3 to -7YLD)
Mouri Ninja attack (-4 or -8YLD)  
--------------------------------------------------

The above are the only month start events that can change YLD and thus
PRD prices.

The BUY PRD price is computed at the moment you contact the merchant.
As mentioned above, the YLD is divided by 13, truncate remainder, and
add the 0-3 modifier that was randomized in pre-month processing.

The table below gives a breakdown of the YLD ranges and the prices for
both buying PRD and selling PRD.  Note that a range of prices are
given.  The random modifiers have equal probability, but because of
dividing the BUY price by two and truncating half fractions, the SELL
prices clump together.

YLD       BUY                    SELL
RANGE     
000-012   $1-$3; 50% chance $1   100% $1
013-025   $1-$4                  75% $1, 25% $2
026-038   $2-$5                  50% $1, 50% $2
039-051   $3-$6                  25% $1, 50% $2, 25% $3
052-064   $4-$7                  50% $2, 50% $3
065-077   $5-$8                  25% $2, 50% $3, 25% $4
078-090   $6-$9                  50% $3, 50% $4
091-100   $7-$10                 25% $3, 50% $4, 25% $5

note: buy prices all have equal chance except for the lowest
range, YLD 000-012, which has a 50% chance of $1 while $2 and
$3 have 25% chance, each.



*TM312
BUYING AND SELLING PRD for profit

Buying and selling PRD can increase your net worth.  Buying product
in volume at a low price and then selling it in volume at a high
price is how it is done.

At the beginning of the game, before you have modified territory
statistics, Kai and Shinano can buy and sell PRD at a profit in the same
territory.  A unique feature of the game is that territories with YLD 13
to 25 can buy PRD at $1 25% of the time.  25% of the time they can also
sell at $2 (see table at TM310).  [If it doesn't happen the way you want
it, you can force it by reloading the previous end of month to generate
new merchant prices.]

Although you can make $999 selling 999PRD at $2 when buying it at $1
when using a YLD18 or YLD20 territory like Shinano and Kai, you are
tied to the fluctuating merchant prices and cannot make profit until
the price is just right.  If you can make some money this way, take it,
but eventually you should graduate to a more reliable and profitable
system: one territory for buying and one for selling.

A 0-12 YLD territory can buy PRD at $1 50% of the time and at $2 25%
of the time, and $3 25% of the time.  However, this same territory can
only sell PRD at $1.  In contrast, a YLD 91-100 territory sells PRD at
$3 25% of the time, $4 50% of the time, and $5 25% of the time.  It is
easy to see that if all you do is make sure you never buy PRD at $3,
you could make money by buying PRD at one territory and moving it to
another to sell.


The buying and selling of PRD consists of four stages:
1) move money into buying territory
2) buy product at low YLD buying territory
3) move product to selling territory
4) sell product at high YLD selling territory

If you arrange your territory order wisely at the start of your month,
you can move money into the buy territory in the same month it buys PRD.
The next month, arrange it so the buy territory moves PRD into a sell
territory on the same month it sells it.  This flip-flop then only takes
two months to accomplish.

Once you finish stage 4, you can move the money back to the buying
territory to repeat the cycle.  Once you have more money, the buying
territory can make two or more buys before it runs out of money.  Also,
eventually the PRD bin in your selling territory will have several sales
worth of PRD.  The time wasted moving money and PRD decreases, thus
increasing the profitability of the system.  However, while the buying
territory can store up to 10 purchases of 999PRD, the selling territory
can only sell twice (or three times if at $3/PRD) before the money has
to be shipped off elsewhere to be used.  The maximum cash in a territory
is $9999; the maximum PRD is 9999PRD.

When you first start out, you may have to pool the treasuries of several
territories to elevate the yield in what will be your sell territory.
The pool of resources will no doubt contain PRD as well as money.  After
bringing YLD up to 91-100 (the best sell range), or as close as you can,
then you can sell what PRD you have on hand and Ship the proceeds off to
the buy territory.  

It may be that you can't buy at $1, but you can't wait.  Buy at $2.  Next
month, ship the PRD to the sell territory.  Again, if the best price to
sell is only $3, do it anyway.  Next month, ship the money to the buy
territory to repeat the process.  When your cycle is just starting out,
you are compelled to make purchases as long as the price isn't $3 per PRD
because the sell territory needs PRD to sell - without money in its
treasury, it can't do anything without PRD.  The same is true for the
buying territory - it has no excess money, so the sell territory must
ship it cash.

Once you flip-flop a few times, you can delay for better prices if needed
on the buying or selling end.  That is when gold mines or upgrading
infantry is done at the buying territory.  Bad sale prices at the sell
territory gives it the opportunity to recruit or repair statistics, but
rarely does it has time to dig gold mines.  In both cases, bad prices can
also be a good time to move off what has already been purchased or sold.  

The buying territory should concentrate on digging gold mines whenever it
can. If it needs to wait because of bad prices, wait by digging gold
mines.  Buying territories often run out of cash trying to upgrade the
most infantry possible in addition to buying PRD.  Pausing to dig gold
mines has a purpose besides waiting: you want the buying territory to
become semi-self-sufficient.  Having enough gold mines to pay for
additional gold mine digging gives the territory something to do when
waiting for the next cash delivery.

Sometimes you may want to hold back some of the cash sent to the buy
territory so that the sell territory can mark time fixing statistics or
digging gold mines if it needs to do so.  Even if the sell territory had
PRD on hand, having money gives it the option of refusing to sell at $3
and wait for $4 or $5, at least for a month or two.  And if the sell
territory was also serving as a recruiting territory, you may want to
delay enlisting until a sale is made because recruiting damages YLD,
perhaps lowering the value of the next PRD sale. 

When you recruit infantry in large numbers, YLD is harmed.  (Greater than
79INF recruited guarantees YLD damage; at 40INF it is about 50% chance).
As YLD moves below 91 YLD, your sell territory will start selling at $3
50% of the time instead of 25%.  The chance to sell at $5 slips away.
$2 sales appear when below 78 and $4 sales go from 50% to 25%.  You need
high sell prices.  Repair the YLD to regain stability. 

Bonus Tip: You can gain rank while concentrating on buying and selling
product.  If your main army is sitting in a buying or selling territory,
when it moves PRD or money to its counterpart, send the entire army with
it.  Do your buying or selling.  The next month, the AI will attack your
empty territory.  When the counterpart territory sends back money or PRD,
send the army back.  [Obviously, this only works if the AI with Pecking
Order rights is one your army can handle.]  Note that the same tactic can
be used if what was being sent was infantry to be upgraded.



*TM320
Making a Buying Territory:

It takes special care to make a buying territory.  Any territory can be
converted into a buying territory, but the higher the YLD, the more effort
it will take.  Thus, it might be best to start off with a low YLD
territory.  The following table lists the yields in each territory at the
start of the game.

YLD Territory     YLD Territory  YLD Territory
----------------------------------------------------
 03 Hida           20 Kai         35 Echigo
 05 West Shinano   20 Mikawa      35 Echizen
 15 Noto           22 Suruga      38 Mino
 18 Shinano        25 Kaga        39 Ise
 18 North Shinano  25 Yamashiro   40 Owari
 18 Sagami         26 Etchu       51 Musashi
 19 Totoumi        30 Kozuke      54 Oumi

If you won't be using reloading to help in the creation of a buying
territory, I suggest you choose a territory in the far left column.
Those territories will serve well enough without modification.  However,
because you are not using reloads, you MUST NOT make your buying
territory your capital at the time of the AUG season.  As a non-capital
territory, you can choose not to manage your buying territory during
August.  The rich harvest event is placed in the game to foil the low
YLD territory scheme.  It happens so insistently at times that it is
extremely difficult to avoid even with reloading.  If you risk it, in
one instant you could lose the efficacy of your buying territory when
the rich harvest inevitably strikes your territory.  

The main tool in tailoring the YLD of a territory is recruiting infantry
with the Mi-Enlist command (TM240).  First, bring LOY to 100 with the
Fa-Aid command.  Then, recruit the maximum allowed infantry.  When the
numbers being recruited are above 79, a YLD drop is guaranteed.  At
about 40INF recruited, the recruitments are about half YLD drop, half
LOY only drop.  When you get to 25INF recruitments, the odds of a YLD
drop are maybe 15%.  [See TM030 randomization: it is likely you will get
stuck in a pattern.]  When the maximum recruitments are low, you must
use Fa-Aid (TM170) to put LOY back to 100.

At YLD20, LOY100, 25INF is the maximum recruitment.  Wherever you
started, YLD20 is where you want to end up for the final drop.  Now,
not only do you have to reload over and over to get a YLD drop
recruitment, you also have to be selective as to which drop you accept.
ou want a -20YLD recruitment.  If you had a YLD18 territory like
Shinano, it is harder at 22INF maximum recruitment, but you can get a
maximum drop.  The -20YLD will appear as a -18YLD because that is the
most it can be for YLD18 Shinano.

At YLD15, LOY100, 18INF is the maximum recruitment.  Although it is
still barely possible to get a YLD drop recruitment, you might be
better off doing Fa-Development to bump the YLD up to 20.  Or, take a
rich harvest to get you there.  Then, you can follow the procedure
above.  Do the same for any other awkward YLD amount.

Another tool to tailor YLD is to use the disaster events that reduce
YLD (listed below).  The territory disasters are great for clearing
out YLD that is too low to use recruitment to zero out.  

JUN Heavy Rain gives maximum -4YLD and also hurts WEL and DST
AUG Drought gives maximum -8 YLD and some DST
SEP Storm gives maximum -7YLD but also hurts CLT and DST

First, you must save the game before the territory's month begins.  As
you advance to its start, you want a disaster, reloading until you get
it.  As mentioned in the event section (TM910), you can save the game
after getting the disaster announcement, but before it generates its
random statistics.  Do this to reload over and over so as to get the
maximum YLD drop.  [Sometimes you have to regenerate the disaster event
because you can't get the maximum you want when reloading.  The
randomization doesn't allow it.]

After you have brought the YLD down, one more thing remains: bring down
the WEL.  Ironically, if you were using Mi-Enlist to bring down the YLD,
you had to raise the WEL along with LOY, thereby making the territory
temporarily less capable as a buyer.  Use the October Harvest to zero
WEL.  Tax the buying territory at 100%, save the game after it gives you
the PRD and gold collected message.  Advance to the next screen to get
-50 or -75 WEL.  If it matters, reload to get the biggest drop.  If you
can't bring WEL all the way down to zero, you can go the rest of the way
next harvest.

[Note: if you are not going to use the buying territory to upgrade
infantry, zeroing WEL is not crucial.  Yet, better to zero it and not
need it, than to need it and not have zeroed it.  Reminder: low WEL
territories are for upgrading INF and low YLD territories are for buying
PRD.]

If you have lowered the YLD in your buying territory but haven't reached
zero, that is okay.  You can play with it like that.  [Shinano at YLD18
will function adequately without doing anything.]  You can wait until
the next AUG comes around to try for another drought.  You can also use
JUN heavy rain or SEP storm.



*TM321
Making a secure buying territory

It wasn't easy, but now you have your buying territory.  Unfortunately,
I haven't told you all you need to know: your buying territory is unique
(although sometimes I make two of them).  It has to be protected.  In
contrast, if one of your selling territories end up in enemy control for
several turns, the worst the AI can do is spend money left behind and/or
damage the territory by recruiting infantry.  Money can eventually be
replaced without too much concern.  Territory statistics can be repaired
in two months time.  It might be expensive and inconvenient, but it is a
srelatively quick fix.  

The same is not true of your buying territory.  If there is enough money
in the treasury or sufficient gold mine income, the AI players could
decide that what your low YLD territory needs is more YLD, raising it
via Fa-Development. YI is not a concern here.  You don't care what YI is
because the territory doesn't want YLD.  However, because it is a buying
territory, the conversion process almost assuredly made certain the YI
is the minimum, $40.  A measly $200, a 3x result on Fa-Development, and
+15 YLD is the result.  Depending on what the YLD was before, now you
may either have a less effective buying territory or one that needs to
undergo the conversion process again.  

Furthermore, never allow the AI to hold your buying territory at the
start of August.  Unless you reload to eliminate it, quite likely a rich
harvest event will appear under AI rule, adding up to 11 points to YLD.

Part of my game strategy is to give away territories to gain rank or to
move the army around the map.  Because of the rank system, the army has
to recapture territories in order to bring higher rank into them.  I
will spend time fighting in one section of the map, but then come back
to my core territories to refresh their rank to be something that can
fend off enemies.  Either I select a buying territory that is in a
corner, or I have to carefully allow the enemy to capture it and then
immediately retake it as part of the process of moving my army back.

But even if you have no plans to give your buying territory away, the
AI may decide to take it from you.  For example, West Shinano makes a
great buying territory at YLD5, WEL20 at the start of the game.
However, West Shinano is adjacent to seven other territories, the most
neighbors any territory has.  If you are sending cash to West Shinano,
using it to accumulate PRD, and holding the territory with a token
military, the AI may decide to attack.  There are just too many
neighbors to make alliances with all of them (at least early in the
game when you are still building wealth).  Your army must be nearby to
recapture West Shinano, if you can (I say that because one of West
Shinano's neighbors is rank28 Mikawa/Matsudaira).  Anyway, West Shinano
is a natural buying territory, but it is risky to depend on keeping it.
It is poorly located.  

[Updated thought: with LEG tactics, you can hold West Shinano rather
easily.  Because West Shinano is bordered by territories with relatively
small sized armies, you can LRB Exploit defend it.  See LEG408 for ideas.
on how to do this.]

In games I have two buying territories, West Shinano is usually one of
them. I have had times that one buying territory is overworked.  I employ
West Shinano as an auxiliary buying territory.  [Early game, it takes
time to build up a store of PRD.]  I realize that at some point things
will settle down, so I am not worried about holding onto West Shinano
long term.]

As for safety, Shinano makes a better choice as a buying territory.
It has only four neighbors and all of those neighbors are low ranked.
I often choose it as a buying territory because of its location.  Unless
the ownership of territories shift, I know I can take it back or defend
it from capture.

Hida at YLD3, WEL40 is another excellent choice as a natural buying
territory. Hida only has two neighbors.  That being the case, you have
to clobber one of them to get to Hida.  I have a strategy for making
Hida secure that I will share in the Combat Guide.  It is similar to the
one given below for North Shinano.

North Shinano at YLD18, WEL23, can make a good buying territory despite
its proximity to Echigo/Uesugi at rank 31.  From North Shinano, capturing
Etchu will cause Kozuke/Uesugi to capture North Shinano.  Your army at
Etchu recaptures North Shinano.  Next month, after you move the resources
out of Etchu, Echigo/Uesugi will capture it.  Decide whether you will
also take Kozuke.  Next, make an alliance with Uesugi.  North Shinano is
now secure on it northern borders.  Where your army resides depends on
how you handled Kozuke.  You will transfer it somewhere south of North
Shinano.  Its position in the south keeps North Shinano safe from
southern invaders.

Kai at YLD20, WEL28 can make a good buying territory statistically, but
its location makes it hazardous unless you make an alliance with Hojo
and keep the army close to handle Suruga/Imagawa.  Another option is to
concentrate on building rank early so as to take out Hojo.  However, if
you build sufficient rank, you actually don't have to eliminate Hojo.
As long as the army is close, you can kick Hojo out if the AI captures
Kai.  If you bring the rank into Kai, then a small force can defend it.

[YLD20 seems to be the boundary for higher PRD buys.  Meaning, you will
not have enough $1 buys at Kai.  You needs to drop the YLD in Kai, even
if it is only a few points.]

Totoumi at YLD19, WEL25 makes a good buying territory.  Seemingly, it
appears badly placed next to Mikawa/Matsudaira at rank 28.  However,
Suruga/Imagawa is on the other side and West Shinano in front.  Totoumi
only has 3 neighbors.  After an alliance with Matsudaira, Totoumi is
defensible against rank 15 Suruga if it has sufficient rank and a small
force.  Totoumi is a favorable field battle against the AI attacking or
defending.  And the Castle battle can be deadly to unwary attackers.

It is important to have a plan early in the game as to what territory
you want to be a buying territory.  If the AI holds the territory, you
should aspire to grab it before the AI raises the YLD.  All the
territories mentioned make good buying territories even if you do no
further YLD drops.  However, with the exceptions of Hida and West
Shinano, you should be able to get a YLD drop if you keep recruiting
infantry until it happens.  If it takes a while, you are still getting
a slow accumulation of valuable infantry (I am assuming I am writing to
the non-reloading people).

Without reloading savegames, the formation of the best buying territory,
YLD 0, is extremely time consuming.  You would have to rely on getting
certain disasters to luckily appear in your territory.  The best
disaster, drought, you cannot attempt because of the possibility of
getting a rich harvest, instead.  Or, you must recruit infantry to get
the right combination of yield drops.  As you approach your objective,
it becomes unlikely to get a yield drop in a territory because low YLD
means low infantry recruitment numbers.  Every failed attempt still
yanks off 4 to 9 LOY, making further recruitments even more unlikely to
get a yield drop.  You are compelled to raise LOY again after every two
failed attempts.  One further note, while making the attempts to zero
the YLD, you have to raise the LOY.  This raises WEL in the territory.
So, while making the attempt to make it a better buying territory, it
will temporally be worse for upgrades because of higher WEL.  [Without
reloading, the luck it takes to get a zero YLD buying territory might be
even more remarkable than the luck needed to accumulate gold mines.]

As a bonus, here is a table giving the number of adjacent territories
for each territory in the game.  As mentioned earlier, West Shinano has
the most neighbors.  Having fewer neighbors could make holding a buying
territory easier.

1-Yamashiro  3-Sagami   4-Owari
2-Hida       3-Echizen  5-Kai
2-Ise        3-Echigo   5-North Shinano
2-Noto       4-Shinano  5-Etchu
3-Totoumi    4-Kozuke   5-Oumi
3-Musashi    4-Suruga   6-Mino
3-Kaga       4-Mikawa   7-West Shinano



*TM330
Buying and Selling PRD Models: 

There is a time imbalance between a buying territory and a selling
territory.  Once a buying territory is fully supplied with cash, it can
make five to ten purchases before it runs out of money and perhaps
storage space.  In contrast, the selling territory can make three sales
at $3 or two sales if at the expected $4 or the hoped for $5.  The sell
territory cannot continue selling until it ships off the money.  

[The PRD and sale numbers are rounded in the examples for simplicity.] 

If the buying territory is consistently buying at $2 and the selling
territory selling at $3, balance is roughly achieved.  The buy territory
consumes $6,000 in three buys and the sell territory makes $6,000 in two
sales and can ship the money to the buy territory on the third turn,
after the buy territory's third purchase.  Monetary equilibrium
established.  The work done is a profit of 1,000PRD (2,000PRD sold with
3,000PRD purchased).

[A fourth turn will be necessary to ship PRD to seller.  The seller then
gets a free turn.]

However, if the buying territory gets a run of $1 buys, the money it has
will last longer.  Meanwhile, if the selling territory gets $4 sales, it
has $8000 ready to go on the third turn.  The problem is, the buying
territory doesn't have room for most of it and won't need any for many
more turns.  Now, as a seller, the selling territory is out of work.

Early in the game, some money can be dumped on the capital for an
alliance or two to give long-term protection against inconvenient AI
attacks.  However, what is to be done the next time the cash backs up
in the sell territory?  Clearly, we need a better plan than just moving
money and PRD back and forth.

There are several ways to accomplish the buying and selling of product
in a coordinated manner.  This section will discuss variations of doing
that.


*TM331
The basic two territory model
 
In this model, one territory buys PRD and upgrades infantry while the
other sells PRD and recruits infantry.

Early in the game, when you have few territories, this model is often
the only choice you have, the de facto method.  Even when you have more
than three territories, the army is likely off making conquests, fighting
in one territory while you must move out the resources of a territory
just departed.  Only two territory selections maybe available per month
for the economy.  Another factor to be considered is taking time to fix
up territories.  The ones you plan on keeping need to be groomed for the
October Harvest.  The buying and selling of PRD is of secondary
importance to investing in the territories' futures (in the first year).

One of my considerations when I play is to zero out the YLD of a buying
territory before the October Harvest.  I then use the harvest to get rid
of the WEL in the buying territory (see TM320 Making a Buying Territory).

How the PRD commerce goes relates to whether you have a YLD0 buying
territory or a YLD18 one.  A YLD18 territory like Shinano will have less
$1 buys.  Often, to keep things going, buying at $2 will be required.
It is frustrating when after spending all the money on a $2 purchase,
the next month sells PRD at $1 but there is no money to buy some.]

Skipping ahead to the spring of the second year, the buying and selling
system has enough money and PRD to start a rhythm.  The selling
territory keeps pace with the buying territory by recruiting infantry
and repairing YLD and LOY from time to time.  When the infantry is sent
to the buying territory, it can pass on $2 buys by upgrading the
infantry.  It is easy to have the buying and selling territory keep
harmony with each other by slowing the PRD commerce to only the best
prices.

This strategy as I have outlined it gives your high YLD territory the
dual purpose of supplying both cash and infantry to the low YLD
territory.  It can be done in other ways, but this is the most
intuitive way to do things.  However, the dual role of both selling PRD
and recruiting infantry has to be balanced.  Recruit infantry too often
and your YLD will sink to a level that won't allow for the sale of PRD
at $4.  The system still works selling at $3, but it will work much
slower at that rate.  The reason is because you have increased the load
on the system.  Selling at $3 is sufficient for the buying and selling
of PRD endeavor; however, it will not provide enough EXTRA cash to
adequately fund the promotion of infantry into the more expensive unit
types.  Selling at $3 per PRD, you might be fine upgrading to LNC and
maybe AR, but not CAV, RM, and HDQ.


*TM332
PRD stockpile: three territories, two buying, one selling.

The problem with TM331 is that the acquisition of wealth is intentionally
slowed so that the buying and selling territories can work in harmony.
However, it did provide for the basic needs of the empire by supplying new,
upgraded troops.  What if the army could be put on hold?  That is, spend a
year or so acquiring wealth before worrying about upgrading infantry?

If two territories were employed to buy PRD, the selling territory would
have an extra place to drop off money.  The sale of PRD would happen in a
three month cycle: two sales and one move.  The buying territories would
get cash delivered once every six months.  Both buy territories could buy
non-stop, refusing only if the price were $3 to buy.  They would have two
free months in every six to either move off PRD or dig some gold mines.
This time off in the plan gives them an allowed work-around when buy price
is $3.

The yearly accounting for the above would be: 8,000PRD sales and 16,000PRD
purchases for a net 8,000PRD.  If the army, in the fourth territory
presumably, could endure without upgrades, except maybe within its own
territory, then this sounds fantastic.  

The next year and a half, buying PRD won't be necessary.  Or, it could
still be done in a more selective fashion: only $1 buys.  You would
switch to a different model, one that has two selling/recruiting
territories that send to one buying territory that was kept.  Perhaps
the excess buying territory is converted into a selling territory?  Or
it could just be abandoned, like West Shinano?


*TM333
Army builder: One buying territory, two selling/recruiting territories:

If this model is started without a stockpile of PRD as at TM332, then
the buying territory will be overworked.  The recruiting territories
would produce more infantry than could be afforded to upgrade.  Trying
to provide more PRD to increase the funds available will leave the
buying territory with no time to upgrade the infantry.  But, if some of
the infantry are upgraded where they are after the October Harvest, then
it could work.  You would have a large addition to the army at the end
of the year.

However, if this model was a segue from TM332, then it would rapidly
build an army.  The buying territory would have the chance to slow the
depletion of the PRD stockpile by buying new PRD at $1 and dig gold
mines when not.  The time upgrading INF would be short, assuming
upgrading all the infantry each time as one unit type (it is more
efficient that way).

I am not endorsing this model, but it has been the one I have used
more often than others.  I actually think the next one is better.
(The Balanced Arrangement model is a new thought.  The realization
that WEL was not needed for PRD sales changed my thinking.  It is one
that I aspire to play in the future.)


*TM334
Balanced Arrangement: Three territories, three different assignments

Another approach is to have a selling territory that sells PRD without
infantry recruitment and a recruiting territory without the
responsibility of selling PRD.  The buying territory will just buy PRD.
In this arrangement, slowing the pace of wealth gain is not needed.
Infantry production is at maximum productivity as well.

The buying territory is not burdened with infantry upgrades, so it can
maximize time buying PRD.  As long as there are enough $1 purchases,
it can dodge buys at $2 and dig gold mines.  PRD is occasionally sent
to the selling territory.

One of the problems of the selling territory is having cash it must
disperse. Whether it disperses the cash by moving it elsewhere or
upgrading infantry doesn't matter.  Since the selling territory
doesn't use Fa-Aid to raise LOY for recruiting, it won't have WEL
above zero.  Thus, with WEL at zero, it will get base prices for
infantry upgrades.  Finally, since YLD stays at 100 constantly
because of no recruiting, it has the best chances of high price PRD
sales.

The selling territory sells twice and then does one of two things:
either ship money to the buying territory or upgrade infantry.
If upgrading, the maximum possible of one unit type should be done.
Excess infantry can sit in the slot until the next upgrade.  The
recruiting territory will add more according to the space available.

The infantry recruitment territory will only need money to repair YLD
and LOY when recruitment numbers drop.  Since it won't be selling PRD,
damage to YLD that affects Merchant prices is irrelevant.  Only the
recruitment numbers matter.  The October Harvest will provide some
money and PRD.  If any extra money is needed, the selling territory
can provide it.  The infantry recruited is sent to the selling
territory to be upgraded.  

As a general rule, selling PRD will not happen at the recruitment
territory. YLD damage from recruitment make PRD sale prices unsteady.
Furthermore, recruiting infantry and repairing statistics is the most
time demanding activity of the three territories in this arrangement.
The selling territory needs a constant supply of infantry to absorb
its excess money in upgrades.  The recruiting territory must fulfill
its task of providing those infantry.

However, if the selling territory were to need turns to handle combat,
for instance, the recruitment territory could take up the slack.
Knowing you can always sell PRD here should cause you to retain the
PRD gained in the October Harvest instead of shipping it off with the
infantry.  Also, if infantry needed to be upgraded, it could be done
here after the October Harvest has reduced WEL -- or if needed, the
infantry could be shipped off to the buying territory.

As mentioned above, you have the option of returning this arrangement
to one that functions more like TM331.  This should only be done if
necessary.  This arrangement works best if the territories stick to
their assignments.  Besides, it is my opinion that the three
territory arrangement is better than the two territory buying and
selling model.

Additionally, if your buying territory was interrupted or diverted
for many months, as long as it had time to move off its stores of PRD,
the other two territories can continue to function as they were --
perhaps for a year or more if the PRD on hand was large.  Only if you
lost the supply of infantry would things break down.


*TM337
Closing comments on buying and selling models

One conspicuously missing detail in all the above models is the fourth
territory.  By leaving it out of the models, the fourth territory can
be a wildcard, helping out or having nothing to do with the economy.
I picture it pursuing a separate agenda of gaining rank, keeping the
empire safe, or capturing desired locations.  Another task the fourth
territory may take up is capital operations such as alliances.

Another thing not mentioned in the models is interfacing with the forth
territory.  For instance, at some point, each system might pause to send
resources to the forth territory.  Army reinforcements will likely be
eagerly sent to the "front lines."  Nonetheless, having auxiliary troops
hanging around in your economic territories does serve to discourage AI
attack.



*TM340
OCTOBER HARVEST:

at 100% tax
PRD collected = 5PRD x (YLD + LOY) + random  0PRD to 30PRD
$$  collected =  $10 x (CLT + WEL) + random $0 to $30
LOY drops random 66 or 99
WEL drops random 50 or 75

At the start of every territory's activity in October is the taxation
of the territory.  This taxation gives money and PRD that is placed in
the treasury.  [PRD is the product of the fields, the common food,
presumably rice.]  You may choose a tax rate of 0% to 100% in 1%
increments.  At 100% tax, a territory with YLD100, LOY100, CLT100,
WEL100 will generate 1000PRD and $2000.  In addition, 0 to 30PRD and
$0 to $30 is randomly added to all tax rates above 0%. LOY drops 66 or
99 points and WEL drops 50 or 75 points.  [If LOY or WEL is lower than
the drop chosen, the current LOY or WEL is the drop.]


The full formulas for tax are:
PRD collected = 5PRD x (YLD + LOY) x (TAXRATE / 100)  + random 0PRD to 30PRD
Gold collected = $10 x (CLT + WEL) x (TAXRATE / 100)  + random $0 to $30
LOY drop = 66LOY x (TAXRATE / 100)  or  99LOY x (TAXRATE / 100)
WEL drop = 50WEL x (TAXRATE / 100)  or  75WEL x (TAXRATE / 100)

The above formulas simplify to:
PRD  collected = (YLD + LOY) x TAXRATE / 20  + random 0PRD to 30PRD
Gold collected = (CLT + WEL) x TAXRATE / 10  + random $0 to $30

You have to use your territories to recruit infantry.  Doing so damages
YLD, LOY and WEL statistics.  When LOY drops, so does the number of
infantry that can be recruited.  One strategy is to recruit once a year.
Then, the October Harvest comes along and zeroes out LOY.  Repair it in
OCT or NOV with Fa-Aid.  Just after taxes, you should have the cash on
hand, or sell PRD if you don't (assumption that a territory that is
recruiting infantry has relatively high YLD).  Zeroing out LOY is no
big deal.  Bringing it back to 100 is easy and relatively cheap.

However, let us consider that you won't reload but want your zeroed
out LOY back to 100.  $1700Fa-Aid will do it, giving both 100LOY and
100WEL.  Now, let us fast forward to the next harvest.  With the
assumption that the territory has not been disturbed, meaning, it still
has the 100LOY and 100WEL we paid $1700 to acquire: 100WEL garners
$1000 at the harvest.  That means of the $1700 paid, $1000 comes back,
leaving a net debt of $700.  The 100LOY gets 500PRD in the harvest.
500PRD at a high YLD territory is worth a minimum of $1500, middle of
$2000, and a maximum of $2500.  Subtracting $700, we made either $800,
$1300, or $1800 depending if PRD sells at $3, $4, or $5.

Some have suggested that it is advantageous to tax at rates lower than
100% so as to minimize the LOY and WEL drops resultant from taxation.
That is bad advice.  First, it is my revised opinion that minimizing
WEL is the better course.  I want to keep WEL down so I can upgrade INF.
Unlike LOY, maximizing WEL is not cost effective.  You will pay more
maximizing WEL than you will get back from WEL in the harvest.  WEL
is a byproduct of raising YLD and LOY with the Fa-Development and
Fa-Aid commands.  Raising WEL should not be a goal.

Second, examining the full tax formulas, you will see that damage to
LOY and WEL is proportional to the treasury rewards.  If it is a good
enough deal for taxing at 10%, it is ten times a good deal doing it
at 100%.  That is what proportional means.

To illustrate the advantage of 100% tax, consider the worst-case
situation, the circumstances that would best support the idea of lower
taxation.  A YLD0, CLT0, LOY100, WEL100 territory will be considered.
(While doing comparisons, the random $0 to $30 and 0 to 30PRD will be
omitted because it is a constant, all trials get it.)   At 100% tax,
the territory will get 500PRD and $1000 with 66 or 99 loss of LOY and
50 or 75 loss of WEL.  At a modest 10% tax, the territory gets 50PRD
and $100 with 6 or 9 loss of LOY and 5 or 7 loss of WEL

Here is the situation after taxes again, assuming the worst comparison:
100% Tax: LOY 1, WEL25, +$1000, +500PRD
 10% Tax: LOY94, WEL95,  +$100,  +50PRD

To repair the 100% Tax territory, we assume the worst, 1x results and
do a $1581Fa-Aid that gives 93LOY and 75WEL.  Here is the new situation:
100% Tax: LOY94, WEL100, -$581, +500PRD
 10% Tax: LOY94, WEL 95, +$100, +50PRD

Doing algebraic manipulation on both equations, add $581 and subtract 50PRD.
100% Tax: LOY94, WEL100,    $0, +450PRD
 10% Tax: LOY94, WEL 95, +$681,    0PRD

So, the basic difference is that one has $681 and the other 450PRD.
Which is worth more?  Before answering that, consider a purchase of
450PRD for $681.  That is about $1.5 per PRD.  That is a good deal
worthy of your buying territory when buying and selling PRD.  In a
YLD0 territory, the best you could sell the PRD is $1, so you would
lose money doing so.  However, move the PRD to a high YLD territory,
then the lowest 450PRD would be worth at $3 per PRD is $1,350.  The
low end value of $1,350 is more than $681.  100% tax is more valuable
than 10% in this case, the least favorable comparison.

100% tax becomes even more lucrative when YLD and CLT are high in a
territory because taxing does not harm these statistics.  Now lets
look at an extreme case showing the difference between 100% and 10%
tax on a YLD100, CLT100, LOY0, WEL0 territory:

100% Tax: LOY0, WEL0, $1000, +500PRD
 10% Tax: LOY0, WEL0, +$100,  +50PRD

There is no need to repair the 100% Tax territory to match the 10% Tax
territory; they are already the same in LOY and WEL, yet, the
differences in treasuries are significant.  If you have a low LOY and
low WEL territory, why not tax 100%?  Loss of LOY and WEL are small
whilst you get maximum benefit from the YLD and CLT.  The previous
example exemplifies that fact.

The only valid reason not to tax at 100% is that you need to use the
territory to recruit infantry IMMEDIATELY.  You cannot afford the time
it takes, 1 month, to raise LOY back up and then recruit?  I suppose
that could happen.

Advice: Maximize CLT in all your territories.  Doing so assures each
territory of a $1,000 minimum payday each October when taxing at the
recommended 100%.

Advice: Be careful moving money and PRD during October.  If you are
moving upstream, that is, to a territory that has already had its turn,
then you are okay.  However, if you are moving to a territory that is
still waiting for its harvest, you must not fill the treasury so full.
that there is no room to add the full production from the harvest.

Bonus tip: Typically, most months you have your buying territory active.
However, once you have more than four territories, you will make more
profit in the October Harvest if you select only high YLD territories
for OCT. But if it is early in the game, you may nonetheless want to
select your buying territory so that you can zero the WEL.



*TM400
How to Make Money:

Money comes and goes, but if you don't know how to replenish it,
once it is gone, you will struggle.  Some forethought is necessary to
make sure the moments that you struggle on with little financing are
few.  The goal of this section is to make you aware of how money could
be made, to stimulate your mind to the possibilities so that you can
make your own plans.

TM410 October Harvest as a provider
TM420 Gold Mines as a financial support
TM430 Commerce with PRD
TM440 Combat spoils as a supplier
TM441 Implications of the LRB exploit


*TM410
October Harvest as a provider

For simplicity, we will consider a high YLD territory that doesn't
recruit infantry, thereby skipping all the complications of territory
damage.  This territory has already achieved perfect statistics of
YLD100, LOY100, CLT100, WEL100.  It will get on average $2015 and
1015PRD in the October Harvest.  It will spend two game turns to
perpetuate its role: one to repair LOY and WEL from harvest reduction
and one turn to sell PRD.

Sometimes the harvest will leave the territory with 25WEL and sometimes
with 50WEL.  If we assume 2x Fa-Aid, then the LOY will automatically
get repaired when we fix the WEL.  It costs $850 Fa-Aid to repair 50WEL.
It costs $1275 to repair 75WEL.  Average cost would be $1063.  [If we
use 1x for LOY repair, then use $1700 here.  $1700 Fa-Aid always fixes
LOY and WEL.]

Using a conservative estimate selling PRD at $4/each, the PRD then
is worth $3996 with 16PRD left over.  (This is a YLD100 territory.
We could wait for a $5 sale to show up.  Taking $4 is a time
conservative approach.)

The cash after Fa-Aid and PRD sale is $2015 - $1063 + $3996 = $4948.
The PRD is 16.  This territory had to use up two game turns to attain
$4948 and 16PRD.  Ten months are free to use the territory for other
purposes.  
[Using the 1X Fa-Aid amount gives $2015 - $1700 + $3996 = $4311.
This is the assured amount for those that don't reload for 2x results.]


*TM420
Gold Mines as a financial support:

First, if you are not using savegames to ensure gold mine digging
success, then gold mines will not be a source of income until many
years later.  I will not be advising you on this approach because it
is one I don't take and thus have no insight on how it is done.

Assuming reloading, you still have two ways of digging gold mines:
1) digging so as to make money to use right away or
2) using money from other sources to establish gold mines as a
   financial support in the future.


*TM421
Digging to make money right away:

The territories of Shinano and Kai can dig at $1 to find 2 gold mines.
Digging this way is modest and the money accumulates slowly.  After
digging at $1 for 2 gold mines for six months, on the seventh month,
you will have an additional $204 in the treasury and $60 each
following month from your 12 gold mines.

Your small effort provides a small annuity of $720 per year.
Furthermore, the only upfront money you needed was $1.  After the
first month, your cash flow was always positive.  You can stop
digging now if you want to do other things.  You have a gold mine
source of income.

However, the best early game use of gold mines is to fund the digging
of more gold mines.  If reinvesting your profits is your choice, you
can start digging now at $100 for 3 gold mines and do so without
costing you money you didn't have.  The $204 you have gained is
enough to start.  Digging three times, the following month your
balance is now $174 with $105 per month from your 21 gold mines.  

Nine months have gone past.  Your annuity is now $1260 per year, an
increase of $540 in the last three months of digging.  Moreover, you
can spend the extra $174 you have in the treasury.  You don't need
to draw from the treasury anymore.  Your monthly income is $105,
which covers the cost of digging more gold mines at $100.  You have
a sustainable economy.


*TM422
Using money from other sources to establish gold mines as a financial
support in the future:

At TM421, a positive money balance was maintained throughout digging
using either Shinano or Kai.  However, what if you want to try to make
West Shinano a source of financial support via gold mines?

You can't dig at $1 at West Shinano (oh, you can dig at $1, but you
won't get any gold mines).  $100 is the minimum for successful digging
at West Shinano. Thus, you need financial backing from the get-go to
dig at $100 each month.  However, it isn't as large as you may think.
$385 is all you need.  That amount may already be in the treasury when
you capture West Shinano.  If not, you can start digging and kill a
turn or two attacking Totoumi or North Shinano, then go back to
digging.  The gold mine income from mines already dug will accumulate
during pauses (and you might get spoils from attacking the AI).

After seven consecutive months of digging at $100 for 3 gold mines
in West Shinano, you will be $385 in the red, but have 21 gold mines.
You will make $105 per month, $1260 per year, the same as the earlier
example.  You had to invest $385 from elsewhere to do it, but now you
have modest financial support from gold mines in West Shinano that
you can use for more gold mine digging or other ventures.


*TM423
Gold mine income comes in small amounts.

The power of gold mines is not in magnitude.  To illustrate, the
superlative territory at 100 gold mines only makes $500 per month.
That is not enough to upgrade even 100 INF to 100LNC or do a $850Fa-Aid
for recruiting.  However, when you are doing something else like
recruiting, that means you are not spending any money.  The next month,
instead of $500 in the treasury, there is $1000.  That is the power of
gold mines.  They keep adding to the treasury. You only have the money
to do expensive things if you have months that you do inexpensive
things.  Yet, that too is the hidden power: the gold mines give you
income AND let you do other things.  Once they are dug, gold mine income
comes without a time penalty unlike trading PRD and combat spoils.  Even
the harvest requires two months per year to function.

It takes a minimum of 20 game turns and $3400 to dig 100 gold mines at
the $400 for 5 gold mines rate.  Once dug, 100 gold mines make $6000
per year with no expenses.  [A light bulb went off in my head.  That
is why there are cave-ins.  To add the expense of having to re-dig
lost gold mines.]  Gold mine income is gradual, you must have time to
accumulate income to make costly purchases.  


*TM430
Commerce with PRD

Buying and Selling PRD has been covered at TM312 and TM330.  However, an
analysis of how profitable it is hasn't been done.

Imagine we have a buying territory and a selling territory.  To simplify
matters, we will consider just the income from buying and selling PRD as
if our sell and buy territories won't be participating in the harvest,
just as we did when considering gold mine income at TM420.  Also, let us
assume that the system is fully in place already, the initial work done.
In this case, it means that the buying territory starts out with cash
and the selling territory has PRD.  Neither requires immediate shipments
from the other.  Let us further suppose that buying and selling PRD is
all that they do except for the occasional shipment of cash or PRD to
keep the system going.

The buying territory makes two shipments of PRD in the year, leaving ten
months to buy PRD.  Of the ten purchases, we will say that five are made
at $1 and five at $2.  For simplicity, round numbers are used.  10,000
PRD has been purchased at $15,000.  We will imagine that in the year,
twice PRD buys at $3 and we chose to move PRD rather than buy.

The selling territory sells twice and then must move out the cash.  So,
eight months of selling and four months of moving will be used.  PRD
will sell at an average of $4 (the times it sells at $5 is balanced by
the times forced to sell at $3).  The PRD will garner $32,000.

The selling territory has sold 8,000PRD and the buying territory has
purchased 10,000PRD, leaving a net of 2,000PRD as an asset.  The PRD
sales gave $32,000, but the cost of buying was $15,000.  The difference
is $17,000.  So, the net of the commerce is $17,000 and 2,000 PRD.
However, it took two territories to accomplish that profit, so it has
to be divided by two.  So, the yearly income buying and selling was
$8,500 with 1,000PRD in the treasury.  If we project the 1,000PRD as
being worth $4,000 at $4/PRD, taking half that for buying and selling
tradeoff, the yearly profit is $10,500 per territory.

[If instead of making two 1,000PRD purchases, only one was made, the
remaining turn could be used as a sell.  Then, split the sale between
two territories is how I arrived at $2,000.]


*TM440
Combat spoils as a supplier

This one is hard to give a monetary value.  The amount of spoils you get is
based on the number of enemy units you kill or how the LRB applies.  If you
are ranked higher, you don't get anything from LRB.  The experience points
and rank you gain fighting is valuable, put how does anyone say what it is
worth in terms of gold?  Capturing the territory gives you whatever was in
the treasury, but that is unpredictable as a statistic.  Furthermore, you
can recruit infantry in the territory before you abandon it, but infantry
is a difficult value to compute.  Or, you could keep the territory, but
giving that a solid monetary value estimate is bewildering, too.

I had thought of combat spoils as the initial seed money to get the economy
going at the start of the game.  Afterwards, I viewed combat as mainly an
expense to protect the empire.  (Although, occasionally I will see a large
deposit of cash and PRD in an AI territory and fight to seize it.)  This
perception changed with the discovery of LRB.

The following is an excerpt from the LRB Exploit Guide (LEG201).

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
     LRB Exploit generates $21.1 and 15.2PRD per RR.  
     Choosing opponents with the largest Relative Rank 
     differential increases your profits. (BUT074) 
      
     Resources from common LRB Exploits: 
     The table below is a sample of the LRB Exploits 
     available at the start of the game.  All samples are 
     taken from actual games with a rank zero exploiter.  All 
     are done with a non-capture exploit at both field and 
     castle battles with one kill per battle.  A non-capture 
     exploit means you can do the same exploit over and over 
     again.  [Keep in mind that spoils are awarded based on 
     RR, Relative Rank.  If your army is above rank zero, the 
     RR will be the AI’s rank minus your rank.] 
      
     Rank Territory      AI Lord     Gold   PRD 
     ------------------------------------------ 
      07  North Shinano  Murakami    $296   213 
      12  Kozuke         Uesugi      $506   366 
      15  Suruga         Imagawa     $632   456 
      23  Sagami         Hojo        $968   700 
      28  Mikawa         Matsudaira $1178   852 
      31  Echigo         Uesugi     $1304   943 
     ------------------------------------------ 
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

With the above amounts, you can quickly make more money than the
other means of generating income.  Combat is the way to go to make
money if the combat is LRB Exploit.

How much you can make on an annual basis depends on the number of
troops you have.  With more troops, you can exploit multiple targets
each month.  You will also need support territories to sell all the
PRD won in battle, recruit infantry, and upgrade them.



*TM441
Implications of the LRB exploit

My LRB empire planning is still in formation.  I have not reached my
conclusions on how to play LRB Exploits, yet.

With an exploiter territory making $1304 and 943PRD per month, it is
not profitable to spend a turn to do $850Fa-Aid to maximize LOY to get
$1,000 and 500PRD in the OCT harvest.  It used to be a sensible thing
to do, but now, it loses resources because more can be made exploiting
the LRB.  Many actions are a waste of time for a territory that has a
high rank LRB Exploit available.  The LRB exploit is so profitable that
digging gold mines seems as a waste of time.  Taking the time to recruit
infantry is too wasteful.  These tasks and actions can be done by other
territories that cannot use the LRB exploit.

However, if an exploiter territory's best use is to gather resources,
it must dump those resources off to other territories for them to
use.  The PRD dumped off requires selling.  It is easy to see that
every turn a exploiter gathers, a selling territory must sell.  There
is no time to wait for best prices, so selling at $3 is done when
necessary.  Even at sell of $3, the seller treasury can only do three
sells before needing to dump off the cash elsewhere.  In contrast,
the exploiter territory can do seven months of gathering before dumping.
Already we see a mismatch in timing.

The territory getting the money from the seller must use the money.
Buying more PRD is foolish because the exploiter is providing too much
already.  After all the expensive territory improvements have been
made and alliances set, the only way to get rid of a treasury full of
cash is to upgrade infantry.  That means a fourth territory must be
providing the infantry.

Another time kink happens here: the upgrade territory has to get rid
of a full treasury in two months time (sometimes three).  It is not
possible for an infantry recruitment territory to provide enough
infantry every two months or even three to use up the cash of the
upgrader.  Every high number of infantry recruited damages the
recruiter terrirory's YLD and LOY statistics.  Two months repair is
needed after every two or three recruitments.

The irony is that we are at the opposite extreme of what was mentioned
at the conclusion of TM331.  There it mentioned how doing too much
recruiting infantry would deprive the empire of the money it needs to
function.  Now, we have a case of making too much profit so that
recruiting infantry suffers.  Also, here it isn't about needing the
soldiers, but rather, it is about needing somewhere to spend the money.

The only answer, as I see it, is that the LRB exploit providers have
to slow the pace.  They must spend some time recruiting INF.

The pace of gathering wealth and troops at the start of the game will
eventually allow a transition to conquest.  Once sufficient armies
have been made, the pursuit of wealth is no longer needed.  I estimate
five years at game start will accomplish making the armies needed to
finish the game.



*TM500
How the AI plays the game:

Despite the word "Intelligence" in the name "Artificial Intelligence,"
there is seldom any evidence of it.  Because it cannot think, the AI
plays the game much differently than the human does.  In some ways, the
AI has advantages; in other respects, the AI is at a disadvantage.
This section will explore the behaviors of the AI.

TM501 - AI territories get an allowance of $0-$200 each month.
TM502 - AI players never buy PRD
TM503 - AI players pay half price for unit upgrades
TM504 - AI players sell PRD at same price as human player
TM505 - AI can recruit twice as much INF than the player
TM506 - AI players do not take full advantage of OCT harvest to make money
TM507 - AI players have limited ability to attack
TM508 - AI players have humanlike "frustration" attacks
TM509 - AI stubborn attacks - attacks that don't make sense
TM510 - AI break pattern at inconvenient moments -- the AI Murphy's Law
TM511 - AI players cannot manage money wisely
TM512 - AI players have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Territory Management
TM513 - AI players have unique characteristics
TM514 - AI players get 50% more exp in battle with other AI



*TM501 - AI territories get an allowance of $0-$200 each month.

Before events and gold mine income, if an AI territory's treasury is
less than $1000, $0 to $200 is given it.  This makes tracking AI actions
difficult.  When you look at the Ninja Spying screen to analyze an AI
territory, you are looking at the changes in resources and territory
statistics after last month's AI action AND the start of the current
month.  While some events can be predicted because of changes in several
areas simultaneously (e.g., an Imperial envoy adds cash, PRD, and
possibly LOY and only happens in capital territories), the random
allowance obscures tracking AI expenditures from the previous month's
actions and previous treasury balance.  I write this at the beginning of
this section to let you know that it takes long observation to deduce AI
behaviors.  It isn't easy.



*TM502 - AI players never buy PRD

Lacking intelligence, the AI players cannot setup a cash making economy
of buying and selling PRD (TM312).  As mentioned at the Gm command
(TM180), the AI is statistically hampered trying to use gold mines for
 income.  Besides the OCT Harvest, that leaves only Combat Spoils as a
way to make cash.  Although spoils are not prevented the AI, it is still
lacking the intelligence to conduct profitable campaigns.

I exploit the fact that AI players cannot buy PRD by using AI territories
for secure borders.  For example, West Shinano is adjacent to seven other
territories.  It is a hard territory to hold, especially early in the
game. It makes a great buying territory because of its low YLD and WEL,
but moving money into it often attracts the notice of your militarily
stronger neighbors.  Digging gold mines is harder there and won't allow
the cheap $1 digs.  I don't like the idea of digging several $100 gold
mines and then losing the territory to someone else.  Often, I move out
all the resources and troops to elsewhere, letting the AI take it.
However, since no PRD is in the territory, the new AI occupant can't use
West Shinano to attack me.  This territory is secure until the next OCT
harvest of PRD.  Only if the territory is attacked which generates spoil
PRD (BUT070) or resource movement from another AI territory into West
Shinano, will it have the capability to attack.



*TM503 - AI players pay half price for unit upgrades

I have tracked the AI territories long enough to see the conversion
of INF into other units at half the money it should cost.  David Wilson
proved this to be true.  [However, he also proved that my other guess,
that AI upgrade prices are absolute, not affected by territory statistics,
to be false.]


*TM504 - AI players sell PRD at same price as human player

The money that the AI get selling PRD is the same as for the player
(see TM310).  This is worth knowing because I sometimes let the AI
capture a territory that I vacate that has a store of PRD.  If the YLD
in the territory is low, I don't want the AI selling some at low prices.
[For example, if the territory in question was a PRD buying territory,
selling PRD there is stupid.]  However, if the territory has a high YLD,
I know the AI will get a good price if it sells the PRD.  This allows me
to wait a turn or two before I recapture "my" territory without fear of
waste.



TM505 - AI can recruit twice as much INF than the player

I have observed AI recruitment in territories I recently surrendered.
AI get twice as much.  I mention the formula in the Mi-Enlist section
(TM240).  I wonder if the AI continue to get twice what the player does
when Katsuyori takes over with ST=100?  [See TM210 for He command.]
A YLD50, LOY50 territory would allow Shingen 31INF and ST100 Katsuyori
41INF.  Does the AI start getting more because of Katsuyori?  If the AI
had the YLD50, LOY50 territory, would it get 62INF or 82INF from Mi-Enlist?



*TM506 - AI players don't take full advantage of OCT harvest to make money

Taxing territories at 100% is the best policy.  The AI taxes at rates
around 20%-30%.  [Perhaps this is another expression of the Game Designers
intention to make the AI mediocre?  Hopefully, I will explain this belief
in the Combat Guide.]  Do not let the AI's example influence you.
I discuss how to tax in the October Harvest section (TM340).



*TM507 - AI players have limited ability to attack

If a territory is left empty of HDQ, the first adjacent AI in the
Pecking Order (TM050) will usually attack it.  It is rare for an AI to
pass up an open territory.  Usually the ones passing it up can't move
that month (snowfall, for instance) or have a small military so
cautiously won't split forces.  

However, a territory with 1HDQ and nothing else will keep predators
away for many months [I routinely pound Hida/Anekoji down to 1HDQ to
advance my rank but not commit my army into Hida.  I then watch how
long it takes Mino/Saito or Etchu/Uesugi to grab Hida after I leave.]

Often, I leave 10HDQ behind when I send troops out of a territory.
10HDQ is enough to hold a territory.  [Ironically, early in the game,
with low rank, even if I did leave military in many of my territories,
they couldn't defend them, anyway, not against higher ranked, larger
armies.]  It is a total bluff leaving 10HDQ, but most AI will see it as
a fight they don't want.  This tactic allows me to use territories or
build them up even though I can't expect to keep them if an AI attacks
me.  Yet, sometimes my main army is next door.  When my 10HDQ territories
are captured, my army comes back to retake them.  [My 10HDQ do not fight.
They flee or move out if the bluff is challenged.]

A militarily weak territory with a sizeable gold or PRD cache is more
likely to be attacked by the AI players, but it isn't automatic.
There is no intelligence.  A random number determines whether an AI
will look around to see if there are good targets for attack.  But I
have noticed smart programming at times.  September, right before
harvest, is a good time to capture an enemy territory.  Doing so means
getting the harvest proceeds in October.  I get attacked more often in
SEP than any other month, I believe.



*TM508 - AI players have humanlike "frustration" attacks

I abandon territories constantly.  Sometimes it is because all I
wanted was the resources within or the rank from fighting to get the
territory.  Because of the Pecking Order (TM050), AI in lower positions
don't have the option to attack my empty territory because a higher
Pecking Order AI already is going after it.  In frustration, this lower
totem AI will conduct a reckless attack on another AI player or on
another one of my territories.  This behavior is so predictable that I
have to account for it in my plans.

For example, one tactic I employ from time to time is abandoning Kai so
that my army can bounce back in, refreshing Kai with a higher, more
useful rank, while furthering other projects (gaining rank or access to
attack Musashi).  However, I don't want to have to retake Kai from the
large army in rank23 Sagami/Hojo. I make alliance the month I abandon
Kai (doing it the month after means that Hojo will attack that month
and my alliance will only kill his troops -- something I don't like to
do--see TM190 for alliance.)  

If I make the alliance for two months, that means the alliance will be
in effect next month when the AI get to attack my empty territory.
The idea is to prevent Hojo from going after Kai so that Suruga/Imagawa
can do it (at rank 15, a much easier fight).  However, Hojo realizes
that an alliance is preventing attack on Kai, so in frustration, Hojo
attacks the only available target, Suruga.  Well, I don't mind AI
fighting amongst themselves; however, Hojo attacking Suruga/Imagawa
means that Imagawa can't attack Kai, which is my purpose.

How do I get around this problem?  The answer I found is that frustration
attacks because of an alliance only happen the last month of unbreakable
alliance.  A three-month alliance is the solution.  In the second month
of the alliance, Hojo is not frustrated and does not attack Suruga.
However, if for some reason the desired Suruga/Imagawa attack on Kai
doesn't happen in the second month, the same frustration attack by Hojo
is likely to occur in the last month of the alliance.  

Frustration attacks are not certain, just probable.  You can also try
loading over with a two-month alliance until you get a month that Hojo
leaves Imagawa alone.  In the Hojo & Imagawa situation, the frustration
attack is probable.  There are other match-ups that make frustration a
possibility, but less likely attack.

Furthermore, I believe that at some point, the programmers redesigned
the way alliances work (TM190).  One month was taken away from the
breakable alliance period and added to the unbreakable alliance period.
Whatever docility an alliance gives the AI player was not applied to
the AI in this patch to the alliance periods.  Or perhaps extending
the alliance period was the solution to the inconvenient frustration
attack phenomena? -- the best way to meet the needs of the player?



*TM509 - AI stubborn attacks - attacks that don't make sense

Ise/Kitabatake attacks Oumi/Asai again and again throughout the game.
It makes no sense to me.  Eventually, Owari/Oda or Oumi/Asai wipe out
Ise/Kitabatake when the territory has depleted its military.

West Shinano/Kiso is highly aggressive.  Kiso will attack the weakest
of your territories periodically or sometimes in consecutive months.  
North Shinano/ Murakami can be aggressive attacking Shinano, your
northern territory.  Kozuke/Uesugi shows an eagerness to fight as well.
They also periodically attack each other.  The attacks from Murakami
and Kiso are frequent enough that if I want to play a slower, territory
buildup strategy, I realize that I have to eliminate these AI players
because it is the best chance at peace.  But I have also exploited their
reckless, warlike natures.  Kiso will waste his whole army in combat
without hesitation.  It is too complicated to describe how I do it, now.
Conclusion: Kiso is not meant to survive long in this game and I think
the same of Murakami.

Musashi will attack Kai before Kozuke.  Often, I am bouncing my army
to build up rank.  I can't just give up Kai because rank 23 Sagami/Hojo
will grab it.  However, when I capture Kozuke from rank 12 Uesugi and
then move my army out into North Shinano, I hope that rank 10
Musashi/Hojo will capture Kozuke instead of rank 31 Echigo/Uesugi.
Musashi has Pecking Order rights (TM050).  Yet, for some reason, Musashi
refuses empty Kozuke and hits my 10HDQ "defended" Kai territory.  Even if
Kai has no resources and Kozuke wealthy, Kai is the choice Hojo makes.
Perhaps it is deep animosity between Hojo and Takeda, just like
Kitabatake has for Asai?  ["Takeda" is the player, Shingen's, family
name.]  Musashi/Hojo would have left Kai alone had I not insulted him
by offering up Kozuke.  [Only if I put in sufficient troops in Kai will
Musashi attack empty Kozuke instead.]

Occasionally, I see other situations where the territory I offer is
refused and instead another one of my poorly defended territories
attacked.  For instance, I have had this happen at Totoumi.
Suruga/Imagawa ignores Totoumi and goes after Kai instead.  The reverse
of the Musashi situation also occurs. With an alliance in place to keep
the Sagami/Hojo army out of it, I offer up Musashi to Kozuke/Uesugi.
Uesugi will hit Shinano instead.  However, this isn't as bad as the
other situation.  My army is sitting in Kai when this happens.  I can
retake Shinano and send the army back to Kai when Kozuke now will go
after Musashi.



*TM510 - AI break pattern at inconvenient moments -- the AI Murphy's Law

This topic is a continuation of the idea in TM509.  I give up
territories all the time.  There are times my plans require the AI
with higher Pecking Order (TM050) take the territory.  95% of the
time it has been observed that a certain AI will respond.  However,
in this situation, I often find that it won't happen this way.  The
high P.O. AI will pass it up to the next AI.  This frustrates my plans.
Or maybe it is a timing matter.  Perhaps there is only one AI that
could possibly take the territory.  My plans require it to be immediate,
but instead the AI delays.

Here is another one: at turn 6, the AI will almost always run away when
losing (BUT417).  I have counted on this fact.  Yet, there is about a
5% chance that the AI won't run.  This is inconvenient because I have
put my troops in vulnerable positions right before the time I thought
the AI would run (BUT419).  Similarly, who hasn't seen the usually
passive AI HDQ turn suddenly and attack (BUT422)?



*TM511 - AI players cannot manage money wisely

I give Etchu away to Uesugi so that I can make an alliance and have all
my northern territories secure in the northeast while my army is the
southern territories keeping the empire safe from invasion that
direction.  However, Etchu is a hot seat of activity.  Kaga/Ikko-Sect
and Noto/General-Li constantly assault Etchu.  I fix up Etchu before
giving it to Uesugi.  I want Uesugi to prosper in Etchu to fend off
the other AI.  If Etchu/Uesugi is captured, North Shinano becomes
vulnerable.

I have found that leaving large amounts of money and/or PRD behind to
strengthen the AI coming in after me is a foolish tactic.  The AI
overpays for territory improvements.  Even if pay was at the 1x price,
hundreds of dollars, sometimes over a thousand dollars, are spent in
excess of the amounts needed.  However, I have noted that the AI
players accomplish wonders with their small $0 to $200 monthly allowance.  

Large sums of money make the AI play stupidly, but small amounts are
managed acceptably.  I have concluded that gold mines are the answer.
In one of my recent games, I put in 28 gold mines in Etchu before
surrendering it. I thought 28 gold mines, $140 per month, would be
insufficient.  I found that money started to accumulate in Etchu.
The AI was functioning to the best of its ability.



*TM512 - AI players have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Territory Management

I give Etchu to Uesugi and then I track how it is being used.  I left the
territory perfect (except for gold mines being less than the maximum 100).
I find the that every time Uesugi recruits and statistics drop, the AI
brings them back up to perfect.  When a point of DST happens, the AI
quickly gets rid of it (paying $100 for what should be $30).  Instead of
upgrading troops, or perhaps attempting gold mine digs, Uesugi is
obsessing over trivialities.  Why spend a turn making 97 YLD 100?  The
increase in productivity is less important than other things that could
be done.

Because I have observed how wasteful the AI is with time, I strive to
eliminate DST before giving a territory like Etchu back.  [As mentioned
earlier, Etchu is special: it serves as an insulator and protection.
I want Uesugi to protect it.]  The AI will pick away at DST a few points
at a time even if it has the money to eliminate DST in one turn.  I figure
that if I get rid of DST before I give Etchu, the AI will spend more time
doing productive actions.  I was wrong because it reacts as if it has
inherited a museum: it attempts to keep Etchu in tip-top shape.

Some AI are good at enlisting infantry.  Yet, once the slot has reached
255, when Etchu/Uesugi does upgrade a few, it immediately recruits
infantry to fill the slot up to 255 again.  It doesn't understand the
concept of efficiency because the next thing it does is repair any drop
to LOY followed by any drop to YLD.  Then, the pattern repeats.



*TM513 - AI players have unique characteristics

Above at TM512, I described how Uesugi manages Etchu.  I have peeked
at Echigo from time to time: it seems Uesugi manages infantry similarly
there, too.  What I have seen rank 31 Uesugi do is not what all other AI
are doing, including rank 12 Uesugi in Kozuke.  Also earlier, I mentioned
how North Shinano/Murakami, West Shinano/Kiso, rank 12 Kozuke/Uesugi,
Ise/Kitabatake, Kaga/Ikko-Sect, and Noto/General-Li all have hyperactive
military. Etchu/Hatakeyama has a preference of not breaking his units
into multiple divisions in combat.  I believe that there is a standard
AI template, but some AI have modified priorities that make them play
uniquely.



*TM514 - AI players get 50% more exp in battle with other AI

After battle, I have left AI territories with only 1HDQ.  Other AI get
52 experience points for killing that 1HDQ which should only be worth
35exp.  I have observed the count in other situations.  I don't know
why AI get this bonus, but it doesn't bother me that they do.  [Against
the human, AI get the standard experience amount.]



*TM570
How the human, Anthony (me), plays the game:

I usually use 2x prices.  I use 3x for Fc because I think it is a lie
foisted on me by the game creators.  I use 3x for CLT now, though in
the past I used 2x.  I use 3x because I give away territories that I
fix up the CLT.  Since I am fixing it up for someone else to use, I
give myself the price break.  

There have been times I have used 3x.  However, using 3x is tedious.
It requires much reloading to get.  That is one of the reasons I like
2x.  The 2x happens more often because it incorporates the 3x results.
For example, $850Fa-Aid will give 100LOY on 2x or 3x results.  The
+50WEL happens regardless of 1x, 2x, or 3x.  It is based on the amount
spent.  I feel slimy using the 3x.  The game is so much easier (except
for the time it takes to reload to get 3x).  I was using it for a while
recently because I was experimenting with new game tactics researching
LRB.  The economic relief that 3x brought let me concentrate on
discovering new concepts.  I have since gone back to 2x to play using
my new discoveries.  [Update: I use 1x prices now because LRB Exploit
makes so much money.  I do so because using 1x caters to those that
don't reload.  I want to experience the game similiarly.]

Now that I know the how the YI works (thanks to David Wilson), I have
I am able to manage YLD increase costs that 2x is not needed.

I have played 1x at times for the challenge.  I currently play at 1x now
and with the new YI information, I can keep YLD increase prices down.

1x territory improvements can be tedious to play as well.  When I am
spending to max out a statistic to 100, it doesn't matter, but when I
don't have the money to max out so seek an intermediate result, I am
plagued by 2x or 3x results which give me too many points.  I am honor
bound to discard them because I am playing at 1x.  Forcing the game to
give the low-end result can be time consuming, too.  Again, that is why
I prefer playing at 2x.  It requires the least reloading.

[You may think, "use 1x, but when you are short of cash, just take
whatever the game gives you."  That course brings temptation to use 2x
or 3x at other times.  I get used to it.  It is human nature to get
annoyed when a 1x result appears instead of the 2x or 3x.  Since I was
using all my cash and gave myself permission to accept a 2x or 3x result,
that is what I want.  I will reload when I don't get it.  No, I must
firmly resolve to play at 1x, refusing all 2x or 3x results.]

Events are listed later in this guide (TM910), so you may have to come
back later to fully understand what I am talking about here - I reload
to remove events.  I don't want bonuses to my territories or free units.
I want to exist on my own efforts.  I refuse the beneficial events so
that I can, in good conscience, also refuse the bad events.  The only
events I accept are the ones that are unavoidably part of the story such
as the marriage to Lady Koi or the birth of Katsuyori.  However, the
only way to get Princesses is through births, so I accept those (and
actually seek them until I have enough princesses to last me for years).
Also, I give myself YLD dropping events: AUG drought and SEP storms.
These two are conveniently placed in front of the OCT Harvest so that I
can make buying territories by wiping out territory YLD.  In the first
one or two years, I often give myself SEP festivals so that I can get a
princess afterwards or to escape getting a storm.  Sometime during the
third year, my obsession for acquiring princesses subsides, hence, no
more festivals at the capital.  Often, I wish this game had a no events
option.

[Obscure explanation: If you get the festival in SEP, it makes it
easier to get a PRI afterwards.  The reason is because it has removed
the preliminary festival or storm.  It is harder getting a princess
if doing from the month start.  Taking a festival makes it closer.
The same is true in AUG.  When taking a rich harvest or drought, you
are A step closer to a princess (although it is harder in AUG to get a
princess).]

Because I refuse events, my game play is much different than what
the AI experience or those that play with the events.  For example,
I do not experience any moments when my army can't move or I can't use
the merchant (save the rare SEP storm to reduce YLD).  I realize that
a whole different strategy exists to keep territories safe because of
the possibility of not being able to send the army to attack a would
be attacker or unable to retake a lost territory immediately because
of no movement.  However, omitted from this guide is what I wrote in
my version 2 guide about cheating.  I feel I am not obligated to take
the random conditions the game assigns.  To say I have to start a new
game over and over again to get the sequence of events I like randomly
the way I want them is not my belief.  Telling me that only then will
I find the game satisfying is untrue.

I reload when gold mine digging.  I dig at $1 for 2 gold mines early in
the game.  As cash becomes available, I bump it up to $100 for 3 gold
mines.  After the first harvest, I dig at $400 for 5 gold mines.  If
a territory runs out of cash and wants to dig, if it has at least 20
gold mines, it can perpetually dig at $100 for 3 more.  If I need
something to do in territory, but saving up money for a territory
statistic improvement, I will only dig at $1 for 2 gold mines.  My
digging policy is a reflection of my disappointment with the random
number generator in Shingen (TM030).

[Another update is that I avoid gold mines in my LRB Exploit play.  I
will occasionally even out the territories of Kai, Musashi, or Kozuke
by digging three gold mines, however.  Doing so gives me $20 per month
instead of the $5.  Since I log my games, $20 additions are easier than
$5 additions.  Also, one month of gold mine digging is a good time
filler when I don't yet have the gold needed to something more useful.]

My first play of Shingen was in 1991.  I finished the game a few times.
My second play of the game began in October, 2011.  It has been nearly
seven years, now.  I don't recall if my 2011 or 2012 reinvestigation of
the game had me finish one.  Maybe.  As far as I can recall, I have
never finished a game in these years.  I play the first two or three
game years of Shingen over with different approaches.  Rarely do I get
as far as the fourth year.  Actually, the minority of games reach the
third year.  The first two is where the bulk of my play happens.  It is
the struggle that interests me, not the conquest.  Once I get powerful
enough to see a clear path to victory, I start thinking of doing
something different.  Or, I just think my current way of doing things is
inefficient, so I go back to the moment when I think my plans went astray.
Sometimes what I learn playing suggests a way I could do things
differently, so I abandon my game to start a new one.  However, many
times I come back to games in my large catalog of logged games to resume
play, steering the game completely differently than my original intention.
I suppose I am more a student of the game than I am a player.



*TM800
POSTSCRIPT

I know that post script means it is supposed to come after all the other
material.  However, I want the Glossary to be at the bottom so that
people can easily get to it.  Hence, postscript for me is the last word,
but it isn't placed last in the document.

The BUT guide will be posted with this TM guide.  That should be enough
for me to take a break.  I still have many things to say, but this
writing has consumed all my energy for too long.

I wanted to write about the LRB exploit.  However, because I never
provided the foundation in the six years since my last guide, I was
compelled to start with Territory Management and Basic Unit Tactics.
Moreover, I still feel it is necessary to write the Combat Guide before
the Lower Rank Bonus Exploit Guide.  I am dismayed at the time it will
cost me.  

Composing took so long because I wanted to do things right.  Both the
TM and BUT guides contain material never seen before in my guides.  Six
more years of playing the game has given me some certainty on how to
play and a refined grasp of underlying game mechanics.  I give better
descriptions, more formulas, and procedures to use.

I have to wonder though, who will read what I write?  I can't imagine
anyone still playing the game.  However, I have also imagined that over
the years many have looked for Shingen help on the Internet and have not
found it.  I even think my own previous guides were deficient.  Hopefully,
others will think that this TM guide meets the need along with the BUT.

My reference links are numerous.  Because of changes in locations, or
just human mix-up, some of my references may point to the wrong places.
The Readers will find those mistakes faster than I will.  Please tell
me if you find one.  Also, did you encounter a term or phrase that caused
you confusion?  Was the definition not in the Glossary?  Let me know,
please.  See TM007 for how to contact me.


*TM910
*EVENTS:

There are three types of events: story line, seasonal, and random.
A territory may get one of each in the same month.

Storyline events only happen in the capital.  These events are part of
the game, they happen in their own time arrangement and they cannot be
refused (although some events can be delayed).  It seems JAN is when
the special ones happen.  The common ones like Imperial Envoy and Mr.
Nobutoro visits can happen any month.  These I include in the random
section, not storyline.  (My list of storyline events is incomplete
because I have not advanced far - I keep restarting the game).  

Seasonal events happen each month of the year, every year.  The events
are not guaranteed to happen; you can reload to get rid of one.
hankfully, you can only get one of these per month.  Imagine in JUL if
your castle was hit by lightning and then you suffer an epidemic!  And
it would make no sense to get a rich harvest in AUG while also getting
a drought.  The same is true about having a SEP festival while having
a storm.

Random events can happen at anytime.  There are two types of random
events: capital only and anywhere.  It is possible to have one of each
in the same month at the capital territory.  These events can be refused
by reloading.  

The Mouri family random events will not happen until you have expanded
into other territories.  I have never been certain where exactly I have
to go for the Mouri family events - it happens without trying.  The
Shimazu family random events require movement eastward.  Getting to
Etchu or Totoumi will do it, but I am not sure if just attacking those
territories is enough or requires capture.  Also, I presume that
substituting Mikawa or Mino for Etchu or Totoumi will also do it.
[In my play, I rarely go to Mikawa or Mino. I try to avoid rank 54 Owari.
Weakening Mikawa or Mino is not in my best interests.  I want them to
keep Owari/Oda away from me.]

Many events happen in two stages: First comes the announcement of the
event.  Save the game now if you want the event.  Second, hit the
button to advance to the randomization of the event statistics.
For instance, AUG rich harvest has a wide range of YLD values:
4, 5, 6, 8, 10, or 11.  By choosing the lower values, you can possibly
escape a YI increase.  Maybe you want an AUG drought to make a buying
territory?  You can refuse a -4 or -5YLD and reload until you get -8 YLD.
(See TM030 randomization if you can't get the value you want for any
event.)

Storyline, capital only events:
JAN 1545 The game begins; Shingen is 24 years old this month.
JAN 1546 Marriage to Lady Koi, +$6 or +$12, up to +9PRD, +6 or +12LOY
JAN 1547-1551 Random birth of Katsuyori, up to +22LOY
Death of Shingen's Father, Nobutora +LOY
Death of Lady Koi -LOY
Death of Shingen

Recurring Seasonal events:
JAN--Snowfall, 0 or +1DST, no attack, movement or merchant
FEB--Snowfall, 0 or +1DST, no attack, movement or merchant
MAR--Snowfall, 0 or +1DST, no attack, movement or merchant
JUN-Heavy rain (-2 or -4YLD, -2 or -4WEL, and +0 or +2 DST)
JUL-Epidemic lasts through NOV; drops WEL and INF each month
JUL-Lightning strikes (maximum -14CLT and chance of +DST)
AUG-Rich harvest (+4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11YLD; 0 to +5WEL; might increase YI)
AUG-Drought (-4, -5, or -8YLD and +0 or +2 DST; might reset YI)
SEP-Festival (maximum +9LOY and 0 or +3CLT)
SEP-Storm (-3 to -7YLD, and -2, -3, or -4CLT, and 0 or +5DST)
OCT-Harvest, territory taxation up to 1030PRD and $2030 (TM340)
DEC-Snowfall, 0 or +1DST, no attack, movement or merchant

Anytime capital only random events:
Princess birth +0 or +5 LOY [PRI are used for alliances (TM190)]
Nobutora visit (-5 or -10PRD) OR (-$5 or -$10)
Imperial Envoy up to $60, up to 42PRD, +0 or +4LOY
 [This event may scale.  Early in game it is about 20 to 30 $$ or PRD]

Anytime, anywhere random events: 
Date Family gift 3, 4, or 5 LNC
Date Family Ninja imposter -6 or -12WEL
Mouri Family gift 1, 2, 3, or 4 CAV
Mouri Family Ninja imposter -4 or -8YLD
Shimazu Family gift 2, 3, or 4 AR
Shimazu Family Ninja imposter -4, -5, -8, or -9 CLT
Earthquake +8, 9, 16, or 17DST, -6 or -12CLT, 0 or -3LOY
Riot -12 or -24 LOY, 0 or -7CLT
Cave-in  lose 1 or 2 gold mines, 3 months half income and no digging
AI Ninja crisis fails or lowers territory stats or military units (see TM200)
Signal fire over a map territory means AI will attack territory this month
 [I have seen signal fires on map over my territories and no attack comes.]



*TM920
GLOSSARY

I explain the abbreviations at least once in the document; however,
Combat Guide concepts are not necessarily explained.  Regardless of
whether you need a reminder or basic explanation, you will find one
here (or directed to the full information within the Guide).

$$ -- A territory statistic representing gold, the money in the treasury

1x, 2x, 3x results - Random single, double, or triple value results given
to incrementals (see TM110)

8-bit - Bits, binary digits,  are 0 or 1 values.  Collectively, 8-bits can
store values between 0 and 255

AI -  Artificial Intelligence  -- A computer simulated mind for decision-
making and game play

Al - Alliance -- A territory command that protects your territories from
attack (TM190)

Alliance Duration - Number of months of alliance based on the amount paid
with the Al command (TM190)

AP - Army Power -- computed by adding up the number of units multiplied by
its unit power.  (see IRAP or BUT417)

AR - Archers -- A territory statistic for the lowest level range attack unit
in army (BUT122)

Base price - The lowest prices for upgrading units at the merchant (TM250)

Breakable Alliance - Last half of alliance duration allows either side to
attack.  All you get is AI identity in warning (TM190)

Bulk Experience Points -- EXP given for killing some units of the same unit
type (BUT060)

Bundle Experience Points -- Set amount of EXP given for killing all of a
unit type (BUT060)

BUT - Basic Unit Tactics -- Guide explaining experience points, rank,
spoils, the military units, and elementary aspects of combat

Buying Territory - A low YLD, low WEL territory that buys PRD and upgrades
INF (see TM310, TM312, TM320, TM250)

Ca - Castle -- A territory command to increase CLT (TM130)

Castle battle - The second battle in territory combat determining ownership.

CAV - Cavalry -- A territory statistic for the fastest moving, second best
melee fighter in army (BUT114)

CLT - Culture -- A territory statistic raised by Ca command (TM130); CLT
increases gold tax in October Harvest and resists epidemic.

CG - Combat Guide -- The next level of military strategy based on the
foundation given in the Basic Unit Tactics guide.  [Yet to be written.]

DST - Disaster -- A territory statistic supposedly preparedness against
flooding (see TM150)

Dummy unit - Unit that dies instead of more valuable units (BUT410)

EPI - Epidemic -- A territory statistic either "yes" or "no" for epidemic
(see TM140)

EXP - Experience -- A territory statistic for EXP within current rank.
Enough EXP adds RNK, resetting EXP to 0 (BUT040)

Fa - Farm --A territory command for either Development (TM162) or Aid (TM170).
Raises YLD, LOY, WEL

Fc - Flood control -- A territory command to lower DST (TM150)

Field battle - first battle in territory combat; victory allows advance to
castle; 

Gate Guardian - INF or LNC placed in AI castle front, side or rear entrances
blocking entry or exit

G-M - Gold Mines -- A territory statistic (see TM180).  Gold mines produce
gold each month at $5 per G-M

Gm - A territory command to dig gold mines or risk PRD for more gold
(see TM180, TM185)

Gold - The basic unit of commerce, synonymous with "money;" seen as $$ in
the territory screen

Harvest - Same as October Harvest

He - Heir -- A territory statistic either "no" when Katsuyori is unborn or
the sum of training points (TM210)

HDQ - Headquarters -- A territory statistic for the officers commanding the
army, the best melee fighters (BUT112)

Incremental - Gold amount to get a result from a territory command obscured
by 1x, 2x, 3x results  (see TM110)

IRAP -- Index of Relative Army Power -- each unit in an army has a power
rating.  The Index is found by dividing Human army power by AI army power.
If the index is 25% or above, the AI will flee a field battle (see BUT417).

INF - Infantry -- A territory statistic for the weakest melee fighter in
army, but can be upgraded (BUT118, TM250, TM240)

FIT - Flee IRAP Threshold -- the IRAP needed to get the AI to flee a battle.
      Reference section not yet codified: concept not yet explained in guide.

LEG - LRB Exploit Guide -- Guide yet to be written explaining how to use the
Lower Rank Bonus to earn resources

LNC - Lancers -- A territory statistic for a medium level melee fighter in
army (BUT116)

LRB - Lower Rank Bonus - Extra combat spoils given to lower ranked army based
on RR (see BUT074, TM000, TM440)

LRB exploit - A systemized technique to gather resources using the LRB by
setting up an AI patsy (examples TM440, TM441)

LOY - Loyalty -- A territory statistic raised by Fa-Aid (see TM170); factor in
infantry enlistment and harvest PRD

Melee - Face to face combat - fighting up-close, one unit in a square adjacent
to an enemy unit

Mi - Military -- A territory command to enlist (TM240), attack via going
(TM230), or move (TM220)

Mr - Merchant --A territory command for one transaction: buy or sell PRD  or
upgrade INF (TM310, TM250)

Muster size -- the number of troops allocated to a battle: 30%, 50%, 70%, or
80% of army (BUT030)

Near Zero Rank - A territory with some experience points, usually rank zero,
but could be rank 1 or 2.  Contrast with Pristine Zero Rank.

NES - Nintendo Entertainment System - the original platform for Shingen the
Ruler (see TM010)

Nj - Ninja -- A territory command for either Spying (examining the game map)
or Crisis (sabotage) (TM200)

October Harvest - Taxation of territory generating gold and PRD in exchange
for loss of LOY & WEL (TM340)

Pecking Order - Each territory has a position within queue game uses to
compute AI actions (TM050)

Pecking Order Rights - The AI whose territory is processed sooner has first
chance to attack (TM050)

PRD - Product (rice) -- A territory statistic that is interchangeable with
gold as a game currency (see TM310).  PRD collected at Harvest (TM340)

PRI - Princess -- A territory statistic (see TM910 for princess event, TM190
for alliance)

Pristine Zero Rank - a rank zero territory with zero experience points.

Ps - Pass -- A territory command to advance the game forward without doing
anything in this territory

Range (attack or unit) - Riflemen or Archer units that fire or shoot
projectiles at enemy units at a distance

Refugee territory - The territory pre-selected to receive refugee units
(BUT080, TM060)

Refugee units -  units from a lost castle battle that may relocate to
another territory -- see Refugee Territory.

Reloading - Going back in time with a savegame so as to go forward with
hopefully a different outcome or result

Reset, YI - A YI reset is a return to $40, the lowest, base YI price.

RM - Riflemen -- A territory statistic for the highest level range attack unit
in army (BUT120)

RNK - Rank -- A territory statistic indicating army competence measured
against opponent's rank (BUT050)

Rollover - Trying to store more than 255 in 8-bit variable will wrap around
making 256=0, 257=1, etc. (TM060)

RR - Relative Rank  -- In combat, the rank of the superior minus the rank of
the inferior (see LRB)

Screens - Units that block enemy range attack on units behind the screens
(BUT409)

Secure Alliance - Same as Unbreakable Alliance

Selling Territory - A high YLD territory that sells PRD and possibly also
recruits or upgrades INF (see TM312, TM330)

Signal Fire - Column of smoke on the territory map warning of coming attack
this month (TM910 random events)

Spoils -- Gold, PRD, and units given for winning or drawing a battle (BUT070)

Star-Search - Efficient search of this document by prefixing an asterisk to
TM number references (see TM010)

Sv - Save -- A Capital territory command saving a game on the NES.  Doesn't
work on VirtualNES

Takeda - The surname (family name) of Shingen and Katsuyori.  You, the player,
are Takeda.

Territory - Shingen the ruler has 21 territories which are where territory
commands are selected each month

Territory commands - Options to modify territory statistics

Territory of refuge - see Refugee Territory

Territory screen - The initial view each month as you manage each territory.
You will see the territory commands on the right and territory statistics
on the left.  Hitting select key will change view to second screen showing
He variable and Military units

Territory statistic - Game variables that appear in the territory screen or
Nj-spying screen (TM200)

Throttle use - A VirtualNES option at Emulator Configuration changing game
speed (TM030)

TM - Territory Management -- This guide you are reading that explains how to
use territory commands to increase territory wealth: by increasing territory
statitistics, gold, PRD, military units, and security (through alliances)

Treasury - Both the $$ and PRD in a territory, its tangible wealth.
Limit $9999 and 9999PRD

UET - Units of Each Type.  Measures an army's power (AP) by translating it
into an equivalent army power of an UET army (LEG440, LEG436)

Unbreakable Alliance - First half of alliance duration that prevents attacks
on ally (see TM190)

Upgrade Territory -- Territory that has YLD100 in order to sell PRD, but
does not recruit infantry itself -- LOY and WEL zero gets better prices

VirtualNES - An emulator program for the PC that plays NES ROM cartridge data
files (see TM010)

WEL - Wealth -- A territory statistic raised by Fa command (TM164).
WEL affects Mr prices

YI - Yield Incremental - the price to raise YLD one point via Fa-Development
(TM120)

YIF - Yield Incremental Factor - the YLD value that when equaled or surpassed
YI rises from $40 per point to $40 PLUS army rank per point (TM120)

YLD - Yield -- A territory statistic raised by Fa-Development (see TM160).
Factor in INF enlistment and PRD prices (TM160)



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