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Updated: 10/28/08

                              Computer Bismarck

                              Table Of Contents
              1.0  Introduction................................1
              2.0  General Description.........................1
              3.0  Setting Up The Game.........................2
              4.0  Sequence Of Play............................2
              5.0  General Commands............................2
              6.0  Ship Commands And Capabilities..............3
              7.0  Moving A Ship...............................4
              8.0  Plane Commands And Capabilities.............4
              9.0  Search: How To Find The Enemy...............5
             10.0  Shadow......................................6
             11.0  Fast Shadow.................................6
             12.0  Chance......................................7
             13.0  Weather.....................................7
             14.0  Reinforcements..............................7
             15.0  Solitaire...................................8
             16.0  Combat......................................8
             17.0  Victory Conditions.........................10
             18.0  Designer's Notes...........................11
             19.0  Notes On Strategy..........................11
             20.0  Historical Notes: The Triumph And..........12
                   Agony Of The Bismarck

1.0  Introduction

1.1 On Computer Wargames
If you have never played a computer wargame before. You are in for a 
treat. Experienced wargamers will note immediately several advantages of 
having the game in a computer. Firstly, truly "blind" play is now possible as 
the computer is ideally suited to act as an impartial referee. Secondly, your 
opponent cannot "forget" a rule and move illegally. Neither you nor your 
opponent need know all the rules since the computer will not tolerate 
violations. You are able to play an enjoyable game because the computer 
handles all the drudgery while you concentrate on your strategy. Lastly, the 
computer can simulate the historical circumstances unique to the particular 
battle without requiring you to remember rules of only minor importance. 
Players are relieved of the burden of overloaded memories. If you are not an 
experienced wargamer do not be scared by the length of the rules. The best 
way to learn how to play Computer Bismarck is to read the rules while sitting 
in front of the computer. In this way you will be able to test both your 
knowledge of the rules and the accuracy of the rule book-for only the 
computer itself knows all of the rules.
1.2  Talking To The Computer
After a command is given to the computer. terminate the command by 
pressing the "return" key (or the "enter key" depending on the computer 
system being used) . This is indicated in the rules by the symbol "(CR)" 
which stands for Carriage Return. If you make a mistake while entering a 
command do not press "(CR)" or the "back arrow". Instead, type in an asterisk 
(0) and continue on the same line. The error before the asterisk will remain 
on the screen, but will not be read by the computer. During the course of the 
game you will encounter an "ILLEGAL ENTRY" response whenever you input an 
order that is illegal. After the illegal entry has been displayed you may 
continue the game.
1.3  Description Of Play
Computer Bismarck is a simulation of the attempted breakout of the 
German battleship Bismarck into the North Atlantic in May, 1941 . The game 
can be played by either two players or by one person playing against the 
computer. The first player commands the British fleet and naval air forces 
while the second player (or the computer) commands the German fleet. The 
players alternate entering movement orders for their ships and aircraft 
across a mapboard displayed on the computer screen. First the British player 
enters his orders and then is followed by the German player. Although the 
players enter their orders at different times, it is important to realize 
that both players' movement is carried out simultaneously by the computer. 
After both players have ordered their units, the computer determines whether 
opposing forces have spotted each other, indicates whether combat is 
possible, and asks for further instructions from the players. These steps are 
repeated until the game is completed and a winner is declared. The game ends 
after thirty complete turns have been played, or sooner if the Bismarck is 
sunk.

2.0  General Description

2.1  Parts Inventory
A. Box
B. Rule Book
C. 5 1/4 inch Floppy Disc
D. Two Mapboard/Turn Record Charts
E. Two Ship/Plane Data Cards
F. Two System Command Cards
G. Set Up instructions Sheet
H. Two Grease Pencils
2.2  Definition Of Terms
2.21  Endurance - The number of turns an aircraft unit may remain in the air 
before it must return to base for refueling.
2.22  Firepower - The number of salvos a ship may fire at an opposing ship
during naval combat.
2.23  Fuel - Used to move the ship full speed, fuel is the amount of oil in a 
ship's oil tanks.
2.24  Midships - The number of hits a ship may sustain in combat before it 
sinks.
2.25  Search Factor - A Quantitative rating dealing with a unit's ability to 
spot an enemy unit. The higher the search factor the greater the likelihood 
of spotting an enemy ship. The search factors employed in each square can be 
displayed through the use of either the "NS" or PS" commands. (The aficionado 
will notice that ships with radar have higher search factors at night.)
2.26  Shadow - The act of following an enemy ship. There are two types of 
shadow: fast shadow and regular shadow.
2.27  Visibility Level - A measure of the severity of the weather. Each row 
of the map is given a new visibility level each turn. The levels displayed on 
the mapboard are the projected "end of the turn'" visibility levels. The 
levels range from: 1 = Sunny to 8 = Stormy.
2.3 Mapboard Codes 
      B = Battleship or Battlecruiser
      C = Cruiser
      A = Aircraft Carrier
      D = Destroyer Flotilla (1-6 Destroyers)
      S = Sub Group or Wolfpack (1-3 Submarines)
      O = Oiler
      M = Convoy (1-24 Merchant Ships)
      R = Reconnaissance Aircraft Unit
      L = Level Bomber Aircraft Unit
      F = Fog
      + = Port and Airfield
      X = Airfield Only
2.4  Passwords
At the start of a new game each player will be required to enter a two 
numeral password. It is important that each player keep his password to 
himself. This will insure that secret information held by the computer is 
given only to the appropriate player.
2.5  Saving A Game
A decision must be made at the beginning of each turn whether or not to 
"save" a game. Saving a game allows you to restart a game at a later date 
from the point at which you left off.
2.6  Mapboard Coordinates
To read the map coordinates first read the row number and then the 
column number. Example: Scapa Flow is on row 18 and column 25, and thus it is 
considered to be at square 1825.

3.0  Setting Up The Game

To prepare for play refer to the Set Up Instructions sheet contained in 
the game box. This will bring you to the point where you can begin the game. 
If this is your first game it is suggested that you begin a solitaire game 
while you are reading the rest of the rules.

4.0  Sequence Of Play

4.1  Save The Game Option: At this time the players decide whether to save a 
game. (Note: After a game has been saved, the players may continue to play.)
4.2  Shadow Phase: During this phase the computer will alert you to enemy 
ships which have been spotted. At this point they may be shadowed. Players 
may also be asked to move specified ships.
4.3  Movement Phase
4.31  British Movement Phase: British player enters his password and secretly 
moves his units on the computer mapboard display. At this time he may also 
consult with the computer regarding ship status and search capabilities.
4.32  German Movement Phase: German player enters his password and proceeds 
in the same manner as the British player. In the solitaire game the computer 
will move the German units.
4.4  Fast Shadow Phase: The computer reports any fast shadow possibilities, 
resolves them, and reports the results.
4.5  Computer Activity Phase
4.51 Computer Movement Phase: The computer obeys the players' orders and 
moves all units to their new positions. Fuel and endurance factors are 
updated.
4.52  Computer Search Phase: The computer records, in its memory, the 
spotting of ships and planes.
4.5  Combat Phase: If units have been spotted, attack possibilities are 
determined and displayed in the following order:
   1. Aircraft attacks
   2. Submarine attacks
   3. Destroyer attacks
   4. Surface ship combat
The players order their units to attack or to withdraw by answering the 
computer's prompts. The computer then resolves the attacks, records damage, 
and awards victory points.
4.7  Victory Point Allocation Phase: The computer awards points for crashed 
planes and convoys safely moved to their destinations. It also determines 
whether the game has been won at this time.
4.8  Chance Phase: The computer will determine whether a chance spotting of 
the Bismarck or the Prinz Eugen has occurred.
4.9  Weather Update: The computer calculates new visibility levels for each 
row of the mapboard.

5.0  General Commands

5.1  After the player has entered his password, the locations of his ships 
and planes in the North Atlantic are displayed on the computer screen. The 
computer will ask the player to enter a command.
5.2  Chart "A" Commands
5.21.1  SN = Ships Now. Displays the ship positions at the beginning of the 
             turn.
5.21.2  SP = Ships projected. Displays projected end of the turn ship 
             positions.
5.22.1  PN = Planes Now. Displays the aircraft positions at the beginning of 
             the turn.
5.22.2  PP = Planes projected. Displays aircraft positions as they are 
             projected to be at the end of the turn.
5.23.1  MS = Move Ships. Allows the player to move his ships as described in 
             Section 6.0.
5.23.2  MP = Move planes. Allows the player to move planes as described in 
             Section 8.0.
5.24.1  QN#### = Query Now. Lists the ships and airborne planes that began 
                 the turn in square ####.
5.24.2  QP#### = Query Projected. Lists the ships and airborne planes that 
                 are projected to end the turn in square ####.
5.25.1  NS = Now Search. Displays search values at the beginning of the turn. 
5.25.2  PS = Projected Search. Displays projected end of the turn search 
             values.
5.26  NM = New Map. Displays a new mapboard of the North Atlantic without 
           displaying ship, plane or search value locations.
5.27 STxxx = Status Check. Displays the current status of the ship whose name 
             begins with xxx. In order to execute a status check, enter the
             first three characters of the ship name, as the computer knows
             it, including spaces.
Example: To status check the Prinz Eugen type STPR(space). It is important to
space once after the R. To status check Prince Of Wales type STP(space)O. By 
comparing the display to the listed ship characteristics on the ship/plane 
data cards the players may check the unit for damage. The status check will 
display the current values of the following characteristics of the ship:
   1. Fuel
   2. Midships
   3. Firepower
   4. Knots
   5. Torpedoes
5.28  DM = Done Moving. This command ends the player's movement phase.

6.0  Ship Commands And Capabilities

6.1  During each movement phase, the player may move any, all, or none of his 
available ships. The "MS" command is used to get to the "Move Ships" section 
of the program. When this is done the computer displays one ship at a time 
and asks for a command from Chart "B".
6.2  Chart "B" Commands
6.21  M = Move Mode. Warships (not convoys) in Move Mode may be moved from 
one square to another according to the rules of movement and the capabilities 
of the particular ship. Ships in move mode have search factors that are 
generally lower than search factors in patrol mode, for the ship is moving 
from one position to another and not patrolling in the best possible pattern 
to find enemy ships.
6.22  P = Patrol Mode. Ships in Patrol Mode may not move but they have their 
search factors increased. It is assumed that the ship is patrolling the 
square specifically looking for enemy ships.
6.23  L = Launch/Land planes Mode. Only Aircraft Carriers (A) may enter this 
mode. An aircraft carrier must be in this mode in order to launch and/or land 
its Swordfish Torpedo Bombers (T). Aircraft carriers in L mode may move one 
square.
6.24  F = Fast Convoy Mode. British convoys that start the game in this mode 
must remain in this mode for the duration of the game. Other ships may be 
placed in, and/or taken out of this mode. These would be warships that the 
British player wanted to leave with the convoy and not attend to until the 
convoy was once again ready to move. Ships in this mode may move one square 
on every other turn. The convoys WS8B and Britannic are fast convoys.
6.2S  C = Slow Convoy Mode. Identical to fast convoy mode except that a ship
in this mode may move only one square every third turn. The convoys SL1 to 
SL5 are slow convoys.
6.26  R = Refuel/Rearm Mode. In this mode a ship's fuel factor and torpedo 
factor are restored to their maximum capacity. For a British ship to enter 
this mode it must be in a friendly port. For a German ship to enter this mode 
it must either be in a friendly port or in the same square an Oiler (O) 
(Exception: See Section 15.3).
6.3  Legal Squares For Ships
6.31  British ships may move into and out of any All-Sea square on the map 
and into and out of any British port. British ports are Reykjavik (1317), 
Scapa Flow (1825), Clyde (2125), and plymouth (2425).
6.31.1  The British convoy WS8B may move off the south edge of the map. 
6.31.2  The British convoy Britannic may move off the west edge of the map. 
6.32  German ships may move into and out of any All-Sea square except those 
comprising the English Channel and the Irish Sea. German ships may move into 
and out of any German controlled port on the map. The German controlled ports 
are Trondheim (1228), Bergen (1528), Brest (2626), and St. Nazaire (2727). 
6.32.1  The German player is not allowed to move his ships into the English 
Channel squares 2027, 2028, 2426, 2526. This blocks German ships from 
entering the English Channel.
6.32.2 The German player is not allowed to move ships into Irish Sea squares 
2024, 2124, 2324. This blocks German ships from entering the Irish Sea.
6.33  Except for ports, no ship may move into or out of a square that is part 
sea and part land.
6.34  The two British fast convoys are the only units which are allowed to 
exit from the mapboard.
6.4 The Ship Detail Line is the line of text displayed by the computer when 
the player is moving his ships. Below is the Ship Detail Line for the British 
battleship Hood used as an example.

      (1) (2)   (3)  (4)  (5)  (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
       B  HOOD 1662 1662  1/1  4/3  M   M   0    7    2    2

      (1)  Ship Type
      (2)  Slow Mode Indicator (3) Name
      (4)  Square the ship is in at the beginning of the turn.
      (5)  Square the ship is projected to be in at the end of the turn.
      (6)  Search factor in move mode (day/night).
      (7)  Search factor in patrol mode (day/night).
      (8)  Mode the ship is in at the beginning of the turn.
      (9)  Mode the ship is projected to be in at the end of the turn.
     (10)  Fuel Remaining
     (11)  Maximum number of squares ship may move.
     (l2)  Number of squares ship may move this turn.

6.5 Ship Capabilities. It should be remembered that the computer controls 
ship capabilities and units that are unable to move-for whatever reasons, 
e.g., warships not yet active, convoys on non-move turns, planes refueling 
and rearming, ships and planes on shadow missions-will simply not be 
displayed for the player's attention. Also units with reduced capabilities 
will be monitored and regulated by the computer program (Exception: British 
torpedo planes will often be displayed on turns when they may not move; an 
attempted move in these cases will result in an illegal entry response from 
the computer).
6.51  Battleships (B)
6.51.1  Movement Allowance. Battleships whose speed exceeds 21 knots may move
two squares on alternate turns. They may always move one square per turn. 
Battleships whose speed is 2l knots or less (ships in slow mode) may only 
move one square per turn. (Exception: The Bismarck may move up to four 
squares on turn l.)
6.51.2  Fuel Usage. If a battleship's speed is greater than 21 knots it uses 
1 fuel factor when it moves more than one square. If a battleship's speed is 
less than 22 knots and it moves one square, it uses 1 fuel factor if it had 
moved during the previous turn. (As an aid to the player this status is 
displayed on the Ship Detail Line of battleships under 22 knots as either a 
"Y" or "N" between the ship type and name. "Y" means that the ship moved last 
turn, while "N" means that the ship did not move on the last turn.)
6.52  Aircraft Carriers (A)
6.52.1  Movement Allowance. Same as battleships with the addition that if the 
carrier is in "L" (Launch/Land) mode then it may move only one square.
6.52.2  Fuel Usage. Same as battleships.
6.53  Cruisers (C)
6.53.1  Movement Allowance. A cruiser may move up to 21 knots. If a cruiser's
speed is 2l knots or less, than it may move up to one square per turn. 
(Exception: The Prinz Eugen may move up to four squares on turn 1).
6.53.2  Fuel Usage. A cruiser uses 1 fuel factor every turn it moves more
than one square.
6.54  Destroyer Flotillas (D)
6.54.1  Movement Allowance. Same as cruisers.
6.54.2  Fuel Usage. A destroyer flotilla uses 1 fuel factor if it moves one 
square. It uses 3 fuel factors if it moves two squares.
6.55  Submarines (S)
6.55.1  Movement Allowance: A submarine unit may move up to one square per
turn.
6.55.2  Fuel Usage. None. Submarines are assumed to have all the fuel they 
need.
6.56  Convoys of Merchant Ships (M)
6.56.1  Movement Allowance.
6.56.11  Fast convoys may move up to one square every other turn.
6.56.12  Slow convoys may move up to one square every third turn.
6.56.2  Fuel Usage. None .
6.57  Oilers (O)
6.57.1  Movement Allowance. Oilers may move up to one square per turn.
6.57.2 Fuel Usage. None.
6.6  Ships whose speed is reduced to 0 knots may not move.
6.7  When a ship's remaining fuel reaches 0, the ship is only allowed to move 
one square every other turn.
6.8  The following units enter the game with their fuel already reduce:
Bismarck, Renown, Ark Royal, Dorsetshire, Sheffield, DF 1, DF 3.

7.0  Moving A Ship

Once the "MS" command has been given the player will be asked to enter 
a command from Chart B. In order to move the unit listed on the screen, the 
player should type an "M","L","F", or "C" (depending on the ship and other 
circumstances) and then (CR). This will place the ship into a mode in which 
movement is possible. The computer will respond with:
ENTER "X" MOVES-
where X is equal to the maximum number of squares that the unit may move (if 
the unit cannot move during the turn in question the computer will flash past 
to the next ship). Units may be moved in eight different directions:
                              N = NORTH
                              S = SOUTH
                              E = EAST
                              W = WEST
                             NE = NORTHEAST
                             NW = NORTHWEST
                             SE = SOUTHEAST
                             SW = SOUTHWEST
The player should respond to the computer's prompt by typing a direction and 
then (CR). The computer will record this entry as a movement of one square in 
the indicated direction, and once again ask the player to (enter X moves. 
Notice that the number of moves to be entered has been reduced by one, to 
account for the previously entered move. At this point the player may 
continue to enter directions one at a time. When the player has moved his 
unit to the desired location, he should (CR). This will cause the computer to 
erase the unit from its initial location and reappear in its new projected 
position. It is only at this point that the computer actually moves the unit 
on the mapboard. It is important that the players realize that orders may be 
changed at any time prior to the execution of the "DM" command. The player 
need only repeat the above steps, changing the orders as he proceeds. Example:
To move the Hood from square 1622 to square 1724 first go to the Ship Display 
Line that contains the Hood. This is done by responding to "ENTER COMMAND 
FROM CHART A-" by typing "MS" (CR). Next give the command to move the ship by 
responding to "ENTER COMMAND -CHART B-" by typing "M" (CR). Finally move the 
ship by responding to "ENTER 2 MOVES-" by typing "E" (CR) and then "SE" (CR). 
The ship will disappear from square 1622 and then reappear in square 1724. 
The computer will then go on to the next ship in the British ship table.

8.0  Plane Commands And Capabilities

During the British player's movement phase the "MP" command is used to 
get to the "MOVE PLANES" section of the program. Each turn the British player 
may move any number of his available planes. The computer displays one plane 
unit at a time and allows the British player to order each unit individually.
8.2 Chart "C" Commands
8.21  M=Move Mode. ("R" type planes only.) In this mode the plane may be 
moved up to six squares, but its search factor is reduced.
8.22  P = Patrol Mode. ("R" type planes only.) In this mode the plane may 
move up to two squares while retaining its maximum search factor.
8.23  R = Reconnaissance Mode. ("L" and "T" type planes only.) In this mode 
the plane carries extra fuel tanks instead of bombs. Its search factor is at 
its maximum. planes may not change from reconnaissance mode to attack mode 
while in the air.
8.24  A = Attack Mode. ("L" and "T" type planes only.) In this mode the plane 
is armed with either bombs or torpedoes. Planes in attack mode may attack 
ships. Planes may not change from attack mode to reconnaissance mode while in 
the air.
8.24.1  Level bombers (L) may attack spotted enemy ships in the square where 
they end their turn. The attack is subject to the rules of combat (Section 
l6.3).
8.24.2  Torpedo bombers (T) must begin and end an attack turn on the aircraft 
carrier's deck. In order to attack with a torpedo bomber the British player 
must use the following procedure. First, fly the bomber to the square in 
which you wish to attack. Next, type an "A". Note that the computer does not 
count this as a square moved. Finally, fly the plane back to the square in 
which the aircraft carrier will end its turn. Example: Suppose you wish a 
Torpedo Bomber from the Ark Royal in square 3024 to attack an enemy ship in 
square 2724. In response to "ENTER MODE FROM CHART C-" the player should type 
an "A". In response to "ENTER 5 MOVES" the player should type "N" (CR),"N" 
(CR), "N" (CR), "A" (CR) to order the attack, and "S" (CR), "S" (CR). This 
causes the plane to fly north three squares, make a torpedo run at the enemy 
ship, and then fly two squares south to land on the Ark Royal (which had 
conveniently moved north during the British move. The combat phase and will 
be subject to the regular rules of combat (Section 16.3).
8.25  Z = Return to Base Mode. ("R" and "L" type planes only) A plane in this 
mode will fly at maximum speed directly towards its home base. If the plane 
is within range it will land at the base.
8.26  B = Base Mode. We all make mistakes. This command allows a player to 
avoid the one turn of refueling if he has flown the plane from its base in 
error.
8.3  Planes may move into any square on the mapboard. but they may only land 
at their home bases. Planes may not be transferred from one base to another.
8.4  Torpedo bombers launch from the square in which the aircraft carrier 
began its turn and land in the square in which the aircraft carrier ends its 
turn.
8.5  The Plane Detail Line is the line of text displayed by the computer when 
the player is moving his planes. Below is the Plane Detail Line for the 
British reconnaissance plane based in Reykjavik:
      (1) (2)        (3)  (4) (S) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
       R  REYKJAVIK 1317 1317 2/1 6/3  B   B   S    S

      (1)  Plane type.
      (2)  Name of home airfield.
      (3)  Square plane is in at the beginning of the turn.
      (4)  Square plane is projected to be in at the end of the turn.
      (5)  Search factor in Move or Attack Mode (day/night).
      (6)  Search factor in Patrol or Recon Mode (day/night).
      (7)  Mode the plane is in at the beginning of the turn.
      (8)  Mode the plane is projected to be in at the end of the turn.
      (9)  Endurance Now-Number of turns the plane can remain in the air.
     (10)  Endurance projected-Number of turns the plane will be able to
           remain in the air after the current turn.
8.6  When a plane lands at its home base it must spend one turn refueling 
before it may move again. The computer will automatically refuel planes by 
preventing the player from moving the unit on the turn after it has returned 
to base (Exception: refer to Section 8.26). Planes that do not return to base 
before their endurance now equals zero are considered to have crashed and are 
eliminated from play.
8.7  Plane Capabilities
8.71  Reconnaissance Planes (R)
8.71.1  Movement Allowance. In "M" mode the plane may move up to six squares 
per turn. In "P" mode the plane may move up to two squares per turn.
8.71.2  Endurance. When this type of plane takes off it can spend up to five 
turns in the air.
8.72  Level Bombers (L)
8.72.1  Movement Allowance. If the plane takes off in "A" mode then it may 
move up to six squares. If the plane takes off in "R" mode then it may move 
up to seven squares.
8.72.2  Endurance. Level bombers may stay aloft for two turns.
8.73  Torpedo Bombers (T).
8.73.1  Movement allowance. The plane may move up to five squares per turn. 
8.73.2  Endurance. If the plane takes off in "A" mode then it must return to 
the aircraft carrier on the same turn. If the plane takes off in "R" mode 
then it may remain in the air for two turns.
8.8  Both "take off" turns and "landing" turns are considered to be "in the 
air" turns and thus count against plane unit endurance. Example: A level 
bomber (with an endurance of two turns) that takes off on turn one must 
return to base on turn two.
8.9  Plane units are moved in a manner similar to that described in Section 
7.0. The only mechanical difference between moving planes and moving ships is 
that planes may move in "M","P","A", and "Z" modes while ships may move in 
"M", "L", "F", and "C" modes.

9.0  Search: How To Find The Enemy

9.1  During the computer search phase the computer judges whether opposing 
ships and/or planes have spotted each other. The computer uses search factors 
and weather conditions to determine if units have contacted enemy units.
9.2  In order to spot an enemy unit a player must have total search factors 
in the square equal to or greater than the visibility level of the square in 
question.
9.21  To determine a player's search strength in a square just add together 
the strengths of each unit in the square. Each unit is assigned a search 
value by the computer depending on the mode of the unit and whether it is day 
or night in the square being searched. players may find the search values of 
each unit on the ship data cards.
9.22  The NS and PS commands are used to have the computer total and display 
the friendly search factors in each square. A 9 will be displayed whenever 
search factors in the square total 9 or more.
9.23  Each row of the mapboard is assigned a visibility level. These numbers 
can be found on the right hand side of the computer screen. All squares in 
the same row are assumed to have the same visibility level. Example: On the 
first turn of every game all squares in row 11 are assigned a visibility 
level of 3, while all squares in row 12 are assigned a visibility level of 4. 
Thus to spot an enemy ship in square 1116 on turn one, the player must have 
at least 3 search factors in square 1116 at the end of his movement phase.
9.3  New visibility levels are assigned each turn as per Section 13.2.
9.4  Fog, represented on the mapboard by "F", prevents enemy units from 
spotting one another (by implication this also means that combat and shadow 
are not allowed in fog squares). (Exception: Ships that are spotted prior to 
the creation of new fog may be shadowed. Although the shadow might succeed, 
if the ship being shadowed moves into a fog square it will be lost during the 
next computer search phase.)
9.5  Spotting is considered to be mutual. All units in a square are spotted 
by both players as soon as one player has amassed enough search values in the 
square to spot the enemy as per Section 9.2 (Exception: Submarines may only 
be spotted if the conditions of Section 9.2 are met and an enemy plane unit 
in the air is in the same square as the submarine unit.).
9.6  Players will only be given information about enemy units that are 
spotted. Thus, the British player will not see the German units displayed on 
his mapboard until he actually spots a unit. Once an enemy unit is spotted it 
will appear on the opposing player's mapboard, but it will be displayed in a 
different manner than friendly ships (see Set Up Instructions sheet). British 
ships will never be displayed on the German mapboard. Spotted German ships 
will be displayed black on white on the British mapboard
9.7  Turns 3 and 4, 9 and 10 etc. are night turns with reduced visibility for 
both players. A player's night adjusted search factors may be found on the 
night side of the day/night columns on the ship/plane data cards. Note: on 
turns 3, 9, etc. only the southern board area below line 20 is under night 
conditions. This accounts for longer summer daylight periods in higher 
latitudes.
9.8 planes may not conduct attacks at night or in visibility of 7 or 8.

10.0  Shadow

10.1  If an enemy ship has been spotted and the opposing player wishes to 
maintain contact with it (shadow) the computer will allow him to do so during 
the shadow phase of each turn. The units involved will be displayed on the 
screen and the computer will ask the player which unit is to be ordered to 
perform the shadow. Next, the computer will ask the shadowed player to 
secretly move the ship being shadowed. The computer will then calculate the
results and report "SHADOW SUCCEEDED" or "SHADOW FAILED" (A "SHADOW
SUCCEEDED" may be changed to a "SHADOW FAILED" if the shadowed ship moved to
a square that the shadower is not allowed to enter, i.e., a German wolfpack 
cannot follow the WS8B convoy off the map). Units that move or attempt to 
shadow during this phase, whether successfully or not, may not be moved 
during the following regular movement phase.
10.2  All German battleships (B), cruisers (C), and oilers (O) are eligible 
to be shadowed. Convoys are the only British units eligible to be shadowed, 
and of course these may only be shadowed on turns in which they are allowed 
to move (refer to Section 6.56).
10.3  Wolfpacks are the only German ships that may conduct a shadow. British 
battleships (B), cruisers (C), destroyers (D), sub groups (S), and 
reconnaissance planes (R) may shadow (reconnaissance planes may only shadow 
if they have at least one more turn left in the air after the current turn).
10.4  Shadow Conditions. If a unit that is eligible to be shadowed is spotted 
by a unit that is capable of shadow, the computer will list the pertinent 
information and request further instructions from the players during the 
shadow phase. In order for a unit to conduct a shadow it must be at least as 
fast, in knots. as the ship being shadowed (reconnaissance planes are always 
considered to be fast enough to shadow any ship).
10.5  Only one attempt per turn may be made to shadow each enemy ship. Even 
if the first attempted shadow fails no other shadows on the enemy ship are
allowed in the same shadow phase.
10.6  Each eligible ship or plane unit may attempt only one shadow per turn. 
10.7  Shadow Resolution. The probability of a shadow succeeding is determined 
in the following manner. 
   1 - Determine the shadow strength of the unit attempting the shadow (this
   can be found on the ship/plane data card).
   2 - Modify this number to account for each of the following factors if they
   apply:

       If visibility = 8.................................subtract 2
       If visibility = 6 or 7...........................subtract 1
       If shadowed ship moves 2 squares this turn.......subtract 1
       If visibility = 1 or 2................................add 1
       For  each  other  friendly  unit  in the square that is
       eligible to shadow....................................add 5
    3 - Divide the adjusted shadow strength by 6.

Example: The Suffolk attempts to shadow the Bismarck in square 1118 on turn
4. The visibility level is 7 and the the Suffolk is accompanied by the 
Norfolk and the reconnaissance unit from Reykjavik. During the shadow phase 
the Bismarck moves to square 1116. The basic search strength of the Suffolk 
at night is 4. Due to the visibility 1 is subtracted from this number. Due to 
the Bismarck's two square move an additional 1 is subtracted. Due to the help 
of the Norfolk and the Reykjavik air unit 1 is added. There is a 50% chance 
that this attempted shadow will succeed.
10.8  Shadow Results. If the shadow attempt succeeds then the shadowing ship 
is moved to the same square the shadowed ship moved to. Note that in any case 
both units have made their move for this turn. If the shadow attempt is 
successful then the shadowing ship is given a search factor of 8 during the 
following computer search phase in order to account for the fact that the 
units are still in visual contact.
10.9  Ships that are successfully shadowed are displayed on the opposing 
player's mapboard in their "end of the turn" projected positions. Spotted 
ships that are not shadowed or are shadowed unsuccessfully are displayed on 
the opposing player's mapboard in their beginning of the turn positions.

11.0  Fast Shadow

11.1  Fast shadow attempts may only be made on turns in which either the 
Bismarck or Prinz Eugen move two squares. If the first square moved through 
by either of these ships is a square which includes British units, a fast 
shadow may be possible.
11.2  In order to attempt a fast shadow, the British must have sufficient 
search factors in the square to have spotted the enemy ship had it stopped 
there at the end of its turn (refer to Section 9.2).
11.3  During the fast shadow phase the computer will determine whether a fast 
shadow is possible. If a fast shadow is called for the computer will list the 
units involved, the square moved through, and the results of the attempted 
shadow.
11.4  Only the Bismarck and Prinz Eugen may be fast shadowed. British 
battleships, cruisers, destroyers, sub groups, and reconnaissance planes may 
attempt fast shadows (although sub groups are too slow to succeed in an 
attempted fast shadow).
11.5  Fast Shadow Conditions. Same as for regular shadow (refer to Section 
10.4) with the addition that at least one British unit must be in patrol 
mode. Also, the computer assumes that the British player desires to fast 
shadow and thus it automatically attempts a fast shadow whenever possible.
11.6  Fast Shadow Resolution. Same as for regular shadow (refer to Section 
10.7).
11.7  Fast Shadow Results. If the fast shadow is successful all British units 
in patrol mode, that are in the "shadow square", are moved to the square in 
which the German ship ended its move. The British units so moved are given a 
search factor of eight during the following computer search phase.
11.8  If both the Bismarck and the Prinz Eugen move through the same square
and fast shadows result, the fast shadow of the Prinz Eugen will 
automatically fail if the fast shadow of the Bismarck had succeeded. This is 
due to the fact that all the British units in patrol mode will have moved out 
of the square to follow the Bismarck before the fast shadow attempt on the 
Prinz Eugen is even attempted.

12.0 Chance

12.1  Once each turn the computer randomly determines whether the Bismarck or 
Prinz Eugen has been spotted by the British general air search or whether 
they have revealed their approximate positions by breaking radio silence. 
These possibilities occur during the chance phase.
12.2  If the Bismarck or the Prinz Eugen is north of row 19 or east of column 
17 and the visibility in the ship's square is 4 or less, there is a 5% chance 
that the ship will be spotted by the British general air search. If the 
computer calculates that a spotting has occurred, the players will be 
informed of this and the British player will be told of the exact location of 
the ship in question.
12.3  Each turn there is a 1% chance that the Bismarck will break radio
silence and a 1% chance that the Prinz Eugen will break radio silence. If 
radio silence is broken, the computer will display this information and then 
give the British the approximate location of the offending ship. This 
location will be one of the squares adjacent to the offending ship or the 
ship's actual square (determined at random by the computer) .
12.4  German ships that are spotted during the chance phase will not be 
displayed on the British player's map. board. Also, the general air search 
does not have the capability to shadow enemy ships once they are found.

13.0  Weather

13.1  The weather (or visibility) is displayed at the right edge of the 
mapboard. Visibility ranges from 1 (sunny) to 8 (stormy), and certain areas 
may have fog.
13.2  During the weather update phase of each turn the computer changes the 
weather. This change is done in two steps. 1) All visibility levels are moved 
south one row. 2)  Each visibility level is randomly modified (+3 to -3 on 
rows 11 to 20; +2 to -3 on rows 21 to 30).
13.3  Fog may occur in two different areas. Area 1 is north of Iceland and 
consists of the squares 1116, 1117, 1118, 1119, 1120, 1216, 1220. Area 2 is 
around Bergen and consists of the squares 1527, 1528, 1627.
13.31  During the weather update phase the computer determines whether one or 
both fog areas will contain fog during the next turn. Each fog area is 
individually checked for the possibility of fog. If fog appears in one square 
within an area, it will appear in all the squares in the particular area. Fog 
is only revealed to the players when they ask for their search factors to be 
displayed (NS or PS), and at this time an F will be displayed in each square 
containing fog.
13.32  The probability of fog appearing in a turn is dependent on the time of 
day of the turn. Fog is more likely to occur during the evening and early
morning as the following table reveals:

                  Time of Day of Turn  Probability of Fog
                          400                  67%
                          800                  50%
                         1200                  33%
                         1600                  16%
                         2000                  33%
                         2400                  50%

14.0  Reinforcements

14.1  The British player may get reinforcements from Scapa Flow, Clyde, and 
the south edge of the map. Reinforcements are triggered by events that occur 
during the course of the game. The German player receives no reinforcements.
14.2  Reinforcements from Scapa Flow.
14.21  Units. King George V (B), Victorious (A), Aurora (C), Galatea (C), 
Hermione (C), Kenya (C), Destroyer Flotilla 2 (D).
14.22  Trigger Event. The above units may be moved on the turn after either 
of the following events has occurred: 1) The British player has successfully 
searched Bergen (square 1527) whether or not an enemy ship is found. 2) The 
Bismarck has been spotted by regular search.
14.3  Reinforcements from Clyde.
14.31  Units. Repulse (B).
14.32  Trigger Event. Same as 14.22.
14.4  Reinforcements from the south edge of the mapboard.
14.41  Units. Reknown (B), Ark Royal (A), Sheffield (C), Destroyer Flotilla 3 
(D).
14.42  Trigger Event. The above units may be moved nine turns after the 
British player has located the Bismarck by regular search. These units arrive
as a group on a square between 3020 and 3024 (inclusive). The actual entrance 
square is determined randomly by the computer.
14.43  Units. Dorsetshire (C).
14.44  Trigger Event. The Dorsetshire arrives on turn 24 on a square between 
3020 and 3024 (inclusive). Once again the actual entrance square is 
determined randomly by the computer.

15.0  Solitaire

15.1  Otto von Computer, your solitaire opponent, is in reality a set of 
computer subroutines that are part of the program. During solitaire games one 
of these subroutines is called whenever the German player would have an 
opportunity to respond in a two player game. Otto does not have access to any 
information that would not normally be available to the German player. He 
does follow a strategy, that is he does not move randomly and aimlessly, but 
with the cool precision of a master wargamer. There are many strategies 
contained in the computer program, and for each game Otto picks one, but 
Otto's strategy can change during the course of a game if he feels the 
situation requires a new approach. We are confident that Otto will provide 
you with many challenging games.
15.2  Solitaire Units British - Same as regular game. German - Same as 
regular game except no oilers.
15.3  Rule Changes. Any German ship may go into R mode (Refuel/Rearm) when in 
the special prearranged refueling squares in the North Atlantic (only the 
computer knows where these are).

16.0  Combat
16.1  Whenever enemy units are spotted, an opportunity for combat may occur. 
The computer will display the units involved in each combat situation, ask 
the players one or more questions, and resolve the battle. The players are 
relieved of the drudgery of throwing dice and consulting numerous tables. 
This is all handled by the computer allowing the players to concentrate on 
their strategy.
16.2  There are four types of combat.
    1 - Plane Attack
    2 - Submarine Attack
    3 - Destroyer Attack
    4 - Naval Combat
16.3  Plane Attack.
16.31  Level Bomber Attack. If an L type aircraft unit is in attack mode and
in the same square as a spotted German ship, the computer will ask the 
British player which (if any) German ship he wishes to bomb. The attack is 
resolved by the computer, any damage is recorded and any Victory Points
scored are awarded.
16.31.1  Eligibility. Only British L type planes in attack mode may launch 
bomb attacks. The German unit attacked must be a spotted surface ship (not a 
wolfpack). Level bomber attacks are not allowed during night or in a square 
where the visibility level is 7 or 8. There is a 5% chance during each attack 
that the pilots become confused and attack the largest British ship in the 
square.
16.31.2  Combat Resolution. The Gunnery Salvo Table (Section 16.81 ) is 
consulted twice for each attacking level bomber. The British player is not 
informed of damage done to the ship attacked unless the ship is sunk.
15.32  Torpedo Bomber Attack. If a T type plane "attacked" a square which 
contains spotted German surface ships, then the computer will ask the British 
player which (if any) German ship he wishes to attack. The attack is resolved 
by the computer, any damage is recorded, and any Victory Points scored are 
awarded.
16.32.1 Eligibility. Only British T type planes may launch plane torpedo 
attacks. The plane unit must have attacked the square as per Section 8.24.2. 
The German unit attacked must be a spotted surface ship (not a wolfpack).
Torpedo bomber attacks are not allowed at night or in a square where the
visibility is 7 or 8. There is a 5% chance during each attack that the pilots
become confused and attack the largest British ship in the square.
16.33  Once a plane unit has attacked. it may not attack again until it has
returned to base to refuel/rearm.
16.34  Plane units are never adversely affected by combat.
16.4  Submarine Attack.
16.41 Submarine units (S) may launch torpedo attacks against spotted enemy 
surface ships that are in the same square. The ships involved are displayed 
by the computer and the attacking player chooses which ship (if any) he 
wishes to attack. The computer then resolves the attack, records damage 
(including submarines sunk). and awards Victory Points scored.
16.41.  Eligibility. A submarine attack is possible any time a spotted enemy 
surface ship (not a submarine unit) and a submarine unit are in the same 
square.
16.41.2  Combat Resolution. Submarine attacks are resolved in the following
manner:
1 - The Submarine Attack Tables (Section 16.84) are consulted to 
determine if a submarine is sunk and to determine the number of torpedo 
factors that are actually fired at the target. The Anti-sub strength of each 
unit in the square (not just the unit attacked) is added to determine the 
defending player's anti-sub strength for each attack. The anti-sub strength 
determines the number of torpedo factors fired and the probability of a sub 
being sunk (refer to section 16.85).
2 - The Torpedo Hit Table is consulted once for each torpedo factor 
that is fired in order to determine whether the target is hit.
3 - The Torpedo Damage Table is consulted to assess damage to targets 
that have been hit. Although the attacking player is told whether his 
torpedoes hit or missed, he is not told of the damage done to the enemy 
unless the enemy was sunk. The defending player is told whether an attacking 
submarine was sunk.
16.41.3  Ammunition Expenditure. All submarine units (S) lose one torpedo 
factor each turn they attack. When a unit's torpedo factor is reduced to zero 
it may not attack. Submarine units may regain their capacity of four torpedo 
factors by entering R (refuel/rearm) mode.
16.42  Each sub group and wolfpack unit consists of three submarines. The 
unit continues to exist until all three submarines are sunk. For these units 
the midships (MS) remaining is in reality the number of submarines remaining 
in the unit. Each submarine lost from a sub group or wolfpack causes the 
search factors of that unit to decrease by one. Submarine losses do not 
affect the combat abilities of a sub group or wolfpack (unless of course all 
three submarines in the unit are sunk).
16.5  Destroyer Attack
16.51  British destroyer flotillas (D) may attack spotted German surface 
ships (not wolfpacks) in the same square. The British player is notified of 
this possibility and asked to select an enemy ship to attack (if desired). 
The computer then resolves the combat.
15.51.1  Eligibility. A destroyer attack is possible during the combat phase 
whenever a spotted German surface ship and a British destroyer flotilla are 
in the same square.
16.51.2  Combat Resolution. The destroyer attack is resolved in the following 
manner:
1 - Each destroyer in the destroyer flotilla conducts a torpedo run 
toward its target. If in the square, both the Bismarck and the Prinz Eugen 
may fire at the attacking destroyer. During day turns each ship has a 40% 
chance of sinking the destroyer. During night turns each ship has a 15% 
chance of sinking the destroyer. Each destroyer in the flotilla is fired upon 
in the manner just described if the flotilla attacks.
2 - The Torpedo Hit Table is consulted once for each destroyer still 
afloat after its torpedo run. This will determine whether the destroyers have 
hit their target.
3 - For each torpedo hit the Torpedo Damage Table is consulted to 
determine damage to the target ship.
4 - Damage is recorded and Victory Points scored are awarded. The 
British player is not informed of the extent of the damage to the target ship 
unless it is sunk, but he is told whether his torpedoes hit or missed the 
ship.
16.51.3 Ammunition Expenditure. Destroyers carry only enough torpedoes for 
one attack. Once these torpedoes are expended the flotilla must enter R 
(refuel/rearm) mode in order to replenish their torpedoes.
16.52  Each destroyer flotilla consists of six destroyers. As with submarine 
units the midships remaining for each destroyer flotilla reveal the number of 
destroyers in the flotilla. Individual destroyers lost will not affect the 
search factors of the destroyer flotilla. The destroyer flotilla continues to 
exist until all six destroyers in the flotilla are sunk.
16.6  Naval Combat.
16.61  Naval combat occurs when opposing surface ships (submarine units are 
not considered surface ships) spot each other in the same square. When this 
happens, all surface ships in the square are involved in the combat. Only 
battleships (B) and cruisers (C) have the ability to attack other ships 
during the naval combat phase. Aircraft carriers (A), convoys (M), and oilers
(O) may be sunk if there are no friendly ships (B or C) in the square to 
defend them. Naval combat occurs in a series of rounds in which each ship 
fires a number of salvos equal to its current firepower (FP) rating. Under 
certain conditions the Bismarck is allowed to surprise attack British ships 
(refer to Section 16.68). After the first round of naval combat, ships that 
have torpedoes may launch them. Combat is concluded only when both players 
agree to withdraw, one side is able to withdraw all of his ships, or all the 
ships of one side (in the square) are sunk.
16.62  The sequence of events during the naval combat phase is as follows: 
   1 - Ships involved in a possible combat are displayed on the screen.
   2 - Each player secretly checks the status of his ships involved in the
       combat.
   3 - Before the first combat round the Bismarck may attempt to surprise
       attack as per Section 16.68.
   4 - Combat Check. Players declare whether they wish to fight or
       withdraw. If both players wish to attack, combat wi1l occur. If
       both p1ayers wish to withdraw, no combat will occur. If only one
       player wishes to withdraw then withdrawal may be attempted.
    5 - Withdrawal attempts are conducted.
    6 - If combat is still possible and at least one combat round has
        already been fought then ships with torpedoes may launch them.
    7 - Naval Combat Round. After determining which ships are being fired
        upon, each ship fires its FP salvos and launches its torpedoes.
        The computer calculates damage and awards Victory Points as they
        are scored. Combat fire is simultaneous (a ship sunk during round
        #2 will still get to fire its guns during round #2).
    8 - If there are any aircraft carriers (A), convoys (M), or oilers (O)
        in the square and no friendly battleships (B) or cruisers (C) to
        protect them from enemy battleships or cruisers in the same square
        they are sunk (or dispersed if convoys) at this time and Victory
        Points awarded.
16.63  Withdrawal. Only battleships, cruisers. and aircraft carriers may 
withdraw from naval combat. Withdrawal attempts will automatically succeed if 
the following conditions are met:
1 - Battleships may withdraw if they are faster (in knots) then any 
enemy battleship in the square.
2 - Cruisers and aircraft carriers may withdraw if they are faster than 
all enemy battleships and cruisers in the square. If the above conditions are 
not met, an attempted withdrawal has a 25% chance of success.
16.64  Torpedo Attack. If torpedoes are launched at a ship then the Torpedo
Hit Table is consulted once for each torpedo factor fired. If the target is 
hit the Torpedo Damage Table will be consulted to determine damage. Actual 
damage caused by torpedo hits are not revealed to the attacking player. Once 
torpedo factors are used, they may only be replenished by putting the ship 
into R (refuel/rearm) mode.
16.65  During combat rounds battleships fire at battleships and cruisers fire 
at cruisers whenever possible.
16.66  During each combat round each ship fires all of its remaining 
firepower at one enemy ship. For each firepower factor (salvo) fired the 
Gunnery Salvo Table is consulted to determine damage to the target ship. Once 
again the computer calculates damage and only reveals it to the defending
player. Each individual firepower salvo may cause either MS or FP damage, but 
not both. Due to the structure of the computer program, knots (KN) are only
lost when MS damage is incurred.
16.67  If a convoy is sunk by surface ships, the ships that sank the convoy 
may not move on the turn following the sinking of the convoy.
16.68  Surprise attack is a tactic that the Bismarck may use to force enemy 
ships to fight. Surprise attack may only occur during night turns or in a 
square with a visibility level of 6, 7 or 8. If these conditions have been 
met and the Bismarck has been shadowed during the current turn then the 
German player may automatically surprise attack. If the Bismarck had not been 
shadowed then there is a 50% chance that surprise attack will occur if the 
German player so desires. When surprise attack does occur, a normal combat 
round ensues but with each ship firing only 1/8 of its normal firepower. 
After the surprise attack round, normal combat rounds begin and withdrawal 
becomes possible.
16.7  Damage Recording Procedure. The number of MS (midships), FP 
(firepower), or KN (knots) that are lost in combat are subtracted from their 
current values.
16.71  When a battleship"s, cruiser's, oiler's, or aircraft carrier's MS 
equals 0 then the ship is sunk and Victory Points are allocated.
16.72  Each MS factor of a destroyer flotilla, convoy, sub group, or wolfpack 
represents a single ship. Thus each time a midship factor is lost, one 
destroyer, merchant ship, or submarine is lost and Victory Points are awarded 
for the destroyed ship. The unit is eliminated when all ships in the unit are 
sunk (MS factor reaches 0).
16.73  If the Bismarck or Prinz Eugen disperses a British convoy, the German 
player is awarded Victory Points equal to only 1/2 of the convoy's remaining 
Victory Points. Example: The WS8B convoy has lost two of its five ships when 
the Bismarck arrives and attacks the convoy. The three ships remaining in the 
convoy are worth a total of 48 Victory Points (3 x l6). The German player is 
awarded 1/2 of the 48 points, or 24 Victory points. The other half of the 
convoy is assumed to have dispersed and is no longer under the control of the 
British player.
16.74  If a surface ship suffers FP losses when its current FP = 0 then each 
2 FP losses = 1 MS lost.
16.75  For each MS lost there is a 50% chance that 1 fuel factor will be lost 
(damaged ships may leak oil).
16.76  If a ship's knots (KN) falls below 22 knots the computer automatically 
places the ship in "slow mode" by setting the slow mode indicator to N.
16.8  Combat Tables.
16.81 Gunnery Salvo Table
--------------------------------
  Probability    Result
     00.1%      Ship sunk*
     09.0%      - l MS
     14.0%      - 2 FP
     01.0%      - 10 KN
     02.0%      - 5 KN
     04.0%      - 1 KN
* If the target is BISMARCK - 1 MS
16.82 Torpedo Hit Table
        ----------------------------------------------------------
         Target's Speed (in knots)  0-10  11-20  21-25  26-30  31+
         Probability of a Hit        60%   30%    20%    10%   5%
16.83  Torpedo Damage Table
If the target is a battleship there is a 60% chance of losing 1 MS and
a 40% chance of losing 2 MS (Exception: If the target is the Bismarck the 2 
MS loss is converted to a 0 MS loss). The ship will also lose between 0 and 
20 knots (Exception: If the target is the Bismarck knots will only be lost 
from 50% of the torpedo hits) .
If the target is a cruiser there is a 33% chance that the ship will be 
sunk, a 33% chance that it will lose 2 MS, and a 33% chance that it will lose 
1 MS. The ship will also lose between 0 and 30 knots.
If the target is an aircraft carrier there is a 15% chance that the ship
will be sunk, a 50% chance that it will lose 2 MS, and a 35% chance that it 
will lose 1 MS. The ship will also lose between 0 and 20 knots.
If the target is a convoy, oiler, or destroyer flotilla a torpedo hit 
results in an automatic loss of 1 MS (one merchant ship, oiler, or destroyer 
is sunk by each hit).
16.84  Submarine Attack Tables 
16.84.1Anti-Sub Strength Table
                                              Anti-Sub
                                              Strength
                     Unit Type              Day    Night
                     Convoy                  11      3
                     Aircraft Carrier         5      0
                     Reconnaissance plane     4      0
                     Each Destroyer in        2      1
                     Flotilla
16.85
Sub Losses and Torpedo Factor Determination Table
              ----------------------------------------
               Anti-Sub# of Torpedo Factor  Chance of
               Strength Granted to Attacker Sub Sunk
                   01 to 7 (average - 4)     05%
                 1-41 to 5 (average = 3)     12%
                 5-8l to 3 (average = 2)     20%
                9-120 to 2 (average = 1)     25%
                 13+0 to 1 (average= .5)     30%

17.0  Victory Conditions

17.1  A player wins by accumulating more Victory Points than his opponent by 
the end of the game. There are two possible ways in which the game may end. 
1) The game ends if the Bismarck is sunk and one player has at least 30 more 
Victory Points than his opponent. 2) The game ends after 30 turns have been 
completed.
17.2  The computer awards Victory Points as they are scored and determines if 
the game should end.
17.3  British convoys are given missions to accomplish and receive Victory 
Points if the missions are successfully completed. The German player is 
awarded Victory Points for each mission that is not completed. In order to 
complete the assigned mission, each convoy must move directly toward its 
destination whenever it may move (Exception: The WS8B is allowed two turns to 
move around Ireland if the British player wishes before it must move south 
each turn it may move).
17.4  The British player receives Victory Points for the following events:     
           Victory
           Points
           Awarded    Event
           -------------------------------------------------------
             60       Bismarck Sunk
             20       Prinz Eugen sunk
              4       Each German submarine sunk
              4       Each oiler sunk
              4       Each ship in convoy WS8B that reaches
                         row 3l during turns 21-25 (inclusive)
              4       Britannic reaches column 10 on turn 25
              4       SL1 reaches Clyde on turn 25
              4       SL2 reaches column 22 by turn 30*
              4       SL3 reaches Clyde on turn 19
              4       SL4 reaches column 23 by turn 30*
              4       SL5 reaches column 21 by turn 30*
              8       Bismarck at sea after turn 30 with less
                         than 22 knots*
              4       Prinz Eugen at sea after turn 30 with less
                         than 22 knots*
              4       Each midship (MS) lost by the Bismarck (if
                         it is not sunk)
              2       Each midship (MS) lost by the Prinz Eugen
                         (if it is not sunk)
      * These Victory points are only awarded after turn 30.
17.5  The German player receives Victory Points for the following events: 
          Victory
          Points
          Awarded          Events
          ----------------------------------------------------------
          see ship/     Each British battleship, cruiser, or aircraft
          plane         carrier sunk (VP's depends on ship sunk)
          data card
           see Sec.     Each convoy dispersed by the Bismarck or
           16.73        Prinz Eugen
           16           Each WS8B ship sunk by torpedoes
            8           Britannic sunk by torpedoes
            4           Each British submarine sunk
            4           Each destroyer sunk
            4           Each plane unit that crashes
            2           Each slow convoy merchant ship sunk by
            2           Each midship (MS) lost by a cruiser (if it is
                            not sunk)*
            4           Each midship (MS) lost by a battleship or
                            aircraft carrier (if it is not sunk)*
            1           0Each British convoy that fails to accomplish
                            its mission (dispersed convoys are considered
                            to have failed their missions)**
    * These Victory points are only awarded after turn 30.
   ** These points are awarded on the turn in which the convoy was to have
      completed its mission.

10.0  Designer's Notes

The first (very simple) version of Computer Bismarck was done on a 
borrowed computer. Although thrown together hastily, it proved that we could 
program a real historical wargame for a home computer. Many of the concepts 
developed for historical simulation games have been freely adapted for our 
current needs. We have used the computer to automate the boring bookkeeping 
rules that slow down the play of wargames, but which are essential if the 
historical situation is to be understood and appreciated. Naval and air 
movement fell out nicely once we had decided on a map scale that could be 
displayed on most home computers . Combat was added during several all night 
sessions. Then we began playtesting of the first (incomplete) computer 
historical wargame. All our playtesters were encouraging and quite patient as 
we worked the bugs out of both the program and the game. Finally we invented 
"Otto" and the solitaire game went into playtesting. Plane activities (T's) on
deck really shouldn't be counted for purposes of spotting subs) and solitaire 
were the most complex game elements to add. Graphics was the most difficult 
software addition. One element we knew we wanted but couldn't figure out how 
to do for some time was allowing the players the capability to save the 
status of a game in progress. As the game got bigger and bigger (once we 
hoped for a single 16K program) it turned out that one way to save space was 
to put the initial ship and plane data on a separate file. Once we had to 
read in a data file it was almost a trivial matter to read in a file that we 
had allowed the players to save. And the program continued to grow in size. 
Finally, the first computer historical wargame was finished. The future 
arrived in January 1980. Developing this program has been one of the most 
stimulating and satisfying periods of my life. I hope you enjoy playing the 
game as much as I have enjoyed creating it. My personal thanks go out to 
everyone who participated in this project.

19.0  Notes On Strategy

British Strategy: As the British player your goal is clear, find the 
Bismarck and the Prinz Eugen before they are able to break out into the 
Atlantic. You must set up a search line so that you are guaranteed to spot 
the German ships before they move past your main fleet.
Once this line is formed just sit back and wait, adjusting your units 
as dictated by the changing weather. Be sure that you have adequate firepower 
within two squares of every part of the search line. This will allow you to 
concentrate power before the German ships are able to shake off their 
shadowers. If the Prinz Eugen escapes alone, you will need to detach some 
cruisers from your search force to escort the convoys, but don't give up your 
search line completely.
Don't forget to move some planes into Bergen as soon as the fog clears 
so that you are allowed to move your Scapa Flow reinforcements as soon as 
possible. These forces will allow you to hold your search line when your 
planes are forced to refuel.
While you are holding the search line. move your convoys towards their 
goals, only changing course if absolutely necessary to avoid wolfpacks. Your 
planes from Plymouth can be used to search for wolfpacks in the paths of your 
convoys, especially the WS8B. Keep in mind that losing ships from the WS8B is 
the quickest way to lose the game. Protect it!
German Strategy: Remember one thing, this is a game of strategy, and 
although the German position may seem hopeless, the German player can win if 
he is clever. As the German player you have less ships to move, so you have 
the time to weigh every move carefully. Do not blunder through the British 
search screen without a plan. Try to deceive the British player into making a 
mistake. You have only one major ally, the element of surprise, and this must 
be used to the fullest. Keeping the Prinz Eugen with the Bismarck will help 
the Bismarck rid itself of shadowing cruisers, but it is often possible to 
sneak the Prinz Eugen past the British search net, and this should be 
considered. Whatever your plan, when you are spotted be sure to do the 
unexpected, for you will not live long if you are being shadowed. For every 
enemy ship that you spot, there are probably three more close by. A final 
note-if all else fails hide in the fog.

SYSTEM COMMAND CARD A

CHART A GENERAL COMMANDS
Command Description
SN Ships Now. Displays the ship positions at the beginning of the turn.
SP Ships projected. Displays projected end of the turn ship positions.
PN Planes Now. Displays the aircraft positions at the beginning of the turn.
PP Planes projected. Displays aircraft positions as they are projected to be
   at the end of the turn.
MS Move Ships.
MP Move planes.
QN#### Query Now. Lists the ships and airborne planes that began the turn
       in square ####.
QP#### Query projected. Lists the ships and airborne planes that are
       projected to end the turn in square ####.
NS Now Search. Displays search values at the beginning of the turn.
PS Projected Search. Displays projected end of the turn search values.
NM New Map. Displays a new map without displaying ship, plane or search
   value locations.
STxxx Status Check. Displays the current status of the ship whose name
      begins with xxx.
DM Done Moving. This command ends the player's movement phase.

CHART B. SHIP COMMANDS         CHART C. PLANE COMMANDS
Command    Description         Command     Description
   M       Move                  M          Move
   P       Patrol                P          Patrol
   L       Launch/Land Planes    A          Attack (L & T only) T's only
   F       Fast Convoy                        when you reach the square where
   C       Slow Convoy                        you wish to attack-type A.
   R       Refuel/Rearm          R          Recon (L & T only)
   X       Exit                  Z          Return to base
  (CR)     Go to next ship       B          Base plane-used only for errors
   X       Exit                 (CR)        Go to next plane

SYSTEM COMMAND CARD B

SHIP DETAIL LINE
 (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)   (5)  (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
  B   HOOD 1662 l662  1/1  4/3  M   M   0    7    2    2
 (1)  Ship Type
 (2)  Slow Mode Indicator (3) Name
 (4)  Square the ship is in at the beginning of the turn.
 (5)  Square the ship is projected to be in at the end of the turn.
 (6)  Search factor in move mode (day/night).
 (7)  Search factor in patrol mode (day/night).
 (8)  Mode the ship is in at the beginning of the turn.
 (9)  Mode the ship is projected to be in at the end of the turn.
(10)  Fuel Remaining
(11)  Maximum number of squares ship may move.
(l2)  Number of squares ship may move this turn.

PLANE DETAIL LINE
(1) (2)        (3)   (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9) (10)
 R  REYKJAVIK 1317  1317  2/1  6/3   B    B    5    5
 (1)  Plane type.
 (2)  Name of home airfield.
 (3)  Square plane is in at the beginning of the turn.
 (4)  Square plane is projected to be in at the end of the turn.
 (5)  Search factor in Move or Attack Mode (day/night).
 (6)  Search factor in Patrol or Recon Mode (day/night).
 (7)  Mode the plane is in at the beginning of the turn.
 (8)  Mode the plane is projected to be in at the end of the turn.
 (9)  Endurance Now-Number of turns the plane can remain in the air.
(10)  Endurance Projected-Number of turns the plane will be able to
      remain in the air after the current turn.

SHIP/PLANE DATA CARD A
British Ships

          Search Strength   Shadow                                Start
        Mve Mode Ptrl Mode Strength Max  Fuel                     Square
Ship      Day/Nt Day/Nt     Day/Nt  Spd  Cap.  MS  FP Kts Trp  VP   &   Mode
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hood         1/1   4/3      4/3      2    7     6  22  31   1  28  1622 M
K George V   1/1   4/3      4/3      2    8     7  28  29   0  32  1825 X
P of Wales   1/1   4/3      4/3      2    8     7  20  29   0  32  1622 M
Ramilles     1/1   3/2      3/2      1    6     5  24  19   0  16  2911 C
Renown       1/1   4/2      4/2      2    6     5  16  28   0  20  0000 Y
Repulse      1/1   4/2      4/2      2    6     5  16  28   1  20  2125 X
Rodney       1/1   3/3      3/3      1    6     6  28  21   1  24  2023 F
Ark Royal    1/1   1/1       -       2    9     3   0  31   0  48  0000 Y
Victorious   1/1   1/1       -       2    8     4   0  32   0  40  1825 X
Arethusa     1/1   4/3      5/4      2    8     2   4  32   1   8  1519 M
Aurora       1/1   4/3      5/4      2    8     2   4  32   1   8  1825 X
Birmingham   1/1   4/2      4/2      2    7     2   8  32   1   8  1521 P
Cairo        1/1   4/3      4/3      2    8     1   4  29   0   8  2024 M
Dorsetshire  1/1   4/2      4/2      2    8     2  10  32   1  12  0000 U
Edinburgh    1/1   4/3      5/4      2    8     2   8  32   1   8  3019 P
Galatea      1/1   4/3      5/4      2    8     2   4  32   1   8  1825 X
Hermione     1/1   4/3      5/4      2    8     2   8  33   1   8  1825 X
Kenya        1/1   4/3      4/2      2    7     2   8  33   1   8  1825 X
Manchester   1/1   4/3      4/2      2    7     2   8  32   1   8  1420 P
Norfolk      1/1   4/2      4/2      2    8     2  10  32   1  12  1117 P
Sheffield    1/1   4/2      4/2      2    7     2   8  32   1   8  0000 Y
Suffolk      1/1   4/3      5/4      2    8     2  10  31   1  12  1317 M
DF1 D Flot   1/1   1/1      5/4      2   20     6   0  35   6  24  1622 M
DF2 D Flot   1/1   1/1      5/4      2   20     6   0  35   6  24  1825 X
DF3 D Flot   1/1   1/1      5/4      2   20     6   0  35   6  24  0000 Y
WS8B Convoy  1/1   1/1       -       1    -     5   -  12   -  80  2024 F
Britannic    1/1   1/1       -       1    -     1   -  12   -   8  2023 F
SL1 S-Convoy 1/1   1/1       -       1    -   2 4   -   8   -  48  2016 C
SL2 S-Convoy 1/1   1/1       -       1    -   2 4   -   8   -  48  2112 C
SL3 S-Convoy 1/1   1/1       -       1    -   2 4   -   8   -  48  2418 C
SL4 S-Convoy 1/1   1/1       -       1    -   2 4   -   8   -  48  2413 C
SL5 S-Convoy 1/1   1/1       -       1    -   2 4   -   8   -  48  2911 C
SG1 Subs     2/1   3/2      4/3      1    -     3   -  12   4  12  1627 P
SG2 Subs     2/1   3/2      4/3      1    -     3   -  12   4  12  2525 P

SHIP/PLANE DATA CARD B
German Ships

          Search Strength   Shadow                                Start
        Mve Mode Ptrl Mode Strength Max  Fuel                     Square
Ship      Day/Nt Day/Nt     Day/Nt  Spd  Cap.  MS  FP Kts Trp  VP   &   Mode
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bismarck     1/1   4/3       -      2(4)  9    10  34  29   0  60  1528 M
Prinz Eugen  1/1   4/3       -      2(4)  7     3  10  32   2  20  1528 M
Belchen      1/1   1/1       -       1    -     1   -  15   -   4  1511 M
Hamburg      1/1   1/1       -       1    -     1   -  15   -   4  2914 M
Lotheringen  1/1   1/1       -       1    -     1   -  15   -   4  1611 M
WP1 U-boats  3/2   4/4      4/3      1    -     3   -  12   4  12  1812 P
WP2 U-boats  3/2   4/4      4/3      1    -     3   -  12   4  12  1913 P
WP3 U-boats  3/2   4/4      4/3      1    -     3   -  12   4  12  2719 P
WP4 U-boats  3/2   4/4      4/3      1    -     3   -  12   4  12  2822 P
British Planes

             Search Strength   Shadow    Maximum Speed      Endurance
           Mve Mode Ptrl Mode Strength Mve/Attk Ptrl/Rec Mve/Attk Ptrl/Rec
Type Unit   Day/Nt   Day/Nt    Day/Nt    Mode     Mode     Mode     Mode
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
R  Reykjavik   2/1    4/2       4/3       6         2        5        5
R  Scapa Flow   1     2/1       4/2      4/3       62        5        5
R  Scapa Flow   2     2/1       4/2      4/3       62        5        5
L  Scapa Flow  2/1    4/2        -        6         7        2        2
R  Plymouth     1     2/1       4/2      4/3       62        5        5
R  Plymouth     2     2/1       4/2      4/3       62        5        5
L  Plymouth    2/1    4/2        -        6         7        2        2
R  Ulster 1    2/1    4/2       4/3       6         2        5        5
R  Ulster 2    2/1    4/2       4/3       6         2        5        5
L  Ulster      2/1    4/2        -        6         7        2        2
T  Victorious  2/1    4/2        -        5         5        1        2
T  Ark Royal 1 0/0    4/2        -        5         5        1        2
T  Ark Royal 2 0/0    4/2        -        5         5        1        2
T  Ark Royal 3 0/0    4/2        -        5         5        1        2
                                       ________________________________
                                      |1         |2         |3         |
                                      |  May 22  | Day 11-30| Day 11-20|
                                      |F  1200  C|   1600   |F  2000  C|
                                      |          |          |Nite 21-30|
      ________________________________|__________|__________|__________|
     |4         |5         |6         |7         |8         |9         |
     |  May 23  | Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-20|
     |   2400  C|F  400    |  800     |F  1200  C|   1600   |F  2000  C|
     |Nite 11-30|          |          |          |          |Nite 21-30|
     |__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|
     |10        |11        |12        |13        |14        |15        |
     |  May 24  | Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-20|
     |   2400  C|F  400    |  800     |F  1200  C|   1600   |F  2000  C|
     |Nite 11-30|          |          |          |          |Nite 21-30|
     |__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|
     |16        |17        |18        |19        |20        |21        |
     |  May 25  | Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-20|
     |   2400  C|F  400    |  800     |F  1200  C|   1600   |F  2000  C|
     |Nite 11-30|          |          |          |          |Nite 21-30|
     |__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|
     |22        |23        |24        |25        |26        |27        |
     |  May 26  | Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-30| Day 11-20|
     |   2400  C|F  400    |  800     |F  1200  C|   1600   |F  2000  C|
     |Nite 11-30|          |          |          |          |Nite 21-30|
     |__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|
     |28        |29        |30        |
     |  May 27  | Day 11-30| Day 11-30|
     |   2400  C|F  400    |  800     |
     |Nite 11-30|          |          |
     |__________|__________|__________|

                                 LEGEND
                                __________
               Turn Number --->|28        |
                               | Day 11-20|<--- Daytime in Rows 11-20
                     Date ---->|  May 27  |  (Time below date)
 Fast Convoy Move Turn (F) --->|F  2400  C|<--- Slow Convoy Move Turn (C)
                               |Nite 11-30|<--- Nighttime in Rows 11-30
                               |__________|

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