############################################################################### MEGAMAN STAR FORCE: PEGASUS (maybe for the other 2 versions, too) GUIDE TO S-RANKING FM-IANS TO GET MAX DAMAGE ON SP CARDS AND A QUICK GUIDE TO ELEMENTAL AND NON-ELEMENTAL BEST COMBOS ############################################################################### +++++++++++++++++++++++++ Table of Contents: 0. Updates 1. Basics [BSC] 2. Preparations [PRP] 2.1 Elemental Killer Combos [EKC] 2.2 Non-Elemental Killer Combos [NKC] 3. FM-ians [FMS] 3.1 Taurus Fire SP [TF] 3.2 Queen Ophiuca SP [QO] 3.3 Gemini Spark SP [GS] 3.4 Libra Scale SP [LS] 3.5 Cygnus Wing SP [CW] 3.6 Harp Note SP [HN] 3.7 Cancer Bubble SP [CB] 3.8 Wolf Woods SP [WW] 3.9 Crown Thunder SP [CT] 3.10 Pegasus Magic SP [PM] 4. Tricks [TRI] 5. Credits +++++++++++++++++++++++++ (Hint: Copy the text in the brackets and search for them within the FAQ to find what you are looking for more quickly) //////////////// / / / 0. UPDATES / / / //////////////// - added YouTube.com video links for some combos showing them in action - added new non-elemental killer combo - added a folder example for the Folder Setup ///////////////////// / / / 1. BASICS [BSC] / / / ///////////////////// This Guide is about S-ranking FM-ians within the game to get the highest possible damage on the SP battle cards you will get from them on S ranks. The damage on the SP cards changes based on your time deleting them. The standard FM-ian cards and the EX version cards have a fixed amount of damage. Getting maximum damage is always a good thing, so I want to explain to you how you can accomplish that goal. I am aware of that there maybe better combos out there to do big amounts of damage to the bosses, however, the combos I list are those that will kill your enemy quick and instant. Trust me, it is a real pleasure to watch a Boss that gave you lots of troubles before dying in one hit. So let us get started! /////////////////////////// / / / 2. Preparations [PRP] / / / /////////////////////////// Before you go out for the hunt you have got to check whether you have beaten the EX forms of all FM-ians before. After you beat them in the story they appear in their EX forms at various dead ends within the wave world. Refer to another guide for finding those dead ends, they are listed in other FAQs for Star Force. Next is equipment and items. You will need a lot of Search Eyes, or short SrchEye, because they will help you to get your desired max damage. All SP Boss versions are random encounters in the areas where you fought their EX versions, so it is ESSENTIAL to pack at least 1 Searcheye, or even 2 if you search for the EX card also for your M card mark on the title screen. That way, when you run around fighting random battles and you finally get the FM-ian to appear, you can beat him any way you like and you should not use your Best Combos for them because they are kinda expensive. YOu should have good enough cards to beat them if you entered the second area of DeepSpace. Nevertheless, you have to. You will see why. Once they explode and the screen goes back to the wave road, do not move, go to your inventory and use a Search Eye, then SAVE! This way, your next encounter will be the same Boss again and you can use your combos on him from the start of the battle. When you refight him, look if you got the Best Combo in your first 6 cards you need for the instant kill, if not, soft reset (L+R+START+SELECT), reload and walk around until you encounter the boss again. Do this until you get your combo on your first card selection screen, then use it and watch the Boss suffer. For the EX versions of the cards you need a rank of 7 to 10. So after your S rank with max damage use another Search Eye, then you can beat him as fast as you can to around 100 HP and then get a battle card that kills the boss on use, than dodge the attacks a while and when you are sure enough time has passed to not get an S rank kill him, you should be within 7 to 10. Alternatively, you can wait until you get another of your instant kill Best COmbos on the first turn and just wait for some seconds before you use it, so you will not get an S rank. (Hint: SrchEye can be bought at a shop in the AMAKEN foyer wave roads.) Next you need the Kaiser Knuckle. Head into the Space Station, into the wave roads of area 4 but not into the wave roads that lead to Andromeda! There are some tap portals you need to tap with the stylus to teleport onto them, so head up and right using tap portals if you have to until you arrive on a square with a one-way road. It leads to the right and a bit down. On the end of the following path keep walking against the borders and you will find an invisible path. Follow it to the end and enter the CompSpace you find. There is a Mr. Hertz at the bottom of that area that will give you the LonelyHeart Key if you answer his question with NO. Use this key with the laser door in DeepSpace 2 on the right side of the area, walk into DeepSpace 3 and get the Kaiser Knuckle there. It has 4/3/4 and is needed to finish of FM-ians after recording a combo against them. And now, the combos! The elemental weakness system in Star Force works like this: fire > wood > elec > water > fire Since there are only two elementless bosses you can use elemental killer combos at their best, because they do twice the damage to a Boss thats weak to that element. DO NOT FORGET to buy your recorded combos as usable battle cards from Master Shin. He is found on the roof of AMAKEN. Head to the Lab in AMAKEN and use the door leading up-right. You will see him. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ FOLDER SETUP FOR DOING COMBOS +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Use your Extra Folder you get from Luna for that one. Just put DEFENSE battle cards into the folder, e.g. Barriers and GREY battle cards like Invis, Attack+10 or Paralyse and your six OFFENSIVE battle cards that you will use for your combo ONLY. Set your 6 offensive combo cards as favorites to make them also appear in grey. This way you can take out all cards you do not need when they appear in the card selection screen as fast as possible to make all your 6 combo cards appear ASAP. One thing to note: At battle start your 30 cards are separated into 2 sub folders of 15 cards. So if you are unlucky, there are 4 of your offensive cards in 1 folder, so the maximum you get to appear for you to use simultaneously are 5. Reset and redo the fight until you can use all 6 combo cards within one turn. Unequip all Brothers out of your folder and your Star Force! (Just hit A while highlighting them) Select all 6 cards once that happens and wait for your chance to use them properly. You must only put 6 offensive cards into your folder for making Best Combos because when you counter your enemy you get a random OFFENSIVE card out of your entire folder as a reward to use. And if you just got 6, one of those cards will be chosen for sure. That makes 12 battle cards you can use for one combo! Here is an example of how my folder looks when making combos: Invisible Invisible Invisible Attack+10 Attack+10 Attack+10 ParalyzePlus ParalyzePlus ParalyzePlus IceStage IceStage IceStage GrassStage GrassStage GNullStage GNullStage GravityStage GravityStage Aqua+50 (default grey card) Barrier200 Barrier100 HolyPanel HolyPanel Recover300 - combo card (favorite) - combo card (favorite) - combo card (favorite) - combo card (favorite) - combo card (favorite) - combo card (favorite) /////////////////////////////////////// / / / 2.1 ELEMENTAL KILLER COMBOS [EKC] / / / /////////////////////////////////////// +++++++++++++++++++++ WOOD KILLER COMBO +++++++++++++++++++++ See combo in action: -> http://youtube.com/watch?v=djeHFtvYlwE (combo is called "Yabakum" here) (done by icekakt) This one consists of only VulcanSeeds 2 and 3. You get this cards from viruses, Version 2 is found within the first Space Station area and Version 3 is found within area 2 of DeepSpace. That is why you should have reached Deepspace Area 2. VulcanSeeds do 9 times 30 (vers. 2) and 40 (vers. 3) damage. However, this damage is spread across 3 columns. In order to unlock their killer potential you have to do a Mega Attack using them right into the enemys face when you record this combo. Mega Attacks are done by pressing down on the pad and once the boss gets targeted pressing A. Once you got 3 VulcanSeeds 2 and 3 VulcanSeeds 3 head for Cancer Bubble. He should be SP now. Prepare your Combo folder as I told you above and enter the fight. Select your cards until you get your needed 6 offensive VulcanSeeds and dodge his attacks. Stay in the middle column and shoot his bubbles, dodge his claws and shoot his bubbles for another turn. After that he will use his tidal wave attack. That means he will be within the first two rows in front of your own row! And that is what you want, because you can only Mega Attack with VulcanSeed when the enemy is located in this 2 rows in front of you. Now you can decide for yourself whether you want to Mega Attack while he does tidal wave, what causes damage to you or you hit him while he teleports around 9 times after his tidal wave within those two rounds. This way, you will not get damaged. After this round, he will use his Claw Throw 2 times before he uses tidal wave one time. So dodge and shoot until you can block tidal wave and then Mega Attack him with VulcanSeed. When you have hit him with all 6 Seeds kill him using the Kaiser Knuckle, he should not have too much hp left, in fact, if you placed all Seeds with a Mega Attack he is dead after the last one, read why: VulcanSeed 3 (9 x 40 dmg) = 360 damage x 3 = 1080 damage VulcanSeed 2 (9 x 30 dmg) = 270 damage x 3 = 810 damage 1080 + 810 = 1990 damage! Yes, that is the damage 6 face-up VulcanSeeds do. Cancer Bubble has 1800 HP, so he might be dead already. After the fight save your combo! Maybe the Best Combo menu says your combo did not do 1990 damage, but thats ok. For me it recorded 1800 damage, but it does 1990 damage once you use your combo in battle! +++++++++++++++++++++ ELEC KILLER COMBO +++++++++++++++++++++ See combo in action: -> http://youtube.com/watch?v=Kdlps_fArGI (done by kryspykreame) This combo is made using Flicker Kicks! This cards are also obtained from viruses, Version 2 wanders the Scrap Yard wave roads, Version 3 can be found in the CompSpace of the fourth Space Station door. Prepare your folder with 3 FlickrKck 2 and 3 FlickrKck 3, then head for Crown Thunder. You will have to counter your enemy to unleash the full power of this combo. And he is the easiest to counter. To counter him, use a FlickrKck when he jumps before he uses one of his skulls to attack you. And another counter is easily possible before he uses his big thunder, when he jumped up before he unleashes it use your FlickrKck. With a bit of practice you should get the right moments for yourself. You should counter him at least 4 times to get to use 10 Kicks. Once your combo is recorded, you will have to beat him using your buster. So use the Kaiser Knuckle and shoot him, you might use some Holy Panels as the grey cards in your folder, they cut the damage you take in half if you stand on them, thats a good thing if he gets to stun you with big thunder, because then you are up for big pain! However, let us see what this combo does: FlickrKick 3 (3 x 60 dmg) = 180 damage x 3 = 540 damage FlickrKick 2 (3 x 50 dmg) = 150 damage x 3 = 450 damage average bonus damage of additional FlickrKicks out of 4 counters: FlickrKick 3 (3 x 60 dmg) = 180 damage x 2 = 360 damage FlickrKick 2 (3 x 50 dmg) = 150 damage x 2 = 300 damage 540 + 450 + 360 + 300 = 1650 damage! average bonus damage of additional FlickrKicks out of 6 counters: FlickrKick 3 (3 x 60 dmg) = 180 damage x 3 = 540 damage FlickrKick 2 (3 x 50 dmg) = 150 damage x 3 = 450 damage 540 + 450 + 540 + 450 = 1980 damage! Best Combos are nice, right? Five counters are best because the combo will then cause more than 1700 damage. But 4 counters are also fine, but less counters are not recommended! You will see why once you encounter Pegasus Magic SP. +++++++++++++++++++++ FIRE KILLER COMBO +++++++++++++++++++++ See combo in action: -> http://youtube.com/watch?v=djeHFtvYlwE (combo is called "Zaghip" here) (done by icekakt using only TailBurner3 and TailBurner2 while countering) Fire battle cards will be used here. In fact, TailBurner 3 and FireRing 3 are best. Tailburner3 can be found in the third Space Station area and FireRing3 is found in the CompSpace of the third Space Station door. So once 3 TailBurner 3 and 3 FireRing 3 hit your folder head to either Cancer Bubble or Crown Thunder. I used Cancer because you do not need to counter with this combo, but do as you wish. Just hit Cancer with all 6 chips and you are good. That is not a difficult task because the attacks of the cards fly straight ahead. So lets calculate: TailBurner 3 (180 dmg) x 3 = 540 damage FireRing 3 (120 dmg x 2) = 240 damage x 3 = 840 damage 540 + 840 = 1380 damage! With counters you will do more damage, but you do not need to to instant kill. Save your combo after the fight. The combo screen might tell you your combo did less damage, but that is because FireRing is a boomerang and might not hit two times during the recording of the combo, but it will hit twice once you use your combo. (Hint: You might want to counter if you play Dragon to instant kill Dragon Sky SP. In that case counter Crown Thunder with TailBurners using Mega Attacks!) +++++++++++++++++++++ AQUA KILLER COMBO +++++++++++++++++++++ See combo in action: -> http://youtube.com/watch?v=djeHFtvYlwE (combo is called "Selnorak" here) (done by icekakt) If you play the Pegasus Version you do not even need this combo. And that is just because your PegasusMagicGX Giga Chip does 900 damage to fire enemies and Taurus is your only pure Fire enemy (Libra is dual element). If you do not play Pegasus, here is the most effective one: StickyRain 3 (6 x 30 dmg) = 180 damage x 3 = 540 damage StickyRain 2 (6 x 25 dmg) = 150 damage x 3 = 450 damage StickyRain gets you your easiest counters. Why? Because StickyRain hits 6 times with one use and it does not cause the enemy to flinch. That is when he gets invulnverable after a hit for a short time. And StickyRain will also not cancel attacks of FM-ians. So, everytime you use a StickyRain when your enemy is about to attack you are almost guaranteed to get a counter. Even against Cancer Bubble! So you might want to counter 6 times using 12 Sticky Rains: average bonus of countering: StickyRain 3 (6 x 30 dmg) = 180 damage x 3 = 540 damage StickyRain 2 (6 x 25 dmg) = 150 damage x 3 = 450 damage That sums up to 1980 damage! Instant Kill of Leo Kingdom SP and Taurus, too! /////////////////////////////////////////// / / / 2.2 NON-ELEMENTAL KILLER COMBOS [NKC] / / / /////////////////////////////////////////// I will only cover those shortly, because the focus of this guide are the elemental combos. BerserkerSwords +++++++++++++++ See combo in action: -> http://youtube.com/watch?v=djeHFtvYlwE (combo is called "BzrkSbre" here) (done by icekakt) A common non-elemental killer combo is done using BerserkerSword 3 and 2. Here is the math: BerserkerSwrd 3 (3 x 80 dmg) = 240 damage x 3 = 720 damage BerserkerSwrd 2 (3 x 70 dmg) = 210 damage x 3 = 630 damage counter 6 times, average bonus out of 6 additional cards to use: BerserkerSwrd 3 (3 x 80 dmg) = 240 damage x 3 = 720 damage BerserkerSwrd 2 (3 x 70 dmg) = 210 damage x 3 = 630 damage 720 x 2 + 630 x 2 = 2700 damage! Instant Kills all SP Bosses except Crown Thunder. You might get more damage with this if countering gets you more BerserkSwrd3 than BerserkSwrd2, because the counter bonus cards are random! Break Combo +++++++++++ For Pegasus users the break combo is also kinda popular: JamminPunch 260 damage x 3 = 780 damage BreakSword 200 damage x 3 = 600 damage Get your Pegasus Star Force before you get all those 6 battle cards to use in one turn, equip your Star Force before or it will not appear for you to select! Also it must appear before your 6 offensive cards appear during one turn. Those 2 mentioned battle cards have the property to do double damage on break. That means if your enemy is frozen and you use either JamminPunch or BreakSword those cards will do double damage! Freeze your enemy with the charged shot of your Star Force power, then use the battle card! If you do not play Pegasus, use the M. Breath Mega Weapon you get from the Cipher Code: KMALEETZCP. This weapon may freeze the enemy with a charged shot randomly! Now the math: 780 x 2 + 600 x 2 = 2760 damage! And YouTube gives us another fine example: -> http://youtube.com/watch?v=X5tnd7SCHQo (done by kryspykreame) Nice damage though, but difficult to pull off while recording. 12 JamminPunch Combo ++++++++++++++++++++ This combo is done with 12 (!) JamminPunches. As they are the single strongest attack cards with 260 damage each they would do 260 x 12 damage = 3120. But in order to get to do that you have got to get 6 JamminPunches in one turn. This is only possible if you ask 3 of your brothers to fill their favorites with 3 JamminPunches each and your own folder with 3 Punches and no other offensive card. Then you have to be very lucky! You need to get your 3 Jammin Punches AND your 3 Brothers to appear in the same turn AND the roulette of the 6 cards of your brothers favorites have to return a JamminPunch each for you to use. And after you got that lucky you must counter with your 6 JamminPunches to receive 6 more. Your chances are 2,5% for getting 3 JamminPunches and your 3 Brothers in one turn AND receiving a JamminPunch from each Brother Roulette when they got 3 JamminPunches in their favorites. So it is up to you. Actually, people were able to pull this off, watch here: -> http://youtube.com/watch?v=uFNItUFXfYI (done by DarkRobin1) ////////////////////// / / / 3. FM-IANS [FMS] / / / ////////////////////// 3.1 Taurus Fire SP [TF] +++++++++++++++++++++++ HP: 1400 Element: Fire Maximum SP battle card damage: 280 Place to encounter: Echo Ridge wave roads If you play Pegasus, wait until you get PegasusMagicGX and either some Sticky Rains or other strong cards on your first turn. The Giga card does 900 damage to him and the remaining 500 HP you get with 2 well placed Sticky Rains or other strong chips. Or use one of those Best Combos you made that do more than 1400 damage. If you use your Wood Killer Combo be aware that Taurus must be standing in the two rows right in front of your own row to do its maximum damage! 3.2 Queen Ophiuca SP [QO] +++++++++++++++++++++++++ HP: 2100 Element: Wood Maximum SP battle card damage: 260 Place to encounter: Time Square wave roads Use your Fire Killer Combo. Its an instant kill because she is weak to fire. In fact, our combo will own her for 2760 damage! Thats enough. Be careful though! Use the combo right at the start of the battle by hitting A repeatedly, because if you use the combo while she is in her back row FireRing3 will be no boomerang and just hit once! 3.3 Gemini Spark SP [GS] ++++++++++++++++++++++++ HP: 2200 Element: Elec Maximum SP battle card damage: 190 Place to encounter: Dream Island Park wave roads Those two are Elec! That means our deadly Wood Killer Combo will hit them really hard! So use it! But be careful that the black one with the HP counter beneath him must be located within those two rows in front of your own row for the instant kill! Gemini Spark usually moves to one of those two rows as his first action after battle start. So just wait for his first move, it should be to where you want him to be. At least he always did for me. 3.4 Libra Scales SP [LS] ++++++++++++++++++++++++ HP: 1700 Element: Fire / Aqua Maximum SP battle card damage: 150 Place to encounter: Wave roads of Classroom 5-A Wow, he is dual element. He changes his element frequently during the battle. So you have several options here. Either use a combo with more than 1700 damage or use the Aqua Killer Combo when he is surrounded by red rings or use your Elec Killer Combo when he is surrounded by blue rings. If you wait for him to change to Aqua element you will get maximum damage on your SP card if you use your combo right then. 3.5 Cygnus Wing SP [CW] +++++++++++++++++++++++ HP: 1500 Element: None Maximum SP battle card damage: 300 Place to encounter: Wave roads in the Lab at AMAKEN He has no element for us to abuse, what a shame! But we have some strong combos at our disposal, so use those that do more than 1500 damage to kick his ass. He moves very randomly so be careful when using the Wood Killer combo, you should know why by now. 3.6 Harp Note SP [HN] +++++++++++++++++++++ HP: 1600 Element: None Maximum SP battle card damage: 55 Place to encounter: Vista Point wave roads The last FM-ian with no element. Same tactic as for Cygnus, bring up those strong combos with more than 1600 damage and you will be fine. Harp Note moves randomly to the two rows you need her to be in for your Wood Killer Combo when he does her Shock Notes, that is the attack where he uses two speakers. But as she stands still while performing this attack you have enough time to look whether she is in position for the instant kill or not. 3.7 Cancer Bubble SP [CB] +++++++++++++++++++++++++ HP: 1800 Element: Aqua Maximum SP battle card damage: 200 Place to encounter: Fixed location in the wave roads of AMAKEN Foyer Our main combo making victim. You might already have killed him for the max 200 damage of his SP card when testing your recorded combos. If not, head there and kill him with your Elec Killer Combo. Wood Killer Combo will not work for maximum damage, because when he uses his tidal wave, and that is the first possible moment he enters the two necessary rows, you will only get 185 damage for the SP chip, so use the Elec Killer Combo or one of those Non-Elemental Combos. 3.8 Wolf Woods SP [WW] ++++++++++++++++++++++ HP: 1700 Element: Wood Maximum SP battle card damage: 170 Place to encounter: Fixed location in the wave roads the Snake Exhibit He is weak to fire, so abuse this! Our Fire Killer Combo works fine with him, but you can also use the Wood Killer Combo because he moves to those two rows rather quick as his first attack might be Upper Claw, for which he always moves to the row directly in front of you. If you play Pegasus there is another way to kill him that quick. Use the Giga Card BreakTimeBomb, as it does 600 damage fire-based, that makes 1200 damage to him! And TaurusFireSP or some other strong fire or non-fire cards take good care of the remaining 500 HP. 3.9 Crown Thunder SP [CT] +++++++++++++++++++++++++ HP: 3000 Element: Elec Maximum SP battle card damage: 330 Place to encounter: Fixed location in the wave roads of the City Dump The main reason for getting all VulcanSeeds for the Wood Killer Combo to work. 3000 HP are somewhat difficult to scratch off of him, but you will get an instant kill with your Wood Killer Combo if he moves to the needed two rows. He always did for me as his first move after the battle start, so if that is his usual pattern just concentrate and hit A once he makes his first move in battle and you kill him. Isn't it satisfying to own a 3000 HP boss with one attack? Oh, it gets even more satisfying! Up for Pegasus SP! 3.10 Pegasus Magic SP [PM] ++++++++++++++++++++++++++ HP: 3400 Element: Aqua Maximum SP battle card damage: 330 Place to encounter: DeepSpace 3 Here is the toughest boss in the whole game! He is a real pain if you do not get your best combo right in your first random encounter to beat him, he is so fast you can barely keep up with him and his moves hurt so much! So if you lose to him do not be sad! I lost to him 2 times before I could beat him to make use of a SearchEye to instant kill him so that is a common thing. He IS hard after all. Use your Elec Killer Combo to own him, as it does enough damage to him. Here is the reason why you have to get a Elec Killer Combo with at least 4 counters because even with 4 counters your combo will only damage him for 3300 HP, and the remaining 100 HP can get rough. After a non-instant killing combo he will use his unblockable 600 damage attack on you, so you are fine if you kept Sonia as your Brother, FirstBarrier protects you entirely. And the remaining 100 HP are easier to deplete than 500 HP left, you might find that out the hard way... ///////////////////// / / / 4. Tricks [TRI] / / / ///////////////////// Quick Zenny making ++++++++++++++++++ If you equip the Z Finder Mega Weapon every battle will only get you Zenny. That applies for FM-ians, too! So you have two choices for that: Cancer Bubble or Wolf Woods. You should kill them quick without using Combos, they are easy. However, Cancer is much easier than Wolf, he just gets you 3500 Zenny per win but he is a quick kill with a good Elec-type folder and he dies way quicker than Wolf and Wolf might hurt. Wolf gets you 5500 Zenny per win but he takes longer to beat due to his unpredictable movement and the damage you may take. If you have to fight Wolf with less than 50% of your max HP you may die while fighting, wasting time and not getting Zenny, so save yourself that time! You will need lots of Zenny, because SearchEyes costs 6000 Zenny each and a combo card 3000 Zenny each! //////////////// / / / 5. Credits / / / //////////////// For this FAQ I used information out of the following FAQs on Gamefaqs.com: - Walkthrough by The_Sixler, http://www.gamefaqs.com/portable/ds/file/935719/49832 - Card Force List by oemnoc http://www.gamefaqs.com/portable/ds/file/935719/49730 YouTube.com videos done by: - DarkRobin1 - kryspykreame - Icekakt 5.1 Contact Information +++++++++++++++++++++++ If you have a question or a suggestion for this FAQ, do not hesitate to write me a mail to: email@example.com or visit my site, Megaman Interactive: --------------------------------- http://megaman-int.quotaless.com --------------------------------- You can find Megaman Flash Games and Megaman Yu-Gi-Oh! cards there! 5.2 Thanks to +++++++++++++ - Capcom, for another great Megaman game - FAQs hosted on GameFaqs - People that actually do those insane mass damage combos - People that show us their accomplishments as videos on YouTube for everyone - You for reading and using my FAQ. 5.3 Copyright +++++++++++++ Copyright 2007 Marcus Goehlert a.k.a. Syre_PreddY If you want to use my FAQ please ask me first! I do not think i would say no if you ask gently. Currently this FAQ is only hosted on Gamefaqs.com, IGN.com, SuperCheats.com and Neoseeker.com with my permission. Other sites might follow.