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Ambrose, Young Wizard ($5.49)
02720: Inquisitor, Malvernis ($5.49)
The Sig-less man.
65006: Piers, Young Mage ($2.99)
The Sig-less man.
The Sig-less man.
Critica 1: Explica que son los 3 argumentos principales de Goytisolo. Selecciona y comenta por lo menos una cita que mejor representa cada argumento.
Juan Goytisolo is a Spanish writer and intellectual. Considered as the narrator more important of the generation of the mid-century, his work covers novels, books of stories and travels, and essays. He is collaborator of the daily paper El Pais. His life has been one of an intellectual rebelling against francoism. A deed decisive in his life was the ead of his mother in 1938, when he was 7 years old, in a bombing in Barcelona by the nationalist aviation, which probably has influenced in his rejection of the traditional and conservative Spain. Due to this he became a self-exile who lives in Marrakech and Paris.
He settled down in Paris in 1956 and worked as an advisor literary of the Gallimard editorial. Between 1969 and 1975 he was a professor of literature in the universities of California, Boston, and new York. His situation in the Gallimard editorial had converted him, moreover, in one of the Spanish intellectuals most influencing in the foreigners and habitual in the Spanish press, en particular of The Country, for which he has been a correspondent of the war in Chechenia and Bosnia. In a criticism of the western civilization, which he comtemplates as a peripheral observer. Since the death of his spouse, Monique Lange, in 1996, he has set his residence in Marrkech. In novermber 2008 he was awarded the National Prize for the Spanish Letters qhich concede the Ministery of Culture in recognition of the literary development of a Spanish author.
The following Essay is a criticism of the manner in which he has come to understand the Muslim past (as much the time of Islamic government as the cultural legacy that said the time). In it, Goytisolo questions the national narratives that the Spaniards have constructed in the latest centuries, about all front the actual reality multicultural and multireligious.
The Spanish culture distinguishes itself from the other cultures of the actual European Community by its “mixed/complex westerness”. If its membership in the European Union doesn’t offer doubts, it offers never the less a series of components and traits, fruit of its historical past, singular and unique. The muslim presence on our soil for the large part of ten centuries –from the Arab-Berber invasion of the year 711 to the expulsion of the moors in 1609 -[[The Spanish-moors / moriscos were the last Spanish muslims, descendents of the muslims who converted to Christianity by force in 1500-1600, which continued the practice of islam in secret, hiding it from the Spanish Inquisition]]. – though tenaciously combated and finally removed, has left a profound mark in their language, customs, and modes of life, art, and literature. If to them we add the role played in the middle Ages by a flourishing jewish community that acted as the running current between their compatriots of the other two monotheistic religions (islam and Christianity), we understand better that this semetic factor in spain, -grievened by their drastic elimination by the Catholic kings in the name of the unification religious and a granting of racial purity- has absorbed our character and customs even in unconscious forms and by often dark ways.
The lavish commemorations of the 5th centennial anniversary, that is, of the key date of 1492 – which covers/had view of not only the discovery of America but also the fall of the nazari reign of Granada and the exile of the jews-, includes in their program –as a way of late and modest reparation – a homage to Al Andalus and to Sefarad, of the Spain of the conquered castes, victims of the inquisition’s fanaticism and the absurd mythologies of our ancestors. (The Spanish nobles of the Golden Age 1550-1650 considered themselves heirs of the Visigoth reign 500-700, put down in the 8th century by Tarik and Muza). But the celebration of these two abstract entities, disassociated from the reality they conceived and from that which they conceived at their time, finally rehabilate a past cut short and exorcize our guilty conscious, brought on with very different intentions: while boasting the splendor of Sefarad as a living presence and the king of Spain asks forgiveness solemnly from the descendents of the expelled sefardist (sefardists considered themselves Spaniards until that time), Al Andalus was erected as an ideal luminoso and beautiful but dead, and no voice spoke out to intonate a “guilty pee”, by the barbaric decree of Filipo 3rd and his advisor the Duke of Lerma (that is to say, though they asked forgiveness of the expelled jews, the did not make the same act to the descendents of the moors expelled in 1609 by Felipe III.).
With the same circumstances that some arabists of yesterday – for who the arab civilization ended in the 14th century and their approximation of her follows the rules of the Latinists with respect to latin (Goytisota is criticing the Moorish desendents for adopting a similar attitude to Andalus as Latinists have adopted to Latin…. That of a dead language and culture), it proclaimed itself the identification/recognition and admiration of a heritiage that, none the less the result “of being ours?”, would not maintain any conection with the art, culture, and society of the contemporary Spain.
The times have changed, even so, and that which before perceived itself as an insult, then as curiosity and finally as compliment – an unsettling compliment, that is, as a result of its natural anomaly -, exhibits itself today in the architectural works/attempts, artistic guides and destination brochures for tourism like one of “the glorious imperishables of the old Spanish earth”. Even so, the darkening continues still, as we know, the so called reconquering accompanied by a systematic destruction of the muslim monuments, as civil as they were religious, as carried in recent dates by the Greeks in Cypress and the serbs in Bosnia. [[The reconquoring is a historical idea that presupposes a continuity between the Visigoth kings of the 500-700 centuries and the various Christian kings of the north that, between 900-1500, were in conflict first with the Califato Omeya/Umayyad in cordoba, and after the dissolving of this in 1032, with the various muslim kings of the peninsula until the last war between the Catholic Kings and the Reign of Nazari of Granada in 1492. Following the end the Catholic Kings, having conquered Granada, simply took from new land that had belonged (740 years ago, to their ancestors.
Favoring the Christian political domain in the Iberian peninsula, and by consequence, that of the nation spain modered as castellana and catholic.). By example of Miguel Barcelo, the Island of Mallorca suffered the consequences of said purifying ethnocide and only the intervention of Alfonso X saved the Giralda from the demolition mandated by the clergy. (Giralda is the tower of the cathedral of Seville, which previously was the minbar of the mosque of Seville, before the conquering of this city by Fernando III el Santo in 1248.) (Read the book of Ballesteros Beretta about the king Sabio). The beauty and magnificence of some famous monuments today in the entire world, after the Omeya Mosque in Cordoba the palace of Nazari of the Alhambra, they saved luckily from the pickaxe (the destruction) and, though affected badly one another by the construction in the 14th century of a chapel in the Granada-like style and the errection of an incongruent and severe palace for Carlos V, they followed offering to their visitors the unusual perfection of their art. But all the conquistadoes commited in this generation of assimilation and shaving and the monarchs argonese and castellian were not an exception.
The influence of the foreigner’s view was decisive in the change of our perception of the andalusi architectural legacy. An anthology of the writings of the European visitors by Espana after the 18th century until the beginning of the present with respect to the theme reflected in their shadow and marvelous in abrupt contrast with the apathy and indifference of the indigenous (the Spaniards). Various anecdotes recognized by Borrow and Ford about these [WORD??XX] of the moors send out a rude light about the depth of disinterest and ignorance almost general of the/our own past, product of the anti-islamic belligerence of the church and of the typical disdain of the farmers and nobles.
If the view of the rest forms part of the understanding integral to our own, that of the visiting French, anglosaxons and germans contributed to rectify little by little the vision of the works of Islamic art and the small attention they would deserve. Also with comparing the incredible opinions of an arabist with Simonet (Spanish arabist) relating to the Alhambra with those of Washington Irving, to capture immediately the abyss of prejudices that separates them. Very specifically, the first positive assessments of the Spanish Muslimism came at the pen of the frenchified and liberal (Spaniards) exiled in London. Centuries of expressed or silence hostility condemned the preserved monuments to the negligence and abuses of the time as the thousands of arabic manuscripts of The Escorial and other libraries accumulated dust. The Spanish Arabism would not resurge until the second half of 19th. ( Many jewish and Arabic manuscripts were lost or burned after 1478. The possession of any book in Arabic text was prohibited after the middle of 1500. There had been very little interest in the vast cultural Spanish-arabic heritage until well into the 19th century. The interest in andalusi culture spain’s own actually is very recent and not very universal.)
It has an explanation plausible. The military, social, economic and cultural decadence of Spain with the sunset of the Habsburgo caused a reaction in the spirits most lucid, imbued with the regenerated ideas of the Enlightenment, against the oppression and religious darkening (obscurantism) guilty of our backwardness. The phrase “Africa begins in the Pyrenees” was lived at the time in the peninsula as painful reality and insult. (Spain lived many centuries with the idea that their proposed inferiority was thanks to the influence of Islam and the jewishness in their national culture. This, joined with the idea that the black legend that propogated in western Europe, the idea that espanish as conquistadors were more cruel and barbaric than other European people due to their Arabic and African origen, contributed to a complete national sense of inferiority.) It had to undo the lifeless weight of the history, assume the doctrines of progress, be European as the rest. But the authors of this project, goodintending and beneficial, whichever allusion to elements of our past that didn’t recognize/make up/agree with the abstract notion of Europifying, resulted uncomfortably and complete annoyance. The enthusiasm of the travelers for the omeyas treasures, Almoravid, nazerid, and blah blah fell on a sterile terrain and would put races in it.
We said it was so tall: the inferiority complex near the backwards history and our Arabic past had lost its reason to be. In the European Community to which we’ve built ourselves into, our diference has not been yet a laborious reminder without cause of frustration: the mark muslim in our soil, visibe in all our ambitions, is expression of the contradiction of a richness and original unity. No European country counts with a heritage as the legacy by Al Andalus and it doesn’t reduce our Europeanism/ness. We are European differently, European and more.
The history teaches us in effect that niether national nor cultural essences exist intrinsically pure as to support the old cristians (Christians antes los cambios a christianismo, puras christianes) and they support the extremist serbians of today. The mosaic of countries that make up the common space in Europe has configured itself to the long? of the centuries with the very important impact of opposite influences, by means of phenomenas of hybridization, permeation, contrast and emulation. The eruption of the heterogenousness is at this time that of a mirror in that which we see reflections and an essential incentive. How much more life is a culture, the bigger will be its start and eagerness respect to the others. All culture is in the end the sum of the influences that it has received. The Spanish Experience – how that of the Arabic world revealed that their periods of good health and expansion coincided with those of weakness and prostration characterizes itself by the idle search for one of the “essences” that constitute the nucleus their primitive soul and free of mixture: orthodox nationalism and religiousness, self-smugness/satisfaction/fulfilling, rejection of the foreign, withdrawl of identifying petrified values, obsessive fear of the contamination of the neighbor.
When the medieval living-together abolished itself (the living together of the three religions) and the Catholic Kings and their successors imposed a homogeny without cracks, our culture transformed itself into “uncultivated land” / “barren land”: Spain unhitched itself slowly from the train of history and deprived itself until the recent date of access to modernity.
This unfortunate example adds up to a painful lesson and warning. The European Community should not adopt in any case, as advocated by its extremists, an conservative attitude founded in strict cultural confines and reductively European for very rich and dazzling that at first seems appealing. A project closed to the mobility and mixted characteristics of the modern would convert us into prudent “fund managers?” of the past, stripping outselves of that curiosity of others most prominent of the best writers, architects, and painters of our century. The extraordinary artistic and cultural heritage of Al Andalus formed in part during centuries of the world western before being abandoned by it in favor of the new idea of Europe, giving up their Hellenic roots without an intermediary of the arabs forged in the Revival. (The greek knowledge was passed and incorporated into the muslim world largly in the 6th to 10th centuries, and passed thru spain and western Europe by method of latin translations, and also castillian, of arab translations of the greek writers. ) This Europe invented at last in the century 15th separated brutally the two edges of the Mediterranean and condemned as ignorant the cultural reality that the feeding during the middle ages. The hour already, we near to enter in the new millennium, of that we reincorporate said heritage to the place that it corresponds: like expression of a distinct westerness, represented by Al Andalus in the land of the architecture, philosophy, science and literature.
The big Omeya Creations (800-1030), almoravides (1060-1100), almohadas (1140-1250) y nazaries 1250-1500) – fruit of the transfers and migratory currents between The Peninsula and the actual Morocco reign-, that’s how their Maghrebi, sursaharianas y mudejares ramifications, they have been seen today as paradigm of a universal vision that includes the notions of difference, anomaly, mixtures, and fertilization? Let’s learn the masterly lesson of Gaudi and of Picasso and share his voracious appetite for the art of all the continents and years.
The Sig-less man.
The Sig-less man.
The Sig-less man.