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Version: 1.02 | Updated: 03/10/12

Yakuman DS Guide - Version 1.02 - 10 March 2012 - by Barticle at hotmail dot com

  _   _   ____   _   __ _    _  __    __   ____   __    _    ______     _____
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   | |  | |  | || |\ \ | |__| || | \/ | || |  | || | \   |   _| |_/ /  _____) )
   |_|  |_|  |_||_| \_\|______||_|    |_||_|  |_||_|  \__|  |______/  (______/


    |  01 INTRODUCTION      | .-----------------. |  10 RULE OPTIONS       |
    |  02 FEATURE LIST      | | C O N T E N T S | |  11 MAHJONG REFERENCE  |
    |  03 BEGINNING PLAY    | '-----------------' |  12 GAMEPLAY           |
    |  04 MAIN MENU         :---------------------:     o Game Screens     |
    |  05 SINGLE PLAYER     |  07 MULTIPLAYER     |     o Controls         |
    |     o Free Play mode  |  08 STATS           |     o Score Screens    |
    |     o Ranking mode    |     o Play Details  |  13 FINAL SCORES       |
    |     o Challenge mode  |     o Yaku Details  |  14 CONTACT            |
    |  06 MAHJONG TRAINING  |  09 GAME OPTIONS    |  15 THANKS             |

------< INTRODUCTION >-------------------------------------------- [Section 01]

This is a guide to the 2005 Japanese Nintendo DS mahjong game Yakuman DS. It can
also be used with Wi-Fi Taiou Yakuman DS* which was the updated 2006 version of
Yakuman DS with wi-fi compatibility added.

I've tried to use both Japanese and the equivalent English mahjong terminology
throughout this guide, in most cases giving the oriental term first and the
English version afterwards in brackets. I know that some purists will object to
my use of the terms Chow, Pung and Kong when referring to Japanese mahjong but
these are the words I learnt from my first mahjong game and they've been pretty
much standard in English texts on mahjong for around ninety years so I'm quite
comfortable with their use here.

Obviously if you can read Japanese you'll be able to read the instruction manual
and the menus in the game so this guide is aimed primarily at English speakers.
You shouldn't be daunted by the Japanese text as there are only a few short
menus and options pages. The layout of these is mirrored in this guide so you
should be able to find your way around the game without any difficulty.

To limit the length of this document I've decided to omit full details of the
rules and equipment of mahjong on the assumption that anyone buying this game
will probably already be familiar with them. If you are new to the game, or you
play a version other than the modern Japanese "Riichi" rules that appear in this
game, then you might like to read my complete guide to the terminology and rules
of Japanese mahjong. It's available as a 78-page, illustrated, hyperlinked PDF
and can be accessed from the United States Pro Mahjong League download page.

  http://www.uspml.com/site/downloads.htm  (Barticle's Japanese Mahjong Guide)

If you want to discuss Japanese mahjong then join the international community of
enthusiasts on Reach Mahjong's English forums. Hope to see you there. :)


This guide is designed to be viewed using a monospaced (non-proportional or
fixed-width) font, preferably Courier New. Some sections of the document will
display incorrectly if you are using a proportional font like Times New Roman.

*The two editions of the game can be readily distinguished because Wi-Fi Taiou
Yakuman DS has a thick blue band across the bottom of the front cover and the
word "Wi-Fi" (in English) can be seen above the main title and in the corner. 

------< FEATURE LIST >-------------------------------------------- [Section 02]

Since it can be difficult to find any detailed information in English about the
content of a foreign game I like to include a quick description of the gameplay
features when I write a guide for a Japanese game - so here it is!

o Free Play, Ranking and Challenge modes

o local Download Play and Wireless Play for 2 to 4 players

o no online play in 2005 version (added for 2006 edition Wi-Fi Taiou Yakuman DS)

o features Mario, Luigi and 19 other characters from the Super Mario series*

o modern Japanese mahjong rules including Riichi and Dora

o 35 rule options including Chombo fouls (see Section 10)

o no Uma, Agari Yame or Yakitori rules and only two red fives

o score screens include breakdown of Fu (minipoints)

o statistical log including Yaku (scoring element) counts (see Section 08)

o basic tutorial mode

o several support functions for learners (see Sections 09 and 12)

o no Dora alerts

o extensive hyperlinked dictionary of mahjong terms

o save slots for two users

o Japanese language only

*I'm using the official English names for the characters in this guide, so for
example we have Bowser instead of Koopa. The total of 21 characters includes all
the playable characters and opponents plus Lakitu who presents the game.

------< BEGINNING PLAY >------------------------------------------ [Section 03]

After watching the intro sequence you'll see the title screen. Take advantage of
the rare bit of English there and follow the instruction to "Press Start".

This will take you to the profile loader where you'll normally load your saved
game but on your first play you'll need to pick a slot and enter your name.

By default the on-screen keyboard will show Japanese hiragana characters but you
can use the shoulder buttons R/L to cycle through Japanese katakana, English
letters and numbers/symbols. Press A (or tap twice on the touchscreen) to pick a
character - this will then appear in the top-left corner of the top screen - or
B to backspace. The three options at the bottom of the keyboard can be used to
add a space, to backspace and to confirm (respectively from left to right). Your
player name can be up to six characters in length.

Then you'll need to pick your initial character from a choice of six: Mario,
Luigi and (Princess) Peach on the top row and Yoshi, Toad and (Donkey) Kong on
the bottom row. On the blue screen that follows choose the left option (Yes) to
confirm your choice. Your player profile is now prepared and you'll be returned
to the profile loader screen which you'll see each time you start Yakuman DS.

You can press up/down to switch between the two save slots. Information about
your player career will be shown on the top screen. At the top-left is your
player name and a picture of the character you're using. At the top-right is
your current ranking (starting at 20th place). In the box at the bottom-left is
the number of games you've played, your total play time and a visual indication
of any trophies you've earned from Challenge Mode (see Section 05). Finally in
the bottom-right corner is a graph plotting your performance in the categories
Attack, Luck, Skill, Speed and Defence, conveniently labelled in English.

For each active slot there are three blue buttons with the following functions:

            1. Play      2. Character Change      3. Delete Profile

Pick the first one to proceed to the main menu (see next section). If you use
either of the other two you'll need to pick the left option on the blue screen
again to confirm.

------< MAIN MENU >----------------------------------------------- [Section 04]

The main menu has the following six options:

                  (      Single Player      ) - see Section 05
                  (     Mahjong Training    ) - see Section 06
                  (       Multiplayer       ) - see Section 07
                  (          Stats          ) - see Section 08
                  (         Options         ) - see Section 09
                  (    Mahjong Reference    ) - see Section 11

(Many thanks to bontakun for providing photos of the manual for the 2006 "Wi-Fi"
edition of the game. This shows that the main menu in that version of Yakuman DS
is essentially identical to this, but the third option gives access to online
multiplayer in addition to the local Wireless Play and Download Play modes.)

------< SINGLE PLAYER >------------------------------------------- [Section 05]

The first option off the main menu is used to access the three play modes that
are available for single-player games. The sub-menu lists them as follows:

                          (     Free Play mode     )
                          (      Ranking mode      )
                          (     Challenge mode     )
= Free Play mode = 

As the name suggests, you can play this mode with a free choice of opponents,
rules and options. You can play a series of up to six matches.

First you need to pick your three opponents from the roster of characters which
is laid out in the following order:

  Goomba     Daisy     Shy Guy  Koopa Troopa     Boo        Birdo   Diddy Kong

   Toad      Peach      Mario     (Random)      Luigi       Yoshi   Donkey Kong

 Toadette  Toadsworth*  Wario*    Waluigi*  Petey Piranha*  Bowser*  Bowser Jr

You can use the Random button in the middle (marked with a question mark) to get
the game to pick one character at random. You'll notice that the six characters
on the middle row are the ones available to select as your own character at the
start of the game. The five top ranked characters on the bottom row (marked here
with asterisks) must be unlocked in Challenge mode before you can use them.

After that you get two choices on the touchscreen. Pick the top one to begin the
first match or the second one if you want to check or change the rule options.

The rules are laid out in the order given in Section 10. You can page through
them with L/R and move between them with the d-pad. To adjust a rule, highlight
the white setting and press A to cycle through the available options. You can
also press Select to restore the default rule settings and click on the yellow
title of a rule to read more about it in the dictionary (see Section 11).

All training aids are available in Free Play mode: the Support options and Open
Mode (see Section 09), the Daiuchi autopilot and undo function (see Section 12).

At the end of the game the players will be listed on the top screen in order of
their placings in the match along with their final points total and their "final
score" (see Section 13). On the bottom screen a green grid displays the players'
running totals from a series of up to six matches.

Pressing A opens a small blue pop-up box. Pick the top option to play another
game (with the same opponents and settings) or the bottom one for the main menu.

*These characters are initially locked. They become available as you complete
the courses in Challenge mode (see below).

= Ranking mode =

In Ranking mode twenty characters compete for position in a league. Each has a
certain number of ranking points which determines their standing - you start at
the bottom in 20th place with 500 points while the top player in 1st place has
1000 points. After each game you'll earn or lose ranking points according to
your performance in the match and, although you don't see the fixtures, whenever
you play a game (against three opponents) the other sixteen characters all play
against each other at the same time, all gaining/losing ranking points/position.

When you start this mode you'll be shown the character selection screen which is
just like the one in Free Play mode except now the ranking for each character is
shown above their picture (you can press Y to toggle that on/off).

After picking your three opponents you get the same two pop-ups as in Free Play
mode - pick the top one to start the match or the bottom one for the rules,
although here the rules are fixed so you can only review the default settings
that are applied (or link into the mahjong dictionary again).

During Ranking mode play you can pick the top-middle option from the pause menu
to view the ranking ladder which lists all twenty characters in the league with
the current rank positions and ranking points for each. Your character will be
highlighted pale red while the others will all be pale green.

The Daiuchi autopilot (see Section 12) and Support functions (see Section 09)
can be used but Open Mode (with your opponents' hands displayed face-up) and the
X button's rewind feature are not available.

At the end of a match the scores will be shown on the top screen as usual. This
shows for each player both the actual points total from the end of the game and
the final scores (following the process outlined in Section 13).

An orange table on the touchscreen shows the four players' *previous* rankings
and the number of ranking points won (white) or lost (red) by each. I don't
know exactly how the rank points are calculated but it seems that generally you
gain them if your final score is positive and lose them if it's negative. You
tend to get more points for a bigger score but it's not as simple as that so I
think your current ranking and perhaps the rankings of your opponents also have
an effect on the points won/lost.

After that the revised ranking ladder is displayed with the positions and rank
point totals for each player. Arrow symbols to the right of each name indicate
if a player has climbed (red), dropped (blue) or kept their position (orange).

Press A to continue and a blue pop-up will appear asking if you want to return
to the main menu. Pick the left option to proceed or the right one to go back to
viewing the ranking ladder.

The identity of the five best players initially listed at the top of the league
will be hidden until you've unlocked them by completing the four courses in the
game's Challenge mode (see below). Since you can win ranking points off any
league opponents you don't need to have all the secret characters unlocked in
order to be able to overtake them in the league. It can be beneficial however to
pick one or two top players to play against because then - if you do well in the
match - you'll gain ranking points while they lose them, but remember they will
also make tougher opponents! I'd recommended unlocking as many characters as
possible before tackling Ranking mode so that you can try to rein them in while
ascending the league yourself.

It's a bit of a grind to reach the top spot so you might like to know that this
doesn't actually yield any tangible rewards. You get a static congratulations
(Omedetou!) screen and then the game's credits roll, also a gold medal depicting
the head of your chosen character will be displayed in the top-right corner of
the profile loader screen when you select your profile.

= Challenge mode =

In this mode there are four "courses" each consisting of several numbered stages
in which you have to pass a mahjong challenge (hence the name).

The four courses are displayed in the following pattern although the fourth
course will not become available until you've completed the other three.

             1. Elementary course        2. Intermediate course
                (four stages)               (five stages)

             3. Advanced course          4. Expert course - initially locked
                (six stages)                (eight stages)

Within each course you must complete Stage 1 to unlock Stage 2, etc.

The rewards for completing each course are as follows:-

              Elementary course: bronze trophy
                                 Wario and Waluigi characters unlocked

            Intermediate course: silver trophy
                                 Petey Piranha character unlocked

                Advanced course: gold trophy
                                 Bowser character unlocked

                  Expert course: Toadsworth character unlocked

When you select a stage on the touchscreen, the details and pass requirement
will be shown on the top screen and your opponents on the bottom screen.

After selecting a stage to play you'll get two options on-screen. Pick the top
one to begin or the bottom one to review the fixed rule settings for the stage.

Each of the twenty-three stages is described below. I've listed the opponents
that I encountered (playing as Yoshi) but if your chosen character is one of the
three listed they'll be replaced by someone else.

1.1    Stage: Elementary course - Stage 1

 Requirement: In a Hanchan (two-round match) avoid last place

   Opponents: Goomba, Shy Guy and Koopa Troopa

        Info: A nice easy one to get you started!

              Support functions (see Section 09) are available in this stage.

1.2    Stage: Elementary course - Stage 2

 Requirement: In a Hanchan get a Riichi win

   Opponents: Koopa Troopa, Toad and Goomba

        Info: For Riichi your hand must remain concealed, with no exposed sets
              completed by stealing an opponent's discard. As usual a Pinfu hand
              composed of Chows will be the most efficient structure to use.

              The match will end as soon as you declare a win after reaching.

              Support functions are available in this stage.

1.3    Stage: Elementary course - Stage 3

 Requirement: In a Hanchan get a final score (see Section 13) of +1 or higher

   Opponents: Birdo, Toad and Koopa Troopa

        Info: You can achieve the goal in one of two ways. A score of 30,600 pts
              or more will guarantee a final score of +1 or more. Alternatively
              if you win the match, even if you finish with fewer than 30,600
              points, you will collect the 20,000 points Oka bonus and therefore
              easily meet the stage's pass requirement. In either case a couple
              of small/medium wins combined with sound defensive play should be
              sufficient to clear the stage.

              Support functions are available in this stage.

1.4    Stage: Elementary course - Stage 4

 Requirement: In a Hanchan - with your sensei's Support roles (see Section 09)
              now unavailable - finish in first place

   Opponents: Diddy Kong, Birdo and Luigi

        Info: With the aids removed, win the match by any means necessary.

              The Dobon (bankruptcy) rule is Nashi so the game will continue
              even if a player's score drops below zero. The Shaanyuu rule is
              Ari so the match will continue into a third round if no-one gets
              the target score of 30k. See Section 10 for more on rule options.

              It seems that the Agari Yame rule is not included so even if you
              win a hand while leading as east in the final hand you will not be
              given the option to end the game early.

2.1    Stage: Intermediate course - Stage 1

 Requirement: In a Hanchan be victorious over the Goomba

   Opponents: Goomba, Toad and Boo

        Info: The Goomba is the brown, triangular, fanged mushroomy thing.

              Your objective here is to finish the game with a higher placing
              than the Goomba, so I think you could even come 3rd as long as he
              comes 4th. You don't need to win the match although obviously that
              would give you a guaranteed pass on the stage.

2.2    Stage: Intermediate course - Stage 2

 Requirement: In a Hanchan get a final score (see Section 13) of +5 or higher

   Opponents: Mario, Diddy Kong and Donkey Kong

        Info: Similar to Stage 3 on the Elementary course but with a slightly
              higher target. You can score 34,600+ points and/or win the match.

2.3    Stage: Intermediate course - Stage 3

 Requirement: In a Tonpuusen (one-round match) finish in first place

   Opponents: Birdo, Koopa Troopa and Goomba

        Info: Again you just need to win the game but this time it's a shorter
              match consisting of a single wind-round.

              Since only an east round is played there's no opportunity for the
              Nanba continuance rule to take effect (under the Nanba rule, if a
              hand results in an exhaustive draw during the south round then the
              dealer stays on in an extra hand even if their hand was No-ten
              (not ready)). Consequently any games played in this stage will be
              significantly shorter than in the preceding ones.

              Go for quick/cheap wins to grab points where you can.

2.4    Stage: Intermediate course - Stage 4

 Requirement: In a Hanchan finish in first place (?)

   Opponents: Shy Guy, Mario and Goomba

        Info: Not sure about this one - I struggle to make sense of sentences
              with lots of hiragana characters and few kanji. It's something
              about Shy Guy ("Hey-Ho" in the original Japanese)...

              Answers on a postcard please! (or email rather)

              (I won a match with around a 15k points lead and evidently that
              was sufficient to clear this stage.)

2.5    Stage: Intermediate course - Stage 5

 Requirement: Over two Hanchan finish in first place overall

   Opponents: Toadette, Boo and Petey Piranha

        Info: Each player's final scores (see Section 13) will be summed over
              the session and you need the highest total to pass the stage. You
              don't need to win the matches.

              To give an example, I passed with the following final scores:

                           |   Yoshi   | Toadette |    Boo    |   Petey
                   Match 1 |    +32    |    -2    |    -14    |    -16
                   Match 2 |    +53    |    -9    |    -30    |    -14
                     Total |    +85    |   -11    |    -44    |    -30

              After the first match you'll get a little blue menu that gives you
              two options - pick the first one to continue to the second match
              or the bottom one to end your challenge attempt.

3.1    Stage: Advanced course - Stage 1

 Requirement: In one Hanchan be victorious over Bowser Jr

   Opponents: Bowser Jr, Princess Peach and Shy Guy

        Info: In the initial player rankings seen on the Free Play and Ranking
              mode character-selection screen Bowser Jr is ranked 6th overall.

              (He's the one with the orange eyebrows and topknot.)

              I think you just need to place higher than him and you don't need
              to actually win the match.

3.2    Stage: Advanced course - Stage 2

 Requirement: Over two Hanchan get a combined final score of +20 or higher

   Opponents: Toad, Princess Peach and Luigi

        Info: You don't need to win the matches but it'll be a big help if you
              win at least one of them because the 20,000 points Oka bonus for
              the winner will add 20 to your final score for that game.

              I scraped through on my first attempt with +23 and -2 giving a
              combined final score of +21.

3.3    Stage: Advanced course - Stage 3

 Requirement: In one Hanchan, with your tiles arranged in random order and a
              30-second time limit on each move, finish 2nd place or better

   Opponents: Daisy, Diddy Kong and Goomba

        Info: Okay, this one actually deserves the "Advanced" label! Seriously
              good players can play happily without any hand arrangement but if
              you're unpractised it's gonna be pretty daunting, especially with
              the added constraint of the time limit. It wasn't so bad though.

              I actually got quite lucky with this on my first attempt - in the
              second hand I had an initial draw with a fairly large proportion
              of Manzu (Craks) tiles, obviously lending itself to a flush hand.

              It was easy to simply discard tiles of the other two suits and
              then start dropping the Honours, also calling any Manzu tiles that
              were offered. I was also lucky that as soon as my hand consisted
              only of Manzu tiles it was actually Tenpai (ready) - you can check
              this by pressing Y on your turn (if you can see wait tiles in the
              box that appears then you're Tenpai).

              I completed the hand by Ron (thank you, Goomba) and with one Dora
              it scored as a Haneman (12,000 pts for a non-dealer). I picked up
              a couple of unclaimed Riichi sticks from the first hand too so I
              got 14,000 pts in total, giving me a comfortable lead. Then I just
              intended to play safe for the rest of the match. Diddy Kong stole
              my lead in the south round with a dealer Haneman but then Daisy
              knocked him back down with a Ron win off him. I managed to get a
              second nice win too, this time with Honitsu (Half-Flush) with a
              sweet Pung of Dora giving a Mangan. I won the game by 8,600 pts.

              So, I'd recommend going for a flush given half a chance. Otherwise
              that 30-second time limit is actually pretty generous, especially
              since it's also applied every time you're offered a call. You do
              actually have sufficient time to write down all the tiles in your
              hand, grouping them by suit and listing them in numerical order.
              You can then cross off tiles as you discard them and add new ones
              as you draw them on subsequent turns (new tiles always appear at
              the right-hand end of your hand as usual).

              If you don't want to go to that trouble you can kinda track the
              structures in your hand visually. It's easier once you've dropped
              any winds and dragons. Then you only have the three suits to think
              about and you can consider them one at a time.

              You can pause the game to suspend the timer if that helps.

              As long as you take care not to leave yourself with a hand without
              Yaku (scoring element), if you call tiles from your opponents this
              will give you a smaller hand that's easier to work with. It would
              be easiest to do this with Yakuhai (Pung of dragons or scoring
              winds) or Tanyao (All Simples) as your guaranteed Yaku.

3.4    Stage: Advanced course - Stage 4

 Requirement: Over two Hanchan never finish 3rd or 4th

   Opponents: Waluigi, Toadette and Petey Piranha

        Info: This time your position in each match is important - you must come
              1st or 2nd in both to clear the stage.

              If you've ever played ranked matches online you should be familiar
              with the style of play required, taking wins where you can but not
              taking unnecessary risks and "folding" (switching to defensive
              play) when necessary.

              Presumably your attempt will end if you get 3rd or 4th place in
              the first match.

3.5    Stage: Advanced course - Stage 5

 Requirement: In one Tonpuusen (one-round match) never get ronned

   Opponents: Wario, Luigi and Toad

        Info: The requirement for this stage is that you don't make a Furikomi.
              In standard Japanese this means "payment" but in mahjong it refers
              specifically to the full payment made when you discard the tile
              that gets taken for a Ron win. It doesn't matter if an opponent
              makes a Tsumo (self-draw) win where you pay some of the points.

              This stage is very easy, even with only basic defensive skills.
              There's no requirement to achieve a certain score or placing so
              you can play safe right from the start of each hand. If you drop
              all your middle-numbered suit tiles first you should be left with
              plenty of the safer Terminals (1's and 9's) and Honours (winds and
              dragons). If an opponent declares Riichi then try to discard only
              tiles that they've discarded already or that other players have
              discarded since the Riichi declaration.

              If you find yourself with a decent starting hand you might think
              that "the best defence is a good offence" and certainly you can't
              get ronned if you win the hand, but remember that calling tiles
              will lock them in exposed sets and limit your defence potential if
              you decide to fold after an opponent reaches.

3.6    Stage: Advanced course - Stage 6

 Requirement: Over three Hanchan finish in first place overall

   Opponents: Wario, Waluigi and Bowser

        Info: This is very much like the final stage of the Intermediate course
              but with one extra match and stronger opponents.

              Your opponents are ranked 4th, 5th and 2nd respectively so you can
              expect some tough competition.

              You might want to adopt a slightly more risky style of play in the
              first game and then restart if you don't get a good match win.

              NB You can review your performance from previous matches in the
              current session using the top-middle option off the pause menu.

              This took me several attempts but finally I got a lucky break,
              starting a match with a streak of four wins as east including two
              Haneman hands plus one further Haneman later in the game so I got
              a final score of +53. A combination of a few little wins and some
              defensive play gave me +21 for winning the second match and a lead
              of almost 100 so it was practically impossible to lose.

(The Yakuman DS credits roll after completing the Advanced course so I guess
you've technically beaten the game. Also the Expert course becomes unlocked...)

4.1    Stage: Expert course - Stage 1

 Requirement: In one Hanchan, with the Dobon and Wareme rules applied (see
              Section 10), bust Petey Piranha.

   Opponents: Petey Piranha, Wario and Waluigi

        Info: The Dobon bankruptcy rule means that the match will end if someone
              drops below zero points. Your goal is to do this to Petey - the
              giant carnivorous plant. (Little Shop of Horrors anyone?)

              The Wareme player in each hand will be indicated by three white
              and red characters on the tabletop. Any payment/s that they pay or
              receive will be doubled. You can use this to your advantage when
              either you or Petey are Wareme - if you can land a Ron win off one
              of his discards he'll be required to pay double the normal amount.

              This will take some time and luck. If Petey wins a substantial
              number of points you might as well quit out and retry.

              Try to avoid dealing into Petey's wins because you want to avoid
              giving him points. Also go defensive if Wario or Waluigi reaches
              because there's a chance that Petey will get ronned by them.

              Remember that the temporary "missed win" Furiten rule becomes
              permanent if you've declared Riichi. For example if you reach and
              you're given the option to take a Ron win off Wario you can't pass
              the Ron in the hope of later winning off Petey instead because the
              missed win after Riichi will make you permanently Furiten. You
              could skip the Ron and hope for a Tsumo win though because then
              you'll at least take some points of the plant.

              You're not required to achieve any score or placing but of course
              if you get busted yourself the game will end so try to avoid that.

              I owe thanks to Wario whose early dealer Haneman win off Petey was
              crucial to me finally passing this stage.

4.2    Stage: Expert course - Stage 2

 Requirement: In one Hanchan, with all hands displayed face-up on the table, get
              a final score (see Section 13) of +40 or higher

   Opponents: Luigi, Daisy and Toadette

        Info: Although Dobon is Nashi, you'll probably need to win the match.
              Specifically you'll need to win the game with a score of 49,600
              points or more to beat the target.

              With the open hands you should never deal into an opponent's win
              - just remember that they can be Tenpai (ready) without declaring
              Riichi (i.e. Damaten or "silent Tenpai"). Your rivals aren't so
              careful - they will still deal into your Ron wins.

              With the Nanba continuance rule in effect you might even want to
              take advantage of the Open Mode view in order to find a cheap hand
              to deal into in order to end the match once you've reached your
              target score, especially if you're east in the final hand.

4.3    Stage: Expert course - Stage 3

 Requirement: Over two Hanchan come first in both matches

   Opponents: Koopa Troopa, Boo and Bowser Jr

        Info: Win both games - score points where you can but be careful not to
              lose them too.

4.4    Stage: Expert course - Stage 4

 Requirement: Over two Hanchan, with your tiles arranged in random order and a
              20-second time limit on each move, finish in first place overall

   Opponents: Mario, Diddy Kong and Birdo

        Info: This plays like Stage 3 in the Advanced course except now there
              are two matches, the time limit is shorter and you need to win!

              I tried to play normally as much as possible, discarding Honours,
              then Terminals and aiming for Riichi, Pinfu and Tanyao.

4.5    Stage: Expert course - Stage 5

 Requirement: Over three Hanchan get a combined final score of +30 or higher

   Opponents: Daisy, Peach and Toadette

        Info: Impress the ladies with your crazy mahjong skillz.

              As usual with these ones you don't need to win the matches but the
              +20 bonus (Oka) you get for each win will be a big help.

4.6    Stage: Expert course - Stage 6

 Requirement: Over three Hanchan get a series of victories over Bowser

   Opponents: Bowser, Bowser Jr and Koopa Troopa

        Info: I think you need to place better than Bowser in all three games.
              If he beats you in any match then your attempt will end.

              It took me quite a few tries to crack this one but I got there in
              the end. I got a comfortable +42 win in the first game (after the
              west round since the Shaanyuu rule kicked in (see Section 10)) and
              then a sweet +55 in the second match, although sadly my Suu Ankou
              (Four Concealed Pungs) ready hand didn't come to fruition. Too bad
              your cumulative score total doesn't carry over across games...!
              The third and final game was pretty tense but I played slowly and
              very carefully, eventually ending the last hand with a Ron win off
              Boswer himself (ha!) to give me a final score of -1. Not so very
              impressive but more than enough to beat Bowser's pathetic -14!

4.7    Stage: Expert course - Stage 7

 Requirement: Over three Hanchan get a combined final score of +60 or higher

   Opponents: Shy Guy, Goomba and Koopa Troopa

        Info: You should know the drill by now - you don't need to win the games
              but each win will give you a very useful +20 on your final score,
              in fact if you were to win all three matches you'd only need to
              finish with a score of 30,000 points in each.

              You're up against three quite low ranked players here so hopefully
              you'll get through this without too much difficulty. Certainly I
              found it a lot easier than the previous stage against Bowser.

              Your scores do carry over in this one so if you can get a couple
              of big wins in the first two matches then you can cruise home in
              style in the third.

4.8    Stage: Expert course - Stage 8

 Requirement: Over four Hanchan finish in first place overall

   Opponents: Toadsworth, Petey Piranha and Bowser

        Info: So here it is - the final showdown! An epic battle spanning four
              matches, fought against the top three opponents in Yakuman DS!

------< MAHJONG TRAINING >---------------------------------------- [Section 06]

The second option on the main menu is used to launch the tutorial which teaches
the basics of mahjong and how to play Yakuman DS.

This consists of three numbered steps. You can use A to page forwards through a
lesson, B to page back or X to return to the training menu (left to confirm).

The lessons are delivered by Super Mario character Lakitu.

Step 1 explains that mahjong is a four-player game. It shows the different types
of tiles and how to make a set and a complete hand of four sets and a pair. It
then illustrates some example Yaku (scoring elements).

Next you "play" a demonstration game with guidance - you only need to keep using
the A button to advance the slideshow. You draw and discard tiles and then when
your hand is Tenpai (ready) you declare Riichi since this will add the required
Yaku to the hand that otherwise has none. The box at the bottom of the screen
shows your waits - the two tiles that would complete your hand. Peach drops one
of your winning tiles so you take it to declare a win by Ron. The score screen
shows all the details of your win (see Section 12). Peach is remorseful.

On the blue screen that follows, pick the left option to return to the training
menu or the right one to repeat Step 1.

Step 2 shows how to call Pon to steal an opponent's discard to complete a Pung.
After doing this twice you go out with another cheap win, this time off Yoshi.
Next you see how to call Chii to make a Chow and you complete an Ittsuu (Pure
Straight) hand with a Tsumo win on a self-drawn tile.

Step 3 is a little more exciting. By discarding the indicated tiles you'll make
a hand combining the scoring elements Honitsu (Half-Flush), Yakuhai (Pung of
value tiles), Riichi and Ittsuu again. In total that's worth seven Han (doubles)
so it's capped at the Haneman limit and costs a hapless Yoshi 12,000 points.

Congratulations! You are now an expert in mahjong! ...Okay so there's a little
more to the game than all that. If you can read Japanese text you can learn a
lot more from the built-in dictionary (see Section 11) but otherwise I suggest
that you download my comprehensive English PDF guide which is available here:

  http://www.uspml.com/site/downloads.htm  (Barticle's Japanese Mahjong Guide)

------< MULTIPLAYER >--------------------------------------------- [Section 07]

The game supports the DS's Wireless Play and Download Play modes. With Wireless
Play each player will require a DS and a Yakuman DS game cartridge, but with
Download Play only a single cartridge is needed.

I don't have the facility to test these modes but you can access them from the
third option on the main menu where you're given the following two choices:

                         (       Wireless Play       )
                         (       Download Play       )

For Wireless Play you'll also need to choose whether you'll be the host for the
game (top option) or a client (bottom option).*

In the 2006 Wi-Fi edition of Yakuman DS you can also access online play here.
The manual shows that the online multiplayer menu has the following options:

1. Wi-Fi Play
2. Friend Codes
3. Gameplay Stats
4. Wi-Fi Settings
5. Extra Settings
6. Nickname Change

(Thanks again to bontakun for providing images of the 2006 manual.)

*The game uses the Japanese words Oya (parent) and Ko (child), the same terms
that are used in mahjong to denote the dealer and non-dealers.

------< STATS >--------------------------------------------------- [Section 08]

The fourth option on the main menu (labelled with the Japanese rendering of the
English word "status") shows your gameplay stats on the touchscreen. The top
screen will always show the same information from the profile loader screen (see
Section 03) with your ranking, play time and the pentagonal graph again.

The stats menu gives you two options:

                         (        Play Details       )
                         (        Yaku Details       )

In either section you can use the L/R buttons to page left/right. In the Yaku
lists you can also use d-pad up/down to scroll as necessary.

= Play Details =

This part gives various stats about your games, spread over four pages.

o Page 1

  1. Number of hands played
  2. Number of 1st place finishes
  3. Number of 2nd place finishes
  4. Number of 3rd place finishes
  5. Number of 4th place finishes
  6. Most consecutive 1st place finishes
  7. Number of hands that resulted in a draw

o Page 2

  1. Average points scored on a winning hand
  2. Number of Tsumo wins declared
  3. Number of Ron wins declared
  4. Number and percentage of hands in which you got "ronned" by an opponent
  5. Number of times you called a tile by Chii/Pon/Kan
  6. Number of times an opponent called a tile from you

o Page 3

  1. Number of times you declared Riichi
  2. Number of times you won after declaring Riichi
  3. Number of times you got an Ippatsu Tsumo win
  4. Number of times you got an Ippatsu Ron win
  5. Number of times you got ronned with an Ippatsu win

o Page 4

  1. Number of standard Dora bonus tiles used in your winning hands
  2. Number of Ura Dora used in your winning hands
  3. Number of Kan Dora used in your winning hands
  4. Number of red fives used in your winning hands

= Yaku Details =

This section gives counts of how many times you've completed each Yaku (scoring
element) and Yakuman (limit hand) in the game. They're grouped by value.

o One-Han Yaku

   1. Riichi
   2. Ippatsu ("one-shot" win after Riichi)
   3. Menzen Tsumo (Concealed Self-Draw)
   4. Pinfu
   5. Tanyao (All Simples)
   6. Iipeikou (Pure Double Chow)
   7. Yakuhai (Pung of dragons, round-wind or seat-wind)
   8. Haitei (Last-Tile Tsumo)
   9. Houtei (Last-Tile Ron)
  10. Chankan (Robbing the Kong)
  11. Rinshan Kaihou (After a Kong)

o Two-Han Yaku

   1. San Shoku Doujun (Mixed Triple Chow)
   2. Ikkitsuukan/Ittsuu (Pure Straight)
   3. Chanta (Mixed Outside Hand)
   4. Toi-Toi Hou (All Pungs)
   5. San Shoku Doukou (Triple Pung)
   6. Chii Toitsu (Seven Pairs)
   7. Honroutou (All Terminals & Honours)
   8. San Ankou (Three Concealed Pungs)
   9. San Kantsu (Three Kongs)
  10. Shou San Gen (Little Three Dragons)
  11. Daburu Riichi (Double Riichi)
  12. Open Riichi
  13. San Renkou (Three Consecutive Pungs)

o Three-Han Yaku

   1. Ryanpeikou (Twice Pure Double Chow)
   2. Junchan (Pure Outside Hand)
   3. Honitsu (Half-Flush)

o Six-Han Yaku

   1. Chinitsu (Full Flush)

o Mangan

   1. Nagashi Mangan (All Terminal & Honour Discards)

o Yakuman

   1. Shou Suu Shii (Little Four Winds)
   2. Dai San Gen (Big Three Dragons)
   3. Tsuuiisou (All Honours)
   4. Chinroutou (All Terminals)
   5. Ryuuiisou (All Green)
   6. Suu Kantsu (Four Kongs)
   7. Kokushimusou (Thirteen Orphans)
   8. Chuurenpoutou (Nine Gates)
   9. Suu Ankou (Four Concealed Pungs)
  10. Tenhou (Heavenly Win)
  11. Chiihou (Earthly Win)
  12. Renhou (Human Win)
  13. Dai Sharin (Big Wheels)
  14. Shiisan Puutaa (Thirteen Unconnected Tiles)
  15. Suu Renkou (Four Consecutive Pungs)
  16. Paa Renchan (Eight Consecutive Dealer Wins)

o Double Yakuman

   1. Kokushimusou Juu-San Men Machi (Thirteen Orphans on 13-sided wait)
   2. Suu Ankou Tanki (Four Concealed Pungs on pair wait)
   3. Junsei Chuurenpoutou (Pure Nine Gates on 9-sided wait)
   4. Dai Suu Shii (Big Four Winds)

------< GAME OPTIONS >-------------------------------------------- [Section 09]

The fifth choice on the main menu is used to view/change your gameplay options.

Use L/R to switch between the two pages, d-pad up/down to select an option and
d-pad left-right to cycle through the permitted values. Press Select (then pick
the left option to confirm) to reset all options to their default. The default
setting for each rule is marked below with an asterisk (*).

I've added my own numbering to the listings below, for example 2.3 denotes the
third option from the top on the second page.

1.1  Name: Rule Setting

  Options: (access rule setting menu)

     Info: You can use this option to access the setting screens for all the
           optional rules available in the game. See Section 10 for more info.

1.2  Name: Time Limit

  Options: Infinity* / 5 secs / 10 secs / 15 secs / 20 secs / 25 secs / 30 secs

     Info: This option applies a time limit to your moves. If you fail to make
           your move in the allotted time the game will automatically discard
           the tile you currently have selected when the counter hits zero.

           The default setting (infinity) effectively turns the option off.

           You can bypass the time limit by simply pausing the game although the
           pause menu and score display obscure your view of your tiles and the
           rest of the table so this "thinking time" is not so useful.

1.3  Name: Automated Discards

  Options: Off* / On

     Info: When this option is set to On the game will automatically discard for
           you after you have declared Riichi - unless you have the potential to
           either declare a win or declare a concealed Kong.

1.4  Name: Background Music (BGM)

  Options: Off / On*

     Info: This gives you the option to turn off the in-game music.

1.5  Name: Sound Effects

  Options: Off / On*

     Info: Similarly you can turn off the in-game sound effects.

1.6  Name: Voice

  Options: None / Mario* / Real

     Info: This lets you select the voices that'll be used for all spoken calls
           and declarations during play. The "Mario" option gives the authentic
           voices/sounds for all of the Super Mario characters. My favourite is
           Mario himself who says "mamma mia!" whenever he gets ronned. Heh! :)

           Since many of the creatures on the character roster can't speak, you
           will need to watch the text pop-ups and action on the top screen in
           order to follow their calls during play (see Section 12) if you're
           using the Mario voice option.

1.7  Name: Face Graphics

  Options: On* / Off

     Info: This option permits you to turn off the animated pictures of the
           characters that are normally displayed during play. They will be
           replaced by a generic static silhouette with a coloured background.

2.1  Name: CPU Discard Speed

  Options: Fast / Normal* / Slow

     Info: This governs the speed at which your opponents take their turns.

2.2  Name: Open Mode

  Options: Off* / On

     Info: With Open Mode applied the game will show your opponents' hands - all
           their tiles will be displayed face-up on the virtual table.

           For obvious reasons, this option is only available in Free Play mode
           and cannot be used in Ranking mode or most stages in Challenge mode.

2.3  Name: One-Handed Mode

  Options: Off* / On

     Info: This mode adjusts the controls so you can play one-handed.

           d-pad up = confirm

           d-pad left/right = move cursor (as usual)

           L button = cancel

           When this mode is in use the game indicates this with a red square
           near the top-left corner of the touchscreen.

2.4  Name: Support

  Options: Off / On*

     Info: This lets you disable several of the assistance features in the game.

           When the Support option is applied you get the following help:

           o A bouncing green dot suggests the best tile to discard each turn.

             This will also automatically become the tile selected for discard
             so don't make the mistake of assuming that your Tsumo (the tile you
             just drew from the wall) will be the default selection as in other
             mahjong video-games. If you want to discard any other tile you'll
             need to select it first.

             Multiple green dots can indicate two tiles to use in a meld or four
             identical tiles to declare as a Kong.

           o Pressing L will display a recommended Yaku (scoring element) and
             predict a possible final shape for your winning hand.

           o Pressing R (repeatedly to cycle between your three opponents) will
             analyse a player's position and give a short report on their hand.
             (For example it might say something like "single-suit hand with two
             exposed sets / all Manzu suit tiles dangerous / Honitsu trend".)

             It will also show a yellow/orange/red bar-graph above your own hand
             indicating which tiles might be dangerous to discard. Any tiles in
             your hand that the player has previously discarded themselves will
             be shown without a bar, indicating that the selected player cannot
             declare a Ron win on that tile because they would be Furiten.

           You can use the Support functions in Free Play mode, Ranking mode and
           in the first three stages of the Elementary course in Challenge mode.

2.5  Name: Table Colour

  Options: Blue* / Green / Random

     Info: Here you can change the colour of the virtual tabletop.

           Not the most amazing range of options but better than nothing!

2.6  Name: Pictochat

  Options: Search / No Search*

     Info: This is some sort of setting for the drawing-pad chat function that's
           available during local wireless multiplayer.

2.7  Name: Tile Ordering

  Options: 1* to 25

     Info: This final option gives you twenty-five different choices** for the
           order in which the game will display the tiles in your hand. As you
           cycle through the available settings, each one will be illustrated on
           the top screen.

           Option 1 gives the standard ordering of (from left to right) Manzu
           suit (Craks), Souzu (Bams), Pinzu (Dots), winds and dragons.

           Option 25 displays your tiles in completely random order! You'll
           encounter this during the Challenge mode (see Section 05)... :6

           If you are using Open Mode (see 2.2 above) your opponents' tiles will
           always be shown using the standard ordering (option 1).

*This is the default setting for the game option.

**With the exception of option 25, the dragons will always be shown immediately
to the right of the winds so effectively there are four units to arrange - the
three suits and the block of Honours (winds and dragons). Four different items
can be arranged in twenty-four different permutations (4 x 3 x 2 x 1) ...plus
one for the random option gives you twenty-five.

------< RULE OPTIONS >-------------------------------------------- [Section 10]

There are 35 rule settings in the game. These can be accessed from the first
option off page 1 of the Options menu which in turn can be found under option 5
off the main menu or from the top-right option on the pause menu during play.
You can also access the rules by picking the second on-screen button immediately
before starting a match.

You can only select the rules for Free Play mode. In Ranking mode a fixed rule-
set is used composed of the default settings for the rules (indicated below with
asterisks). In Challenge mode the default rules usually apply but occasionally
one or two will be changed for a specific challenge (see Section 05).

The rules are always displayed over three pages with two columns each. You can
page through them with the L/R buttons. You can click on the yellow name of a
rule to access the dictionary entry for that rule or (immediately before a Free
Play game or when accessed via the main menu) click on the white text to change
a rule setting, cycling through the permitted values. Where you can adjust the
rules you can also press Select to restore the default settings.

For most of the rules there are only two options - on and off. These are denoted
with the usual terms in Japanese mahjong: Ari for a rule that's being used and
Nashi for a rule that's not.

  __|___    | _
   _|___    |/ \   ARI
  / |/  \   |   |  denotes "existence" and describes a rule that's applied (On)
  \_/  _/   '  / 

  __/__  _   |
   /    |    |     NASHI
  /    _|_   |     means "without" and describes a rule that's not applied (Off)
 /    (_|    |__.

Each of the available options is described below. These are numbered from top to
bottom and then left to right on each page.

1.01 Name: Kuitan  (open Tanyao)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: When Kuitan is Ari the game allows the scoring element Tanyao (All
           Simples) on an open hand (i.e. one with one or more exposed sets).

1.02 Name: Tsumo Pinfu  (self-draw Pinfu)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: When Tsumo Pinfu is Ari you can claim the scoring element Pinfu on
           a Tsumo (self-draw) win. Pinfu is defined as a "no points" hand, with
           no Fu (minipoints) other than the basic 20 or 30 for going out. A
           Tsumo win is normally worth an extra two Fu but with this rule you
           waive the two Fu and take the extra Han (double) for Pinfu instead.

1.03 Name: Atozuke  (after attach)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: The Atozuke rule allows you to declare a win on a hand that contained
           no Yaku (scoring element/s) until you added the winning tile.

1.04 Name: Ura Dora  (underside Dora)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: The Ura Dora bonus tile is indicated by the tile under the standard
           Dora indicator (the top tile in the third stack of the dead wall) and
           applied when someone wins after they declared Riichi.

1.05 Name: Kan Dora  (Kong Dora)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: A Kan Dora indicator is flipped on the top row of the dead wall each
           time someone declares a Kong (quad) set. No more than four Kan Dora
           can ever be applied in any given hand.

           Since the Kan Dora indicator tile is not flipped until the player who
           just declared the Kong has discarded, a Kan Dora is not applied on
           the declaration of a win by Rinshan Kaihou (After a Kong) using the
           supplement tile taken after announcing a Kong.

1.06 Name: Kan Ura Dora  (Kong Underside Dora)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: If both the previous rules are Ari then this rule can be used to
           apply Kan Ura Dora on a Riichi win using the tiles under any active
           Kan Dora indicators.

           If either rule 1.04 or 1.05 is set to Nashi then this one will be
           automatically set to Nashi too because it is impossible to have Kan
           Ura Dora without both Ura Dora and Kan Dora.

1.07 Name: Akago Manzu (Dora)  (red fives)

  Options: Off* [nashi] / On [ari]

     Info: A popular rule option in Japan involves replacing some of the number
           5 suit tiles with special versions that have completely red markings.
           These tiles work the same way as Dora - each one present in a winning
           hand is worth one extra Han (double).

           Matches are usually played with either three or four red fives but in
           this game (and in some versions of the real "Yakuman" branded tile-
           sets manufactured by Nintendo!) there are only two red fives and both
           are in the Manzu (Craks) suit.

1.08 Name: Wareme  (doubling on wall break)

  Options: Off* [nashi] / On [ari]

     Info: When the Wareme rule is applied, the player whose section of the wall
           was broken at the start of each hand pays and receives double points
           (and if that player happens to be the dealer too then the score
           effects are cumulative).

           The Wareme player is indicated with the word "Wareme" spelt in three
           Japanese characters (white text with red outlines) on the top screen.
           Since the dice used to determine the location of the wall break are
           shown on the virtual tabletop you can also use them - take the total
           from the dice roll and count anticlockwise around the table starting
           on the dealer. For example if the dice roll was 8 you'd count twice
           around the table to north, sat to the dealer's left.

           The doubling effect of Wareme is applied after the normal score
           calculation so, for example, if you get ronned on a dealer Mangan
           when either you or the dealer has the Wareme marker then it would
           cost you a very painful 24,000 points.

           Even individual payments on a Tsumo win are affected, for example a
           normal Tsumo win for a non-dealer Mangan would receive 4,000 pts from
           the dealer and 2,000 pts each from the other two players, but if the
           dealer had the Wareme marker their payment would be 8,000.

1.09 Name: Dobon  (bankruptcy)

  Options: Off* [nashi] / On [ari]

     Info: When this rule is used a game will end early if the points total of
           one or more players drops below zero, i.e. if they get busted.

           Unusually the default setting in Yakuman DS is Dobon Nashi so instead
           of the match ending, a player will continue with negative score.

           When Dobon is Ari a player with 900 points or less is not permitted
           to declare Riichi (since they can't afford the 1000 points required).

1.10 Name: Fukusuu Ron  (multiple Ron)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: This rule permits both Double Ron and Triple Ron, when two or three
           players can declare a valid win on the same discarded tile.

1.11 Name: Tonpuusen  (one-round match)

  Options: Off* [nashi] / On [ari]

     Info: This rule can be applied to permit a match consisting of a single
           (east) round. When this rule is Nashi a standard Hanchan (a game of
           two wind-rounds - east and south) will be played instead.

1.12 Name: Shaanyuu  (west extension)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: Under the Shaanyuu rule, if the second round of a Hanchan ends where
           no player has achieved the target score of 30,000 points then "extra
           time" will be played, specifically a third (west) round. The square
           round-wind indicator on the top screen and the hand count on the
           touchscreen will both show the character for west. "Sudden death" is
           not applied - the game does not end as soon as someone hits 30k.

           The target score represents a player breaking-even on the 30,000 pts
           buy-in which they effectively pay at the start of each game.

           Although by default this rule is applied, I've only seen it happen
           once in about 30 hours of play so far.

           If rule 1.11 is set to Ari this rule is automatically set to Nashi -
           in Yakuman DS a one-round game always lasts only one round.

The first three rules on the second page/screen all relate to abortive draws.
When an abortive draw occurs, the name of the draw will be shown horizontally
across the centre of the touchscreen in silver Japanese text.

2.01 Name: Suu Cha Riichi Nagare  (four Riichi draw)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: Under this rule an abortive draw will be declared if all four players
           declare Riichi in the same hand. Their Riichi stakes remain on the
           table (giving a nice 4,000 points bonus for the next person to win a
           hand!) and the hand is replayed.

2.02 Name: Suu Kan Nagare  (four Kong draw)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: Under this rule an abortive draw will be declared if four Kongs are
           declared in a single hand.

           Although exceedingly rare, an exception applies if the four Kongs are
           all declared by the same player.

2.03 Name: Suu Fon Renda  (four wind draw)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: Under this rule an abortive draw will be declared if all four players
           discard the same wind tile on their first turn.

2.04 Name: Nanba no Oya No-ten  (south round continuance conditions)

  Options: Continuance* [renchan] / Winds rotate [nagare]

     Info: Whenever a hand ends either in a dealer win or in a draw in which the
           dealer has a Tenpai (ready) hand, an extra hand known as a Renchan or
           continuance will be played. The seat-winds do not rotate so the east
           player "stays on" as dealer in the continuance.

           With the default setting for this rule a continuance will also be
           played during the Nanba (south round) after any hand that ends in a
           draw in which the dealer's hand is No-ten (unready). In other words,
           an extra hand will always be played after a dealer win or *any* draw
           and the seat winds will only rotate after a non-dealer win.

           (This rule option, combined with Dobon Nashi, is the reason why games
           seem to last forever in Yakuman DS...)

2.05 Name: Kuikae  (melding switch)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: When Kuikae is Ari, if you have a complete Chow or Pung concealed in
           your hand then you are permitted to call a tile by Chii or Pon using
           two of those tiles and then discard immediately the third tile from
           the original set.

2.06 Name: Ryan Han Shibari  (two-Han minimum)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: Usually modern Japanese mahjong is played with an Ii Han Shibari or
           one-Han minimum which means that a hand must be worth at least one
           Han (double) in order to be able to declare a valid win. Furthermore
           any Han from Dora bonus tiles (and red fives) cannot be counted
           towards this, so it's effectively a one-Yaku minimum.

           Each time a hand ends in either a dealer win or a draw, a "counter"
           is placed on the table - this is usually one of the dealer's 100 pts
           scoring sticks (as shown numerically on-screen in Yakuman DS). This
           is called the Honba count and a points bonus equal to 300 multiplied
           by the current Honba is added to the value of any winning hand. When
           a non-dealer wins a hand the Honba count is reset to zero.

           Under the Ryan Han Shibari rule, when there are five or more counters
           on the table a hand must have Yaku (scoring elements) worth two or
           more Han in order to win. Again, Dora cannot be counted for this.

           A red warning message flashes on the top screen at the start of each
           hand in which the two-Han minimum is applied. Also a blue square
           marker appears near the top-left corner of the touchscreen.

2.07 Name: No-Ten Bappu  (draw payments)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: The No-Ten Bappu is the payment made in the event of a hand ending in
           an exhaustive draw (when the live wall is depleted). The players that
           are Tenpai (ready) each receive a share of 3,000 points, which are
           paid by the players that are No-ten (unready).

           With No-Ten Bappu set to Nashi no points are exchanged on a draw.

2.08 Name: Pao  (Yakuman responsibility payment)

  Options: Off* [nashi] / On [ari]

     Info: The Pao rule is applied to the Yakuman hands Dai San Gen (Big Three
           Dragons) and Dai Suu Shii (Big Four Winds). If a player discards the
           final tile necessary to complete the requirement for the Yakuman and
           all sets of the Yakuman are open then the discarder will be required
           to pay either half or all the points.

           If a player has two exposed Pungs of dragon tiles and another player
           discards the tile that lets them make the third set for Dai San Gen,
           or if a player has three Pungs of wind tiles exposed and someone
           discards the wind tile that lets them complete the fourth for Dai Suu
           Shii, then the discarding player has to pay. If the hand is won by
           Tsumo the discarding player pays the full amount or if the hand is
           won by Ron from a third player then the two discarders pay half each.

2.09 Name: Chombo  (fouls)

  Options: Off* [nashi] / On [ari]

     Info: Usually mahjong video-games do not allow you the freedom to commit a
           foul but Yakuman DS is a very rare exception to this. Chombo is the
           standard penalty paid for a foul, equal to a Mangan in reverse (so
           it's 12,000 pts for a dealer (split 4:4:4) or 8,000 pts for a non-
           dealer (split 4:2:2)).

           By default it's Nashi, but when the Chombo rule is Ari you will have
           the option at any time during play to press d-pad down to open the
           command bar and declare a Tsumo win or declare Riichi (or Open Riichi
           if you have that rule applied too - see rule 3.01 below).

           If your Tsumo win was invalid (i.e. if your hand did not possess both
           Yaku and a valid structure) then you are penalised immediately.

           If your Riichi declaration was invalid (i.e. if your hand was not
           Tenpai) then you will be penalised only if the hand ends in a draw,
           at which point your hand must be revealed. If instead another player
           wins the hand then your invalid Riichi will remain undetected.

           When the Chombo option is Ari, the Tsumo and Riichi pop-ups will no
           longer appear automatically where valid (unless you have the Support
           functions on - see Section 09). After declaring Riichi the option for
           either Tsumo or Ron will still pop-up by itself as usual.

           You can use the wait indicator function (Y button) at any stage to
           check if your hand is Tenpai.

2.10 Name: Mochiten  (starting scores)

  Options: 25,000 pts* / 27,000 pts / 30,000 pts

     Info: This sets the amount of points that each player has at the beginning
           of a match and therefore the size of the Oka bonus (see Section 13).

Most of the options on the third page/screen are used to allow/disallow certain
Yaku (scoring elements) and Yakuman (limit hands).

3.01 Name: Open Riichi  (open Riichi!)

  Options: Off* [nashi] / On [ari]

     Info: When Open Riichi is Ari a player with a concealed Tenpai hand has the
           choice of declaring either normal Riichi or Open Riichi.

           Open Riichi works and costs the same as a normal Riichi declaration
           but either the whole hand or just the waiting portion is exposed on
           the table (hence the name) so the other players can see the wait/s.

           Sometimes a win on an Open Riichi hand is paid a Yakuman (notably in
           the Tetsuya anime) but in Yakuman DS it just gives one additional Han
           (double) on top of the usual one for Riichi.

3.02 Name: Chii Toitsu  (Seven Pairs)

  Options: 25 Fu & 2 Han* / 30 Fu & 2 Han / 50 Fu & 1 Han

     Info: This option lets you set the Fu (minipoints) and Han (doubles) value
           for a Seven Pairs hand. The default option is the standard 25/2.

           The 25/2 and 50/1 options are equivalent on the score calculation but
           with the former you can hit limits above Mangan more easily since you
           have that one extra Han.

3.03 Name: San Renkou  (Three Consecutive Pungs)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: This rule permits San Renkou, an optional Yaku worth two Han for
           three Pungs in the same suit with consecutive numbers, for example
           444 555 666. See also rule 3.07 for an extended version.

           San Renkou can be claimed on an exposed hand.

3.04 Name: Renhou  (Human Win)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: This rule permits Renhou, an optional Yakuman for a non-dealer taking
           a Ron win before their first turn. Renhou cannot be claimed if any
           player has previously called a tile by Chii/Pon/Kan.

3.05 Name: Dai Sharin  (Big Wheels)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: This rule permits Dai Sharin, an optional Yakuman for a flush hand of
           22334455667788 in the Pinzu (Dots) suit. Since it counts as a special
           case of Chii Toitsu (Seven Pairs) it must always be concealed.

3.06 Name: Shiisan Puutaa  (Thirteen Unconnected Tiles)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: This rule permits Shiisan Puutaa, an optional Yakuman for a starting
           hand that has no groups of tiles that could form sets and one pair.

           I use the term "set element" to describe any two tiles that together
           could form a set with the addition of one more tile, e.g. _67_, 3_5,
           _89 or a pair. You can claim Shiisan Puutaa if, after drawing your
           first tile, you have thirteen tiles completely lacking set elements
           plus a fourteenth tile that's a duplicate of one of the thirteen,
           making a pair (kinda like in Kokushimusou (Thirteen Orphans)).

           I got this once in the game Mahjong Taikai IV with the following
           starting hand (which will serve as an example):

           1m 4m 9m 2p 8p 7s east south south west north white green  4s (draw)

           Basically all your numbered suit tiles must be two or more away from
           their neighbours and you must have exactly one pair.

3.07 Name: Suu Renkou  (Four Consecutive Pungs)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: This rule permits Suu Renkou, an optional Yakuman for three Pungs in
           the same suit with consecutive numbers, for example 444 555 666 777.

           Suu Renkou can be claimed on an exposed hand.

3.08 Name: Kazoe Yakuman  (counted Yakuman)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: This rule permits Kazoe Yakuman, an optional Yakuman for any valid
           hand containing Yaku and Dora worth thirteen or more Han (doubles).
           When this rule is disallowed, such a hand will be capped at the lower
           Sanbaiman limit (usually applied to hands worth 11 and 12 Han).

3.09 Name: Paa Renchan  (eight consecutive dealer wins)

  Options: On* [ari] / Off [nashi]

     Info: This rule permits Paa Renchan, an optional Yakuman awarded when the
           dealer wins eight hands in a row.

The final four rule options are all used to specify whether special versions of
Yakuman hands will be recognised as double Yakuman or not.

3.10 Name: Kokushi[musou] Juu-San Men Machi  (Thirteen Orphans on 13-sided wait)

  Options: Double Yakuman* / Single Yakuman

     Info: By default the limit hand Kokushi is recognised as a double Yakuman
           when completed on a 13-sided wait (i.e. when you have the required
           structure of one each of all thirteen Terminals and Honours and just
           need to match any one of them for the pair).

3.11 Name: Suu Ankou Tanki  (Four Concealed Pungs on pair wait)

  Options: Double Yakuman* / Single Yakuman

     Info: By default the limit hand Suu Ankou is recognised as a double Yakuman
           when completed on the pair wait (i.e. when you have already completed
           the required four concealed Pungs and just need to make the pair).

3.12 Name: Junsei Chuurenpoutou  (Pure Nine Gates)

  Options: Double Yakuman* / Single Yakuman

     Info: By default the limit hand Chuurenpoutou is recognised as a double
           Yakuman when completed on a 9-sided wait (i.e. when you already have
           the required structure of a concealed 1112345678999 flush in any suit
           and just need any tile from the same suit for the pair).

3.13 Name: Dai Suu Shii  (Big Four Winds)

  Options: Double Yakuman* / Single Yakuman

     Info: By default the limit hand Dai Suu Shii is recognised as a double
           Yakuman (i.e. four wind Pungs and any pair).

           Dai Suu Shii can be thought of as a special version of Shou Suu Shii
           (Little Four Winds) with a fourth wind Pung instead of a wind pair.

*This is the default setting for the rule option.

------< MAHJONG REFERENCE >--------------------------------------- [Section 11]

The final option off the main menu is a comprehensive mahjong reference source
with a dictionary that (like my own PDF mahjong guide!) is cleverly hyperlinked
so you can click on a highlighted term to jump straight to its own definition.
You can also access this during a game by picking the bottom-left option from
the pause menu (see Section 12).

There are four parts to the reference section:

The first part is the dictionary itself with all the entries listed in the
Japanese equivalent of alphabetical order.

The second part is a summary of standard and optional Yaku (scoring elements)
and Yakuman (limit hands) sorted by value.

The third part explains the allocation of Fu (minipoints). The first tab shows
Fu for winning, the second shows Fu for waits and the third shows Fu for sets
and pairs. You can press Y here to toggle the cursor on/off.

The final part shows score look-up tables where you can cross-reference Fu and
Han (doubles) to find the payments required for any hand. You can press R to
toggle between the scores for the dealer and for non-dealers.

When navigating between pages via hyperlinks you can press B to skip back one
page in your history or X to jump back to the first page.

------< GAMEPLAY >------------------------------------------------ [Section 12]

This section describes the process of playing mahjong in any of the game modes.

= Game Screens =

Your three opponents, their scores, hands and discarded tiles are all shown on
the top screen; if the Dobon rule is Nashi (see rule 1.09 in Section 10) then
negative scores will be shown in orange. Any calls or declarations made by your
opponents will also appear here briefly in text form using the same katakana
spellings as the pop-up commands (see below).

If you are playing with Wareme (see rule 1.08 in Section 10) then three Japanese
characters (white text with red outline) will appear next to the Wareme player.

At the top of the touchscreen is a depiction of the full fourteen tiles of the
Wanpai (dead wall). The first four tiles are used for supplement tiles after the
declaration of a Kong and the other ten are potential Dora indicators. 

Your discards and hand are shown below that, across the middle of the screen.
The tile currently selected for discarding is the one that is slightly raised -
don't be distracted by the little bouncing green dot which might be present,
that's just one of the assist features of Support mode (see Section 09).

Beneath that are three boxes in a row. The first shows an image of your chosen
character and the second shows your name, your current seat-wind and how many
points you have. The third box displays four pieces of information. In the top-
left corner is the hand counter (e.g. "East 1" in the first hand of a match), in
the top-right is the Honba counter which counts the number of consecutive hands
that have ended in a draw or dealer win), in the bottom-left is the number of
Riichi stakes left on the table from previous hands and bottom-right is the
number of tiles remaining to be drawn from the live wall.

If the tile counter reaches zero without a win being declared then the hand ends
in an exhaustive draw, indicated with two silver kanji on the touchscreen. Blue
text on the top screen will show whether each player was either Tenpai (ready)
or No-ten (unready) - these are spelt using Japanese katakana characters. For
reference, the first character in "Tenpai" looks like an overscored capital T.

Along the bottom of the touchscreen is a menu bar which usually depicts the
functions of the L, R, X, Y and Start buttons (see Controls below). If any of
these are unavailable they will be greyed-out. When pop-up commands are offered
(Chii, Riichi, Tsumo, etc) they will appear here instead.

The red square is the round-wind marker which indicates (usually) east or south.
During the initial dice rolls at the start of the game it is placed next to the
first player to be east in the match and stays there throughout the game.

The dice are rolled at the start of each hand to determine which side of the
wall is broken (this is crucial for the optional Wareme rule - see Section 10)
and they are then placed in front of east to indicate the current dealer.

In addition to your personal seat-wind and the dice denoting east, all four
seat-winds are displayed on the pause screen (see below).

There are three different icons which can appear in the top-left corner of the
touchscreen. A green one in the corner indicates that the autopilot function is
on (see below), a red one next to that shows that you have the game configured
for One-Handed Mode (see Section 09) and a blue one next to that means that you
are using the Ryan Han Shibari (two-Han minimum) rule option (see Section 10)
and the score restriction is currently being applied.

= Controls =

d-pad left/right - select tile to discard

                 - select tiles to meld into

                 - select pop-up command (see below)

      d-pad down - display Riichi or Kan command that was previously skipped

                   If you pass the opportunity to declare Riichi or to declare a
                   Kong set using a self-drawn tile and that option is still 
                   available on your next turn then a d-pad icon will appear in
                   the top-right of the touchscreen indicating that you can
                   press down to restore the previously cancelled command/s.

                 - display Riichi and Tsumo options (with Chombo rule on)

                   When playing with the rule option that permits Chombo fouls
                   (see Section 10) the game will no longer automatically prompt
                   when you can reach or win by Tsumo. Instead, at any time, you
                   can press down on the d-pad to access the options for Riichi,
                   Tsumo and (if you have that option on too) Open Riichi.

                   (The pop-ups will still appear automatically if you have the
                   Support functions turned on though.)

               A - confirm action

        d-pad up - confirm action (in One-Handed Mode - see Section 09)

               B - cancel action

               Y - show waits

                   If your hand is Tenpai (ready) then you can press Y for a
                   display that shows which tile/s would complete your hand. If
                   you have a choice of two or more discards that would give you
                   a Tenpai hand you can use d-pad left/right to switch between
                   them and see the various waits (although you must press B to
                   cancel this view before you can actually discard a tile).

                   This screen also names the type of wait: Ryanmen, Penchan,
                   Kanchan, Shabo (Shanpon), Tanki or general n-sided wait.

                   If you can't see any tiles then you're not Tenpai - sorry!

                   A green dot above a wait tile indicates a tile that you've
                   already discarded meaning that if you discard the currently
                   selected tile you would be Furiten and unable to win by Ron.

                   This same display is also shown when you declare Riichi.

               X - undo (unavailable in some modes)

                   This powerful training/cheat function lets you turn back time
                   if things didn't turn out how you wanted. Press X, then pick
                   your discard tile from the point to which you wish to rewind
                   the game and then press A to confirm (or B to cancel).

                   The game will then clear all discards from the table and
                   automatically replay all moves made up to that point. Then
                   you can resume play and "put right what once went wrong". :)

                   Once a hand has ended (in either a draw or a win) you will no
                   longer have the option to rewind.

               L - display "ideal form" (unavailable in some modes)

                   When available, you can press L to consult your teacher who
                   will recommend a Yaku (scoring element) for your current hand
                   and show a projection of what its final shape could be.

                   The manual lists this as Risoukei which means "ideal form".

                   This is one of the Support functions that can be enabled in
                   some play modes using gameplay option 2.4 (see Section 09).

                 - cancel action (in One-Handed Mode) 

               R - predict dangerous tiles (unavailable in some modes)

                   You can keep pressing R to get the game to analyse each of
                   your opponents in turn. It will predict what sort of hand
                   they're going for (and therefore what discards are likely to
                   be dangerous) based upon the tiles that they have previously
                   discarded and melded in the current hand.

                   This is one of the Support functions that can be enabled in
                   some play modes using gameplay option 2.4 (see Section 09).

           Start - open pause display and pause menu

                   The pause display on the top screen shows the name, picture,
                   seat-wind and score for all four players. The current game
                   mode is also indicated in the top-left corner.

                   The pause menu on the touchscreen gives six options:

                          1. Daiuchi        2. Information     3. Options

                          4. Dictionary     5. Suspend         6. Return

                   1. The Daiuchi is essentially an autopilot - it will take
                      over your character and play the game for you. Obviously
                      this function is unavailable in Challenge mode where it
                      would constitute cheating but you can use it in Ranking
                      mode if you really want to and in Free Play too.

                      (A Daiuchi is a rep player who plays on behalf of another
                      person or an organisation. You'll often see a yakuza
                      family bring in a Daiuchi in mahjong manga and anime!)

                      When the autopilot function is enabled a green indicator
                      will flash in the top-left corner of the touchscreen each
                      time it makes a move for you.

                      You can deactivate it by simply pressing any button.

                   2. In Free Play and Challenge modes this will display the
                      scores (in what I call "final score" format - see Section
                      13) from the current series of matches. In Challenge mode
                      it will also show the current goal on the top screen.

                      In Ranking mode this shows the current ranking ladder.

                   3. No prizes for guessing that this opens the options menu
                      (see Section 09) and can therefore also be used to check
                      the current applied rule settings.

                      Even in Free Play mode where you can use a custom rule-set
                      you cannot change the rule settings during a match.

                   4. This accesses the mahjong dictionary which can also be
                      opened from the main menu (see Section 11).

                   5. You can use the Suspend option to exit/save the game.

                      This will give two blue prompt screens. On the first one
                      pick Yes (left) to exit or No (right) to cancel. On the
                      second one pick Yes to save the current game and exit or
                      No to exit without saving. Exiting returns you to the
                      initial player profile selection screen.

                      The next time you load the profile you were using when you
                      suspended you'll get another blue pop-up. Pick Yes again
                      (still on the left) to load and resume the previous game.

                   6. The final one is used to return to the game in progress.
                      Alternatively you can just press B to unpause.

Pop-up commands for the following functions will appear over the toolbar at the
bottom of the touchscreen when available. If you are calling Chii you will need
to confirm which tiles you want to use for the meld if you have a choice.

You'll need to be able to recognise the following words that can appear on the
screen during play. They're all spelt using the Japanese katakana script.

The button in the bottom-right corner marked with a large red X can be used to
cancel the pop-up/s. You can also press B (or press A on Chii/Pon/Kan pop-ups
where cancel is the default action, but it's safer to just use the B button).

  __|__  _____  CHII
    |           - call Chow (steal a discard tile to complete a Chow set)

  __|__o  \
    |        /  PON
  / | \     /   - call Pung (steal a discard tile to complete a Pung set)
 /  |  \   /

  _|__   \
   |  |     /  KAN
   |  |    /   - call Kong (steal a discard tile to make a Kong set)
  /  /    /    - declare a Kong using a self-drawn tile

  |  |        -----
  |  |  ____  __|__  RIICHI
    /           |    - declare Riichi (make a ready bet)
   /           /

  .-----.  \  
  |     |     /  RON
  |     |    /   declare Ron (announce a win on an opponent's discarded tile)
  |_____|   /

  \\  /  -------
     /      |     TSUMO
    /     --+--   declare Tsumo (announce a win on a self-drawn tile)
   /        |__  

  ____|_        -----o  \      |   |         -----
     /|  _____      /      /   |   |  _____  __|__  OOPUN RIICHI
    / |            /      /       /            |    call Open Riichi
   /  |           /      /       /            /     (exposing your hand)

You'll also see these words appear on the top screen when your opponents use the
various calls and declarations in play.

If, after drawing your first tile from the wall in any given hand, you have nine
or more different Terminals (1's and 9's) and Honours (winds and dragons) then
you are given the option to declare a Kyuu Shu Kyuu Hai abortive draw. A new
button will appear at the left end of the command bar marked with four kanji
(two of them are the Chinese/Japanese numeral for nine) and you can use this to
accept the redeal. Alternatively you can use the cancel button at the opposite
end, continue the hand and try for a Kokushi (Thirteen Orphans) limit hand. :)

= Score Screens =

The score screens are shown at the end of every hand. They give a complete
breakdown of the details of a winning hand. They're shown after a draw too but
there's much less information to give in that situation.

The top screen shows the four players, their names and seat-winds from the hand
that just ended. There are two pale horizontal boxes for each person - the top
one shows any points gained (black) or lost (negative and red) in the hand and
the bottom one shows their new points total *after* the changes are applied.

The green box under a character's picture shows Ron or Tsumo as appropriate. On
a Ron win the discarder is indicated with four katakana spelling Furikomi.

In the top-left corner of the top screen is a box showing the hand count (e.g.
"East 1" in the first hand of a match) and under that is the Honba counter. An
additional amount of points equal to 300 times the Honba count is added to the
value of any winning hand.

In the bottom-left corner is a depiction of both rows of five stacks from the
dead wall with all active Dora indicators displayed.

The touchscreen display has the following layout on a win:
                         _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _   _ 
       winning hand --> |_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_| |_| <-- winning tile
                        .-------------. .-------------.
      Yaku and Dora --> | ###      1# | | #   50#  8# | <-- Fu and Han counts
     with Han values    | #####    1# | |      24000# | <-- flat hand value
                        | ##       1# | :-------------:
                        | ###      2# | | ####     1# | <-- Riichi stick count
                        | ###      3# | | ##       0# | <-- Honba count (again)
                        |             | |             |
                        |             | | ##          | <-- limit applied
                        |             | |   ## 25000# | <-- total hand value
                        |             | '-------------'
                        '-------------'  [X####] [A##]  <-- button prompts

The winning hand is shown along the top of the screen with the winning tile
shown at the end so the wait can be readily determined.

The striped blue box on the left lists all Yaku (scoring elements) and Dora
bonus tiles present in the winning hand along with their Han (doubles) value.

The first row in the top box on the right says whether the winner was a dealer
or non-dealer (the character for non-dealer looks like a crossed 7), the rounded
Fu (minipoints) total and the Han total. The second row gives the calculated
points value for the hand before bonuses.

The second box lists the number of Riichi stakes on the table (worth 1000 points
each) and the Honba count (300 points each). If a limit is applied to the hand
this will be indicated on the fourth row and below that is the total number of
points awarded for the hand including Riichi and Honba additions. (In this case
it's a dealer Baiman with the winner's Riichi stake returned to give 25k).

You can press the X button to toggle between this view and another screen that
itemises the Fu awarded for the hand. In the top-left is the standard 20 Fu for
a win and below that any bonus for the type of win, for example 10 Fu for a
concealed Ron win. Next to that in the top-right is an indication of the type of
wait and the points given for that. The rest of the screen shows the points that
were given for the four sets and the pair. In the magenta bar at the bottom is
the Fu total, the rounded Fu total, the Han count and the total points value.

In the event of a draw the top screen shows the No-ten Bappu payments made (see
rule 2.07 in Section 10). The top-right blue box on the touchscreen says if your
hand was either Tenpai (ready) or No-ten (unready). If it was No-ten then the
second line gives your Shanten count - how many tiles away you were from having
a Tenpai hand.

(If you need help following any of the kanji text on these screens then check
out my PDF mahjong terminology guide (see link in Section 01).)

------< FINAL SCORES >-------------------------------------------- [Section 13]

The players' scores at the end of a match are calculated and adjusted according
to the following scheme which is commonly seen in video-games and tournaments.

1. The players always effectively buy into a game with 30,000 pts each but could
   start the match with either 25,000, 27,000 or 30,000 points each (depending
   on the rule setting). When starting with either 25k or 27k the excess points
   (either 5k or 3k per person respectively) combine to form a bonus called the
   Oka which is paid to the game winner.

                  25,000 pts starting score -> 20,000 points Oka

                  27,000 pts starting score -> 12,000 points Oka

                  30,000 pts starting score -> no Oka

   After adding the Oka in this step the scores will now sum to the total of the
   four 30k buy-ins, i.e. 120,000 points.

2. The players' scores are now adjusted such that they sum to zero. This is done
   by subtracting the 30,000 buy-in from each total.

   The scores now represent each person's points profit/loss from the match.

3. Each score is divided by one thousand.

4. Finally the scores are rounded to an integer value with any number ending in
   point five being rounded down (i.e. towards zero). If necessary the winner's
   score is adjusted in order to preserve the zero sum.

Here's a quick example to illustrate the process...

          |   End Scores   |     Step 1     |     Step 2     | Step 3 | Step 4
 Player A | +35,900 points | +55,900 points | +25,900 points | +25.9  |  +25
 Player B | +34,800 points | +34,800 points |  +4,800 points |  +4.8  |   +5
 Player C | +27,500 points | +27,500 points |  -2,500 points |  -2.5  |   -2
 Player D |  +1,800 points |  +1,800 points | -28,200 points | -28.2  |  -28
  totals: | 100,000 points | 120,000 points |       0 points |     0  |    0

And another one...

          |   End Scores   |     Step 1     |     Step 2     | Step 3 | Step 4
 Player A | +31,900 points | +51,900 points | +21,900 points | +21.9  |  +22
 Player B | +31,000 points | +31,000 points |  +1,000 points |  +1.0  |   +1
 Player C | +27,300 points | +27,300 points |  -2,700 points |  -2.7  |   -3
 Player D |  +9,800 points |  +9,800 points | -20,200 points | -20.2  |  -20
  totals: | 100,000 points | 120,000 points |       0 points |     0  |    0

Of course the game does all this for you but I think it's nice to know where all
those numbers come from. :)

------< CONTACT >------------------------------------------------- [Section 14]

I welcome all feedback on this guide and any contributions you'd like to make.
I'm also happy to receive questions about this or any other mahjong game, or
about the rules and terminology of Japanese mahjong.

You can email me at barticle at hotmail.com - obviously changing the "at" to an
@ and removing the spaces. It would be helpful if you include the word "mahjong"
in the subject line and tell me which game you're playing.

------< THANKS >-------------------------------------------------- [Section 15]

I would like to thank...

o USPML for hosting my PDF mahjong guide (and GameFAQs for hosting this one!)

o bontakun for the pics of the Wi-Fi version's manual

o Tuttle, Nintendo and (especially) tangorin.com for great language resources

o windypasse2003 (eBay seller) for their excellent worldwide games sales service

o Yagya and Benge for super sounds

I will be happy to give credit and thanks to anyone who makes a contribution.
        ___________                                          ___        
        \______   /                              ___        /  /        
              /  /                       __      \_/       /  /         
             /   \___ ________ _________/  \__ ___ ______ /  /  ________
.-------o   /  __   / \___   //  ___/\_   ___//  //  ___//  /  /  __   /
| ANOTHER  /  / /  /_____/  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /   \/  / 
'---------/  /-/  //  __   //  /-----/  /---/  //  /---/  /--/  _____/---------.
         /  / /  //  / /  //  /     /  /   /  //  /   /  /  /  /         GUIDE |
        /   \/  //   \/  //  /     /   \_ /  //   \_ /   \ /   \________ o-----'
        \______/ \______/ \_/      \____/ \_/ \____/ \___/ \___________/
Yakuman DS Guide
Copyright 2011-2012 James R. Barton
Initial version 0.99 completed 3 August 2011
Current version 1.02 completed 10 March 2012

All trademarks and copyrights contained in this document are owned by their
respective trademark and copyright holders.

This guide may be downloaded and printed for personal, private, non-commercial
use only. This work is subject to copyright. It may not be hosted online or
otherwise distributed publically or reproduced either in whole or in part
without the advance written consent of the author. Any violation would
constitute an infringement of copyright and is strictly prohibited.

The only websites with the author's consent to publish this guide are GameFAQs
(www.gamefaqs.com) and its affiliates (i.e. Gamespot).

If you find this file hosted on any other site I would be grateful if you would
inform me at the email address given at the top. Thanks!

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